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MATERIALS

DIN Handbook 456/1

Copper 1
Basic standards

Testing standards
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
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Edited by: DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V.

© 2015 Beuth Verlag GmbH


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1st edition in English


Complete to February 2015

All rights reserved. Without written permission from the publisher, no part
of this book may be used for purposes not permitted by German copyright
law, including duplication, translation, microform reproduction and electronic
storage and processing.

The contents of this work have been checked carefully by the authors and
publisher, but no responsibility can be taken for their accuracy. The pub-
lisher accepts liability solely for damage caused by its own intent or gross
negligence.

© Copyright for DIN Standards held by DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung
e. V., Berlin.

ISBN 978-3-410-25354-9
ISBN (E-Book) 978-3-410-25355-6
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Foreword
For at least 10,000 years, copper and its alloys have been contributing to societal and
industrial development. Copper is one of the first metals used by humans, who quickly
discovered its versatility and wide range of applications. Malleable, ductile, corrosion-
resistant, antimicrobial, and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity, copper is pre-
sent wherever industrial machinery and equipment is found.
With this in mind, we have compiled the most important current standards relating
to copper and copper alloys into the first edition of the three-part English language
DIN Handbook “Copper” series.
The present volume, DIN Handbook 456/1, contains 17 essential basic and testing stan-
dards (DIN EN) for copper and copper alloys, as well as product standards covering
refined copper, master alloys and scrap. One prestandard, DIN CEN/TS 13388
(DIN SPEC 9700), is also included in this volume. This technical specification provides
a summary of material designations, compositions and the product forms in which they
are available, for coppers and copper alloys standardized in European Standards. Many
users may also find the National Annex useful, as it includes the comparison of current
materials symbols as in European Standards to those found in the withdrawn DIN Stan-
dards.
For ease of reference and to provide the user with an overview of the contents of Volu-
mes 2 and 3 of the Handbook series, lists of the standards included in DIN Hand-
books 456/2 and 456/3 are also included.
The standards included in DIN Handbook 456/1 represent the current state of standardi-
zation as of February 2015.

Berlin, February 2015 DIN Translation Services


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
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About this handbook
How do I use this handbook?
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legal disputes because they set out unambiguous specifications.

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Although most DIN Standards are published in German (some are issued as bilingual
editions, a few in English only), over 18,000 DIN Standards are available in English
translation, including DIN EN Standards, DIN ISO Standards, and DIN EN ISO Standards.
In addition to printed translations of DIN Standards, Beuth also sells unrevised manuscript
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What are DIN Standards?


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

DIN, the German Institute for Standardization, develops standards and specifications as
a service to industry, the state and society as a whole. By agreement with the German
Federal Government DIN is the acknowledged national standards body that represents
German interests in European and international standards organizations.
DIN Standards are technical standards representing the state of technology as determined
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requirements for products, procedures and services.
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DIN Standards can be either national standards, or adoptions of European and/or


International standards. Their origin – and thus their area of application – is indicated
using one of the abbreviations shown below:

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DIN (plus number, e.g. DIN 4701)
This is a national standard that has been developed at national level only and is primarily
of interest nationally. It may also be a precursor to a document intended to be published
internationally. The number for a draft national standard is preceded by an “E” (for
“Entwurf”) while that for a prestandard is preceded by a “V” (for “Vornorm”).
National standards with electrotechnical relevance are indicated as “DIN VDE” standards
(e.g. DIN VDE 0100).

DIN EN (plus number, e.g. DIN EN 71)


This is a European Standard that has been adopted, unchanged, at national level and
which has been developed by one of the European standards organizations: CEN,
CENELEC or ETSI. As a member of CEN/CENELEC, DIN is obliged to adopt all European
Standards and to withdraw any national standards that might conflict with them.

DIN EN ISO (plus number, e.g. DIN EN ISO 306)


This is a European Standard that is identical to an International Standard (i.e. it was
developed by ISO and then adopted by CEN) and has been adopted, unchanged, at
national level. As a member of CEN/CENELEC, DIN is obliged to adopt all European
Standards and to withdraw any national standards that might conflict with them.

DIN ISO, DIN IEC or DIN ISO/IEC (plus number, e.g. DIN ISO 720)
This is an International Standard which has been adopted, unchanged, at national level.

DIN SPEC (DIN Specification)


DIN has introduced a new standards deliverable that is developed in a less formal and
more flexible process – the “DIN SPEC”, or “DIN Specification”.
Because they do not require the full consensus of all stakeholders, DIN SPECs can be
published within a few months. Reaching the market faster, DIN SPECs provide a head
start that can push the knowledge and technology transfer of innovations. DIN SPECs are
developed according to one of four different procedures: the PAS, Prestandard, Technical
Report or CWA procedure.
In addition, other types of document correct or supplement existing DIN Standards:
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

DIN Supplements give additional information on a DIN Standard (explanatory notes,


examples, advice on the application of the standard, etc.) but no further specifications.

Amendments (indicated as A1, A2 etc. after the main standard number) add information
to the standard, including specifications, that may be incorporated in a later edition.

Corrigenda correct printing or content errors and are incorporated into the next edition
of the respective document.
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Overview of standards
(by number)

Document number Document number

DIN EN 723 DIN EN 12384


DIN EN 1173 DIN EN 12861
DIN EN 1412 DIN EN 13147
DIN EN 1655 DIN EN 13603
DIN EN 1971-1 DIN EN 13604
DIN EN 1971-2 DIN EN 14977
DIN EN 1976 DIN EN 16090
DIN EN 1977 DIN CEN/TS 13388
DIN EN 1978 (DIN SPEC 9700)
DIN EN 1981
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
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Standards in this handbook
The standards numbers highlighted in blue link to the actual documents.

Document Date of Title


number issue

DIN EN 723 2009-07 Copper and copper alloys – Combustion method for
determination of the carbon content on the inner sur-
face of copper tubes or fittings
DIN EN 1173 2008-08 Copper and copper alloys – Material condition desig-
nation
DIN EN 1412 1995-12 Copper and copper alloys – European numbering
system
DIN EN 1655 1997-06 Copper and copper alloys – Declarations of conform-
ity
DIN EN 1971-1 2012-02 Copper and copper alloys – Eddy current test for
measuring defects on seamless round copper and
copper alloy tubes – Part 1: Test with an encircling
test coil on the outer surface
DIN EN 1971-2 2012-02 Copper and copper alloys – Eddy current test for
measuring defects on seamless round copper and
copper alloy tubes – Part 2: Test with an internal
probe on the inner surface
DIN EN 1976 2013-01 Copper and copper alloys – Cast unwrought copper
products
DIN EN 1977 2013-04 Copper and copper alloys – Copper drawing stock
(wire rod)
DIN EN 1978 1998-05 Copper and copper alloys – Copper cathodes
DIN EN 1981 2003-05 Copper and copper alloys – Master alloys
DIN EN 12384 1999-03 Copper and copper alloys – Determination of spring
bending limit on strip
DIN EN 12861 1999-10 Copper and copper alloys – Scrap
DIN EN 13147 2001-07 Copper and copper alloys – Determination of residual
stresses in the border areas of slit strip
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

DIN EN 13603 2013-08 Copper and copper alloys – Test methods for as-
sessing protective tin coatings on drawn round cop-
per wire for electrical purposes
DIN EN 13604 2013-09 Copper and copper alloys – Semiconductor devices,
electronic and vacuum products made from high
conductivity copper
7541014/10787806875Biblio

DIN EN 14977 2006-09 Copper and copper alloys – Detection of tensile


stress – 5 % ammonia test

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Document Date of Title
number issue

DIN EN 16090 2012-02 Copper and copper alloys – Estimation of average


grain size by ultrasound
DIN CEN/TS 13388 2013-05 Copper and copper alloys – Compendium of compo-
(DIN SPEC 9700) sitions and products
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Standards in DIN Handbook 456/2
(by subject)

Document Date of Title


number issue

1 Rolled products
DIN EN 1172 2012-02 Copper and copper alloys – Sheet and strip for building
purposes
DIN EN 1652 1998-03 Copper and copper alloys – Plate, sheet, strip and circles
for general purposes
DIN EN 1653 2000-11 Copper and copper alloys – Plate, sheet and circles for
boilers, pressure vessels and hot water storage units
(includes Amendment A1:2000)
DIN EN 1654 1998-03 Copper and copper alloys – Strip for springs and connec-
tors
DIN EN 1758 1998-03 Copper and copper alloys – Strip for lead frames
DIN EN 13148 2010-12 Copper and copper alloys – Hot-dip tinned strip
DIN EN 13599 2014-12 Copper and copper alloys – Copper plate, sheet and strip
for electrical purposes
DIN EN 14436 2004-11 Copper and copper alloys – Electrolytically tinned strip

2 Tubes
DIN EN 1057 2010-06 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless, round copper tubes
for water and gas in sanitary and heating applications
(includes Amendment A1:2010)
DIN EN 12449 2012-07 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless, round tubes for
general purposes
DIN EN 12450 2013-01 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless, round copper cap-
illary tubes
DIN EN 12451 2012-08 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless, round tubes for
heat exchangers
DIN EN 12452 2012-08 Copper and copper alloys – Rolled, finned, seamless tubes
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

for heat exchangers


DIN EN 12735-1 2010-12 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless, round copper tubes
for air conditioning and refrigeration – Part 1: Tubes for pip-
ing systems
DIN EN 12735-2 2010-12 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless, round copper tubes
for air conditioning and refrigeration – Part 2: Tubes for
equipment
7541014/10787806875Biblio

DIN EN 13348 2008-11 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless, round copper tubes
for medical gases or vacuum

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Document Date of Title
number issue

DIN EN 13349 2002-11 Copper and copper alloys – Pre-insulated copper tubes
with solid covering
DIN EN 13600 2013-09 Copper and copper alloys – Seamless copper tubes for
electrical purposes
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
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Standards in DIN Handbook 456/3
(by subject)

Document Date of Title


number issue

Bars and wire


DIN EN 1977 2013-04 Copper and copper alloys – Copper drawing stock (wire
rod)
DIN EN 12163 2011-08 Copper and copper alloys – Rod for general purposes
DIN EN 12164 2011-08 Copper and copper alloys – Rod for free machining pur-
poses
DIN EN 12166 2011-08 Copper and copper alloys – Wire for general purposes
DIN EN 12167 2011-08 Copper and copper alloys – Profiles and bars for general
purposes
DIN EN 12168 2011-08 Copper and copper alloys – Hollow rod for free machining
purposes
DIN EN 13601 2013-09 Copper and copper alloys – Copper rod, bar and wire for
general electrical purposes
DIN EN 13602 2013-09 Copper and copper alloys – Drawn, round copper wire for
the manufacture of electrical conductors
DIN EN 13605 2013-09 Copper and copper alloys – Copper profiles and profiled
wire for electrical purposes

Ingots and castings


DIN EN 1982 2008-08 Copper and copper alloys – Ingots and castings

Forging
DIN EN 12165 2011-08 Copper and copper alloys – Wrought and unwrought forg-
ing stock
DIN EN 12420 2014-09 Copper and copper alloys – Forgings
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Subject index
The standards numbers highlighted in blue link to the actual documents.

Carbon * Copper tubes * Determination of Copper alloys * Castings * Copper


content DIN EN 723 DIN EN 1976
Castings * Copper * Copper alloys Copper alloys * Certificates of conformity
DIN EN 1976 * Copper DIN EN 1655
Certificates of conformity * Copper * Cop- Copper alloys * Chemical composition *
per alloys DIN EN 1655 Copper DIN CEN/TS 13388
Chemical composition * Copper * Copper Copper alloys * Copper DIN EN 1978
alloys DIN CEN/TS 13388 Copper alloys * Copper straps * Copper
Copper * Copper alloys DIN EN 1978 DIN EN 12384
Copper * Copper alloys * Castings Copper alloys * Copper wire * Copper
DIN EN 1976 DIN EN 1977
Copper * Copper alloys * Certificates of Copper alloys * Designations * Copper
conformity DIN EN 1655 DIN EN 1173
Copper * Copper alloys * Chemical com- Copper alloys * Eddy-current tests * Test-
position DIN CEN/TS 13388 ing * Copper DIN EN 1971-1
Copper * Copper alloys * Copper straps Copper alloys * Material numbers * Cop-
DIN EN 12384 per DIN EN 1412
Copper * Copper alloys * Copper wire Copper alloys * Materials * Copper
DIN EN 1977 DIN EN 13604
Copper * Copper alloys * Designations Copper alloys * Metal scrap * Specifica-
DIN EN 1173 tion (approval) * Copper DIN EN 12861
Copper * Copper alloys * Eddy-current Copper alloys * Residual stresses * Test-
tests * Testing DIN EN 1971-1 ing * Copper DIN EN 14977
Copper * Copper alloys * Material num- Copper alloys * Round wire * Testing * Tin
bers DIN EN 1412 coatings * Copper DIN EN 13603
Copper * Copper alloys * Materials Copper pipes * Gilled pipes * Heat
DIN EN 13604 exchangers * Testing * Copper
Copper * Copper alloys * Metal scrap * DIN EN 1971-2
Specification (approval) DIN EN 12861 Copper straps * Copper * Copper alloys
Copper * Copper alloys * Residual DIN EN 12384
stresses * Testing DIN EN 14977 Copper tubes * Determination of content *
Carbon DIN EN 723
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Copper * Copper alloys * Round wire *


Testing * Tin coatings DIN EN 13603 Copper wire * Copper * Copper alloys
Copper * Copper pipes * Gilled pipes * DIN EN 1977
Heat exchangers * Testing
DIN EN 1971-2 Designations * Copper * Copper alloys
Copper * Determination * Residual DIN EN 1173
stresses DIN EN 13147 Determination * Residual stresses * Cop-
Copper * Grain size * Testing * Ultrasonics per DIN EN 13147
7541014/10787806875Biblio

DIN EN 16090 Determination of content * Carbon * Cop-


Copper * Master alloys DIN EN 1981 per tubes DIN EN 723

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Eddy-current tests * Testing * Copper * Residual stresses * Testing * Copper *
Copper alloys DIN EN 1971-1 Copper alloys DIN EN 14977
Round wire * Testing * Tin coatings * Cop-
Gilled pipes * Heat exchangers * Testing * per * Copper alloys DIN EN 13603
Copper * Copper pipes DIN EN 1971-2
Grain size * Testing * Ultrasonics * Copper Specification (approval) * Copper * Cop-
DIN EN 16090 per alloys * Metal scrap DIN EN 12861

Heat exchangers * Testing * Copper * Cop- Testing * Copper * Copper alloys *


per pipes * Gilled pipes DIN EN 1971-2 Eddy-current tests DIN EN 1971-1
Testing * Copper * Copper alloys * Resid-
Master alloys * Copper DIN EN 1981 ual stresses DIN EN 14977
Material numbers * Copper * Copper Testing * Copper * Copper pipes * Gilled
alloys DIN EN 1412 pipes * Heat exchangers
DIN EN 1971-2
Materials * Copper * Copper alloys
DIN EN 13604 Testing * Tin coatings * Copper * Copper
alloys * Round wire DIN EN 13603
Metal scrap * Specification (approval) *
Copper * Copper alloys DIN EN 12861 Testing * Ultrasonics * Copper * Grain
size DIN EN 16090
Tin coatings * Copper * Copper alloys *
Residual stresses * Copper * Determina-
Round wire * Testing DIN EN 13603
tion DIN EN 13147
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DEUTSCHE NORM July 2009

DIN EN 723
D
ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes
DIN EN 723:1996-10

Copper and copper alloys –


Combustion method for determination of the carbon content on the
inner surface of copper tubes or fittings
English version of DIN EN 723:2009-07

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Kohlenstoffgehaltes auf der Innenoberfläche von
Kupferrohren oder Fittings durch Verbrennen
Englische Fassung DIN EN 723:2009-07
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Document comprises 14 pages


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Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing


©
No part of this standard may be reproduced without prior permission of
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DIN EN 723:2009-07

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper alloys”
(Secretariat: DIN, Germany).

