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Pokémon (Japanese: ポ ケ モ ン Hepburn: Pokemon,

Japanese: [pokemoɴ]; English: /ˈpoʊkɪˌmɒn, -ki-, -keɪ-/)[1][2][3] is a media
franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a Japanese consortium
between Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures.[4] The franchise
copyright is shared by all three companies, but Nintendo is the sole
owner of the trademark.[5] The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in
1995,[6] and is centered on fictional creatures called "Pokémon", which Logo of Pokémon for its international
humans, known as Pokémon Trainers, catch and train to battle each releases; Pokémon is short for the
original Japanese title of Pocket
other for sport. The English slogan for the franchise is "Gotta Catch 'Em
Created by Satoshi Tajiri
The franchise began as a pair of video games for the original Game Boy Ken Sugimori
that were developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo. It Original work Pocket Monsters
spans a video game series, a trading card game, an anime television Red and Green
series, a film series, books, manga comics, music, toys, and (1996)
merchandise. Pokémon is the highest-grossing media franchise of all
Owner Nintendo
time,[9][10] with over ¥6 trillion[11] ($59.1 billion) in total revenue.[10][12]
It includes the world's top-selling toy brand,[13] the top-selling trading
Game Freak
card game[14] with over 25.7 billion cards sold,[11] the second best-
Print publications
selling video game franchise (behind Nintendo's Mario franchise)[15]
with more than 300 million copies sold[11] and over 800 million mobile Short stories Pokémon Junior
downloads,[16] and the most successful television show based on a video Comics Various Pokémon
game[17] with 20 seasons and over 1,000 episodes. The franchise is also manga
represented in other Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash Bros. Films and television
Film(s) See list of Pokémon
In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non- films
game related licensing of Pokémon, announced that it had agreed not to Short film(s) Various Pikachu
renew the Pokémon representation agreement. The Pokémon Company shorts
International (formerly Pokémon USA Inc.), a subsidiary of Japan's Animated Pokémon (anime)
Pokémon Co., oversees all Pokémon licensing outside Asia.[18] The series (1997–present)
franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006.[19] 2016 marks the Pokémon Chronicles
20th anniversary of the release of the original games, with the company (2006)
celebrating by airing an ad during Super Bowl 50, issuing re-releases of
Television Mewtwo Returns
Pokémon Red, Blue, and Yellow, and redesigning the way the games are
special(s) (2000)
played.[20][21] The mobile augmented reality game Pokémon Go was
The Legend of
released in July 2016.[22] The first seventh-generation games Pokémon
Thunder (2001)
Sun and Moon were released worldwide on November 18, 2016.[23] A
The Mastermind of
live-action film adaptation based on Detective Pikachu began
Mirage Pokémon
production in January 2018,[24] and is set to release in 2019.[9]

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Television Pokémon Origins
film(s) (2013)
Contents Theatrical presentations
Name Musical(s) Pokémon Live!
Concept (2000)
Video games Games
Traditional Pokémon Trading
Generation I
Card Game
Generation II
Generation III
Pokémon Trading
Generation IV Figure Game
Generation V Video game(s) Pokémon video
Generation VI game series
Generation VII Super Smash Bros.
Generation VIII Audio
Game mechanics
Soundtrack(s) Pokémon 2.B.A.
Starter Pokémon
Master (1999)
See also list of
In other media Pokémon theme
Anime series songs
Anime film series
Live-action film Theme park Poképark
Soundtracks Official website
Pokémon Trading Card Game
Japan (
United States
Criticism and controversy
United Kingdom
Morality and religious beliefs
Animal cruelty
Monster in My Pocket
Pokémon Go

Cultural influence
Fan community

See also
External links

The name Pokémon is the romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター
Poketto Monsutā).[25] The term "Pokémon", in addition to referring to the Pokémon franchise itself, also collectively

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refers to the 807 fictional species that have made appearances in Pokémon media as of the release of the seventh
generation titles Pokémon Sun and Moon. "Pokémon" is identical in the singular and plural, as is each individual
species name; it is grammatically correct to say "one Pokémon" and "many Pokémon", as well as "one Pikachu" and
"many Pikachu".[26]

Tajiri first thought of Pokémon, albeit with a different concept and name,
around 1989, when the Game Boy was released. The concept of the
Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general fictional world
of Pokémon, stems from the hobby of insect collecting, a popular pastime
which Pokémon executive director Satoshi Tajiri enjoyed as a child.[27]
Players are designated as Pokémon Trainers and have three general goals:
to complete the regional Pokédex by collecting all of the available Pokémon
An animated history of how Satoshi
species found in the fictional region where a game takes place, to complete
Tajiri came to conceive Pokémon.
the national Pokédex by transferring Pokémon from other regions, and to
train a team of powerful Pokémon from those they have caught to compete
against teams owned by other Trainers so they may eventually win the Pokémon League and become the regional
Champion. These themes of collecting, training, and battling are present in almost every version of the Pokémon
franchise, including the video games, the anime and manga series, and the Pokémon Trading Card Game.

