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The retrovirus responsible for causing acquired C. Retroviruses are RNA viruses that replicate by means of

immune deficiency syndrome is a member of DNA intermediates produced by the viral enzyme reverse
the family transcriptase. The viruses associated with acquired immune
A. Orthomyxoviridae deficiency syndrome are human immunodeficiency viruses
B. Paramyxoviridae (HIVs). These viruses belong to the family Retroviridae.
C. Retroviridae
D. Flaviviridae

The appearance of Koplik spots in the oral B. Measles (rubeola) is a highly infectious childhood disease.

mucosa of patients is characteristic of infection Infection with this vrus is followed by a prodromal syndrome
with what viral agent? characterized by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and fever. The
A. Hepatitis most characteristic lesions, Koplik spots, are seen on the
B. Measles buccal mucosa. Koplik spots are diagnostic for measles
C. Rabies infection and represent necrotic vesicles with a white center
D. Smallpox surrounded by erythema.

Characteristics of this DNA hepatitis virus B. Hepatits B virus is an enveloped DNA virus transmitted by

include infections spread by contaminated body contact with blood or via sexual contact. Most hepatitis
fluids, 50- to 180-day incubation period, and viruses have a long incubation period of several weeks to
chronic infections. months. Hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses are RNA viruses
A. HAV primarily spread via the fecal-oral route.Hepatitis C virus is an
B. HBV RNA virus transmitted by contact with blood.

Which of the following has been declared A. The last natural case of smallpox was in 1977, and the

eradicated by the World Health Organization? World Health Organization declared the world smallpox free
A. Smallpox in 1979. Elimination of the virus was due to a worldwide
B. Human T cell lymphotropic virus vaccination program. Because of the highly contagious
C. Hepatitis G virus nature of variola virus, the cause of smallpox, the ability of
D. Eastern equine encephalitis the virus to produce severe infections, and the termination of
routine vaccinations, the virus is considered a potential
bioterrorism agent.

Rotavirus is the most common etiologic agent B. One of the major viral agents associated with cases of

of acute gastroenteritis in children is rotavirus. In particular, this

A. Acute nonbacterial encephalitis in children agent is the cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis in
B. Acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in infants infants and young children that occurs most commonly during
and young children the winter months. Rotavirus belongs to the family of RNA
C. Chronic nonbacterial pharyngitis in children viruses known as Reoviridae. Rotavirus has a fecal-oral route
and young adults of transmission and has been documented as a nosocomial
D. Chronic nonbacterial retinitis in children pathogen in pediatric areas of hospitals.


6 Kaposi sarcoma is associated with infection by D. During acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), as
A. Adenovirus the immune system becomes weakened, the patient presents
B. Cytomegalovirus with chronic and recurrent infections and various neoplasms.
C. Hepatitis E virus Kaposi sarcoma, a relatively common cancer in patients with
D. Human herpes virus 8 AIDS, has been linked to human herpes virus 8. Viral
genome has been found in the cancerous growths in these

The molecular receptor of the virus causing A. The human immunodeficiency viruses cause AIDS. The

acquired immune deficiency syndrome is major target of the virus is the T helper cell, which would
A. CD4 normally function to control disease. The virus initially binds
B. CD8 to CD 4 found on the surface of T helper cells. Other
C. Fc receptor coreceptors are also important for attachment.
D. Complement receptor

The type of cell culture that best supports the C. Commercially available cell cultures of human fibroblasts

growth of cytomegalovirus is are optimal for the cultivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV).

A. HeLa cells CMV will not replicate in other cell cultures such as HeLa or
B. HEp-2 cells HEp-2. CMV can be identified with a high level of confidence
C. Human fibroblast cells solely on the basis of its characteristic cytopathology.
D. Primary monkey kidney (PMK) cells Infected cells in the monolayer appear enlarged, rounded,
and refractile.