The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Technical Committee NA 066-02-03 AA Kupferrohre (Installation
und Industrie).

Amendments

This standard differs from DIN EN 723:1996-10 as follows:

a) The accuracy of the method has been improved.

b) The scope of the standard has been extended to include fittings of copper alloys.

c) The standard has been simplified by specifying only one method for carbon content determination,
namely that of infrared absorption spectrometry; (The method using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide
(HTBA) and the method of determination by measurement of differential electrical conductivity
(coulometric) have been deleted).

d) The standard has been simplified by specifying only one cutting method for tubes with diameters
exceeding the furnace diameter by deletion of the “longitudinal cutting method”.

e) Clause 2 “Normative References” has been changed to “Bibliography”, and the document renumbered.

Previous editions

DIN EN 723: 1996-10


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 723
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM April 2009

ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes EN 723:1996

English Version

Copper and copper alloys - Combustion method for


determination of the carbon content on the inner surface of
copper tubes or fittings

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre - Méthode de détermination par Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Verfahren zur Bestimmung
combustion de la teneur en carbone à la surface interne des Kohlenstoffgehaltes auf der Innenoberfläche von
des tubes ou des raccords en cuivre Kupferrohren oder Fittings durch Verbrennen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 March 2009.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the
official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels


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© 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 723:2009: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4
2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................4
3 Principle ..................................................................................................................................................4
4 Preparation of samples and test pieces ..............................................................................................4
4.1 Preparatory procedures ........................................................................................................................4
4.1.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................4
4.1.2 Residual carbon content .......................................................................................................................5
4.1.3 Total carbon content .............................................................................................................................5
4.1.4 Potential carbon content .......................................................................................................................5
4.2 Preparation of samples .........................................................................................................................5
4.2.1 Tubes ......................................................................................................................................................5
4.2.2 Fittings ....................................................................................................................................................5
4.3 Cleaning of sample surfaces ................................................................................................................5
4.3.1 Cleaning of inner surface of sample ....................................................................................................5
4.3.2 Cleaning of outer surface of sample....................................................................................................6
4.4 Preparation of test pieces .....................................................................................................................7
4.4.1 Tubes ......................................................................................................................................................7
4.4.2 Fittings ....................................................................................................................................................8
5 Method for carbon content determination ..........................................................................................9
5.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................9
5.2 Determination of the carbon content ................................................................................................ 10
5.3 Determination of the blank value ...................................................................................................... 10
6 Expression of results ......................................................................................................................... 10
7 Calibration ........................................................................................................................................... 11
8 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 11
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 723:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper
alloys”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by October 2009.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 723:1996.

In comparison with the first edition of EN 723:1996, the following significant technical changes and one
significant editorial change were made:

 improvement of the accuracy of the method;

 extension of the scope of the standard to fittings of copper alloys;

 simplification by limitation to only one method for carbon content determination, namely that of infrared
absorption spectrometry:

[Method using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (HTBA) and Method of determination by measurement of


differential electrical conductivity (coulometric) deleted];

 simplification by limitation to only one cutting method for tubes with diameters exceeding the furnace
diameter by deletion of the "longitudinal cutting method";

 change of Clause 2 "Normative References" into "Bibliography" with renumbering.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

1 Scope
This European Standard specifies a combustion method for determining the carbon content, if any, on the
inner surface of tubes of copper or fittings of copper or copper alloys.

This standard applies only to seamless, round copper tubes as specified for example in EN 1057 and
EN 13348 or fittings of copper or copper alloys as specified in EN 1254 (all parts).

2 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:

2.1
residual carbon
CR
carbon present in the chemical form of elemental carbon

2.2
potential carbon
CP
carbon present in the chemical form of organic compounds

EXAMPLE Organic compounds: oils, greases, etc.

2.3
total carbon
CT
sum of residual carbon and potential carbon

3 Principle
Combustion of the carbon present on the inner surface of a tube or fitting sample, carried out at a given
temperature in an oxygen flow.

Determination, by infrared absorption spectrometry, of the residual or total carbon content, or both, by
measurement of the carbon dioxide generated. Calculation of potential carbon content is by subtraction of the
residual carbon content from the total carbon content.

4 Preparation of samples and test pieces

4.1 Preparatory procedures


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4.1.1 General

Carry out the procedures in 4.1.2, 4.1.3 or 4.1.4 depending on the carbon to be determined and taking
account of the following precautions:

a) metal cutting tool shall be free from protective paint;

b) clamps shall be flat and consist of copper, aluminium, steel or an alternative material. Alternative
materials shall not be detrimental to their cleanliness;
7541014/10787806875Biblio

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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

c) all tools and implements used for cutting or clamping samples shall be degreased before sample
preparation;

d) degreasing shall be done by wiping with a lint-free cloth containing absorbed tetrachloroethylene,
trichloroethylene or trichloroethane or, because of potential for environmental harm, other solvents of
equivalent performance, e.g. acetone. These solvents shall also be used for cleaning/immersion of
samples where appropriate;

e) suitable protective gloves should be used to ensure skin contact with the surface under test is avoided;

f) between the cleaning operation and the combustion operation, the test pieces shall be kept in a non-
contaminating environment, such as a clean laboratory or in a desiccator containing sodium hydroxide
pellets. The tests shall be completed within approximately 5 h of cleaning the sample, or if not, the
sample shall be re-cleaned.

4.1.2 Residual carbon content

a) prepare samples (see 4.2);


b) clean inner and outer surface of sample (see 4.3.1 and 4.3.2);
c) prepare test pieces (see 4.4).

4.1.3 Total carbon content

a) prepare samples (see 4.2);


b) clean outer surface of sample (see 4.3.2);
c) prepare test pieces (see 4.4).

4.1.4 Potential carbon content

Prepare separate samples and test pieces following the procedures in 4.1.2 and 4.1.3.

4.2 Preparation of samples

4.2.1 Tubes

Cut a sample approximately 30 cm long from a tube, using a metal-cutting saw or a pipe cutter. Deburr the
outer and inner edges of the sample ends, using a smooth file or a trimming blade, take care that any burrs
removed do not fall into the bore of the tube.

4.2.2 Fittings

Select sufficient fittings from the batch in order to be able to cut test pieces from them having a minimum total
2
internal surface area of 10 cm .
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

4.3 Cleaning of sample surfaces

4.3.1 Cleaning of inner surface of sample

The following steps shall be performed in a fume cupboard. Immerse the sample, for a minimum of 2 min in an
agitated bath of boiling chlorinated solvent, for example, analytical grade trichloroethylene or trichloroethane,
that shall be used as reference in case of dispute ensuring that the solvent baths are kept topped up, such
that the sample remains totally immersed in the solvent. Immerse the sample in a second, boiling solvent bath
for at least 30 s.
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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

Remove the sample from the bath and place it vertically under a fume hood or on a grease-free plate in an
oven operating at a temperature of at least 80 °C for a minimum of 60 s, until the solvent has totally
evaporated.

Refresh both baths periodically, as appropriate, in accordance with written internal procedures.

4.3.2 Cleaning of outer surface of sample

4.3.2.1 General

Degrease the outside surface of the sample by wiping with a clean, lint-free, solvent-containing cotton cloth,
taking care to ensure that no fibres remain on the sample after wiping.

Clean the sample by chemical cleaning method, see 4.3.2.2, or for tubes in R250 and R290 material
conditions 1) only, the alternative mechanical cleaning method, see 4.3.2.3, except in cases of dispute or
preparation for blank value determination, may be used.

4.3.2.2 Chemical cleaning

4.3.2.2.1 Sealing

a) For annealed tubes only:

Squashing/flattening a 20 mm (approx.) portion of the tube extending from one end, between clamps (see 4.1)
placed between the jaws of a vice. The squashed end is then folded over and also squashed/flattened against
the adjacent, 20 mm (approx.) length of tube, again using clamps (see 4.1) fixed between the jaws of a vice.

This method shall be used for reference testing.

b) For tubes or fittings:

Seal one tube end or all fitting ends by inserting appropriately-sized, silicone or neoprene plugs.

NOTE If necessary, the ends of tubes in annealed material condition should firstly be re-rounded using an
appropriate, degreased re-rounding tool, in order to obtain a leak-tight seal with the plug.

4.3.2.2.2 Cleaning

Place the degreased sample in a clean beaker containing fresh diluted nitric acid for half starting from 50 %
concentrated nitric acid. The temperature of the acid shall be at least 20 °C and for handling reasons, care
has to be taken to control the exothermic reaction, if necessary by cooling the beaker.

a) For tubes:

The beaker shall contain sufficient solution to cover between 75 mm and 125 mm of the length of the sample
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(the smaller the diameter of the tube being tested, the greater the depth of immersion required to ensure a
sufficiently covered surface area).

b) For fittings:

The beaker shall contain a sufficient quantity of solution to cover the sample. Refresh the acid bath weekly or
after preparation of about forty samples (whichever is the sooner).
7541014/10787806875Biblio

1) see EN 1173 for the explanation of R250 and R290.

6
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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

Ensure that the sample remains in the acid solution for at least 30 s so that copious quantities of brown fumes
(NO2) are expelled. This step of operation shall be performed in a fume cupboard.

Withdraw the sample from the acid solution and rinse thoroughly with deionised water.

Transfer the sample to a bath containing boiling deionised water for a duration between 30 s and 60 s, which,
before use shall have been boiled for approx. 5 min to ensure a complete degassing of the water, or rinse the
sample with hot (min. 50 °C) running water for at least 30 s. Take care to ensure that the useful part of the
sample is fully immersed in the water bath. Due to an uptake of CO2 from the air, refresh the deionised water
every day or after the preparation of about forty samples (whichever is sooner).

Remove the sample from the bath and place it vertically under a fume hood or on a grease-free plate in an
oven operating at a temperature of at least 80 °C for a minimum of 60 s, until the water has totally evaporated
or let it dry on air.

4.3.2.3 Mechanical cleaning

Hold the tube in a vice and remove all traces of the outer surface in the area to be tested, using a degreased
file.

Alternatively, a thin layer from the outer surface may be removed by turning on a lathe using a tool with a
degreased tip.

All tools used for mechanical cleaning shall be free of organic contamination. The tools shall not be used for
other mechanical operation.

4.4 Preparation of test pieces

4.4.1 Tubes

4.4.1.1 General

Carry out the procedure given in 4.4.1.2 or 4.4.1.3, depending on the tube diameter, and taking account of the
precautions described in 4.1.

4.4.1.2 Tubes with diameters not exceeding the furnace diameter

From the cleaned sample, cut and discard a 2,5 cm length, from one end which, in the case of a chemically
cleaned outer surface, shall be from the plugged or flattened end of the tube (having firstly removed the plug
from the tube end if appropriate).

Measure the required length of tube using a clean measuring device to yield an internal surface area between
2 2
20 cm and 25 cm .

Cut off the required length using either a clean, square-cut auto-saw used only for such purposes or a
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

degreased, fine-toothed hacksaw, avoiding overheating the sample. If the test piece is longer than the zone of
incandescence of the combustion device described in 5.1 c), cross-cut the test piece into two, in order that
both pieces may be fed simultaneously into the zone of incandescence. Take care to ensure that the cut is
square. If using an auto-saw, take also care to ensure that all surfaces with which the tube is in contact are
thoroughly degreased. When filing and cutting tubes, take care to ensure that the section of tube being held in
position (e.g. between the jaws of a vice) is not excessively distorted.

Determine the internal surface area of the test piece from its mean internal diameter and mean length,
measured to an accuracy of ± 0,1 mm.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

NOTE If the cross-cut leads to a loss of length, it should be taken into account for the surface area determination.

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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

4.4.1.3 Tubes with diameters exceeding the furnace diameter

Prepare the sample as described in 4.4.1.1.


2
If a test piece of internal surface area of at least 20 cm can be obtained by flattening, carry out the flattening
operation between the jaws of a vice equipped with aluminium or alternative material clamps previously
degreased using trichlorethylene or trichloroethane. The alternative material for the clamps shall not be
detrimental to their cleanliness.
4.4.2 Fittings

4.4.2.1 General

Depending on size, a test piece might be:

a) one complete fitting;

b) part of one fitting;

c) several fittings.
2
The internal surface area of the test piece shall be at least 10 cm .

Prepare test piece(s) by one of the following procedures and afterwards keep the test piece(s) taking account
of the precautions described in 4.1.

4.4.2.2 Determination of the internal surface area of the test piece

Determine the internal surface area of the test piece by the most appropriate of the methods given in a), b) or
c) as follows:

a) by calculation:

Ai = d i × π × l (1)

where

Ai is the internal surface area;

di is the internal diameter;

l is the length.

This method is considered to be satisfactory when a simple shape is involved i.e. straight coupling.
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b) by comparison: use a transparent graticule having ruled squares of a known surface area.

Section the fitting selected as a test piece along its longitudinal axis.

For copper fittings only, flatten the sample between the jaws of a vice equipped with clamps.

Place the transparent graticule in close contact with the inner surface of the test piece.

Count the number of squares relating to the surface to obtain a close approximation of the internal
surface area of the section. A number of sections may be required to make up an adequate test area.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

c) For copper fittings only, by press cutting: use a press tool to produce a shaped test piece. This method
will produce test pieces of a consistent surface area.

8
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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

2
NOTE Circular test pieces of 15,96 mm diameter have a surface area of 2 cm . Alternative shapes are acceptable if
an accurate surface area can be determined.

4.4.2.3 Fittings able to fit into the furnace

Prepare the test piece using the cleaned samples as described in 4.4.2 and 4.3.2.2.2.

4.4.2.4 Fittings unable to fit into the furnace

If the furnace diameter is not large enough to accommodate the whole fitting, proceed in accordance with a) or
b) for fittings of copper alloys and for fittings of copper proceed in accordance with a), b) or c) as follows:

a) flattening method

If a test piece can be obtained by flattening, carry out the flattening operation between the jaws of a vice
equipped with clamps.

d) sectioning method

Select a section of a fitting, a whole fitting or several fittings to obtain the requested internal surface area
(see 4.4.2.1). Cut the piece(s) longitudinally into two parts, using a degreased saw blade, and fold the two
parts, one onto the other. This folding may be done between the jaws of a vice equipped with clamps.

e) press cut pieces (not applicable to fittings of copper alloys)

Section the fitting selected as a test piece, along its longitudinal axis and flatten it between the jaws of a
vice equipped with clamps.