In most incarnations of the Pokémon universe, a Trainer who encounters a wild Pokémon is able to capture that
Pokémon by throwing a specially designed, mass-producible spherical tool called a Poké Ball at it. If the Pokémon is
unable to escape the confines of the Poké Ball, it is considered to be under the ownership of that Trainer. Afterwards, it
will obey whatever commands it receives from its new Trainer, unless the Trainer demonstrates such a lack of
experience that the Pokémon would rather act on its own accord. Trainers can send out any of their Pokémon to wage
non-lethal battles against other Pokémon; if the opposing Pokémon is wild, the Trainer can capture that Pokémon with
a Poké Ball, increasing their collection of creatures. Pokémon already owned by other Trainers cannot be captured,
except under special circumstances in certain side games. If a Pokémon fully defeats an opponent in battle so that the
opponent is knocked out ("faints"), the winning Pokémon gains experience points and may level up. When leveling up,
the Pokémon's battling aptitude statistics ("stats, such as Attack and Speed") increase. At certain levels, the Pokémon
may also learn new moves, which are techniques used in battle. In addition, many species of Pokémon can undergo a
form of metamorphosis and transform into a similar but stronger species of Pokémon, a process called evolution.

In the main series, each game's single-player mode requires the Trainer to raise a team of Pokémon to defeat many
non-player character (NPC) Trainers and their Pokémon. Each game lays out a somewhat linear path through a
specific region of the Pokémon world for the Trainer to journey through, completing events and battling opponents
along the way (including foiling the plans of an 'evil' team of Pokémon Trainers who serve as antagonists to the player).
Excluding Sun and Moon, the games feature eight powerful Trainers, referred to as Gym Leaders, that the Trainer
must defeat in order to progress. As a reward, the Trainer receives a Gym Badge, and once all eight badges are
collected, the Trainer is eligible to challenge the region's Pokémon League, where four talented trainers (referred to
collectively as the "Elite Four") challenge the Trainer to four Pokémon battles in succession. If the trainer can
overcome this gauntlet, they must challenge the Regional Champion, the master Trainer who had previously defeated
the Elite Four. Any Trainer who wins this last battle becomes the new champion.

It is implied by Takeshi Shudo, the initial writer for the anime, that the creators of Pokémon had not anticipated the

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franchise would become so popular, and there were plans to end the series by the Gold and Silver era. In his blog,
Shudo reveals he had an ending drafted for the anime, in which the last episode reveals an elderly Ash Ketchum
hallucinated the entire events of the show.[28] This is supported in an interview with president of The Pokémon
Company, Tsunekazu Ishihara, who predicted the anime would end by 1998. He also stated he initially did not intend
on making "any more Pokémon titles" after Gold and Silver and would have moved on to other projects. However, the
games' success following their release prompted Ishinhara to continue work on the series.[29]

Video games

The original Pokémon games are role-playing video games (RPGs) with an element of strategy, and were created by
Satoshi Tajiri for the Game Boy. These games, and their sequels, remakes, and English language translations, are
considered the "main" Pokémon games, and the games which most fans of the series are referring to when they use the
term "Pokémon games". All of the licensed Pokémon properties overseen by The Pokémon Company International are
divided roughly by generation. These generations are roughly chronological divisions by release; every several years,
when a sequel in the main series is released that features new Pokémon, characters, and gameplay concepts, that
sequel is considered the start of a new generation of the franchise. The main games and their spin-offs, the anime,
manga, and trading card game are all updated with the new Pokémon properties each time a new generation begins.
The franchise began the seventh generation on November 18, 2016.

Generation I
The Pokémon franchise started off in its first generation with its initial release of
Pocket Monsters Aka and Midori ("Red" and "Green", respectively) for the Game Boy
in Japan on February 27, 1996. When these games proved popular, an enhanced Ao
("Blue") version was released sometime after, and the Ao version was reprogrammed
as Pokémon Red and Blue for international release. The games released in the United
States on September 30, 1998. The original Aka and Midori versions were not
A rival battle between a
released outside Japan.[31] Afterwards, a further enhanced version titled Pokémon
Bulbasaur and a
Yellow: Special Pikachu Edition was released to partially take advantage of the color Charmander in Pokémon
palette of the Game Boy Color, as well as to feature more elements from the Pokémon Red and Blue.[30]
anime. This first generation of games introduced the original 151 species of Pokémon,
in National Pokédex order, encompassing all Pokémon from Bulbasaur to Mew. It
also introduced the basic game concepts of capturing, training, battling, and trading Pokémon with both computer and
human players. These versions of the games take place within the fictional Kanto region, inspired by the real world
Kantō region of Japan, though the name "Kanto" was not used until the second generation.

Generation II
The second generation of Pokémon began in 1999 with the release of Pokémon Gold and Silver for Game Boy Color.
Like the previous generation, an enhanced version titled Pokémon Crystal was later released. The second generation
introduced 100 new species of Pokémon, starting with Chikorita and ending with Celebi. The Pokédex totaled 251
Pokémon to collect, train, and battle, set in Johto, inspired by Japan's Kansai region. The second generation of
Pokémon also saw the release of the Pokémon Mini, a handheld game console released in November 2001 in North

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America, December 2001 in Japan, and 2002 in Europe.

Generation III
Pokémon entered its third generation with the 2002 release of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire for Game Boy Advance
and continued with the Game Boy Advance remakes of Pokémon Red and Blue, Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen, and
an enhanced version of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire titled Pokémon Emerald. The third generation introduced 135
new Pokémon, starting with Treecko and ending with Deoxys, for a total of 386 species. Pokémon Ruby, Sapphire and
Emerald are set in Hoenn, inspired by Japan's Kyushu region. However, this generation also garnered some criticism
for leaving out several gameplay features, including the day-and-night system introduced in the previous generation. It
was also the first installment that encouraged the player to collect a selected assortment of the total number of
Pokémon rather than every existing species. By contrast, 202 out of 386 species are catchable in the Ruby and
Sapphire versions.

