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Efficient Power Management System

Huzaifa Butt (2016178), Abdul Rehman (2016015), Raheel Haroon (2016400)


Department of Mechanical + Electrical Engineering
u2016178@giki.edu.pk u2016015@giki.edu.pk u2016400@giki.edu.pk

I. Aim and Objective


With depleting natural resources globally, the
dilemma of efficient power management is in the
mainstream nowadays. Therefore, it is extremely
important that valuable energy resources are not
wasted. For instance: leaving lights on in an empty
room plays a very small part in the wastage of
energy but several of such wastage situations result
in a worldwide shortage of energy resources.
Our prime objective is to design a micro-
controlled power management system model that
will provide a way to deal with the energy crisis. It Figure 1 Circuit Diagram
will automatically control the switching of lights and
other appliances depending on the number of people
inside the room.

TABLE I
Bill of Materials
This application is an automation system to save
S. No
energy. In this project, a 555 timer driven at 38
Item Quantity KHz signal to an IR LED gets interrupted on to the
I. Voltage Regulator 1 IR receiver, to sense the person entering as well as
exiting the room, and which is then fed to a 555
II. 8051 Series 1 timer. There are two pairs of sensors, each kept at a
Microcontroller certain distance from each other. One pair of sensor
consists of a transmitter and a receiver, kept exactly
III. IR Receivers 1 opposite to each other. The output of the 555 timer
IV. Diodes 1 is fed to the Microcontroller for analysing and
control purpose. . The transmitting part emits
V. Resistors and -
modulated IR light which is received at the receiver
Capacitors
end and fed to a microcontroller. The data obtained
VI. Transistors, - from the microcontroller is given to a 7-segment
Diodes display unit, which displays the number of persons
VII. Lamp 1 entering, and exiting. A relay is used to control any
VIII. 7 segment load for alerting through its ‘NO’ contacts, which is
displays interfaced with the microcontroller through a relay
driver.
IX. Relay 1 The power supply consists of a step-down
transformer 230/12V, which steps down the voltage
to 12V AC. This is converted to a DC using a Bridge
II. Circuit Diagram and Description rectifier. The ripples are removed using a capacitive
filter, and it is then regulated to +5V using a voltage
regulator 7805, which is required for the operation
of the microcontroller and other components.

III. IR Proximity Sensor


This IR Proximity Sensor is a multipurpose
infrared sensor which can be used for obstacle
sensing, colour detection, fire detection, line
sensing, etc. and also as an encoder sensor. The Sensor comes with ambient light protection
sensor provides a digital output. The sensor a hole of 3mm diameter for easy
The sensor outputs a logic one (+5V) at the digital mounting
output when an object is placed in front of the ii)Specification
sensor and a logic zero (0V), when there is no
object in front of the sensor. An on-board LED is Operational Voltage: 5V
used to indicate the presence of an object. This Ambient Light & RGB Colour Sensing
digital output can be directly connected to 8051 Proximity Sensing
or any other microcontroller to read the sensor Gesture Detection
output. Operating Range: 4-8in (10-20cm)
IR sensors are highly susceptible to ambient light I2C Interface (I2C Address: 0x39)
and the IR sensor on this sensor is suitably
covered to reduce effect of ambient light on the
sensor. The sensor has a maximum range of
around 40-50 cm indoors and around 15-20 cm
outdoors.
REFERENCES

i) Features [1] Mackenzie, The 8051 Microcontroller, 2007.

Can be used for obstacle sensing, colour detection [2] https://www.makerlab-electronics.com/product/ir-


(between basic contrasting colours) proximity-sensor/
Comes with an easy to use digital output [3] Manish K. Patel, 8051 Embedded Systems, 2014.
Can be used for wireless communication and
sensing IR remote signals