Place the flattened test piece in a suitable equipment having a cutting tool fitted. Press cut discs out of the
flattened section/sections to make up the surface area required.

5 Method for carbon content determination

5.1 General

Carry out the combustion in a reaction pipe of quartz with flowing oxygen having minimum purity of 99,99 %.
Lower purity oxygen may be used if the equipment has an internal purification system able to yield 99,99 %
purity oxygen for the purposes of the analysis.

The combustion device generally includes, successively from oxygen inlet:

a) a system for oxygen supply and purification which can guarantee a purity of at least 99,99 %;

b) a purification furnace (pre-combustion) comprising a reaction pipe of quartz filled with copper oxide which
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shall permit a temperature of 450 °C to 500 °C to be maintained;

1) a trap for H2O;


2) a trap for CO2;

c) a waiting chamber for the test piece;

d) a combustion chamber with a reaction pipe of quartz and tubular furnace (about 600 mm length) which
shall permit a temperature of at least 800 °C to be maintained.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

NOTE The hot zone is only a part of the reaction pipe of quartz.

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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

5.2 Determination of the carbon content

Before carrying out the test, ensure that the time elapsed after cleaning has not exceeded 5 h, see 4.1.

Direct determination of the carbon content by automatic analysis of infrared absorbance of generated carbon
dioxide, using a furnace temperature of 800 °C for 3 min for tubes and fittings of copper and of 550 °C for
fittings of copper alloys. For routine testing of tubes and fittings of copper, shorter analysis time scales and/or
higher combustion temperatures can be used if it can be demonstrated that all carbon present is detected
within the test cycle. However, for reference testing a furnace temperature of 800 °C and analysis time of
3 min shall be used. Correct the measured carbon value for the blank value when appropriate.

The time of analysis shall be established in such a way that the complete signal from the detector is recorded.
2
Accuracy of the method is expected to be ± 0,01 mg/dm .

5.3 Determination of the blank value

5.3.1 General

The blank value shall be determined at commencement of a test or sequence of tests.

When determined as indicated below, the blank value will include all uncertainties related to the preparation of
the test pieces and to the apparatus blank.

For the calculation of the blank value use the total surface area of the blank sample (inner and outer surface
area).

The blank value is the mean of the values obtained for two test pieces.
2
Satisfactory preparation gives a blank value of not greater than 0,02 mg/dm . If greater values are obtained,
the test piece preparation and apparatus blank shall be reviewed.

5.3.2 Procedure

5.3.2.1 Selection of the test piece for tubes

Take a previously analysed sample, of the most commonly analysed dimension. Ensure that the sample is
cooled to room temperature.
5.3.2.2 Selection of the test piece for fittings

Take fittings or part fittings prepared as described in 4.4.2. The cleaning operation shall be performed as
described in 4.3.2.2.2.
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6 Expression of results
2
The value of carbon content shall be expressed, in mg/dm , as the arithmetical mean of the values obtained
for two equivalent test pieces; residual (CR), potential (CP) or total carbon (CT), as appropriate.

If one test result exceeds the limit specified in the relevant standard then a further test shall be carried out
using samples from the same tube or batch of fittings. If this further test gives an acceptable result then the
earlier result shall be disregarded.
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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

7 Calibration
The applicable method is described in 5.2.

a) The test apparatus shall be calibrated at commencement of testing, or at a minimum of once a day if in
continual use, with carbon dioxide having minimum purity of 99,99 %, according to the machine
manufacturer’s instructions. Alternatively, calibration may be performed using samples of known carbon
content by assay (D-mannitol or powder containing carbon of known concentration, using a furnace
analysis temperature of 800 °C for a duration of 3 min. All other machine parameters shall be as per the
machine manufacturer’s recommendations for this type of analysis.

b) The accuracy of the daily calibration and the stability of the device shall be checked at regular intervals
using samples of D-mannitol or powder containing carbon of known concentration according to 5.2.

The check shall be performed:

1) at least twice a year;


2) after ca. 1 000 measurements when in continual use;
3) or whenever it seems appropriate.

The nominal value of the carbon of the D-mannitol or powder containing carbon samples shall be within the
accuracy of the test method according to 5.2.

All other machine parameters shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations for this type of
analysis.

8 Test report
A test report shall contain at least the following information:

a) identification of the test pieces;

b) reference to this European Standard (EN 723);

c) product designation of the product tested;

d) results;

e) any unusual characteristics noted during the determination;

f) any operation not included in this European Standard or in the document to which reference is made or
regarded as optional;
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g) date of the test and/or date of preparation or of affixing the signature of the test report;

h) Signature of the responsible person.


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DIN EN 723:2009-07
EN 723:2009 (E)

Bibliography

[1] EN 1057, Copper and copper alloys — Seamless, round copper tubes for water and gas in sanitary
and heating applications

[2] EN 1173, Copper and copper alloys — Material condition designation

[3] EN 1254 (all parts), Copper and copper alloys — Plumbing fittings

[4] EN 13348, Copper and copper alloys — Seamless, round copper tubes for medical gases or vacuum
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DEUTSCHE NORM August 2008

DIN EN 1173
D
ICS 77.120.30 Supersedes
DIN EN 1173:1995-12

Copper and copper alloys –


Material condition designation
English version of DIN EN 1173:2008-08

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Zustandsbezeichnungen
Englische Fassung DIN EN 1173:2008-08
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Document comprises 9 pages


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Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing


©
No part of this standard may be reproduced without prior permission of
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany,
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DIN EN 1173:2008-08

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper alloys”
(Secretariat: DIN, Germany).

The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Technical Committee NA 066-02 FBR Fachbereichsbeirat Kupfer.

Amendments

This standard differs from DIN EN 1173:1995-12 as follows:

a) The English title has been changed, the term “temper” has been withdrawn.

b) The examples in clause 4 have been completed.

c) The alloy designation in subclause 4.10 has been corrected.

Previous editions

DIN EN 1173: 1995-12


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1173
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM April 2008

ICS 77.120.30 Supersedes EN 1173:1995

English Version

Copper and copper alloys - Material condition designation

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre - Désignation des états Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Zustandsbezeichnungen
métallurgiques

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 March 2008.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the
official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels


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© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1173:2008: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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DIN EN 1173:2008-08
EN 1173:2008 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4
2 Basis of designation system ................................................................................................................4
3 Structure of designation .......................................................................................................................4
3.1 General....................................................................................................................................................4
3.2 Position 1................................................................................................................................................4
3.3 Positions 2 to 4 ......................................................................................................................................5
3.4 Positions 5 and 6 ...................................................................................................................................5
4 Examples ................................................................................................................................................5
4.1 General....................................................................................................................................................5
4.2 Elongation ..............................................................................................................................................5
4.3 Spring bending limit ..............................................................................................................................5
4.4 As drawn.................................................................................................................................................5
4.5 Grain size................................................................................................................................................5
4.6 Hardness.................................................................................................................................................6
4.7 As manufactured....................................................................................................................................6
4.8 Tensile strength .....................................................................................................................................6
4.9 0,2% proof strength ...............................................................................................................................6
4.10 Additional treatment "Stress relieving" ..............................................................................................6
Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................7
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DIN EN 1173:2008-08
EN 1173:2008 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 1173:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper
alloys”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2008, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by October 2008.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1173:1995.

Within its programme of work, Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 decided to prepare the revision of the fol-
lowing standard:

EN 1173:1995, Copper and copper alloys — Material condition or temper designation

In comparison with the first edition of EN 1173:1995, the following significant technical changes were made:

 title has been changed, the term “temper” has been withdrawn;

 examples in Clause 4 have been completed;

 alloy designation in 4.10 has been corrected.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Repub-
lic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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DIN EN 1173:2008-08
EN 1173:2008 (E)

1 Scope

This European Standard establishes a system for designation of material conditions to be used for the identifica-
tion of mandatory property requirements. These designations are applicable to wrought products of copper and
copper alloys.

2 Basis of designation system

The material condition designation is based on the mandatory property requirement(s), the level of property re-
quired and if necessary, any special additional treatment.

3 Structure of designation

3.1 General

The material condition designation usually consists of four characters. In position 1 there shall be a letter and in
positions 2 to 4 there shall be figures. A further figure shall be added in position 5 or, in the case of additional
treatment, a suffix letter shall be added in position 5 or 6.

Only one designation is allowed for a certain material condition and the whole size range, for which the minimum
requirement applies.

3.2 Position 1

Position 1 indicates the designating mandatory property, specified in the appropriate European product standard,
by one capital letter of the alphabet.

The use of a letter indicating the designating mandatory property does not preclude the combination of two or
more mandatory properties if specified in the appropriate product standard.

Letters shall be used in accordance with Table 1.

Table 1 — Letters for Position 1

Letter Designating mandatory property


A Elongation
B Spring bending limit
D As drawn, without specified mechanical properties
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

G Grain size
H Hardness (Brinell or Vickers)
M As manufactured, without specified mechanical properties
R Tensile strength
Y 0,2%-proof strength
NOTE The manufacturing process including heat treatment is not indicated by
these letters.
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DIN EN 1173:2008-08
EN 1173:2008 (E)

3.3 Positions 2 to 4

Except for designations D, G and M, positions 2 to 4 consist of a three digit figure to designate the minimum
value of the mandatory property specified in the European product standard. Designations D and M are not fol-
lowed by any further characters. For designation G, positions 2 to 4 consist of a three digit figure to designate the
mid-range value of the mandatory property specified in the European product standard.

In the case of a value of two significant digits a zero "0" is to be indicated at position 2 in front of the value speci-
fied, e.g. for hardness. In the case of a value of one significant digit, zeros are to be indicated at positions two
and three in front of the value specified, e.g. for elongation.

3.4 Positions 5 and 6

If necessary a four digit figure may be indicated by use of the additional position 5, e.g. for very high tensile
strength of precipitation hardened alloys.

If an additional treatment is applicable for the purpose of stress relieving a product, the suffix "S" is added in
position 5 or 6.

4 Examples

4.1 General

The material condition designation is intended to be used in product designation and ordering information. In the
product designation the material condition designation shall follow the material designation and be separated
from it by a hyphen ("—").

Some examples of material condition designations in accordance with this standard are given in 4.2 to 4.10.

4.2 Elongation

Wire EN 13602 — Cu-OF — A007 — .....1) [7]

4.3 Spring bending limit

Strip EN 1654 — CuSn8 — B410 — .....1) [2]

4.4 As drawn

Tube EN 13600 — Cu-ETP — D — .....1) [6]

4.5 Grain size


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Strip EN 1652 — CuZn37 — G020 — .....1) [1]


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1) Continued according to the appropriate product standard, see Bibliography.

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DIN EN 1173:2008-08
EN 1173:2008 (E)

4.6 Hardness

Sheet EN 1652 — CuZn37 — H150 — .....1) [1]

4.7 As manufactured

Hollow rod EN 12168 — CuZn36Pb3 — M — .....1) [4]

4.8 Tensile strength

Rod EN 12164 — CuZn39Pb3 — R500 — .....1) [3]

or

Strip EN 1652 — CuBe2 — R1200 — .....1) [1]

4.9 0,2% proof strength

Strip EN 1654 — CuZn30 — Y460 — .....1) [2]

4.10 Additional treatment "Stress relieving"

Tube EN 12452 — CuZn20Al2As — R340S — .....1) [5]


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DIN EN 1173:2008-08
EN 1173:2008 (E)

Bibliography

[1] EN 1652, Copper and copper alloys — Plate, sheet, strip and circles for general purposes

[2] EN 1654, Copper and copper alloys — Strip for springs and connectors

[3] EN 12164, Copper and copper alloys — Rod for free machining purposes

[4] EN 12168, Copper and copper alloys — Hollow rod for free machining purposes

[5] EN 12452, Copper and copper alloys — Rolled, finned, seamless tubes for heat exchangers

[6] EN 13600, Copper and copper alloys — Seamless copper tubes for electrical purposes

[7] EN 13602, Copper and copper alloys — Drawn round copper wire for the manufacture of electrical
conductors
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DEUTSCHENORM December 1995

Copper and copper alloys DIN


European numbering system
English Version of DIN EN 1412 EN 1412
ICS 77.120.30

Descriptors: Copper, copper alloys, numbering system.

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen; Europäisches Werl<stoffnummernsystem

European Standard EN 1412: 1995 has the status of a DIN Standard.

National foreword
This Standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 133.
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuß Nichteisenmetalle (Nonferrous Metals
Standards Committee).
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EN comprises 6 pages.
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05.96
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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1412
NORME EUROPEENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM November 1995

ICS 77.120.30

Descriptors: Copper, copper alloys, nutnbering system.

English Version

Copper and copper alloys


European numbering system

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre; systeme Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen; Euro¬


europeen de designation numerique päisches Werkstoffnummernsystem

This European Standard was approved by GEN on 1995-11-11.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipu-
late the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national Standard without
any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibllographlcal references conoerning such national Standards may be
obtained on applicatlon to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three offlclal verslons (English, French, German). A version in
any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own
language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national Standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Denmarl<, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

CEN
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

European Committee for Standardization


Comite Europeen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brüssels


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© 1995. Copyright reserved to all CEN members. Ref. No. EN 1412:1995 E

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Page 2
EN 1412:1995

Contents
Page Page

Foreword 2 4 Details of the system 4


Introduction 3 4.1General 4
4.2Structure of numbers 4
1Scope 3
2Normative references 3 5 Allocation, registration and administration of
material numbers 5
3Definitions 3
3.1Copper material 3 Table 1: Significance of positions 3 to 6 5
3.2Standardized copper material . . . 3
3.3Non-standardized copper material 3 Annex A (informative) Bibiiography . . . 6

Foreword
This European Standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 'Copper and copper ailoys', the Secretariat
of which is heid by DIN.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national Standard, either by pubiication of an identical text or by
endorsement, and conflicting national Standards withdrawn, by iVlay 1996 at the latest.
In accordance with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Reguiations, the foilowing countries are bound to implement this European
Standard:
Austria, Beigium, Denmarl<, Finiand, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Itaiy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
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Page 3
EN 1412:1995

Introduction

The numbering system described in this European Standard is based on annex A to ISO/TR 7003 in whtch a
unique number Is allocated to a copper material (copper or copper alloy) in order to categorize it. This numbering
system is an alternative to the material symbol designation system given in ISO 1 1 90-1 .

1 Scope

This European Standard establishes a numbering system for designating copper and copper alloys manufactured
and/or used in Europe and the responsibility for the allocation, registration and administration of numbers for
individual copper materials.

The system is applicable to:

a)copper materials standardized in European Standards (see 3.2), and

b)copper materials not standardized in European Standards Isee 3.3).