Generation IV
In 2006, the fourth generation of the franchise began with the release of Pokémon Diamond and Pearl for Nintendo
DS. The fourth generation introduced another 107 new species of Pokémon, starting with Turtwig and ending with
Arceus, bringing the total of Pokémon species to 493.[32] The Nintendo DS "touch screen" allows new features to the
game such as cooking poffins with the stylus and using the "Pokétch". New gameplay concepts include a restructured
move-classification system, online multiplayer trading and battling via Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, the return and
expansion of the second generation's day-and-night system, the expansion of the third generation's Pokémon Contests
into "Super Contests", and the new region of Sinnoh. This region was inspired by Japan's Hokkaido region and part of
Russia's Sakhalin, and has an underground component for multiplayer gameplay in addition to the main overworld.
Pokémon Platinum, the enhanced version of Diamond and Pearl—much like Pokémon Yellow, Crystal, and Emerald—
was released in September 2008 in Japan, March 2009 in North America, and May 2009 in Australia and Europe.
Spin-off titles in the fourth generation include the Pokémon Stadium follow-up Pokémon Battle Revolution for Wii,
which has Wi-Fi connectivity as well.[33] Nintendo announced in May 2009 that enhanced remakes of Pokémon Gold
and Silver, entitled Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver, would be released for the Nintendo DS system. HeartGold
and SoulSilver are set in the Johto region and were released in September 2009 in Japan[34] and March 2010 in North

Generation V
The fifth generation of Pokémon began on September 18, 2010, with the release of Pokémon Black and White in Japan
for Nintendo DS.[36] The games were originally announced by the Pokémon Company on January 29, 2010, with a
tentative release later that year.[37][38] The final release date of September 18 was announced on June 27, 2010.[39] This
version is set in the Unova region (イッシュ地⽅ Isshu-chihō, Isshu region), inspired by New York City, and utilizes the
Nintendo DS's 3D rendering capabilities to a greater extent than Platinum, HeartGold, and SoulSilver. A total of 156
new Pokémon were introduced, starting with Victini and ending with Genesect, bringing the franchise's total to 649.
This is the only time that the number of Pokémon introduced surpasses the number introduced in the first
generation.[40] It also deployed new game mechanics such as the C Gear (Cギア C Gia) wireless interactivity features[41]
and the ability to upload game data to the Internet and to the player's own computer.[42] Pokémon Black and White
was released in Europe on March 4, 2011, in North America on March 6, 2011, and in Australia on March 10, 2011. On
June 23, 2012, Nintendo released Pokémon Black 2 and Pokémon White 2 in Japan for Nintendo DS, with early
October releases in North America and Europe. Black 2 and White 2 are sequels to Black and White, with several

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events in the second games referencing events in the first; they also allow players to link their previous Black or White
with their Black 2 or White 2, introducing several events based on how they played their previous game.

Generation VI
Announced on January 8, 2013, and released simultaneously worldwide on October 12, 2013, Pokémon X and
Pokémon Y for the Nintendo 3DS are part of the sixth generation of games.[43] Introducing the France-inspired Kalos
region, these are the first Pokémon games rendered in 3D, and the first released worldwide together.[44] A total of 72
new Pokémon were introduced, starting with Chespin and ending with Volcanion, bringing the franchise's total to 721.
The fewest new Pokémon in a single generation so far; however, the new Mega Evolution feature was added to the
games to balance out the lack of new characters. Another addition was the Fairy typing, the first new type since Dark
and Steel in the second generation. On May 7, 2014, Nintendo announced remakes of the third generation games
Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire titled Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire which were released in Japan, North
America, Australia, and South Korea on November 21, 2014, and in Europe on November 28, 2014.

Generation VII
Announced on February 26, 2016, Pokémon Sun and Moon for the Nintendo 3DS are part of the seventh generation of
games, and the celebrations for the 20th anniversary of the franchise, introducing the Hawaii-inspired Alola region.
Both games were released worldwide on November 18, 2016, in nine languages; Japanese, English, French, Italian,
German, Spanish, Korean, and, for the first time, Chinese (Traditional and Simplified).[45] A total of 81 new Pokémon
were introduced, bringing the total to 802. Though no new mega evolutions were added, a new type of form was added
for specific Pokémon, called Alola Form, changing their types and move sets. A new type of move was added as well,
called the Z-move. Usable by any Pokémon, Z-moves are extremely powerful and as such can only be used once per

Two more games, Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon were released on November 17, 2017. These games add five new
Pokémon on top of the ones introduced into Sun and Moon, bringing the total to 807.

On May 29, 2018, it was announced that two new Pokémon games in the main Pokémon franchise, Pokémon: Let's Go,
Pikachu! and Pokémon: Let's Go, Eevee!, were going to be released on November 16, 2018. They are the first
installments of the main Pokémon series for Nintendo Switch and are inspired by Pokémon Yellow with gameplay
mechanics borrowed from Pokémon GO.