Which of the following viruses is predomi- A. Adenoviruses are well known as respiratory pathogens

nantly associated with respiratory disease and and have been the cause of acute res- piratory disease
epidemics of keratoconjunctivitis? among military recruit popula- tions. Also associated with
A. Adenovirus adenoviral infection is the severe ocular disease
B. Molluscum contagiosum virus keratoconjunctivitis, which typically occurs in epidemic form.
C. Norwalkvirus Adenoviruses may remain in tissues, lymphoid structures,
D. Rotavirus and adenoids and become reactivated.

A 25-year-oldpatientpresentedwith multiple D. Cell cultures recommended for the isolation of herpes


vesicles around the mouth. Material from the simplex virus (HSV) are human embryonic fibroblasts. The
lesions was obtained by needle aspiration and usual period needed to detect HSV destruction of the cell
inoculated to MRC-5 cells. After 1 day, the monolayer is 1 to 2 days. The more common of the two
cytopathic effect included foci of "ballooned" recognized types of HSV cytopathic effect begins with a
and lysed cells. These observations suggest gran- ulation of the cytoplasm followed by cell enlarge- ment
infection with and a ballooned appearance. Monoclonal antibodies and
A. Adenovirus immunofluorescence are commonly used to differentiate
B. Cytomegalovirus between HSV-1 and HSV-2.
C. Epstein-Barr virus
D. Herpes simplex virus

The Sabin polio vaccine uses which of the B. The Salk vaccine utilizes a formalin-inactivated poliovirus.

following? The Sabin polio vaccine uses an attenuated virus; therefore,

A. Formalin-inactivated viruses the virus is still able to infect cells and cause an
B. Attenuated viruses asymptomatic infection. The Sabin vaccine provides a
C. Recombinant viral antigens stronger immune response than the Salk vaccine.


12 Which of the following is caused by a herpes A. Members of the herpes virus group are responsible for a
virus? number of diseases, including cold sores. Hemorrhagic
A. Cold sores fevers are caused by a number of tropical viruses, such as
B. Hemorrhagic fever Ebola and dengue. Polio is caused by a picornavirus, and
C. Polio rabies is caused by the rhabdovirus.
D. Rabies

Which of the following is not a general D. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that cannot

characteristic of a virus? self-replicate. They cannot produce ATP, and their genome is
A. Obligate intracellular parasite surrounded by a protein capsid. Most viruses contain either
B. Does not produce ATP DNA or RNA; however, some large DNA viruses do contain
C. Genome is surrounded by a protein coat viral mRNA and microRNAs.
D. Can self-replicate in the appropriate host

The viral disease shingles, which causes C. Zoster or shingles occurs predominantly in adults,

extreme tenderness along the dorsal nerve whereas varicella occurs more commonly in children. The
roots and a vesicular eruption, has the same varicella-zoster virus, following the primary infection known
etiologic agent as as chicken pox, remains latent in the sensory ganglia.
A. Rubeola Reactivation of this virus, which occurs years later, is usually
B. Vaccinia associated with a slightly immunocompromised state.
C. Varicella
D. Variola

The etiologic agents of many common colds are D. Rhinoviruses, members of the picornavirus group, are a

RNA viruses that grow better at 33°C than at common cause of the respiratory disease known as the
37°C. These viruses are common cold. Hand transmission, not aerosols, appears to
A. Adenoviruses be the primary means of transmission. In contrast to other
B. Orthomyxoviruses picornaviruses, the optimum temperature for rhinoviruses is
C. Paramyxoviruses 33°C.
D. Rhinoviruses

Influenza A virus undergoes recombination B. Influenza A virus undergoes recombination events that

events that produce new strains; this is referred produce significant changes in the RNA genome of the virus.
to as These changes lead to alteration of surface antigens. This
A. Antigenic drift process is referred to as antigenic shift. Antigenic drift is a
B. Antigenic shift slight change in a gene, usually a point mutation. Influenza A,
C. Reactivation B, and C viruses can undergo anti-genic drift.
D. Viral latency

Negri bodies may be found in brain tissue of D. Rabies is a neurotropic virus that causes extensive

humans or animals infected with destruction in the brain. Negri bodies are seen in the
A. Adenovirus cytoplasm of large ganglion cells and are demonstrated by
B. Filovirus Seller's stain. Rabies in humans or lower animals can be
C. Measles virus diagnosed by demonstration of these characteristic
D. Rabies virus inclusions. However, the more sensitive direct fluorescent
antibody test is more commonly used.