2 Normative references

This European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These
normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For
dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European
Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references, the tatest edition of
the publication referred to applies.

ISO/TR 7003
Unified format for the designation of metals

NOTE: Informative references to documents used in the preparation of this Standard, and cited at the
appropriate places in the text, are listed in a bibliography, see annex A.

3 Definitions

For the purposes of this Standard, the following definitions apply:

3.1 copper material

General term for copper and copper alloys.

3.2 standardized copper material


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Copper material specified in a European Standard.

3.3 non-standardized copper material

Copper material not specified in a European Standard but manufactured and/or used in Europe.
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Page 4
EN 1412:1995

4 Details of the system

4.1General

The number shall be composed of alphabetic (upper case Latin letters) and numeric (Arabic) characters.

The system shall provide only one number for each material. A number assigned to an individual material shall
not be assigned to another material even if the first mentioned material has been withdrawn.

4.2Structure of numbers

4.2.1Compittte number

The number shall consist of six characters.

4.2.2Positions of characters

The positions of characters are as follows:

4.2.2.1 Position 1

In accordance with ISO/TR 7003, the character for the first Position shall be the letter "C" to designate copper
material.

4.2.2.2 Position 2

The character for the second position shall be one of the following letters, whose significance is given as
follows;

B materials in ingot form for remeiting to produce cast products;

C materials in the form of cast products;

F filier materials for brazing and welding;

M master alloys;

R refined unwrought copper;

S materials in the form of scrap;


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W materials in the form of wrought products;

X non-standardized materials.

4.2.2.3 Position 3 to 5

The characters for the third, fourth and fifth positions shall form a number in the ränge 000 to 999, see table 1
There is no particular significance attributed to any of these characters.
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Page 5
EN 1412:1995

4.2.2.4Position 6

The character for the 6th position shall be a letter designating one of the material groups given in table 1 .

4.2.2.5Examples

CW024A:

CB752S;

CC383H.

5 Allocation, registration and administration of material numbers

NOTE: CEN/TC 1 33 is responsible for the allocation. registration and administration of material numbers.

Table 1: Significance of positions 3 to 6

Position 3, 4 and 5') Position 6


(a number lletter
Material group
in the ränge) designating
material group)

Copper 000 to 999 A or B

Copper ailoys, low alloyed


000 to 999 C or 0
(less than 5 % alloying eiements)

Miscellaneous copper ailoys


000 to 999 Eor F
(5 % or more alloying elements)

Copper-aluminium aiioys 000 to 999 G

Copper-nickel ailoys 000 to 999 H

Copper-nicket-zinc ailoys 000 to 999 J

Copper-tin ailoys 000 to 999 K

Copper-zinc ailoys, binary 000 to 999 L or M

Copper-zinc-iead ailoys 000 to 999 N or P

Copper-zinc ailoys, complex 000 to 999 R or S


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') Standardized copper material in the ränge 000 to 799.


Non-standardized copper material in the ränge 800 to 999.
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Page 6
EN 1412:1995

Annex A (informative)

Bibliography

In the preparation of this European Standard, use was made of a document for reference purposes. This
informative reference is cited at the appropriate place in the text and the publication is listed hereafter.

ISO 1 190-1
Copper and copper alloys - Code of designation - Part 1 : Designation of materials
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DEUTSCHE NORM June 1997

Copper and copper alloys {


Declarations of conformity
English version of DIN EN 1655 EN 1655
ICS 77.120.30

Descriptors: Copper, declaration of conformity.

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen – Konformitätserklärungen

European Standard EN 1655 : 1997 has the status of a DIN Standard.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 133.
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuß Nichteisenmetalle (Nonferrous Metals
Standards Committee).
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EN comprises 11 pages.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

© No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN EN 1655 : 1997-06
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin. English price group 06 Sales No. 1106
BeuthTesting
Copper 1 : Basic standards Verlag standards,
GmbH, Berlin,
editedhas
by the
e.V.exclusive right
DIN, Beuth of sale
Verlag, forProQuest
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EN 1655

March 1997

ICS 77.120.30

Descriptors: Copper, declaration of conformity.

English version

Copper and copper alloys


Declarations of conformity

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre – Déclarations Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


de conformité Konformitätserklärungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1997-02-09.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard
without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be
obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.
The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German). A version
in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into
its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official
versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Por-
tugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

ÜÈ
|ÉË
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels


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© 1997. CEN – All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 1655 : 1997 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national members.

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EN 1655 : 1997
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EN 1655 : 1997
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EN 1655 : 1997
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EN 1655 : 1997
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EN 1655 : 1997
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EN 1655 : 1997
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EN 1655 : 1997
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February 2012

DIN EN 1971-1
D
ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes
DIN EN 1971:1998-12

Copper and copper alloys –


Eddy current test for measuring defects on seamless round copper and
copper alloy tubes –
Part 1: Test with an encircling test coil on the outer surface
English translation of DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Wirbelstromprüfung an Rohren zur Messung von Fehlern an nahtlos gezogenen runden
Rohren aus Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –
Teil 1: Prüfung mit umfassender Spule auf der Außenseite
Englische Übersetzung von DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
Cuivre et alliages de cuivre –
Méthode de contrôle par courants de Foucault pour le mesurage des défauts des tubes
ronds sans soudure en cuivre et alliages de cuivre –
Partie 1: Essai avec une bobine encerclante sur la paroi externe
Traduction anglaise de DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Document comprises 10 pages


7541014/10787806875Biblio

Translation by DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original shall be considered authoritative.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing


©
No part of this translation may be reproduced without prior permission of
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany,
standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest
has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen). Ebook Central,
English price group 7
www.din.de !$yx|"
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DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper alloys”
(Secretariat: DIN, Germany).

The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Working Committee NA 066-02-03 AA Kupferrohre (Installation
und Industrie).

Amendments

This standard differs from DIN EN 1971:1998-12 as follows:

a) the scope of the standard has been limited to the eddy current test with an encircling test coil on the outer
surface of tubes;

b) the standard has been editorially revised.

Previous editions

DIN EN 1971: 1998-12


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1971-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM December 2011

ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes EN 1971:1998

English Version

Copper and copper alloys - Eddy current test for measuring


defects on seamless round copper and copper alloy tubes -
Part 1: Test with an encircling test coil on the outer surface

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre - Méthode de contrôle par Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Wirbelstromprüfung an
courants de Foucault pour le mesurage des défauts des Rohren zur Messung von Fehlern an nahtlos gezogenen
tubes ronds sans soudure en cuivre et alliages de cuivre - runden Rohren aus Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Teil 1:
Partie 1: Essai avec une bobine encerclante sur la paroi Prüfung mit umfassender Spule auf der Außenseite
externe

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 November 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels


7541014/10787806875Biblio

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1971-1:2011: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211.
Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:11:39.
DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
EN 1971-1:2011 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5
2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5
3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5
4 General requirements ............................................................................................................................5
4.1 Personnel qualification .........................................................................................................................5
4.2 Condition of tube to be tested ..............................................................................................................5
4.3 Equipment ..............................................................................................................................................5
5 Reference standard tube .......................................................................................................................7
6 Acceptance criteria ................................................................................................................................7
6.1 Detection of local discontinuities by encircling coils systems ........................................................7
6.2 Detection of non-local discontinuities by encircling coils systems with lower detection
levels .......................................................................................................................................................7
6.3 Other test methods ................................................................................................................................8
7 Instrument adjustment ..........................................................................................................................8

Figures
Figure 1 — Representation of eddy current control using encircling coils .................................................6
Figure 2 — Representation of eddy current systems that involve a relative rotational motion
between the tube and the probe (helicoidal control of the tube) ......................................................6
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DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
EN 1971-1:2011 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 1971-1:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and
copper alloys”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by June 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1971:1998.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Within its programme of work, Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 requested CEN/TC 133/WG 3 "Copper
tubes (installation and industrial)" to revise the following document:

EN 1971:1998, Copper and copper alloys — Eddy current test for tubes

This is one of two parts of the standard for the eddy current test for measuring defects on seamless round
copper and copper alloy tubes. The other part is:

EN 1971-2, Copper and copper alloys — Eddy current test for measuring defects on seamless round copper
and copper alloy tubes — Part 2: Test with an internal probe on the inner surface

In comparison with the first edition of EN 1971:1998, the following significant technical changes were made:

 split of and extension in two parts;

 modification of Scope – introduction of the choice of test method with encircling coil or internal probe.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

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DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
EN 1971-1:2011 (E)

Introduction
The eddy current test described in this European Standard has the objective of detecting during production
potential leaks and serious defects in seamless round copper and copper alloy tubes.

The eddy current test is able to detect material inhomogeneities and their positions throughout the length of
tubes. The eddy current signals of material inhomogeneities are compared with reference signals of artificially
produced test defects. It is possible to identify these inhomogeneities on the inner and outer surfaces as well
as within the tube wall.

Since the distribution of eddy currents decreases as the distance from the test coil increases, the amplitude of
defect signals also decreases with increasing distance from the test coil. Thus the eddy current test with
encircling test coil on the outer surface is less sensitive to defects on the inner surface.

The purpose of this standard is not to define a method of measuring the actual extent of the material
inhomogeneities as the signal amplitude is dependent on, amongst other factors, volume, form and position of
the inhomogeneity.

Due to end effects, it is not possible to effectively test the ends of the tubes. The purchaser and the supplier
could agree that the end effect may be overcome by cutting to length after testing.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

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DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
EN 1971-1:2011 (E)

1 Scope
This part of this European Standard specifies a procedure for the eddy current test with an encircling test coil
for measuring defects on the outer surface of seamless round copper and copper alloy tubes.

NOTE The eddy current test method(s) required, together with the size range and acceptance level, are defined in
the relevant product standard.
The choice of the method for eddy current test:
 with an encircling test coil on the outer surface according EN 1971-1;
or
 with an internal probe on the inner surface according EN 1971-2;
is at the discretion of the manufacturer if there are no other agreements between the purchaser and the supplier.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 473, Non-destructive testing — Qualification and certification of NDT personnel — General principles

EN ISO 12718, Non-destructive testing — Eddy current testing — Vocabulary (ISO 12718:2008)

3 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12718 apply.

4 General requirements

4.1 Personnel qualification

The eddy current test shall be made by operators trained in this technique and it shall be done under the
responsibility of qualified staff.

When agreed upon between the purchaser and the supplier, qualification of the personnel shall be certified
according to EN 473.

4.2 Condition of tube to be tested

Tubes shall be sufficiently clean and straight to permit satisfactory operation of the drive mechanism and eddy
current test equipment.

4.3 Equipment
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

The driving mechanism shall drive the tube through the encircling coil as concentrically and vibration-free as
possible.

The variation in test sensitivity due to changes of speed and tube position within the encircling coil shall be
maintained within ± 2 dB.

Either encircling test coils or a system that involves relative rotational motion between the tube and either one
or several surface probes can be used for testing (see Figures 1 and 2).
7541014/10787806875Biblio

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DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
EN 1971-1:2011 (E)

Key
1 secondary coil
2 primary coil
3 tube
f frequency
~
∆V difference of the measured voltage

Figure 1 — Representation of eddy current control using encircling coils

NOTE 1 Figure 1 is a simplified representation of an encircling coil with one primary coil and secondary coils
(differential measurement)

Key Key
a direction of rotation of the probe b direction of rotation of the tube
1 surface probe 1 surface probe
2 tube 2 tube
3 rollers
a) Surface probe rotating b) Tube rotating
with linear motion of the tube with linear motion of the probe
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Figure 2 — Representation of eddy current systems that involve a relative rotational motion
between the tube and the probe (helicoidal control of the tube)

NOTE 2 The surface probe can have different forms, for example single coil or multiple coils with various
configurations.

Test speed shall be compatible with the coil excitation frequency.

In the case of a test with relative rotational motion between the tube and the surface probe only, the linear
7541014/10787806875Biblio

speed shall be adjusted in order to test the whole surface of the tube.

6
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DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
EN 1971-1:2011 (E)

The distance between the probe and the outer surface of the tube shall be kept as small as possible so that
the sensitivity of the test is sufficient.

NOTE 3 For encircling coils, the usual frequencies are in the range 1 kHz to 125 kHz.

5 Reference standard tube


Unless otherwise specified in the relevant product standard, a reference standard tube is made of a defect-
free tube of the same dimensions and specified properties as the tube to be tested.

During the reference test, the influence of dynamic conditions shall be taken into account.

NOTE The producer can ensure that this requirement is met by the appropriate option subject to the type of the
installation, such as:

a) for control devices not in-line with production, the reference tube should be long enough to ensure the same dynamic
conditions for the reference test as for normal line operating speed;

or

b) for in-line installations:

 the reference standard tube should be passed through the test equipment at the normal line operating speed; or
 the control devices should include a dynamic effect compensating unit to take into account the speed
differences between the reference tube throughput speed and the normal line operating speed.

Either the reference standard tube shall have three holes located on three generating lines at 120°, or only
one hole. If a reference standard tube with three holes is used, the holes shall be spaced from each other and
from each end, sufficiently to obtain separate signals from each hole without interference from the tube ends.
If a reference standard tube with only one hole is used, then this tube shall be passed through the encircling
coil three times with the tube being turned by 120°.

The maximum drill diameter for the various dimension ranges is defined in the relevant product standards.

Other reference standard tube types may be considered if they are demonstrated as more relevant for certain
products; they shall be defined in the relevant product standards.

6 Acceptance criteria

6.1 Detection of local discontinuities by encircling coils systems

Local discontinuities of the tubes, including beginning and end of long regular discontinuities and variations of
long discontinuities, are detected as defects with encircling coils systems.

The sorting limit shall be the smallest amplitude of the three signals produced by the hole or holes in the
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

reference standard tube.

6.2 Detection of non-local discontinuities by encircling coils systems with lower detection
levels

Non-local discontinuities of the tube could be identified as defects by one of the methods defined for this
purpose, according to the requirements of the relevant product standards.

Some discontinuities of the tube, which individually are not considered as defective, might cause signals lower
than the detection threshold of the normal sorting limit for local defects but higher than a second selected
7541014/10787806875Biblio

lower detection threshold Sl. The signals for the lower and normal detection thresholds are related by a ratio
K2, which shall be determined by the manufacturer of the tube, as follows:

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DIN EN 1971-1:2012-02
EN 1971-1:2011 (E)

Sl
K 2= (1)
Sn

where

Sl is the signal for the lower detection threshold;

Sn is the signal for the normal detection threshold.

A maximum density of defects d0 shall be calculated as follows:

N0
d0= (2)
L0

where

N0 is the maximum permissible number of discontinuities in a pre-set length;

L0 is the pre-set length.

NOTE Both N0 and L0 should be determined by the tube manufacturer if they are not specified in the relevant product
standard.

Discontinuity signals ranging between the two sorting limits of the lower and normal detection thresholds along
the pre-set length L0 shall be counted as N.

When the real density d = N/L0 exceeds d0, the entire pre-set length affected shall be considered defective.