Generation VIII
During E3 2017, Nintendo and The Pokémon Company announced that Game Freak was developing a new core
Pokémon role-playing game set to release for the Nintendo Switch[46] in "2018 or later."[47][48]

Along with the announcement of Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Pokémon: Let's Go, Eevee! it was confirmed that
the previously-announced core Pokémon game was a separate game which will be released in late 2019. It was
confirmed that game will be the eighth generation of Pokémon.[49] Game director Junichi Masuda stated that it will
also "follow in the tradition of Pokémon X and Y and Pokémon Sun and Moon".[50][51] The CEO of The Pokémon
Company, Tsunekazu Ishihara, also confirmed that the upcoming "core" Pokémon game will not have influences from
Pokémon Go like Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee! will have.[52][53]

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Game mechanics
The main staple of the Pokémon video game series revolves around the catching and battling of Pokémon. Starting
with a starter Pokémon, the player can catch wild Pokémon by weakening them and catching them with Poké Balls.
Conversely, they can choose to defeat them in battle in order to gain experience for their Pokémon, raising their levels
and teaching them new moves. Most Pokémon have "evolution families", a term which refers to the Pokémon to evolve
into or be evolved into more powerful forms by raising their levels or using certain items. Throughout the game,
players will have to battle other trainers in order to progress, with the main goal to defeat various Gym Leaders/Trials
and earn the right to become the regional champion. Subsequent games in the series have introduced various side
games and side quests, including the Battle Frontiers that display unique battle types and the Pokémon Contests where
visual appearance is put on display.

Starter Pokémon
One of the consistent aspects of the Pokémon games—spanning from Pokémon Red and Blue on the Game Boy to the
Nintendo 3DS games Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon—is the choice of one of three different Pokémon at the start
of the player's adventures; these three are often labeled "starter Pokémon". Players can choose a Grass-type, a Fire-
type, or a Water-type.[54] For example, in Pokémon Red and Blue (and their respective remakes, Pokémon FireRed and
Pokémon LeafGreen), the player has the choice of starting with Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle. The exception to
this rule is Pokémon Yellow (a remake of the original games that loosely follows the story of the Pokémon anime),
where players are given a Pikachu, an Electric-type mouse Pokémon, famous for being the mascot of the Pokémon
media franchise; in this game, however, the three starter Pokémon from Red and Blue can be obtained by meeting
certain requirements in game, such as Pikachu having full happiness.[55] Another consistent aspect is that the player's
rival will always choose as his or her starter Pokémon the one that has a type advantage over the player's Pokémon. For
instance, if the player picks a Grass-type Pokémon, the rival will always pick the Fire-type starter. An exception to this
is again Pokémon Yellow, in which the rival picks an Eevee, but whether this Eevee evolves into Vaporeon, Jolteon, or
Flareon is decided by when the player wins and loses to the rival through the journey. Pokémon Sun and Moon are also
an exception where the rival will pick the starter weak toward the players, with the remaining starter used elsewhere.
The GameCube games Pokémon Colosseum and Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness also contain an exception; whereas in
most games the player's initial Pokémon starts at Level 5, in these two games the player's initial Pokémon starts at
Levels 10 and 25, respectively. In Colosseum the player's starter Pokémon are Espeon and Umbreon, while in Gale of
Darkness the player's starter is Eevee.

The Pokédex is an electronic device featured in the Pokémon video game, anime, and manga series. In the games,
whenever a Pokémon is first captured, its data will be added to a player's Pokédex, but in the anime, the Pokédex is a
comprehensive electronic reference encyclopedia, usually referred to in order to deliver exposition. "Pokédex" is also
used to refer to a list of Pokémon, usually a list of Pokémon by number. In the video games, a Pokémon Trainer is
issued a blank device at the start of the journey. A trainer must attempt to fill the Pokédex by encountering and at least
briefly obtaining each of the different species of Pokémon. A player will receive the name and image of a Pokémon after
encountering one that was not previously in the Pokédex, typically after battling said Pokémon either in the wild or in a
trainer battle (with the exceptions of link battles and tournament battles, such as in the Battle Frontier). In Pokémon
Red and Blue, some Pokémon's data is added to the Pokédex by viewing the Pokémon, such as in the zoo outside the
Safari Zone. Also, certain NPC characters may add to the Pokédex by explaining what a Pokémon looks like during

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More detailed information is available after the player obtains a member of the species, either through capturing the
Pokémon in the wild, evolving a previously captured Pokémon, hatching a Pokémon egg (from the second generation
onwards), or through a trade with another trainer (either an NPC or another player). This information includes height,
weight, species type, typing, and a short description of the Pokémon. Later versions of the Pokédex have more detailed
information, like the size of a certain Pokémon compared to the player character, or Pokémon being sorted by their
habitat (so far, the latter feature is only in the FireRed and LeafGreen versions). The most current forms of Pokédex
are capable of containing information on all Pokémon known. The GameCube games, Pokémon Colosseum and
Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness, have a Pokémon Digital Assistant (P★DA) which is similar to the Pokédex, but also
tells what types are effective against a Pokémon and gives a description of its abilities.[56]

In other media

Anime series
The Pokémon anime series and films are a meta-series of adventures
usually separate from the canon that most of the Pokémon video games
follow (with the exception of Pokémon Yellow, a game based loosely on the
anime storyline). The anime follows the quest of the main character, Ash
Ketchum (known as Satoshi in Japan), a Pokémon Master in training, as he
and a small group of friends travel around the world of Pokémon along with
their Pokémon partners.[57] Ash Ketchum holding Pikachu in the
pilot episode, "Pokémon, I Choose
The original series, titled Pocket Monsters, or Pokémon in Western You!".
countries, begins with Ash's first day as a Pokémon trainer. His first and
signature Pokémon is a Pikachu, differing from the games, where only
Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle could be chosen.[58] The series follows the storyline of the original games,
Pokémon Red and Blue, in the region of Kanto. Accompanying Ash on his journeys are Brock, the Pewter City Gym
Leader, and Misty, the youngest of the Gym Leader sisters from Cerulean City. Pokémon: Adventures in the Orange
Islands follows Ash's adventures in the Orange Islands, a place unique to the anime, and replaces Brock with Tracey
Sketchit, an artist and "Pokémon watcher". The next series, based on the second generation of games, include
Pokémon: Johto Journeys, Pokémon: Johto League Champions, and Pokémon: Master Quest, following the original
trio of Ash, Brock, and Misty in the western Johto region.

