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THE

ROBERT GORDON
UNIVERSITY
ABERDEEN

FACULTY OF DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY


SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

TUTORIALS

WELLS & SUBSURFACE

©MBO2006
FACULTY OF DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

TUTORIAL 1

INFLOW PERFORMANCE

1. Outline the key intervention processes involved in the optimisation of petroleum


production:
(i) In the reservoir
(ii) In the wellbore

2. A vertical oilwell is producing at a rate of 5000 barrels per day into a 50psi
separator through a 2’’ tubing. Given the following well data, estimate :

(a) The drawdown


(b). The flowing wellhead pressure(Comment on your result)
(c) The combined choke/surface line pressure drop

Well data :
Reservoir pressure = 2000psi
Flowing bottom hole pressure = 1500psi
Well depth = 3000ft TVD Oil SG = 0.8(Water = 8.33ppg)
Friction + Misc. pressure loss in tubing, etc = 100psi.
(ii) What is the fraction of the total flow that passes through each
core?

3. A vertical well has been completed by inside casing perforated completions through
a gas reservoir and producing at steady state. PVT analysis of the natural gas
sample shows that the composition is as presented in Table Q4. Well test data
analysis indicates that the formation permeability is damaged by drilling/completion
fluid invasion to a radius of 6.5ft and the permeability in the damaged zone is 50% of
the clean formation permeability. Additional skins identified include :
Perforation skin = 30
Partial penetration skin = 10

Given the following well and production data :

Reservoir sand permeability = 2580mD


Reservoir Pressure = 1770psi
Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure = 1250psi
Average Reservoir Temperature = 160oF
Effective Wellbore Diameter = 7’’
Reservoir Drainage radius = 1640FT
Gas viscosity = 0.0168cp
Pay Thickness = 100ft

Compute:
(a) the gas compressibility factor

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(b) the total skin
(c) the delivery from the well in MSCF/day
(d) The Productivity Index
(e) The Flow Efficiency
(f) The AOF

TABLE Q4: Gas Composition

Composition Vol. % MW Pc, psia Tc, oR


Methane 74.4 16.04 673 344
Ethane 5.2 30.07 709 550
Propane 2.8 44.09 618 666
Isobutane 1.2 58.12 530 733
n-Butane 0.8 58.12 551 766
Nitrogen 15.6 28.02 651 485

HINT : For Ideal situation q sg =


0 . 703 kh [p r2
− p w2 ]
⎡ re ⎤
zT µ g ⎢ ln ⎥
⎣ rw ⎦
where : [qsg] = scf/day; [T]=oR; [k]=mD; [µ]=cp; [r] = ft; [h]=ft

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FACULTY OF DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

Flow Dynamics, Well Performance, Well Testing & Completions

4. In a radially infinite reservoir, the permeability is 1125mD. The pay thickness is


25ft. Reservoir radius is 150ft and pressure is 2800psi. Given that the
wellbore diameter is 4’’ and a damaged zone of radius10ft exists where the
permeability is 50% less than the formation permeability,

(i) Estimate the flowing bottom hole pressure required to produce


160bbls/day if oil with a viscosity of 65cp.
(ii) What is the PI if Bo = 1.3rb//stb
(iii) If the oil production is to be increased 50% by pumping,
determine the suction pressure developed by the pump
(iv) For the same flow rate as in (i) determine the flowing bottom
hole pressure for the undamaged well assuming all other
parameters remain the same.
(v) Estimate the flow efficiency
(vi) What is the Reservoir Flow Potential?

5. During drilling, a well is damaged out to a radius of 3ft such that the permeability
is reduced by a factor of 3 in the damaged zone. If the wellbore radius is
0.3333ft and the drainage radius is 660ft, estimate the percentage increase in
pressure drop attributable to the damaged zone. (Assume steady state flow)

6. During drilling, a well is damaged out to a radius of 4ft from the wellbore so
that the permeability within the damaged zone is reduced to 1/100th of the
undamaged effective permeability. Estimate the flow efficiency given that the
wellbore radius is 0.3333ft and the drainage radius is 660ft.

7. An 8’’ diameter well is drilled through a sandstone formation with a permeability


of 250mD and thickness of 25ft. The drainage radius is 660ft. The well suffers
zonal damage out to a radius of 6.25ft reducing the permeability to 10mD.
However, electric heaters are able to reduce the viscosity of the oil from its
normal 120cp to an average of 8cp within a 4ft radius. What is the resulting
productivity ratio assuming steady state flow?

22. (a) Distinguish between the following :

(i) Effective Porosity and Effective Permeability


(ii) Formation Compressibility and Formation Volume Factor

(b) An 8-1/2’’ exploratory vertical well has been drilled through an oil
reservoir and tested for production at steady state. Preliminary
analysis data on the core sample taken from the well as part of
formation evaluation are as follows :

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Clean dry weight of core sample = 311gms
Wt. of core sample filled 100% with 1.05SG Brine = 335gms
Diameter of core sample = 4cm Length of core sample = 10cm
Core Flood data with the permeameter :
Test Fluid : 1.05SG Brine(Viscosity = 1.1cp)
Inlet pressure = 50psig Outlet pressure = 14.7psia
Core Flood flow rate = 1cc/sec
Formation Relative Permeability to oil = 0.9

(i) What is the formation porosity?