6.3 Other test methods

For other test methods the acceptance criteria shall be defined specifically, such as for a system involving
relative rotational motion between the tube and the surface probe. Equal or higher sensitivity shall be
demonstrated.

7 Instrument adjustment
The test system shall be adjusted, using a reference standard tube in accordance with Clause 5.

If the test instrument operates with phase selection, the signals from the defects to be detected shall lie within
the determined phase ranges.

The sensitivity of the instrument shall be adjusted so that the smallest of the three signals exceeds the
response threshold of the sorting limit.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Adjustment of the instrument shall be carried out and checked for each change of product and at regular
intervals of not more than 8 h during periods of continuous operation.

If any check shows that a loss of sensitivity exceeding 2 dB has occurred, all the tubes tested since the last
check shall be considered as not tested.
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February 2012

DIN EN 1971-2
D
ICS 23.040.15; 77.150.30

Copper and copper alloys –


Eddy current test for measuring defects on seamless round copper and
copper alloy tubes –
Part 2: Test with an internal probe on the inner surface
English translation of DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Wirbelstromprüfung an Rohren zur Messung von Fehlern an nahtlos gezogenen runden
Rohren aus Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –
Teil 2: Prüfung mit Innensonde auf der Innenseite
Englische Übersetzung von DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
Cuivre et alliages de cuivre –
Méthode de contrôle par courants de Foucault pour le mesurage des défauts des tubes
ronds sans soudure en cuivre et alliages de cuivre –
Partie 2: Essai avec un capteur interne sur la paroi interne
Traduction anglaise de DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Document comprises 11 pages


7541014/10787806875Biblio

Translation by DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original shall be considered authoritative.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing


©
No part of this translation may be reproduced without prior permission of
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany,
standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest
has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen). Ebook Central,
English price group 8
www.din.de !$yx}"
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211.
Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:11:58. www.beuth.de 01.12 1868590
DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper alloys”
(Secretariat: DIN, Germany).

The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Working Committee NA 066-02-03 AA Kupferrohre (Installation
und Industrie).
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

2
Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211.
Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:11:58.
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1971-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM December 2011

ICS 23.040.15; 77.150.30

English Version

Copper and copper alloys - Eddy current test for measuring


defects on seamless round copper and copper alloy tubes -
Part 2: Test with an internal probe on the inner surface

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre - Méthode de contrôle par Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Wirbelstromprüfung an
courants de Foucault pour le mesurage des défauts des Rohren zur Messung von Fehlern an nahtlos gezogenen
tubes ronds sans soudure en cuivre et alliages de cuivre - runden Rohren aus Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Teil 2:
Partie 2: Essai avec un capteur interne sur la paroi interne Prüfung mit Innensonde auf der Innenseite

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 November 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels


7541014/10787806875Biblio

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1971-2:2011: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211.
Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:11:58.
DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5
2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5
3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5
4 General requirements ............................................................................................................................5
4.1 Personnel qualification .........................................................................................................................5
4.2 Condition of tube to be tested ..............................................................................................................5
4.3 Equipment ..............................................................................................................................................6
5 Reference standard tube .......................................................................................................................6
6 Acceptance criteria ................................................................................................................................7
6.1 Detection of local discontinuities by internal probes systems ........................................................7
6.2 Detection of non-local discontinuities by internal probes systems with lower detection
levels .......................................................................................................................................................7
6.3 Other test methods ................................................................................................................................8
7 Instrument adjustment ..........................................................................................................................8
Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................9

Figures

Figure 1 — Simplified representation of eddy current testing using internal probe ...................................6
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DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 1971-2:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and
copper alloys”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by June 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Within its programme of work, Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 requested CEN/TC 133/WG 3 "Copper
tubes (installation and industrial)" to prepare the following document:

EN 1971-2, Copper and copper alloys — Eddy current test for measuring defects on seamless round copper
and copper alloy tubes — Part 2: Test with an internal probe on the inner surface

This is one of two parts of the standard for the eddy current test for measuring defects on seamless round
copper and copper alloy tubes. The other part is:

EN 1971-1, Copper and copper alloys — Eddy current test for measuring defects on seamless round copper
and copper alloy tubes — Part 1:Test with an encircling test coil on the outer surface
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211. 3
Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:11:58.
DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

Introduction
The eddy current test with internal probe described in this standard has the objective of detecting potential
leaks and serious defects in seamless round copper and copper alloy tubes.

The eddy current test is able to detect material inhomogeneities and their positions throughout the length of
tubes. The eddy current signals of material inhomogeneities are compared with reference signals of artificially
produced test defects. It is possible to identify these inhomogeneities on the inner and outer surfaces as well
as within the tube wall.

Since the distribution of eddy currents decreases as the distance from the test coil increases, the amplitude of
defect signals also decreases with increasing distance from the test coil. Thus the eddy current test with
internal probe on the inner surface is less sensitive to defects on the outer surface.

The purpose of this standard is not to define a method of measuring the actual extent of the material
inhomogeneities as the signal amplitude is dependent on, amongst other factors, volume, form and position of
the inhomogeneity.

Due to end effects, it is not possible to effectively test the ends of the tubes. The purchaser and the supplier
could agree that the end effect may be overcome by cutting to length after testing.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

4
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DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

1 Scope
This European Standard specifies a procedure for the eddy current test with an internal probe for measuring
defects on the inner surface of seamless round copper and copper alloy tubes.

This European Standard applies particularly for finned tubes with high fins according to EN 12452.

NOTE The eddy current test method(s) required, together with the size range and acceptance level, are defined in
the relevant product standard.
The choice of the method for eddy current test:
 with an encircling test coil on the outer surface according EN 1971-1
or
 with an internal probe on the inner surface according EN 1971-2
is at the discretion of the manufacturer if there are no other agreements between the purchaser and the supplier.
Especially for finned tubes according to EN 12452 with high fins, it is recommended to use eddy current test with internal
probe as described in this standard.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 473, Non-destructive testing — Qualification and certification of NDT personnel — General principles

EN ISO 12718, Non-destructive testing — Eddy current testing — Vocabulary (ISO 12718:2008)

3 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12718 apply.

4 General requirements

4.1 Personnel qualification

The eddy current test shall be made by operators trained in this technique and it shall be done under the
responsibility of qualified staff.

When agreed upon between the purchaser and the supplier, qualification of the personnel shall be certified
according to EN 473.
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4.2 Condition of tube to be tested

Tubes shall be sufficiently clean and straight to permit satisfactory operation of optionally drive mechanism
and eddy current test equipment.
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DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

4.3 Equipment

The internal probe shall be moved through the tubes as vibration-free as possible.

The variation in test sensitivity due to changes of speed and internal probe position within the tubes shall be
maintained within ± 2 dB.

The internal probe can be moved manually or by using a drive mechanism (see Figure 1).

Key
1 tube with fins on the outside
2 internal probe

Figure 1 — Simplified representation of eddy current testing using internal probe

Test speed over the length of the tube shall be as constant as possible.

The distance between the probe and the inner surface of the tube shall be kept as small as possible so that
the sensitivity of the test is sufficient.

NOTE For internal probes, the usual frequencies are in the range 1 kHz to 125 kHz.

5 Reference standard tube


Unless otherwise specified in the relevant product standard, a reference standard tube is made of a defect-
free tube of the same dimensions and specified properties as the tube to be tested.

During the reference test, the influence of dynamic conditions shall be taken into account.

NOTE The producer can ensure that this requirement is met by the appropriate option subject to the type of the
installation, such as:

a) for control devices not in-line with production, the reference tube should be long enough to ensure the same dynamic
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conditions for the reference test as for normal line operating speed;

or

b) the control devices should include a dynamic effect compensating unit to take into account the speed differences
between the reference tube throughput speed and the normal line operating speed.

Either the reference standard tube shall have three holes located on three generating lines at 120°, or only
one hole. If a reference standard tube with three holes is used, the holes shall be spaced from each other and
from each end, sufficiently to obtain separate signals from each hole without interference from the tube ends.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

If a reference standard tube with only one hole is used, then this tube shall be used three times being turned
by 120°.

6
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DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

The maximum drill diameter for the various dimension ranges is defined in the relevant product standards.

Other reference standard tube types may be considered if they are demonstrated as more relevant for certain
products; they shall be defined in the relevant product standards.

6 Acceptance criteria

6.1 Detection of local discontinuities by internal probes systems

Local discontinuities of the tubes, including beginning and end of long regular discontinuities and variations of
long discontinuities, are detected as defects with internal probes systems.

The sorting limit shall be the smallest amplitude of the three signals produced by the hole or holes in the
reference standard tube.

6.2 Detection of non-local discontinuities by internal probes systems with lower detection
levels

Non-local discontinuities of the tube could be identified as defects by one of the methods defined for this
purpose, according to the requirements of the relevant product standards.

Some discontinuities of the tube, which individually are not considered as defective, might cause signals lower
than the detection threshold of the normal sorting limit for local defects but higher than a second selected
lower detection threshold Sl. The signals for the lower and normal detection thresholds are related by a ratio
K2, which shall be determined by the manufacturer of the tube, as follows:

Sl
K2= (1)
Sn

where

Sl is the signal for the lower detection threshold;

Sn is the signal for the normal detection threshold.

A maximum density of defects d0 shall be calculated as follows:

N0
d0= (2)
L0

where
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N0 is the maximum permissible number of discontinuities in a pre-set length;

L0 is the pre-set length.

NOTE Both N0 and L0 should be determined by the tube manufacturer if they are not specified in the relevant product
standard.

Discontinuity signals ranging between the two sorting limits of the lower and normal detection thresholds along
the pre-set length L0 shall be counted as N.
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When the real density d = N/L0 exceeds d0, the entire pre-set length affected shall be considered defective.

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DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

6.3 Other test methods

For other test methods the acceptance criteria shall be defined specifically, such as for a system involving
relative rotational motion between the tube and the surface probe. Equal or higher sensitivity shall be
demonstrated.

7 Instrument adjustment
The test system shall be adjusted, using a reference standard tube in accordance with Clause 5.

If the test instrument operates with phase selection, the signals from the defects to be detected shall lie within
the determined phase ranges.

The sensitivity of the instrument shall be adjusted so that the smallest of the three signals exceeds the
response threshold of the sorting limit.

Adjustment of the instrument shall be carried out and checked for each change of product and at regular
intervals of not more than 8 h during periods of continuous operation.

If any check shows that a loss of sensitivity exceeding 2 dB has occurred, all the tubes tested since the last
check shall be considered as not tested.
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DIN EN 1971-2:2012-02
EN 1971-2:2011 (E)

Bibliography

EN 12452, Copper and copper alloys — Rolled, finned, seamless tubes for heat exchangers
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January 2013

DIN EN 1976
D
ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes
DIN EN 1976:1998-05

Copper and copper alloys –


Cast unwrought copper products;
English version EN 1976:2012,
English translation of DIN EN 1976:2013-01

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Gegossene Rohformen aus Kupfer;
Englische Fassung EN 1976:2012,
Englische Übersetzung von DIN EN 1976:2013-01
Cuivre et alliages de cuivre –
Formes brutes de coulée en cuivre;
Version anglaise EN 1976:2012,
Traduction anglaise de DIN EN 1976:2013-01
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Document comprises 24 pages


7541014/10787806875Biblio

Translation by DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original shall be considered authoritative.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing


©
No part of this translation may be reproduced without prior permission of
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany,
standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest
has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen). Ebook Central,
English price group 12
www.din.de !$Å`t"
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper alloys”
(Secretariat: DIN, Germany).

The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Working Committee NA 066-02-01 AA Hüttenkupfer und Schrotte.

The DIN Standard corresponding to the International Standard referred to in this document is as follows:

IEC 60468 DIN IEC 60468

Amendments

This standard differs from DIN EN 1976:1998-05 as follows:

a) the terms and definitions in Clause 3 for the various refinery shapes have been adopted from ISO 197-2;

b) Table 2, column “Cu-FRHC”, “Other elements” has been modified and a new footnote “d” has been
added.

Previous editions

DIN 1708: 1925-04, 1935-10, 1941-02, 1953-07, 1960-09, 1973-01


DIN EN 1976: 1998-05

National Annex NA
(informative)

Bibliography
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

DIN IEC 60468, Method of measurement of resistivity of metallic materials


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1976
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM October 2012

ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes EN 1976:1998

English Version

Copper and copper alloys - Cast unwrought copper products

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre - Formes brutes de coulée en Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Gegossene Rohformen aus
cuivre Kupfer

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 August 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United
Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels


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© 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1976:2012: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4
2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................4
3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................4
4 Designations ..........................................................................................................................................5
4.1 Material ...................................................................................................................................................5
4.2 Product ...................................................................................................................................................5
5 Ordering information .............................................................................................................................6
6 Requirements .........................................................................................................................................7
6.1 Composition ...........................................................................................................................................7
6.2 Electrical properties ..............................................................................................................................7
6.3 Hydrogen embrittlement .................................................................................................................... 12
6.4 Scale adhesion .................................................................................................................................... 13
6.5 Dimensions, mass and tolerances .................................................................................................... 13
6.6 Physical condition of refinery shapes .............................................................................................. 15
7 Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 16
7.1 Arrangement of lots for sampling purposes .................................................................................... 16
7.2 Inspection lots for analysis and physical testing............................................................................ 16
8 Test methods....................................................................................................................................... 17
8.1 Analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 17
8.2 Physical tests ...................................................................................................................................... 17
8.3 Rounding of results ............................................................................................................................ 18
9 Declaration of conformity and inspection documentation ............................................................. 18
9.1 Declaration of conformity .................................................................................................................. 18
9.2 Inspection documentation ................................................................................................................. 18
10 Marking ................................................................................................................................................ 18
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Annex A (informative) Available products and grades................................................................................. 19


Annex B (informative) Information on electrical resistivity and conductivity relationships .................... 20
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 22
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 1976:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper
alloys”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the
latest by April 2013.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1976:1998.

This is one of a series of European Standards for products manufactured from refined copper grades.

Other products are specified as follows:

 EN 1977, Copper and copper alloys — Copper drawing stock (wire rod);

 EN 1978, Copper and copper alloys — Copper cathodes.

In comparison with the first edition of EN 1976:1998, the following significant changes were made:

a) Clause 3, Terms and definitions for the various refinery shapes have been added from ISO 197-2;

b) Table 2, Cu-FRHC, Other elements – content has been modified and a new footnote "d" has been added.

Within its programme of work, Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 requested CEN/TC 133/WG 1 "Unwrought
copper products" to revise the following standard:

EN 1976:1998, Copper and copper alloys — Cast unwrought copper products.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

1 Scope
This European Standard specifies the composition and physical properties of cast unwrought copper products
(refinery shapes) in thirteen grades of copper and nine silver-bearing copper grades. The refinery shapes
included are horizontally, vertically and continuously cast wire bars, cakes, billets and ingots. Wire bars, cakes
and billets are intended for fabricating into wrought products; ingots are intended for alloying in wrought and
cast copper alloys.