The saga continues in Pokémon: Advanced, based on the third generation games. Ash and company travel to Hoenn, a
southern region in the Pokémon world. Ash takes on the role of a teacher and mentor for a novice Pokémon trainer
named May. Her brother Max accompanies them, and though he is not a trainer, he knows large amounts of
information. Brock soon catches up with Ash, but Misty has returned to Cerulean City to tend to her duties as a gym
leader (Misty, along with other recurring characters, appears in the spin-off series Pokémon Chronicles). The
Advanced series concludes with the Battle Frontier saga, based on the Emerald version and including aspects of
FireRed and LeafGreen. It ended with Max leaving to pick his starter Pokémon and May going to the Grand Festival in

In the Diamond and Pearl series, based on the fourth generation games, Ash, Brock, and a new companion, an
aspiring Pokémon coordinator named Dawn, travel through the region of Sinnoh. At the end of the series, Ash and
Brock return to Kanto where Brock begins to follow his newfound dream of becoming a Pokémon doctor himself.

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Pocket Monsters: Best Wishes!, based on the fifth generation games, features Ash and Pikachu traveling through the
region of Unova (Isshu in Japan) alongside two new companions, Iris and Cilan (Dent in Japan) who part ways with
them after returning to Kanto.

Pocket Monsters: XY (ポケットモンスターXY Poketo Monsutā Ekkusu Wai), based on the sixth generation games,
features Ash and Pikachu's journey through the region of Kalos, accompanied by Ash's childhood friend Serena and the
siblings Clemont and Bonnie.[59][60][61]

Sun and Moon, based on the seventh generation games, features Ash and Pikachu journey in the Alola region as Ash go
to Pokémon school, participate in the island trials, and learn how to use the power of Z-moves.

In addition to the TV series, twenty Pokémon films have been made as of July 2017, with the pair of films, Pokémon the
Movie: Black—Victini and Reshiram and White—Victini and Zekrom considered together as one. Collectibles, such as
promotional trading cards, have been available with some of the films. Various children's books, collectively known as
Pokémon Junior, are also based on the anime.[62]


Anime film series

Given release years are the original Japanese release years.

1. Pokémon: The First Movie—Mewtwo Strikes Back (1998)

2. Pokémon: The Movie 2000—The Power of One (1999)
3. Pokémon 3: The Movie—Spell of the Unown (2000)
4. Pokémon 4Ever—Celebi: Voice of the Forest (2001)
5. Pokémon Heroes—Latios and Latias (2002)
6. Pokémon: Jirachi Wish Maker (2003)
7. Pokémon: Destiny Deoxys (2004)
8. Pokémon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew (2005)
9. Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea (2006)
10. Pokémon: The Rise of Darkrai (2007)
11. Pokémon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior (2008)
12. Pokémon: Arceus and the Jewel of Life (2009)
13. Pokémon: Zoroark: Master of Illusions (2010)
14. Pokémon the Movie: Black—Victini and Reshiram &
Pokémon the Movie: White—Victini and Zekrom (2011)
15. Pokémon the Movie: Kyurem vs. the Sword of Justice (2012)
16. Pokémon the Movie: Genesect and the Legend Awakened (2013)
17. Pokémon the Movie: Diancie and the Cocoon of Destruction (2014)
18. Pokémon the Movie: Hoopa and the Clash of Ages (2015)
19. Pokémon the Movie: Volcanion and the Mechanical Marvel (2016)
20. Pokémon the Movie: I Choose You! (2017)
21. Pokémon the Movie: The Power of Us (2018)

Live-action film

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In April 2016, it was announced by The Hollywood Reporter that Warner Bros. Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment,
and Legendary Pictures were in negotiations with The Pokémon Company for a live-action Pokémon movie.[63] The
partnership sees Toho distributing the film in Japan, with Warner Bros. distributing it internationally. [64][65] Nicole
Perlman and Alex Hirsch were penning the script.[66] Originally, Chris McKay, Robert Rodriguez, Tim Miller, Mark
A.Z. Dippé, Shane Acker and Chris Wedge were being considered as potential directors. On November 30, 2016,
Deadline reported that The Pokémon Company and Legendary Entertainment had chosen Rob Letterman to direct the
film.[67] It was announced that the film would be titled Detective Pikachu.[68] Detective Pikachu started production in
January 2018,[24] and concluded in May 2018.[69] On August 24, 2018, the film was retitled Pokémon: Detective
Pikachu, and the film's logo was revealed the same day.[70] It is set to release in May 10, 2019.[9]

Pokémon CDs have been released in North America, most of them in conjunction with the theatrical releases of the
first three Pokémon films. These releases were commonplace until late 2001. On March 27, 2007, a tenth anniversary
CD was released containing 18 tracks from the English dub; this was the first English-language release in over five
years. Soundtracks of the Pokémon feature films have been released in Japan each year in conjunction with the
theatrical releases.