(ii) Formation grain density
(iii) What is the effective formation permeability.
(iv) Given that the reservoir pressure recorded from the well
test is 1750psi and the corresponding flowing bottom hole
pressure = 1250psi, What is the delivery from the well in
stb/day?. Assume the following :

Pay Thickness = 100ft Drainage radius = 1640ft


Oil Viscosity = 3cp
Oil Formation Volume Factor = 1.2rb/stb

8. (a) Outline the key reasons for well testing


(b) Outline the basic procedures involved in a pressure drawdown test.
(c) What are the procedural steps involved in a pressure buildup test?
(d) A well was allowed to flow at a rate of 5535stb/day for 15hrs before it
was shut in for pressure buildup test after which the following data were
recorded. Using the Horner plot, estimate :
(i) The initial cumulative production before shut-in
(ii) The formation permeability
(iii) The skin factor
(iv) The productivity index
(v) The radius of investigation in 5hrs

∆t(Min) Pws(Psi)
0 2710
1 2760
2 2803
4 2830
5 2825
7 2828
9 2830
12 2832
20 2833
60 2837
120 2839
300 2842
420 2842
550 2842

co = 9.5 x 10-6 cw = 3 x 10-6 1/psi cf = 1 x 10-6 1/psi


Sw = 38% φ = 23% µo = 0.89

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Bo = 1.31rb/stb h = 110fft rw = 0.362ft

e. Repeat Q23d using the MDH analysis technique and comment on your
results.

9. (a) Briefly explain what you understand by the following :

(i) Reservoir Folds of Increase


(ii) Inflow Performance relationship

(b). A vertical well is producing 45o Gravity oil at a rate of 5000stb/day into a 50psi
separator through a 2-1/2’’ production tubing. The well is completed with a slotted
liner with an effective wellbore diameter of 8-1/2’’ through an unconsolidated
sandstone formation with a permeability of 1000mD and pay thickness of 25ft.
During drilling and completion the reservoir suffers a zonal damage out to a radius of
6.25ft. reducing the formation permeability in the damaged region to 200mD. The
other well and reservoir data are as follows :

Tubing Length = 3000ft


Tubing Frictional and miscellaneous losses = 100psi
Reservoir Pressure = 2000psi
Oil viscosity = 1.3cp
Oil Formation volume factor = 1.3 rb/stb
Reservoir Drainage radius = 660ft

Compute:

(i) The actual reservoir delivery


(ii) The Total Drawdown
(iii) The Reservoir Flow Efficiency
(iv) The Tubing Head Flowing Pressure

10. An oilwell is producing at a rate of 5000stb/day into a 50psi


separator through a 2-1/2’’ production tubing . Given the
following well data:
Reservoir Pressure = 2000psi
Tubing Length = 3000ft
Oil Gravity = 45o API(Assume water density = 8.33ppg)
Oil viscosity = 1.3cp
Oil Formation Volume Factor = 1.3rb/stb
Frictional and other minor miscellaneous losses = 100psi
Given that the oilwell is an 8-1/2’’ diameter well, drilled and completed with open
hole gravelpack completion through an unconsolidated sandstone formation with
a permeability of 1000mD and pay thickness of 25ft. The drainage radius is
660Ft. The formation suffered zonal damage out to a radius of 6.25ft reducing
the permeability to 200mD during the drilling and completion process.

Assuming the gravel used is a 20/40 Mesh Commercial gravel with permeability
of 800D and the gravelpack thickness is 2’’. [ See Fig. Q25]

Compute
(i) The Screen Diameter

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(ii) The Total Drawdown [ N.B. : The effective wellbore radius is now the Screen
Radius!]
(iii) The tubing head flowing pressure. Comment on your result.

11. (a) With the aid of suitable schematic diagram(s) briefly distinguish between
the inflow performance (IPR) and vertical/wellbore lift performance (VLP)
relationships

(b) Briefly sketch how the optimum production conduit sizes are determined
from a simple nodal analysis of the combination of the IPR and VLP curves.