A table indicating the refinery shapes in which each copper grade is normally available is given in Annex A.
Annex B gives information on the relationships between electrical resistivity and conductivity of copper.

2 Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1655, Copper and copper alloys — Declarations of conformity

EN 10204, Metallic products — Types of inspection documents

EN ISO 2626, Copper — Hydrogen embrittlement test (ISO 2626)

IEC 60468, Method of measurement of resistivity of metallic materials

ISO 4746, Oxygen-free copper — Scale adhesion test

3 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
unwrought product
refinery shape
general term for unwrought products obtained by refining or melting and casting processes, intended for
further processing

EXAMPLE Examples of unwrought products are cathodes, wire bars, cakes, billets, ingots.

[SOURCE: ISO 197-2:1983, 2.1]

3.2
wire bar
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cast unwrought product normally of approximately square cross-section, with or without tapered ends,
principally used for rolling into drawing stock or flat products for subsequent processing into wire, strip or
profile

[SOURCE: ISO 197-2:1983, 2.3]

3.3
cake
cast unwrought product of rectangular cross-section, generally used for rolling into plate, sheet, strip or
profiles
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[SOURCE: ISO 197-2:1983, 2.4]

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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

3.4
billet
cast unwrought product of circular cross-section used for the production of tube, rod, bar, profiles or forgings

[SOURCE: ISO 197-2:1983, 2.5]

3.5
ingot
ingot bar
cast unwrought product in a form suitable only for remelting primarily for the production of copper and copper
alloys

[SOURCE: ISO 197-2:1983, 2.6]

4 Designations

4.1 Material

4.1.1 General

The material is designated either by symbol or number (see Tables 1 to 4).

4.1.2 Symbol

The material symbol designation is based on the designation system given in ISO 1190-1.

NOTE Although material symbol designations used in this standard might be the same as those in other standards
using the designation system given in ISO 1190-1, the detailed composition requirements are not necessarily the same.

4.1.3 Number

The material number designation is in accordance with the system given in EN 1412.

4.2 Product

The product designation provides a standardized pattern of designation from which a rapid and unequivocal
description of a product is conveyed in communication. It provides mutual comprehension at the international
level with regard to products which meet the requirements of the relevant European Standard.

The product designation is no substitute for the full content of the standard.

The product designation for products to this standard shall consist of:
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 denomination (Billet, Wire bar, Cake or Ingot);

 number of this European Standard (EN 1976);

 material designation, either symbol or number (see Tables 1 to 4);

 cross-sectional shape (the following designations shall be used as appropriate: RND for round, SQR for
square, RCT for rectangular);

 nominal dimensions (diameter, or width x thickness, and length);


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 nominal unit mass, (if appropriate).

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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

The derivation of a product designation is shown in the following example.

EXAMPLE Billets conforming to this standard, in material designated either Cu-ETP or CR004A, round cross-
section, nominal diameter 250 mm × nominal length 1 000 mm, are designated as follows:

Billet EN 1976 — Cu-ETP — RND 250 × 1 000


or
Billet EN 1976 — CR004A — RND 250 × 1 000

Denomination

Number of this European Standard

Material designation

Cross-sectional shape and nominal dimensions in millimetres

5 Ordering information
In order to facilitate the enquiry, order and confirmation of order procedures between the purchaser and the
supplier, the purchaser shall state on his enquiry and order the following information:

a) quantity of product required (mass);

b) denomination (Billet, Wire bar, Cake or Ingot);

c) number of this European Standard (EN 1976);

d) material designation (see Tables 1 to 4);

e) cross-sectional shape required;

f) nominal dimensions (i.e. diameter, or width × thickness, and length) and nominal mass, where appro-
priate (see Table 7 for wire bar dimensions).

It is recommended that the product designation, as described in 4.2, is used for items b) to f).

In addition, the purchaser shall also state on the enquiry and order any of the following, if required:

g) for Cu-ETP and Cu-FRHC only: if oxygen content is higher than 0,040 % (see Table 2, Footnote b);

h) for Cu-FRHC only: if the total impurities content is higher than 0,06 % (see Table 2, Footnote d);

i) for ingots only: whether they are to be marked with a furnace charge mark;
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j) the tests, if any, which the purchaser requires to be carried out by the manufacturer on the product,
selected from the tests appropriate to each copper grade given in Table 6;

k) whether a declaration of conformity is required (see 9.1);

l) whether an inspection document is required, and if so, which type (see 9.2).
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

6 Requirements

6.1 Composition

The composition of the refinery shapes shall conform to the requirements for the appropriate grade given in
Tables 1 to 4.

6.2 Electrical properties

The maximum mass resistivity at 20 °C of each refinery shape shall conform to the appropriate requirements
given in Table 5. The test shall be carried out in accordance with 8.2.
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DIN EN 1976:2013
- 01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Table 1 — Composition of unalloyed copper grades made from Cu-CATH-1 (CR001A)

Composition % (mass fraction)

Material Elements
designation listed in this
Ele- table other
Cu Ag As Bi Cd Co Cr Fe Mn Ni O P Pb S Sb Se Si Sn Te Zn
ment than copper
Symbol Number total excl.

min. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Cu-ETP1 CR003A
max. — 0,002 5 0,000 5a 0,000 20b —a —c —a 0,001 0c —a —c 0,040 —a 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4a 0,000 20b —c —c 0,000 20 b —c 0,006 5 O
min. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Cu-OF1 CR007A
max. — 0,002 5 0,000 5a 0,000 20b —a —c —a 0,001 0c —a —c —d —a 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4a 0,000 20b —c —c 0,000 20 b —c 0,006 5 O
min. 99,99 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Cu-OFE CR009A
max. — 0,002 5 0,000 5 0,000 20 0,000 1 — — 0,001 0 0,000 5 0,001 0 —d 0,000 3 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4 0,000 20 — 0,000 2 0,000 20 0,000 1 — —

min. 99,99 — — — — — — — — — — 0,001 — — — — — — — — — —


Cu-PHCE CR022A
max. — 0,002 5 0,000 5 0,000 20 0,000 1 — — 0,001 0 0,000 5 0,001 0 —d 0,006 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4 0,000 20 — 0,000 2 0,000 20 0,000 1 — —
a (As + Cd + Cr + Mn + P + Sb) maximum 0,001 5 %.
b (Bi + Se + Te) maximum 0,000 3 %, of which (Se + Te) maximum 0,000 30 %.
c (Co + Fe + Ni + Si + Sn + Zn) maximum 0,002 0 %.
d The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen embrittlement requirements.
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8
DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Table 2 — Composition of unalloyed copper grades, other than those made from Cu-CATH-1 (CR001A)

Composition % (mass fraction)


Material designation Other elements
Element Cua Bi O Pb (see note)
Symbol Number total excluding
min. 99,90 — — — —
Cu-ETP CR004A Ag, O
max. — 0,000 5 0,040b 0,005 0,03
min. 99,90 — — — —
Cu-FRHC CR005A Ag, O
max. — — 0,040b — 0,06d
min. 99,90 — — — —
Cu-FRTP CR006A Ag, Ni, O
max. — — 0,100 — 0,05
min. 99,95 — — — —
Cu-OF CR008A Ag
max. — 0,000 5 —c 0,005 0,03
NOTE The total of other elements (than copper) is defined as the sum of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, O, P,
Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Te and Zn, subject to the exclusion of any individual elements indicated.
a
Including silver, up to a maximum of 0,015 %.
b
Oxygen content up to 0,060 % is permitted, subject to agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.
c
The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen
embrittlement requirements.
d
Higher total impurities content is permitted, subject to agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Table 3 — Composition of phosphorus-containing copper grades

Composition % (mass fraction)


Material designation Other elements
Element Cua Bi P Pb (see note)
Symbol Number total excluding
min. 99,95 — 0,001 — —
Cu-PHC CR020A Ag, P
max. — 0,000 5 0,006 0,005 0,03b
min. 99,95 — 0,002 — —
Cu-HCP CR021A Ag, P
max. — 0,000 5 0,007 0,005 0,03b
min. 99,90 — 0,005 — —
Cu-DLP CR023A Ag, Ni, P
max. — 0,000 5 0,013 0,005 0,03
min. 99,90 — 0,015 — —
Cu-DHP CR024A —
max. — — 0,040 — —c
min. 99,90 — 0,04 — —
Cu-DXP CR025A Ag, Ni, P
max. — 0,000 5 0,06 0,005 0,03
NOTE The total of other elements (than copper) is defined as the sum of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, O, P,
Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Te and Zn, subject to the exclusion of any individual elements indicated.
a Including silver, up to a maximum of 0,015 %.
b The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen
embrittlement requirements.
c If required, the permitted total of elements, other than silver and phosphorus, should be agreed between the
purchaser and the supplier.
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Table 4 — Composition of silver-containing copper grades (silver-bearing coppers)

Composition % (mass fraction)


Material designation Other elements
Element Cu Ag Bi O P (see note)
Symbol Number total excluding
min. Rem. 0,03 — — — —
CuAg0,04 CR011A Ag, O
max. — 0,05 0,000 5 0,040 — 0,03
min. Rem. 0,06 — — — —
CuAg0,07 CR012A Ag, O
max. — 0,08 0,000 5 0,040 — 0,03
min. Rem. 0,08 — — — —
CuAg0,10 CR013A Ag, O
max. — 0,12 0,000 5 0,040 — 0,03
min. Rem. 0,03 — — 0,001 —
CuAg0,04P CR014A Ag, P
max. — 0,05 0,000 5 —a 0,007 0,03
min. Rem. 0,06 — — 0,001 —
CuAg0,07P CR015A Ag, P
max. — 0,08 0,000 5 —a 0,007 0,03
min. Rem. 0,08 — — 0,001 —
CuAg0,10P CR016A Ag, P
max. — 0,12 0,000 5 —a 0,007 0,03
min. Rem. 0,03 — — — —
CuAg0,04(OF) CR017A Ag, O
max. — 0,05 0,000 5 —a — 0,006 5
min. Rem. 0,06 — — — —
CuAg0,07(OF) CR018A Ag, O
max. — 0,08 0,000 5 —a — 0,006 5
min. Rem. 0,08 — — — —
CuAg0,10(OF) CR019A Ag, O
max. — 0,12 0,000 5 —a — 0,006 5
NOTE The total of other elements (than copper) is defined as the sum of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, O, P,
Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Te and Zn, subject to the exclusion of any individual elements indicated.
a The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen
embrittlement requirements.
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EN 1976:2012 (E)

Table 5 — Electrical properties of grades of copper at 20 °C

Material designation Electrical properties


Nominal volume
Mass resistivity Nominal conductivity
Symbol Number resistivity
Ω · g/m2 µΩ · m MS/m % IACS
max. max. min. min.
Cu-ETP1 CR003A 0,151 76 (0,017 07) (58,58) (101,0)
Cu-ETP CR004A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-FRHC CR005A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-FRTP CR006A — — — —
Cu-OF1 CR007A 0,151 76 (0,017 07) (58,58) (101,0)
Cu-OF CR008A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-OFE CR009A 0,151 76 (0,017 07) (58,58) (101,0)
Cu-PHC CR020A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-HCP CR021A 0,155 96 (0,017 54) (57,00) (98,3)
Cu-PHCE CR022A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-DLP CR023A — — — —
Cu-DHP CR024A — — — —
Cu-DXP CR025A — — — —
CuAg0,04 CR011A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,07 CR012A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,10 CR013A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,04P CR014A 0,155 96 (0,017 54) (57,00) (98,3)
CuAg0,07P CR015A 0,155 96 (0,017 54) (57,00) (98,3)
CuAg0,10P CR016A 0,155 96 (0,017 54) (57,00) (98,3)
CuAg0,04(OF) CR017A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,07(OF) CR018A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,10(OF) CR019A 0,153 28 (0,017 24) (58,00) (100,0)
NOTE 1 Figures in parentheses are not requirements of this standard but are given for guidance purposes only.
NOTE 2 For an explanation of “% IACS”, see B.2.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

6.3 Hydrogen embrittlement

Samples taken from refinery shapes in copper grades Cu-OF (CR008A), Cu-OF1 (CR007A), Cu-OFE
(CR009A), Cu-HCP (CR021A), Cu-PHC (CR020A), Cu-PHCE (CR022A), Cu-DLP (CR023A), Cu-DHP
(CR024A), Cu-DXP (CR025A), CuAg0,04(OF) (CR017A), CuAg0,07(OF) (CR018A), CuAg0,10(OF)
(CR019A), CuAg0,04P (CR014A), CuAg0,07P (CR015A) and CuAg0,10P (CR016A) shall show no evidence
of cracking, when tested. The test shall be carried out in accordance with 8.2.2.
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EN 1976:2012 (E)

6.4 Scale adhesion

Samples taken from refinery shapes in copper grade Cu-OFE (CR009A) shall meet the requirements of the
scale adhesion test. The test shall be carried out in accordance with 8.2.3.

Table 6 — Tests for refinery shapes

Material designation Test appropriate to copper grade


Hydrogen Scale
Symbol Number Analysis Mass resistivity
embrittlement adhesion
Cu-ETP1 CR003A X X — —
Cu-ETP CR004A X X — —
Cu-FRHC CR005A X X — —
Cu-FRTP CR006A X — — —
Cu-OF1 CR007A X X Xa —
Cu-OF CR008A X X Xa —
Cu-OFE CR009A X X Xb X
Cu-PHC CR020A X X Xa —
Cu-HCP CR021A X X Xa —
Cu-PHCE CR022A X X Xb —
Cu-DLP CR023A X — Xa —
Cu-DHP CR024A X — Xa —
Cu-DXP CR025A X — Xa —
CuAg0,04 CR011A X X — —
CuAg0,07 CR012A X X — —
CuAg0,10 CR013A X X — —
CuAg0,04P CR014A X X Xa —
CuAg0,07P CR015A X X Xa —
CuAg0,10P CR016A X X Xa —
CuAg0,04(OF) CR017A X X Xa —
CuAg0,07(OF) CR018A X X Xa —
CuAg0,10(OF) CR019A X X Xa —
a The assessment criterion for hydrogen embrittlement shall be the close-bend test in accordance with EN ISO 2626.
b The assessment criterion for hydrogen embrittlement shall be the reverse bend test (10 reversals) in accordance
with EN ISO 2626.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

6.5 Dimensions, mass and tolerances

6.5.1 Horizontally cast wire bars

Horizontally cast wire bars of various nominal masses shall conform to the appropriate dimensions and
tolerances given in Table 7 and Figure 1.
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Table 7 — Dimensions and tolerances for horizontally cast wire bars of various nominal masses

Dimensions and tolerances (see Figure 1)


Nominal
mass
L Tol. L1 Tol. h Tol. h1 Tol. b Tol. b1 Tol. R Tol. R1 Tol. R2 Tol.
kg α Tol. β Tol. γ Tol.
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm

91 90 100 90 16
102 100 100 90 16
113 100 110 100 25
1370 ± 14 150 ±5 ±6 25 ±6 ±6 ±6 ±6 16 ±6 40 ±6 10° ± 2° 10° ± 2° 3° ± 1°
120 110 110 100 25
125 110 110 100 25
136 120 110 100 25
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Figure 1 — Dimensions of horizontally cast wire bars

6.5.2 Billets

Billets shall be of a cylindrical shape with both ends flat.