18 Molluscum contagiosum virus is a member of D. Molluscum contagiosum is an infectious disease with a
the worldwide distribution caused by a poxvirus. Nodules
A. Adenoviruses develop in the epidermis of the face, arms, back, and
B. Herpesviruses buttocks, which undergo necrosis. Examination of epithelioid
C. Papovaviruses cells from affected areas will show characteristic eosinophilic
D. Poxviruses cytoplasmic inclusions (molluscum bodies).

A clinical specimen is received in viral transport A. Prolonged storage of clinical specimens for viral isolation

medium for viral isolation. The specimen cannot requires -80°C. Specimens can be stored at 4°C for
be processed for 72 hours. At what temperature approximately 48 hours without appreciable loss of viability.
should it be stored? Specimens should not be stored at -20°C for any length of
A. -80°C time.
B. -20°C
C. 4°C
D. 22°C

Arboviruses D. Arbovirus is short for arthropod-borne vims. These


A. Only infect humans genetically diverse viruses share a common feature: They
B. Often cause hepatitis are transmitted by arthropods (e.g., mosquitoes and ticks).
C. Typically infect lymphocytes Arboviruses include West Nile virus and western equine
D. Are transmitted by arthropods encephalitis virus.

Mumps is characterized by an infection of the B. The mumps virus infects the parotid glands. Infection

A. Central nervous system results in swelling of the neck. Mumps is primarily a

B. Parotid glands childhood infection, and swelling of the parotid glands is
C. Pancreas diagnostic.
D. Thymus

Which of the following hepatitis viruses is A. Hepatitis A virus is typically transmitted by the fecal-oral

typically transmitted by the fecal-oral pathway? pathway. Hepatitis B, C, and G viruses are generally
A. HAV transmitted by blood contact. Hepatitis E virus is also
B. HBV transmitted by the fecal-oral pathway.

Enteroviruses are most often associated with A. Most enterovirus infections are probably asymptomatic.

A. Acute nonspecific febrile syndrome Despite the name, these viruses are rarely associated with
B. Bronchitis and pneumonia infections of the gas- trointestinal tract. When symptomatic,
C. Lower respiratory tract infections they are most noted for producing acute nonspecific febrile
D. Upper respiratory tract infections syndrome.

The "core window" refers to the time A. During the course of acute hepatitis B virus infection,

A. During hepatitis B virus infection when anti- hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the first marker
HBc IgM is the only serologic marker detected. The host will ulti- mately begin to produce antibody
B. During hepatitis B virus infection when HBc (anti-HBs) to the antigen. As the antibody titer increases,
is the only serologic marker there is a corresponding decrease in the antigen. However,
C. During hepatitis A virus infection when HAc there is a time period when neither of these markers is
is the only serologic marker detectable. During this time period the only serologic marker
D. During hepatitis C virus infection when the is antibody to the hep- atitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). This
virus is latent period is called the core window.


25 Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 are associated C. Human herpes viruses (HHVs) 6 and 7 cause the
with a childhood disease called childhood disease roseola, also called sixth disease. The
A. Chickenpox disease is characterized by fever, rash, and sore throat. More
B. Measles cases are caused by HHV 6 than HHV 7.
C. Roseola
D. Zoster

A baby was admitted to the hospital in February B. Rotavirusisthecauseofdiarrhealdiseaseinat least half of all

for dehydration due to severe diarrhea. Cultures infants and young children admit- ted to the hospital with
for bacterial pathogens revealed normal fecal dehydration requiring fluid replacement therapy. Because
flora at 24 hours. Which of the following rotaviruses are dif- ficult to propagate in cell culture, the
additional tests would be most appropriate method of choice for the detection of rotavirus infection is the
given the case history? direct examination of stool for the presence of viral antigen.
A. Heterophile antibody test Commonly used rotavirus antigen assay tests include latex
B. Rotavirus antigen assay of stool specimen agglutination and enzyme immunoassay.
C. McCoy cell inoculation for cytomegalovirus
D. Urine microscopic analysis for presence of
CMV cellular inclusion bodies

