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DISASTER RISK REDUCTION and MANAGEMENT

I. Republic Act No. 10121, known as the “Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (PDRRM) Act of
2010”
“An act strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, providing for the
National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management Plan, appropriating funds therefore and for other purposes.”

Section 2. Declaration of Policy


1. Upholding people’s rights to life and property and adherence to internationally accepted principles, norms
and standards for capacity building in DRRM and humanitarian assistance;
2. Adoption of a holistic, comprehensive, integrated, proactive and multi-sector approach in addressing the
impacts of disasters, including climate change;
3. Development, promotion and implementation of a comprehensive National Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management Plan (NDRRMP);
4. Mainstreaming DRR and Climate Change in national and local development plans and development
processes (e.g. policy formulation, socio-economic development planning and governance)
5. Mainstreaming DRR into the peace process and conflict resolution;
6. Ensuring DRR and CC-Gender responsive measures, sensitive to indigenous knowledge and respect of human
rights;
7. Strengthening capacity building of LGUs on DRR (e.g. decentralized powers, responsibilities, resources) and
vulnerable and marginalized groups;
8. Engaging the participation of CSOs, private sectors and volunteers in DRR;
9. Promotion of breastfeeding before and during a disaster or emergency; and
10. Ensuring maximum care, assistance and services to affected individuals and families.

II. Salient Features of PDRRM Act of 2010


1. Policy Statements and Terminologies on DRRM
2. Institutional Mechanisms
a. DRRMCs (national, regional, provincial, city and municipal levels and barangay development council at
the barangay level);
b. Office of Civil Defense
c. Permanent Office on DRRM at the LGU level, baranagay DRRM Committee
d. Disaster volunteers
3. Operational Mechanisms
a. Coordination during emergencies
b. Declaration of a State of Calamity
c. Remedial Measures
d. Mechanisms for the IHAN
4. Participation, accreditation, mobilization, protection and development of disaster volunteers
5. Training and education in DRR
a. Establishment of DRRM training institutes
b. Mandatory training in DRR for public sector employees
c. Integration of DRR in school curricula, training for out-of-school youth, Sangguniang Kabataan, and
informal training

III. Definition of Disaster Management Terms

1. Hazards. A situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment.
2. Risks. A probability or threat of a damage, injury, liability, loss, or other negative occurrence that is caused
by external or internal vulnerabilities, and that may be neutralized through preemptive action.
3. Vulnerability. The level of susceptibility or resiliency of the people and communities against impact of the
prevailing hazards based on the state of physical, social, and economic conditions in a given area.
4. Disasters. A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human,
material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected
community or society to cope using its own resources.
IV. Disaster Risk Management Objectives
1. Reduce vulnerabilities in the community
2. When sustained over a long term, reduce unacceptable risk to acceptable levels and make the community
become disaster resistant/resilient

V. Range of Risk Management Measures


1. Engineering measures – keep hazard away from people
2. Land use planning and management measures – keep people away from hazard
3. Control and protection works – modifying the hazard
4. Early warning – predicting hazard
5. Preparedness planning – preparing in anticipation of a hazard event
6. Reconstruction planning after a disaster with the aim of reducing the vulnerability
7. Mainstreaming risk management in development practice and institutionalization

VI. Disaster Risk Reduction Management Paradigm

A. The Disaster Risk Reduction paradigm has become dominant in the twenty-first century. DRR is proactive by
aiming to establish a culture of disaster prevention and resilience. DRR measures emphasizes non-structural
mitigation measures are therefore a must.
B. Disaster Risk Management is a “range of related activities for coping with risk, including how related
activities are identified and assessed and how social interventions to deal with risk are monitored and
evaluated”.
C. DRRM is undertaken during “normal times” and before another disaster strikes (e.g. during recovery). It
focuses on the following:
1. Mitigation and Prevention. This is a sustained measure taken before a disaster occurs and is aimed to
minimize the potential impacts of a disaster or reduce disaster risks.
2. Preparedness. This helps reduce severity of impact or certain disasters, particularly slow-onset disasters.
Proactively with risk identification and capacity development. Common preparedness measures: hazard
maps, food and material stockpiling, emergency drills, installation of early warning systems, and
preparation of emergency kits.
3. Risk Assessment (identification and monitoring). The information generated by this is essential to the
development of non-structural mitigation measures (e.g. institutional and capacity building, information
sharing and dissemination, land use planning).