The mass, diameter and length and the maximum deviation from straightness shall conform to the tolerances
given in Table 8.

6.5.3 Other shapes

The mass, dimensions and straightness of vertically (either statically or continuously) cast wire bars, vertically
and horizontally cast cakes and ingots, shall conform to the tolerances given in Table 8.

6.6 Physical condition of refinery shapes


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Cakes, billets and wire bars shall be substantially free from shrinkage defects, gas holes, cracks, cold sets,
pits, concave tops and other similar defects in set or casting.

NOTE No physical condition requirements are specified for ingots, as physical defects are generally of minor
consequence.
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Table 8 — Tolerances on mass and dimensions for refinery shapes


other than horizontally cast wire bars

Tolerances
Maximum
Refinery shape Width and Other deviation from
Mass Diameter Length
thickness dimensions straightness per
1 000 mm length
% mm mm mm mm
±2%
Billets (all sizes) ±5 ±3 of ordered — — 4
length
Cast wire bars:
- vertically continuously ±5 — — ±3 ±6 —
- vertically statically ±5 — — ±6 ±6 —
Cast cakes,
width, thickness:
- up to 200 mm ±5 — — ±3 — 4
- over 200 mm ±5 — — ±6 — 4
Ingots ± 10 — — — — —

7 Sampling

7.1 Arrangement of lots for sampling purposes

For refinery shapes produced in a batch process, the manufacturer shall arrange lots for sampling purposes
so that, as far as possible, each lot contains pieces from one furnace charge or production batch only.

For refinery shapes produced in a continuous process, the manufacturer shall arrange lots so that, as far as
possible, each lot contains pieces produced consecutively from the process.

NOTE A lot is the number of, or aggregate mass of, individual refinery shapes, appropriate to the total amount
ordered and to the means of shipment, which constitutes a unit for sampling purposes.

7.2 Inspection lots for analysis and physical testing

For the routine sampling of refinery shapes for analysis or for the routine determination of physical properties,
the method and rate of sampling each inspection lot shall be at the discretion of the sampler, unless otherwise
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

specified by the purchaser.

In cases of dispute concerning the analysis or physical properties, the method and rate of sampling each
inspection lot shall be agreed between the supplier, the purchaser, and if necessary, any mutually accepted
arbitrator.
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EN 1976:2012 (E)

8 Test methods

8.1 Analysis

Analysis shall be carried out on the sample(s) obtained in accordance with 7.2.

The copper content of Cu-OFE (CR009A) and Cu-PHCE (CR022A) shall be determined by subtracting the
total percentage of the concentrations of the specified impurities present from 100 % (see Table 1).

For routine quality control purposes, the composition shall be determined using generally recognised
analytical techniques.

In cases of dispute concerning the results of analysis, the method(s) of analysis to be used shall be agreed
between the supplier, the purchaser and, if necessary, any mutually accepted arbitrator, and shall be for all
the impurities for which limits are specified in Table 1.

For expression of results, the rounding rules given in 8.3 shall be used.

8.2 Physical tests

8.2.1 Mass resistivity

For the routine determination of the mass resistivity, the test methods used shall be left to the discretion of the
tester.

In cases of dispute, the mass resistivity shall be determined on a representative sample from each inspection
lot (see 7.2). External oxide shall be removed from the sample which shall then be rolled and/or drawn to a
(2,00 ± 0,01) mm diameter wire.

The sample may be hot-worked initially, provided care is taken to avoid contamination or excessive oxidation.

The wire shall be degreased and annealed at (500 ± 10) °C for 30 min in an inert atmosphere and the mass
resistivity test carried out in accordance with IEC 60468.

NOTE Information on the relationship between the mass resistivity and the corresponding values for volume
resistivity and conductivity is given in Annex B.

8.2.2 Hydrogen embrittlement

When a hydrogen embrittlement test is carried out (see Table 6), the specimens prepared from a
representative sample from each inspection lot (see 7.2) shall be forged, or hot rolled, and cold drawn into
wire or strip (2,00 ± 0,05) mm diameter or thickness.

The hydrogen embrittlement test shall be carried out in accordance with EN ISO 2626.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

The types of bend tests to be carried out at the conclusion of the procedure depend upon the copper grade
and shall be in accordance with Table 6.

8.2.3 Scale adhesion test

When a scale adhesion test is carried out (see Table 6), the specimens of Cu-OFE (CR009A) copper
prepared from a representative sample from each inspection lot (see 7.2) shall be tested in accordance with
ISO 4746.
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EN 1976:2012 (E)

8.3 Rounding of results

For the purpose of determining conformity to the limits specified in this standard for composition or for
electrical resistivity, an observed or a calculated value obtained from a test shall be rounded in accordance
with the following procedure, which is based upon the guidance given in Annex B of ISO 80000-1:2009. It
shall be rounded in one step to the same number of figures used to express the specified limit in this standard.

The following rules shall be used for rounding:

a) if the figure immediately after the last figure to be retained is less than 5, the last figure to be retained
shall be kept unchanged;

b) if the figure immediately after the last figure to be retained is equal to or greater than 5, the last figure to
be retained shall be increased by one.

9 Declaration of conformity and inspection documentation

9.1 Declaration of conformity

When requested by the purchaser [see 5 j)] and agreed with the supplier, the supplier shall issue for the
product the appropriate declaration of conformity in accordance with EN 1655.

9.2 Inspection documentation

When requested by the purchaser [see 5 k)] and agreed with the supplier, the supplier shall issue for the
product the appropriate inspection document, in accordance with EN 10204.

10 Marking
All refinery shapes, with the exception of ingots, shall be permanently marked with the manufacturer's brand
and furnace charge mark or production number. Ingots shall have a brand stamped or cast-in, but need not
have a furnace charge mark unless otherwise specified by the purchaser [see 5 h)].
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Annex A
(informative)

Available products and grades

The refinery shapes in which each copper grade is normally available are shown, for information purposes, by
a 'X' in Table A.1.

Table A.1 — Available products and grades

Material designation Product

Wire bar
Symbol Number Cake Billet Ingot
vertical horizontal
Cu-ETP1 CR003A X X X X X
Cu-ETP CR004A X X X X X
Cu-FRHC CR005A X X X X X
Cu-FRTP CR006A — — X X X
Cu-OF1 CR007A X — X X —
Cu-OF CR008A X — X X —
Cu-OFE CR009A X — X X —
Cu-PHC CR020A X — X X —
Cu-HCP CR021A X — X X —
Cu-PHCE CR022A X — X X —
Cu-DLP CR023A X — X X —
Cu-DHP CR024A X — X X —
Cu-DXP CR025A X — X X —
CuAg0,04 CR011A X X X X —
CuAg0,07 CR012A X X X X —
CuAg0,10 CR013A X X X X —
CuAg0,04P CR014A X — X X —
CuAg0,07P CR015A X — X X —
CuAg0,10P CR016A X — X X —
CuAg0,04(OF) CR017A X — X X —
CuAg0,07(OF) CR018A X — X X —
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CuAg0,10(OF) CR019A X — X X —
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EN 1976:2012 (E)

Annex B
(informative)

Information on electrical resistivity and conductivity relationships

B.1 Mass resistivity


This standard is intended to prescribe a minimum quality for the coppers specified, including, for several
grades, their electric current carrying suitabilities.

Determination of cross-sectional areas to the requisite degree of accuracy is difficult. Hence, in practice nearly
all assessments of resistivity are made by measuring the resistance, mass and length of a representative
sample. Mass resistivity can be calculated directly from these values and this gives a true measure of the
quality of the copper for carrying electric current.

Mass resistivity is therefore the property specified in this standard.

B.2 Standard annealed copper (IACS)


IEC 60028 uses evidence from earlier years (see USA National Bureau of Standards Circular 31, 1956,
superseded by USA National Bureau of Standards Handbook 100, 1966) to establish a fixed value for the
resistance to flow of an electric current within an imaginary “standard” annealed copper. This is based on a
volume resistivity of 1/58 µΩ · m or 0,017 241 µΩ · m at 20 °C which is defined as corresponding to a
conductivity of 100 % IACS at 20 °C. The introduction of the International ohm in 1948 altered the volume
resistivity of standard annealed copper by only 0,049 %.

Also on this earlier evidence, the standard annealed copper is allotted a density of 8 890 kg/m3 (8,89 g/cm3).

Hence, as the mass resistivity is the product of the volume resistivity and the density, the mass resistivity of
standard annealed copper is 0,153 28 Ω · g/m2.

B.3 Commercial annealed copper


IEC 60028 states that “the (electrical) conductivity of commercial annealed copper shall be expressed as a
percentage, at 20 °C, of that of standard annealed copper given to approximately 0,1 %”, on the assumption
that “the density of commercial annealed copper at 20 °C is 8,89 g/cm3”.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

B.4 Nominal volume resistivity


The density of commercial copper varies with small changes in composition, particularly oxygen content.
Thus, a true volume resistivity can only be calculated from a measured mass resistivity if the true density of
the particular sample is known or is measured to the requisite degree of accuracy, i.e. better than 0,1 %.

For general purposes, however, a nominal volume resistivity may be calculated using the density of
8 890 kg/m3, as referred to in B.2. (This practice has been adopted in Table 5 of this standard in presenting
values for nominal volume resistivity and for nominal conductivity corresponding to the mandatory mass
resistivity.)
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B.5 Differences between measured and nominal values


If true volume resistivity or true conductivity is required from measured mass resistivity and therefore actual
density is used in calculation, differences of up to 0,6 % (for example for oxygen-free coppers) may result
between these values and the corresponding nominal values.

Conductivity calculated from the ratio of the mass resistivity of standard annealed copper (0,153 28 Ω · g/m2)
to the derived mass resistivity may also exhibit a similar disparity.
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DIN EN 1976:2013-01
EN 1976:2012 (E)

Bibliography

[1] EN 1412, Copper and copper alloys — European numbering system

[2] IEC 60028, International standard of resistance for copper

[3] ISO 197-2:1983, Copper and copper alloys — Terms and definitions — Part 2: Unwrought products
(Refinery shapes)

[4] ISO 1190-1, Copper and copper alloys — Code of designation — Part 1: Designation of materials

[5] ISO 80000-1:2009, Quantities and units — Part 1: General


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April 2013

DIN EN 1977
D
ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes
DIN EN 1977:1998-05

Copper and copper alloys –


Copper drawing stock (wire rod);
English version EN 1977:2013,
English translation of DIN EN 1977:2013-04

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Vordraht aus Kupfer;
Englische Fassung EN 1977:2013,
Englische Übersetzung von DIN EN 1977:2013-04
Cuivre et alliages de cuivre –
Fil machine en cuivre;
Version anglaise EN 1977:2013,
Traduction anglaise de DIN EN 1977:2013-04
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Document comprises 25 pages


7541014/10787806875Biblio

Translation by DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original shall be considered authoritative.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing


©
No part of this translation may be reproduced without prior permission of
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany,
standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest
has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen). Ebook Central,
English price group 12
www.din.de !$ÖY["
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This document (EN 1977:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper
alloys” (Secretariat: DIN, Germany), Working Group WG 1 “Unwrought copper products” (Secretariat:
AENOR, Spain).

The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Working Committee NA 066-02-01 AA Hüttenkupfer und Schrotte.

The DIN Standard corresponding to the International Standard referred to in this document is as follows:

IEC 60468 DIN IEC 60468

Amendments

This standard differs from DIN EN 1977:1998-05 as follows:

a) Table 2, column “Cu-FRHC”, “Other elements” has been modified and a new footnote “d” has been
added.

b) Subclauses 6.4 and 8.4 “Annealability” have been modified;

c) Subclause A.2 “Standard annealed copper (IACS)” has been updated;

d) Annex B (normative) “Rapid Elongation Test method (AR-Test) for diameter 8 mm Cu-ETP1 wire rod” has
been added.

Previous editions

DIN 17652: 1982-06


DIN EN 1977: 1998-05
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

National Annex NA
(informative)

Bibliography

DIN IEC 60468, Method of measurement of resistivity of metallic materials


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1977
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM January 2013

ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes EN 1977:1998

English Version

Copper and copper alloys - Copper drawing stock (wire rod)

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre - Fil machine en cuivre Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Vordraht aus Kupfer

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 November 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United
Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels


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© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1977:2013: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Contents Page
Foreword .......................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................4
1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................5
2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................5
3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................5
4 Designations ....................................................................................................................................5
4.1 Material .............................................................................................................................................5
4.2 Product .............................................................................................................................................6
5 Ordering information........................................................................................................................7
6 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................7
6.1 Composition .....................................................................................................................................7
6.2 Elongation ........................................................................................................................................7
6.3 Electrical properties .........................................................................................................................7
6.4 Annealability................................................................................................................................... 12
6.5 Hydrogen embrittlement ................................................................................................................ 12
6.6 Scale adhesion ............................................................................................................................... 13
6.7 Dimensions and tolerances ........................................................................................................... 13
6.8 Surface condition ........................................................................................................................... 13
6.9 Joins ............................................................................................................................................... 13
7 Sampling......................................................................................................................................... 13
7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 13
7.2 Analysis (oxygen only) and measurement of diameter of Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) drawing
stock ............................................................................................................................................... 14
7.3 Annealability testing of Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) drawing stock ......................................................... 14
7.4 Analysis (other than oxygen) and measurement of elongation and electrical properties of
Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) drawing stock ................................................................................................ 14
7.5 Tests on drawing stock in grades other than Cu-ETP1 (CW003A)............................................... 14
8 Test methods.................................................................................................................................. 15
8.1 Analysis .......................................................................................................................................... 15
8.2 Elongation ...................................................................................................................................... 15
8.3 Electrical resistivity........................................................................................................................ 15
8.4 Annealability................................................................................................................................... 16
8.5 Hydrogen embrittlement ................................................................................................................ 16
8.6 Scale adhesion ............................................................................................................................... 16
8.7 Rounding of results ....................................................................................................................... 16
9 Declaration of conformity and inspection documentation ........................................................... 16
9.1 Declaration of conformity .............................................................................................................. 16
9.2 Inspection documentation ............................................................................................................. 17
10 Marking ........................................................................................................................................... 17
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Annex A (informative) Information on electrical resistivity and conductivity relationships ..................... 18


A.1 Volume resistivity........................................................................................................................... 18
A.2 Standard annealed copper (IACS) ................................................................................................. 18
A.3 Commercial annealed copper ........................................................................................................ 18
A.4 Nominal mass resistivity................................................................................................................ 18
A.5 Differences between measured and nominal values .................................................................... 19
Annex B (normative) Rapid Elongation Test method (AR-Test) for diameter 8 mm Cu-ETP1 wire
rod................................................................................................................................................... 20
B.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 20
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B.2 Procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 20


B.3 Test results ..................................................................................................................................... 22
Bibliography................................................................................................................................................ 23

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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 1977:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and copper
alloys”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the
latest by July 2013.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1977:1998.