Rhabdovirus is most noted for causing A. Rhabdovirus causes rabies, an infection of the central

infections of the nervous system. The virus is transmitted in the saliva of an

A. Central nervous system infected animal during a bite. At the bite site, the virus initially
B. Gastrointestinal tract infects muscle tissue, but will move to the peripheral nerves.
C. Lower respiratory tract The virus then migrates along the peripheral nerves to the
D. Upper respiratory tract central nervous system.

Jaundice is a common clinical symptom of A. Hepatitis A is one of several infectious dis- eases

which of the following viral diseases? characterized by liver damage and icterus (jaundice). The
A. Hepatitis A appearance of jaundice, in the icteric phase, is correlated by
B. Infectious mononucleosis liver biopsy with extensive parenchymal destruction.
C. Rabies Convalescence is usually accompanied by subsequent
D. Varicella complete regeneration of the diseased organ.

An 18-year-old male presents to his family B. The Epstein-BaiT virus, which is associated with Burkitt

physician complaining of sore throat and lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, is the etiologic
fatigue. The patient is found to have a fever and agent of infectious mononucleosis. Infectious mononucleosis
swollen cervical lymph nodes. A complete is an acute disease most commonly affecting children and
blood count and differential reveal young adults. The virus is thought to be trans- mitted by
lymphocytosis and many reactive (atypical) intimate contact and has been called the "kissing disease."
lymphocytes. The physician should suspect an The patient's blood demon- strates a leukocytosis with a
infection caused by marked increase in T lymphocytes, and serologically the
A. Adenoviruses disease is char- acterized by a positive heterophile antibody
B. Epstein-Barr virus and antibodies to various viral antigens.
C. Parainfluenza virus
D. Varicella-zoster virus


30 The poliovirus, an RNA virus, is a(n) C. Poliovirus, an enterovirus, is shed by both respiratory and
A. Adenovirus fecal routes. Laboratory identification relies on isolation
B. Coxsackievirus (especially from feces) and subsequent virus neutralization in
C. Enterovirus tissue culture. Spread of the disease is associated with poor
D. Rhinovirus sanitary conditions and crowding.

The virus that causes hepatitis B is B. The hepatitis B virus is an enveloped, par- tially double-

characterized as a stranded DNA virus. During viral replication, full-length RNA

A. Defective DNA virus requiring delta virus to transcripts of the viral genome are inserted into maturing
complete its replication cycle virus particles. The viral enzyme reverse transcriptase then
B. DNA virus utilizing reverse transcriptase transcribes these RNA transcripts to a full-length DNA strand
C. Nonenveloped DNA virus but only partially completes synthesis of the complementary
D. Single-stranded RNA virus DNA strand—hence a partially double-stranded DNA

Hepatitis C virus infections C. Hepatitis C virus infections, unlike hepatitis A or hepatitis


A. Are commonly diagnosed during the acute B infections, do not commonly produce jaundice. There are
stage tens of thousands of individuals in the United States
B. Are uncommon in the U.S. chronically infected with hepatitis C; chronic infection
C. Are most often acquired by contact with appeal's to be the rule rather than the exception.
blood Transmission of the virus at present occurs mainly through
D. Seldom results in chronic infection needle sharing. Cases also occur among healthcare work-
ers who contact infected blood.