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Year Title

June 29, 1999[71] Pokémon 2.B.A. Master

November 9, 1999[72] Pokémon: The First Movie

February 8, 2000 Pokémon World

May 9, 2000 Pokémon: The First Movie Original Motion Picture Score

July 18, 2000 Pokémon: The Movie 2000

Unknown1 Pokémon: The Movie 2000 Original Motion Picture Score

January 23, 2001 Totally Pokémon

April 3, 2001 Pokémon 3: The Ultimate Soundtrack

October 9, 2001 Pokémon Christmas Bash

March 27, 2007 Pokémon X: Ten Years of Pokémon

November 12, 2013 Pokémon X & Pokémon Y: Super Music Collection

December 10, 2013 Pokémon FireRed & Pokémon LeafGreen: Super Music Collection

January 14, 2014 Pokémon HeartGold & Pokémon SoulSilver: Super Music Collection

February 11, 2014 Pokémon Ruby & Pokémon Sapphire: Super Music Collection

March 11, 2014 Pokémon Diamond & Pokémon Pearl: Super Music Collection

April 8, 2014 Pokémon Black & Pokémon White: Super Music Collection

May 13, 2014 Pokémon Black 2 & Pokémon White 2: Super Music Collection

December 21, 2014 Pokémon Omega Ruby & Pokémon Alpha Sapphire: Super Music Collection

April 27, 2016 Pokémon Red and Green Super Music Collection

November 30, 2016 Pokémon Sun & Pokémon Moon: Super Music Collection

^1 The exact date of release is unknown.

Pokémon Trading Card Game

The Pokémon Trading Card Game (TCG) is a collectible card game with a goal similar to a Pokémon battle in the video
game series. Players use Pokémon cards, with individual strengths and weaknesses, in an attempt to defeat their
opponent by "knocking out" their Pokémon cards.[73] The game was published in North America by Wizards of the
Coast in 1999.[74] With the release of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire Game Boy Advance video games, The Pokémon
Company took back the card game from Wizards of the Coast and started publishing the cards themselves.[74] The
Expedition expansion introduced the Pokémon-e Trading Card Game, where the cards (for the most part) were
compatible with the Nintendo e-Reader. Nintendo discontinued its production of e-Reader compatible cards with the
release of FireRed and LeafGreen. In 1998, Nintendo released a Game Boy Color version of the trading card game in
Japan; Pokémon Trading Card Game was subsequently released to the US and Europe in 2000. The game included
digital versions cards from the original set of cards and the first two expansions (Jungle and Fossil), as well as several
cards exclusive to the game. A sequel was released in Japan in 2001.[75]

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There are various Pokémon manga series, four of which were released in
English by Viz Media, and seven of them released in English by Chuang Yi.
The manga series vary from game-based series to being based on the anime
and the Trading Card Game. Original stories have also been published. As
there are several series created by different authors, most Pokémon manga
series differ greatly from each other and other media, such as the anime.
Pokémon Pocket Monsters and Pokémon Adventures are the two manga in
production since the first generation.

Manga released in English

The Electric Tale of Pikachu (Dengeki Pikachu), a shōnen manga

created by Toshihiro Ono. It was divided into four tankōbon, each given
a separate title in the North American and English Singapore versions:
The Electric Tale of Pikachu, Pikachu Shocks Back, Electric Pikachu
Boogaloo, and Surf's Up, Pikachu. The series is based loosely on the Palkia, the Spacial Pokémon
anime. Trading Card Game card from
Pokémon Adventures (Pocket Monsters SPECIAL in Japan) by Hidenori Pokémon TCG Diamond and Pearl.
Kusaka (story), Mato (art formerly), and Satoshi Yamamoto (art
currently), the most popular Pokémon manga based on the video
games. The story series around the Pokémon Trainers who called "Pokédex holders".
Magical Pokémon Journey (Pocket Monsters PiPiPi ★ Adventures), a shōjo manga
Pikachu Meets the Press (newspaper style comics, not released by Chuang Yi)
Ash & Pikachu (Satoshi to Pikachu)
Pokémon Gold & Silver
Pokémon Ruby-Sapphire and Pokémon Pocket Monsters
Pokémon: Jirachi Wish Maker
Pokémon: Destiny Deoxys
Pokémon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew (the third movie-to-comic adaptation)
Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea[76] (the fourth movie-to-comic adaption)
Pokémon Diamond and Pearl Adventure!
Pokémon Adventures: Diamond and Pearl / Platinum[77]
Pokémon: The Rise of Darkrai[78] (the fifth movie-to-comic adaption)
Pokémon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior[79] (the sixth movie-to-comic adaption)
Pokémon: Arceus and the Jewel of Life[80] (the seventh movie-to-comic adaption)
Pokémon: Zoroark: Master of Illusions[81] (the eighth movie-to-comic adaption)
Pokémon The Movie: White: Victini and Zekrom[82] (the ninth movie-to-comic adaption)
Pokémon Black and White[83][84][85][86][87][88][89]

Manga not released in English

Pokémon Pocket Monsters by Kosaku Anakubo, the first Pokémon manga. Chiefly a gag manga, it stars a
Pokémon Trainer named Red, his rude Clefairy, and Pikachu.
Pokémon Card ni Natta Wake (How I Became a Pokémon Card) by Kagemaru Himeno, an artist for the Trading
Card Game. There are six volumes and each includes a special promotional card. The stories tell the tales of the
art behind some of Himeno's cards.
Pokémon Get aa ze! by Miho Asada