(c) You are the Completions/Production Engineer with JOY Petroleum


Corporation. A new vertical exploratory well has been drilled for on a newly
licensed Daisy Field(Fig. Q26). You are required to carry out a complete
completions design programme based on the attached data in terms of the
following :

(i) Detailed Process Design for the Completion Programme based on your
original Well Design
(ii) Details of Completion String Facilities including the Functions of each facility
selected
(iii) Schematic Diagram of the Completion Design

12. (a) Briefly explain what you understand by the following :

(i) Reservoir Folds of Increase


(ii). Inflow Performance relationship

(b). An vertical well [Fig Q12] is producing 45o Gravity oil at a rate of 5000stb/day
into a 50psi separator through a 2-1/2’’ production tubing. The well is completed with
an Inside casing gravelpack with an effective wellbore diameter of 8-1/2’’ through an
unconsolidated sandstone formation with a permeability of 1000mD and pay
thickness of 25ft. During drilling and completion the reservoir suffers a onal
damage out to a radius of 6.25ft reducing the formation permeability in the damaged
region to 200mD. The other well and reservoir data are as follows :

Perforation skin, sp = 100


Gravelpack skin, sg = 50
Tubing Length = 3000ft
Tubing Frictional and kinetic losses = 100psi
Reservoir Pressure = 2000psi
Flowing BHP = !500psi
Oil viscosity = 1.3cp
Oil Formation volume factor = 1.3 rb/stb
Reservoir Drainage radius = 660ft

Compute:

(iii) The total skin [Ans = 161.5]


(iv) The Total Drawdown [Ans = 500psi]

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Assume a pseudo-steady state flow condition.

13. Given the completion strategy adopted in Q12, compute


(i) The Reservoir Flow Efficiency
(ii) The Tubing Head Flowing Pressure

14 (a) Briefly describe two possible the key intervention processes that can be
carried out within a hydrocarbon reservoir in order to optimise of
production:

(b) An unconsolidated oil reservoir sand is completed with a vertical well


with inside casing gravelpack completions is producing 45o Gravity oil at
a rate of 5000stb/day into a 50psi separator through a 2-1/2’’ production
tubing. The well is completed with an inside casing gravelpack with a
having an effective wellbore diameter of 4-1/2’[i.e the average size of the
gravelpack screen. The hole was originally drilled with an 8-1/2’’ drillbit
with a 7’’ liner cemented in place. Given that the whole pay interval was
perforated and gravelpacked. Post gravelpack evaluation and well test
results show that :

; Only the annulus has been gravelpacked resulting in gravelpack invasion by


the formation sand. This resulted in the gravelpack permeability reducing
from the original 800 Darcy to 1000mD

; Other skins and reservoir/production parameters are :

Perforation skin, sp = 100


Mechanical skin due to drilling fluid invasion = 30
Reservoir Pressure = 2000psi
Reservoir Permeability = 1000mD
Oil viscosity = 1.3cp
Oil Formation volume factor = 1.3 rb/stb
Reservoir Drainage radius = 660ft
Pay Thickness = 667ft

Compute:

(i) The actual reservoir deliverability


(ii) SG of the produced oil
(iii) The Gravelpack skin, sg {See equation below]
(iv) The total skin
(v) The flow efficiency
(vi) The AOF

Assume a pseudo-steady state flow condition.

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7.08kh pR − pwf k g − k gd rg
q= sg = * ln sT = Total skin
µ ⎡ re ⎤ k gd rw'
⎢ln − 0.5 + sT ⎥
⎣ rw ⎦

rw’ = Effective wellbore radius

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rs=4.5’’

7’’ Liner

Fig. Q14 : Schematic of Gravelpack Completion

15 (a). With the aid of labeled schematic diagram distinguish between the different
types of completion strategies adopted in oil/gas well completion.
(b) Outline the objectives of Well Drillstem Testing

© A vertical well has been completed by inside casing perforated completions through
a gas reservoir and producing at steady state. PVT analysis of the natural gas
sample shows that the composition is as presented in Table Q15. Well test data
analysis indicates that the formation permeability is damaged by drilling/completion
fluid invasion to a radius of 6.5ft and the permeability in the damaged zone is 50% of
the clean formation permeability. Additional skins identified include :
Perforation skin = 30
Partial penetration skin = 10

Given the following well and production data :

Reservoir sand permeability = 2580mD


Reservoir Pressure = 1770psi
Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure = 1250psi
Average Reservoir Temperature = 160oF
Effective Wellbore Diameter = 7’’
Reservoir Drainage radius = 1640FT
Gas viscosity = 0.0168cp

©MBO2006
Pay Thickness = 100ft

Compute:
(g) the gas compressibility factor
(h) the total skin
(i) the delivery from the well in MSCF/day
(j) The Productivity Index

TABLE Q15: Gas Composition

Composition Vol. % MW Pc, psia Tc, oR


Methane 74.4 16.04 673 344
Ethane 5.2 30.07 709 550
Propane 2.8 44.09 618 666
Isobutane 1.2 58.12 530 733
n-Butane 0.8 58.12 551 766
Nitrogen 15.6 28.02 651 485

HINT : For Ideal situation q sg =


0 . 703 kh [p r2
− p w2 ]
⎡ re ⎤
zT µ g ⎢ ln ⎥
⎣ rw ⎦
where : [qsg] = scf/day; [T]=oR; [k]=mD; [ ]=cp; [r] = ft; [h]=ft

©MBO2006
©MBO2006