Characteristic cytopathic effect associated with A. Respiratory syncytial virus causes fusion of adjacent cells.

respiratory syncytial virus is This produces giant multinucleated cells called syncytia.
A. Giant multinucleated cells Basophilic intranuclear and eosinophilic cytoplasmic
B. Basophilic intranuclear inclusions inclusions are characteristic of cytomegalovirus infection.
C. Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions
D. Shrunken cells with multilobed nuclei

The virus associated with warts is D. The etiologic agents for the numerous benign cutaneous

A. Flavivirus and mucosal lesions known as warts are the human

B. Morbillivirus papillomaviruses (HPVs). The diagnosis of lesions caused by
C. Mumps virus these agents is based on clinical appearance and
D. Papillomavirus histopathology, because there are no in vitro systems
available for isolation. Some HPV types are strongly
associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and

RNA-dependent DNA polymerase is also called C. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase is also known as

A. Gyrase reverse transcriptase. The enzyme uses an RNA template to

B. Neuraminidase synthesize the complemen- tary DNA strand. The
C. Reverse transcriptase retroviruses require this enzyme for replication.
D. Transaminase


36 Coxsackie viruses are associated with C. The coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses named after the
A. Gastrointestinal disease town of Coxsackie, New York, where they were first isolated.
B. Hepatitis The viruses are divided into groups A and B on the basis of
C. Myocarditis viral and anti- genie differences. The group B coxsackie
D. The common cold viruses are strongly associated with myocarditis that may
cause sufficient damage to require heart transplantation. The
group A coxsackieviruses are associated with various
diseases, characterized by vesicular lesions, such as
heipangina. Neither group of coxsackieviruses is associated
with gastrointestinal disease.

The tubular cells of the human kidney shed B. Cytomegalovirus infections may be asymp- tomatic for

which of the following viruses for prolonged normal healthy hosts. Infections tend to be more severe in
periods? patients who are immunosuppressed or in neonates infected
A. Adenovirus perinatally. Cytomegalovirus is readily isolated from urine
B. Cytomegalovirus because it is shed by the tubular cells of infected hosts.
C. Epstein-Barr virus
D. Rubellavirus

The togavirus known to produce fetal defects is C. The rubella virus is an RNA virus and a member of the

A. Influenza family Togaviridae. In adults and children, rubella infections

B. Rotavirus are generally a mild contagious rash disease. When a
C. Rubella pregnant woman becomes infected, the consequences
D. Varicella become more serious. If the fetus is infected during the first
trimester of pregnancy, a variety of congeni- tal defects may
result. Anatomic abnormalities produced by this agent
include cataracts, deaf- ness, and cardiac problems.

An 8-week-old infant was admitted to the A. Infants usually acquire cytomegalovirus infections before

hospital with symptoms of low birth weight, birth or at the time of childbirth. These infections may lead to
jaundice, and neurologic defects.Intranuclear death during the first month of life or may result in residual
inclusions were found in epithelial cells from neurologic impairment. The virus can be isolated from
the urine. The most likely diagnosis in this case several different body fluids, with urine being the most
would be infection by commonly examined.
A. Cytomegalovirus
B. Epstein-Barrvirus
C. Herpes simplex virus
D. Rubellavirus

The most common cause of cervical cancer is D. Papillomaviruses are responsible for warts, including

A. Cytomegalovirus genital warts. Some serotypes of papillomavirus are

B. Enterovirus associated with cervical cancer. A vaccine providing
C. Molluscum contagiosum protection against these serotypes is available for women.
D. Papillomavirus


41 Select the statement that is correct concerning B. Influenza viruses are RNA viruses able to infect humans
the influenza A viruses. and other animals, such as birds and pigs. Influenza viruses
A. Humans are the only animal hosts for are associated with epidemic and pandemic disease. There
influenza A viruses. are two main types of influenza viruses (A and B), which
B. Pandemics are characteristically produced differ antigenically and in epidemic periodicity. All recorded
by influenza A. pandemics have been caused by influenza A viruses. The
C. The incidence of infection peaks in the incidence of respiratory disease caused by these agents
summer months. peaks during the winter months.
D. They are DNA viruses.