9/7/2018, 2:18 PM 12
Pocket Monsters Chamo-Chamo ★ Pretty ♪ by Yumi Tsukirino, who also made Magical Pokémon Journey.
Pokémon Card Master
Pocket Monsters Emerald Chōsen!! Battle Frontier by Ihara Shigekatsu
Pocket Monsters Zensho by Satomi Nakamura

A Pokémon-styled Monopoly board game was released in August 2014.[90]

Criticism and controversy

Morality and religious beliefs

Pokémon has been criticized by some Christians over perceived occult and violent themes and the concept of
"Pokémon evolution", which they feel goes against the Biblical creation account in Genesis.[91] Sat2000, a satellite
television station based in Vatican City, has countered that the Pokémon Trading Card Game and video games are "full
of inventive imagination" and have no "harmful moral side effects".[92][93] In the United Kingdom, the "Christian Power
Cards" game was introduced in 1999 by David Tate who stated, "Some people aren't happy with Pokémon and want an
alternative, others just want Christian games." The game was similar to the Pokémon Trading Card Game but used
Biblical figures.[94]

In 1999, Nintendo stopped manufacturing the Japanese version of the "Koga's Ninja Trick" trading card because it
depicted a manji, a traditionally Buddhist symbol with no negative connotations. The Jewish civil rights group Anti-
Defamation League complained because the symbol is the reverse of a swastika, a Nazi symbol. The cards were
intended for sale in Japan only, but the popularity of Pokémon led to import into the United States with approval from
Nintendo. The Anti-Defamation League understood that the issue symbol was not intended to offend and
acknowledged the sensitivity that Nintendo showed by removing the product.[95]

In 1999, two nine-year-old boys from Merrick, New York sued Nintendo because they claimed the Pokémon Trading
Card Game caused their problematic gambling.[96]

In 2001, Saudi Arabia banned Pokémon games and the trading cards, alleging that the franchise promoted Zionism by
displaying the Star of David in the trading cards (a six-pointed star is featured in the card game) as well as other
religious symbols such as crosses they associated with Christianity and triangles they associated with Freemasonry; the
games also involved gambling, which is in violation of Muslim doctrine.[97][98]

Pokémon has also been accused of promoting materialism.[99]

Animal cruelty
In 2012, PETA criticized the concept of Pokémon as supporting cruelty to animals. PETA compared the game's
concept, of capturing animals and forcing them to fight, to cockfights, dog fighting rings and circuses, events frequently
criticized for cruelty to animals. PETA released a game spoofing Pokémon where the Pokémon battle their trainers to
win their freedom.[100] PETA reaffirmed their objections in 2016 with the release of Pokémon Go, promoting the
hashtag #GottaFreeThemAll.[101]

9/7/2018, 2:18 PM 13
On December 16, 1997, more than 635 Japanese children were admitted to hospitals with epileptic seizures.[102] It was
determined the seizures were caused by watching an episode of Pokémon "Dennō Senshi Porygon", (most commonly
translated "Electric Soldier Porygon", season 1, episode 38); as a result, this episode has not been aired since. In this
particular episode, there were bright explosions with rapidly alternating blue and red color patterns.[103] It was
determined in subsequent research that these strobing light effects cause some individuals to have epileptic seizures,
even if the person had no previous history of epilepsy.[104] This incident is a common focus of Pokémon-related
parodies in other media, and was lampooned by The Simpsons episode "Thirty Minutes over Tokyo"[105] and the South
Park episode "Chinpokomon",[106] among others.

Monster in My Pocket
In March 2000, Morrison Entertainment Group, a toy developer based at Manhattan Beach, California, sued Nintendo
over claims that Pokémon infringed on its own Monster in My Pocket characters. A judge ruled there was no
infringement and Morrison appealed the ruling. On February 4, 2003, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
affirmed the decision by the District Court to dismiss the suit.[107]

Pokémon Go
Within its first two days of release, Pokémon Go raised safety concerns among players. Multiple people also suffered
minor injuries from falling while playing the game due to being distracted.[108]

Multiple police departments in various countries have issued warnings, some tongue-in-cheek, regarding inattentive
driving, trespassing, and being targeted by criminals due to being unaware of one's surroundings.[109][110] People have
suffered various injuries from accidents related to the game,[111][112][113][114] and Bosnian players have been warned to
stay out of minefields left over from the 1990s Bosnian War.[115] On July 20, 2016, it was reported that an 18-year-old
boy in Chiquimula, Guatemala was shot and killed while playing the game in the late evening hours.[116] This was the
first reported death in connection with the app. The boy's 17-year-old cousin, who was accompanying the victim, was
shot in the foot. Police speculated that the shooters used the game's GPS capability to find the two.[117]

Cultural influence
Pokémon, being a globally popular franchise, has left a significant mark on
today's popular culture. The Pokémon characters have become pop culture
icons; examples include two different Pikachu balloons in the Macy's
Thanksgiving Day Parade, Pokémon-themed airplanes operated by All
Nippon Airways, merchandise items, and a traveling theme park that was in
Nagoya, Japan in 2005 and in Taipei in 2006. Pokémon also appeared on
the cover of the U.S. magazine Time in 1999. The Comedy Central show
Drawn Together has a character named Ling-Ling who is a parody of
All Nippon Airways Boeing 747-400
Pikachu.[118] Several other shows such as ReBoot, The Simpsons, South
in Pokémon livery, dubbed a
Park, The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy, Robot Chicken, All Grown Pokémon Jet.
Up!, and Johnny Test have made references and spoofs of Pokémon, among
other series. Pokémon was featured on VH1's I Love the '90s: Part Deux. A
live action show called Pokémon Live! toured the United States in late 2000. It was based on the Pokémon anime. Jim

9/7/2018, 2:18 PM 14
Butcher cites Pokémon as one of the inspirations for the Codex Alera series of novels.

In November 2001, Nintendo opened a store called the Pokémon Center in New York, in Rockefeller Center,[119]
modeled after the two other Pokémon Center stores in Tokyo and Osaka and named after a staple of the video game
series. Pokémon Centers are fictional buildings where Trainers take their injured Pokémon to be healed after
combat.[120] The store sold Pokémon merchandise on a total of two floors, with items ranging from collectible shirts to
stuffed Pokémon plushies.[121] The store also featured a Pokémon Distributing Machine in which players would place
their game to receive an egg of a Pokémon that was being given out at that time. The store also had tables that were
open for players of the Pokémon Trading Card Game to duel each other or an employee. The store was closed and
replaced by the Nintendo World Store on May 14, 2005.[122] Three Pokémon Center kiosks were put in malls in
Washington, with one in Tacoma and one in Seattle remaining.[123] The Pokémon Center online store was relaunched
on August 6, 2014.[124]

Professor of Education Joseph Tobin theorizes that the success of the

franchise was due to the long list of names that could be learned by children
and repeated in their peer groups. Its rich fictional universe provides
opportunities for discussion and demonstration of knowledge in front of
their peers. For the French versions of Pokémon media, Nintendo took care
to translate the name of the creatures so that they reflected French culture
and language. The names of the creatures were linked to its characteristics,
which converged with the children's belief that names have symbolic power.
Meitetsu 2200 series train Giratina &
Children can pick their favourite Pokémon and affirm their individuality
while at the same time affirming their conformance to the values of the
group, and they can distinguish themselves from others by asserting what
they liked and what they did not like from every chapter. Pokémon gained popularity because it provides a sense of
identity to a wide variety of children, and lost it quickly when many of those children found that the identity groups
were too big and searched for identities that would distinguish them into smaller groups.[125]

Pokémon 's history has been marked at times by rivalry with the Digimon
media franchise that debuted at a similar time. Described as "the other
'mon'" by IGN's Juan Castro, Digimon has not enjoyed Pokémon 's level of
international popularity or success, but has maintained a dedicated
fanbase.[126] IGN's Lucas M. Thomas stated that Pokémon is Digimon 's
"constant competition and comparison", attributing the former's relative
success to the simplicity of its evolution mechanic as opposed to
Digivolution.[127] The two have been noted for conceptual and stylistic
similarities by sources such as GameZone.[128] A debate among fans exists
Shinkansen E3 Series train in
over which of the two franchises came first.[129] In actuality, the first Pokémon livery.
Pokémon media, Pokémon Red and Green, were released initially on
February 27, 1996;[130] whereas the Digimon virtual pet was released on
June 26, 1997.

Fan community
While Pokémon 's target demographic is children, early purchasers of Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire were
in their 20s.[131] Many fans are adults who originally played the games as children and later returned to the series.

9/7/2018, 2:18 PM 15
Bulbapedia, a wiki-based encyclopedia[132] associated with longtime fan site Bulbagarden,[133][134] is the "Internet's
most detailed Pokémon database project".[135] Bulbapedia received a mobile makeover with the release of BulbaGo, the
app for Bulbapedia. The app's developer, Jonathan Zarra, was the same that created the location based chat app
GoChat for Pokémon Go. The Bulbapedia App was so successful that within three days of its release, it was acquired by
Bulbapedia and turned into its official app.

A significant community around the Pokémon video games' metagame has existed for a long time, analyzing the best
ways to use each Pokémon to their full potential in competitive battles. The most prolific competitive community is
Smogon University, which has created a widely accepted tier-based battle system.[136] Smogon is affiliated with an
online Pokémon game called Pokémon Showdown, in which players create a team and battle against other players
around the world using the competitive tiers created by Smogon.[137]

In early 2014, an anonymous video streamer on Twitch launched Twitch Plays Pokémon, an experiment trying to
crowdsource playing subsequent Pokémon games, starting with Pokémon Red.[138][139]

A challenge called the Nuzlocke Challenge was created in order for older players of the series to enjoy Pokémon again—
but with a twist. The player is only allowed to capture the first pokemon encountered in each area. (If they do not
succeed in capturing that pokemon, there are no second chances.) When a Pokémon faints it is considered "dead" and
must be released or stored in the PC permanently.[140] If the player faints, the game is considered over, and the player
must restart.[141] The original idea consisted of 2 to 3 rules that the community has built upon. There are many fan
made Pokémon games made that contains a game mode similar to the Nuzlocke Challenge, such as Pokémon

See also
List of Pokémon chapters
List of Pokémon episodes
List of Pokémon video games
Pokémon episodes removed from rotation

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Tobin, Joseph, ed. (February 2004). Pikachu's Global Adventure: The Rise and Fall of Pokémon. Duke University
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External links
Official hub for regional Pokémon websites (

Official Japanese website of Pokémon ( (in Japanese)

Official US website of Pokémon (
Official UK website of Pokémon (

9/7/2018, 2:18 PM 24
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