An example of a virus associated with latent D. Herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, and varicella-

infections is zoster viruses (VZV) produce latent infections. The genomes

A. Influenza of these viruses can remain dormant in host cells for
B. Rotavirus decades. Shingles (zoster) represents reactivation of latent
C. Rubella VZV.
D. Varicella-zoster

The use of cell cultures has enabled virologists B. Hepatitis C virus has never been grown in culture. All

to isolate and identify many clinically important knowledge of the virus and diagnos- tic reagents has been
viruses. However, because some viruses cannot attained through molecular techniques applied to the RNA
be grown in cell cultures, these agents are best genome. Hepatitis C virus infection can be diagnosed by
diagnosed by serologic testing. Such an agent detecting antibody to the virus or by amplifying viral RNA
is from plasma. Cytomegalovirus, her- pes simplex virus, and
A. Cytomegalovirus respiratory syncytial virus are readily grown in culture.
B. Hepatitis C virus
C. Herpes simplex virus 2
D. Respiratory syncytialvirus

Which of the following is associated with the C. The rubella virus causes an exanthematous disease

rubella virus? resembling a milder form of measles in children. This single-

A. It is a DNA virus. stranded RNA virus, transmitted from person to person, is of
B. It is a member of the same taxonomic medical importance to females of childbearing years because
family as measles virus. of the teratogenic effects it has on the fetus. Congenital
C. It is known to produce defects in fetuses rubella, resulting from an intrauterine fetal infec- tion, is most
during the early stages of pregnancy. severe when contracted during the first trimester of gestation.
D. It is transmitted by an arthropod vector.

Which of the following is not a step involved in B. Lacking essential components for the synthesis of

virus replication? macromolecules, viruses are not able to reproduce by binary

A. Attachment fission. Host cells are required to provide the synthesis of
B. Mitosis viral compo- nents. The replicative cycle has four stages:
C. Penetration absorption, penetration (uncoating), eclipse (biosynthesis),
D. Release and release (maturation). Viral replication in the host cell may
result in cell death, chronic infection with no observable
changes, or transformation of the infected cell into a
cancerous cell.


46 Which of the following opportunistic diseases is C. The immunologic abnormalities demonstrated by patients
not closely associated with acquired immune with AIDS predispose them to a vari- ety of opportunistic
deficiency syndrome? pathogens. The absence of a cellular and humoral immune
A. Cryptococcosis response enables opportunistic organisms to cause
B. Cryptosporidiosis extensive infection. Malaria is not an opportunistic infection.
C. Malaria
D. Mycobacteriosis

Although there have been nonatural cases of D. Although smallpox has not caused a natural infection

this serious disease in about 30 years, which of since 1977, it is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent.
the following is considered a potential Routine vaccination against smallpox is no longer in effect,
bioterrorism disease so the majority of the world's population is again susceptible.
A. Dengue The U.S. has stockpiles of vaccine available to vaccinate
B. Ebola hemorrhagic fever everyone in the country in case of an attack.
C. Shingles
D. Smallpox

Poliovirus is a member of the family C. Poliovirus is a member of the family Picornaviridae. These

A. Flaviviridae are small RNA viruses lacking an envelope. Other members

B. Paramyxoviridae of the family include coxsackieviruses, echoviruses,
C. Picornaviridae enteroviruses, and rhinoviruses.
D. Reoviridae

Which of the following has not been C. Because of their nature as obligate intracellular parasites,

successfully used to detect viruses in clinical successful cultivation of viruses requires living cells. Cell
specimens? cultures provide host cell systems, which are easily handled,
A. Cytopathic effect stable for long periods, and not susceptible to host factors
B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay such as stress or physiologic changes. Viruses are not like
C. Growth on selective agar media bacteria; they will not grow on any cell-free medium.
D. Immunofluorescence

Which of the following diseases is not D. Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are noted for causing a

associated with herpes simplex virus? number of different diseases, notably cold sores (primarily
A. Cold sores HSV-1) and genital infections (primarily HSV-2). In neonates
B. Encephalitis and immuno-compromised individuals, they can produce
C. Genital herpes encephalitis. They are also linked to severe eye infections.
D. Thrush Thrush is an infection caused by the yeast Candida.