This document is one of a series of European Standards for products manufactured from refined copper
grades.

Other products are specified as follows:

 EN 1976, Copper and copper alloys — Cast unwrought copper products

 EN 1978, Copper and copper alloys — Copper cathodes

 EN 13602, Copper and copper alloys — Drawn, round copper wire for the manufacture of electrical
conductors

In comparison with EN 1977:1998, the following significant technical changes were made:

a) Table 2, Cu-FRHC, Other elements: content has been modified and a new footnote “d” has been added;

b) 6.4 and 8.4 “Annealability” have been modified;

c) A.2 “Standard annealed copper (IACS)” has been modified;

d) Annex B (normative) “Rapid Elongation Test method (AR-Test) for diameter 8 mm Cu-ETP1 wire rod” has
been added.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Introduction
Copper drawing stock (wire rod) is normally manufactured by one of the following process routes:

 continuous casting and hot rolling in tandem;

 continuous or semi-continuous casting and cold rolling;

 rolling of wire bar or billets; or

 extrusion.

Annex A (informative) gives information on the relationships between electrical resistivity and conductivity (of
copper).

Annex B (normative) describes the rapid elongation test method (AR-Test) for diameter 8 mm Cu-ETP1 wire
rod.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

1 Scope
This European Standard specifies the composition, mechanical, electrical and physical properties for high
conductivity copper drawing stock (wire rod) suitable for fabrication into wire by cold drawing, principally for
the manufacture of electrical conductors. This European Standard covers drawing stock (wire rod), in nine
grades of copper and nine silver-bearing copper grades. Normally, the cross-section is approximately circular,
in a range of diameters from 6 mm.

2 Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1655, Copper and copper alloys — Declarations of conformity

EN 10204, Metallic products — Types of inspection documents

EN 12893, Copper and copper alloys — Determination of spiral elongation number

EN ISO 2626, Copper — Hydrogen embrittlement test (ISO 2626)

EN ISO 6892-1:2009, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature
(ISO 6892-1:2009)

IEC 60468, Method of measurement of resistivity of metallic materials

ISO 4746, Oxygen-free copper — Scale adhesion test

3 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
drawing stock
wire rod
intermediate solid wrought product, of uniform cross-section along its whole length, supplied in coils

4 Designations

4.1 Material

4.1.1 General

The material is designated either by symbol or number (see Tables 1 to 4).


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

4.1.2 Symbol

The material symbol designation is based on the designation system given in ISO 1190-1.

NOTE Although material symbol designations used in this standard might be the same as those in other standards
using the designation system given in ISO 1190-1, the detailed composition requirements are not necessarily the same.

4.1.3 Number
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The material number designation is in accordance with the system given in EN 1412.

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EN 1977:2013 (E)

4.2 Product

The product designation provides a standardized pattern of designation from which a rapid and unequivocal
description of a product is conveyed in communication. It provides mutual comprehension at the international
level with regard to products which meet the requirements of the relevant European Standard.

The product designation is no substitute for the full content of the standard.

The product designation for products to this European Standard shall consist of:

 denomination (copper drawing stock);

 number of this European Standard (EN 1977);

 material designation, either symbol or number (see Tables 1 to 4);

 nominal diameter;

 nominal coil mass;

 surface condition (the following designations shall be used, as appropriate: M for as manufactured, CL for
cleaned).

The derivation of a product designation is shown in the following example.

EXAMPLE

Drawing stock (wire rod) conforming to this standard, in material designated either Cu-ETP or CW004A,
nominal diameter 8 mm, in 1 000 kg coils, cleaned surface condition, shall be designated as follows:

Copper drawing stock EN 1977 − Cu-ETP − 8 − 1 000 − CL


or

Copper drawing stock EN 1977 − CW004A − 8 − 1 000 − CL

Denomination

Number of this
European Standard

Material designation

Nominal diameter in millimetres


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Nominal coil mass in kilograms

Surface condition
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EN 1977:2013 (E)

5 Ordering information
In order to facilitate the enquiry, order and information of order procedures between the purchaser and the
supplier, the purchaser shall state on his enquiry and order the following information:

a) quantity of product required (mass or number of coils);

b) denomination (copper drawing stock);

c) number of this European Standard (EN 1977);

d) material designation (see Tables 1 to 4);

e) nominal diameter;

f) nominal coil mass;

g) surface condition (see 6.8).

It is recommended that the product designation as described in 4.2 is used for items b) to g).

In addition, the purchaser shall also state on the enquiry and order any of the following, if required:

h) whether joins are permitted in the coils (see 6.9);

i) additional tests, if any, which the purchaser requires to be carried out by the manufacturer on the
material, selected from the tests appropriate to each copper grade given in Table 5;

j) whether a declaration of conformity is required (see 9.1);

k) whether an inspection document is required, and if so which type (see 9.2).

EXAMPLE
Ordering details for 5 000 kg of drawing stock conforming to EN 1977, in material designated either Cu-ETP or CW004A,
nominal diameter 8 mm, in 1 000 kg coils, cleaned surface condition:

5 000 kg Copper drawing stock EN 1977 − Cu-ETP − 8 − 1 000 − CL


or
5 000 kg Copper drawing stock EN 1977 − CW004A − 8 − 1 000 − CL

6 Requirements

6.1 Composition

The composition shall conform to the requirements for the appropriate grade given in Tables 1 to 4.

6.2 Elongation
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Hot-finished drawing stock shall have a minimum elongation of 30 %. The test shall be carried out in
accordance with 8.2.

No elongation requirements are specified for cold-finished drawing stock. If such requirements are necessary,
they should be agreed between the purchaser and the supplier.

6.3 Electrical properties


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The maximum volume resistivity at 20 °C of hot-finished drawing stock shall conform to the appropriate
requirements given in Table 6. The test shall be carried out in accordance with 8.3.

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EN 1977:2013 (E)

Table 1 — Composition of copper grades made from Cu-CATH-1 (CR001A)


Composition % (mass fraction)

Elements
Material listed in
designation Cu Ag As Bi Cd Co Cr Fe Mn Ni O P Pb S Sb Se Si Sn Te Zn this table
Element other than
copper

excluding
total
Symbol Number

min. − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −
Cu-ETP1 CW003A O
max. − 0,002 5 0,000 5a 0,000 20b −a −c −a 0,001 0c −a −c 0,040 −a 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4a 0,000 20b −c −c 0,000 20b −c 0,006 5

min. − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −
Cu-OF1 CW007A O
max. − 0,002 5 0,000 5a 0,000 20b −a −c −a 0,001 0c −a −c −d −a 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4a 0,000 20b −c −c 0,000 20b −c 0,006 5

min. 99,99 − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −
Cu-OFE CW009A −
max. − 0,002 5 0,000 5 0,000 20 0,000 1 − − 0,001 0 0,0005 0,0010 −d 0,000 3 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4 0,000 20 − 0,000 2 0,000 20 0,000 1 −

min. 99,99 − − − − − − − − − − 0,001 − − − − − − − − −


Cu-PHCE CW022A −
max. − 0,002 5 0,000 5 0,000 20 0,000 1 − − 0,001 0 0,0005 0,0010 −d 0,006 0,000 5 0,001 5 0,000 4 0,000 20 − 0,000 2 0,000 20 0,000 1 −

a (As + Cd + Cr + Mn + P + Sb) max. 0,001 5 %.


b (Bi + Se + Te) max. 0,000 3 %, of which (Se + Te) max. 0,000 30 %.
c (Co + Fe + Ni + Si + Sn + Zn) max. 0,002 0 %.
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d The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen embrittlement requirements.
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EN 1977:2013 (E)

Table 2 — Composition of copper grades, other than those made from Cu-CATH-1 (CR001A)

Composition % (mass fraction)


Material designation other elements
Element Cu a Bi O Pb
(see Note)
Symbol Number total excluding

min. 99,90 — — — —
Cu-ETP CW004A Ag, O
max. — 0,000 5 0,040 b 0,005 0,03

min. 99,90 — — — —
Cu-FRHC CW005A b
Ag, O
max. — — 0,040 — 0,06 d
min. 99,95 − — — —
Cu-OF CW008A c
Ag
max. — 0,000 5 — 0,005 0,03

NOTE The total of other elements (than copper) is defined as the sum of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, O, P,
Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Te and Zn, subject to the exclusion of any individual elements indicated.
a Including silver, up to a maximum of 0,015 %.
b Oxygen content up to 0,060 % is permitted, subject to agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.
c The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen embrittlement
requirements.
d Higher total impurities content is permitted, subject to agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.

Table 3 — Composition of phosphorus-containing copper grades

Composition % (mass fraction)


Material designation
Element Cu a Bi P Pb other elements (see Note)
Symbol Number total excluding

min. 99,95 − 0,001 − −


Cu-PHC CW020A Ag, P
max. − 0,000 5 0,006 0,005 0,03 b
min. 99,95 − 0,002 − −
Cu-HCP CW021A Ag, P
max − 0,000 5 0,007 0,005 0,03 b

NOTE The total of other elements (than copper) is defined as the sum of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, O, P, Pb,
S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Te and Zn, subject to the exclusion of any individual elements indicated.
a Including silver, up to a maximum of 0,015 %.
b The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen embrittlement
requirements.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Table 4 — Composition of silver-containing copper grades (silver-bearing coppers)

Composition % (mass fraction)


Material designation other elements
Element Cu Ag Bi O P
(see Note)
Symbol Number total excluding
min. Rem. 0,03 — — — —
CuAg0,04 CW011A Ag, O
max. — 0,05 0,000 5 0,040 — 0,03
min. Rem. 0,06 — — — —
CuAg0,07 CW012A Ag, O
max. — 0,08 0,000 5 0,040 — 0,03
min. Rem. 0,08 — − — —
CuAg0,10 CW013A Ag, O
max. — 0,12 0,000 5 0,040 — 0,03
min. Rem. 0,03 — — 0,001 —
CuAg0,04P CW014A Ag, P
max. — 0,05 0,000 5 —a 0,007 0,03

min. Rem. 0,06 — — 0,001 —


CuAg0,07P CW015A a
Ag, P
max. — 0,08 0,000 5 — 0,007 0,03

min. Rem. 0,08 — — 0,001 —


CuAg0,10P CW016A a
Ag, P
max. — 0,12 0,000 5 — 0,007 0,03

min. Rem. 0,03 — — — —


CuAg0,04(OF) CW017A a
Ag, O
max. — 0,05 0,000 5 — — 0,006 5

min. Rem. 0,06 — — — —


CuAg0,07(OF) CW018A a
Ag, O
max. — 0,08 0,000 5 — — 0,006 5

min. Rem. 0,08 — — — —


CuAg0,10(OF) CW019A a
Ag, O
max. — 0,12 0,000 5 — — 0,006 5

NOTE The total of other elements (than copper) is defined as the sum of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, O, P, Pb,
S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Te and Zn, subject to the exclusion of any individual elements indicated.
a The oxygen content shall be controlled by the manufacturer so that the material conforms to the hydrogen embrittlement
requirements.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Table 5 — Tests applicable

Test appropriate to copper grade


Material designation Analysis Hydrogen Scale
Elongation a Volume resistivity Annealability Diameter
(including oxygen) embrittlement adhesion
Symbol Number
Cu-ETP1 CW003A X X X − − X X
Cu-ETP CW004A X X X − − − X
Cu-FRHC CW005A X X X − − − X
Cu-OF1 CW007A X X X Xb − − X
Cu-OF CW008A X X X Xb − − X
Cu-OFE CW009A X X X Xc X − X
Cu-PHC CW020A X X X Xb − − X
Cu-HCP CW021A X X X X b − − X
Cu-PHCE CW022A X X X Xc − − X
CuAg0,04 CW011A X X X − − − X
CuAg0,07 CW012A X X X − − − X
CuAg0,10 CW013A X X X − − − X
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CuAg0,04P CW014A X X X Xb − − X
CuAg0,07P CW015A X X X X b − − X
CuAg0,10P CW016A X X X Xb − − X
CuAg0,04(OF) CW017A X X X Xb − − X
CuAg0,07(OF) CW018A X X X Xb − − X
CuAg0,10(OF) CW019A X X X Xb − − X
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a Normally this test is only applicable to hot-finished drawing stock. If requested for cold-finished material, then the minimum elongation required should be agreed between the purchaser
and the supplier.
b The assessment criterion for hydrogen embrittlement shall be the close-bend test in EN ISO 2626.
c The assessment criterion for hydrogen embrittlement shall be the reverse bend test (10 reversals) in EN ISO 2626.

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Table 6 — Electrical properties of grades of copper at 20 °C

Material designation Electrical properties


Nominal mass
Volume resistivity Nominal conductivity
resistivity
Symbol Number
µΩ ∙ m Ω ∙ g/m2 MS/m % IACS
max. max. min. min.
Cu-ETP1 CW003A 0,017 07 (0,151 76) (58,58) (101,0)
Cu-ETP CW004A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-FRHC CW005A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-OF1 CW007A 0,017 07 (0,151 76) (58,58) (101,0)
Cu-OF CW008A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-OFE CW009A 0,017 07 (0,151 76) (58,58) (101,0)
Cu-PHC CW020A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
Cu-HCP CW021A 0,017 54 (0,155 97) (57,00) (98,3)
Cu-PHCE CW022A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,04 CW011A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,07 CW012A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,10 CW013A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,04P CW014A 0,017 54 (0,155 97) (57,00) (98,3)
CuAg0,07P CW015A 0,017 54 (0,155 97) (57,00) (98,3)
CuAg0,10P CW016A 0,017 54 (0,155 97) (57,00) (98,3)
CuAg0,04(OF) CW017A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,07(OF) CW018A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)
CuAg0,10(OF) CW019A 0,017 24 (0,153 28) (58,00) (100,0)

NOTE 1 Figures in parentheses are not requirements of this European Standard but are given for guidance purposes
only.
NOTE 2 For an explanation of “% IACS”, see A.2.

6.4 Annealability

Drawing stock in copper grade Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) shall have a minimum spiral elongation number (S.E.N.)
of 350, when tested in accordance with EN 12893.

When tested according to the Annex B (AR-Test), the A200 value shall be at least 20 %. Otherwise the spiral
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elongation test method given in EN 12893 shall be used as the reference method.

6.5 Hydrogen embrittlement

Drawing stock in copper grades Cu-OF1 (CW007A), Cu-OF (CW008A), Cu-OFE (CW009A),
CuAg0,04P (CW014A), CuAg0,07P (CW015A), CuAg0,10P (CW016A), CuAg0,04(OF) (CW017A),
CuAg0,07(OF) (CW018A), CuAg0,10(OF) (CW019A), Cu-PHC (CW020A), Cu-HCP (CW021A) and
Cu-PHCE (CW022A), shall show no evidence of cracking, when tested in accordance with 8.5.
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6.6 Scale adhesion

Drawing stock in copper grade Cu-OFE (CW009A) shall conform to the requirements of the scale adhesion
test, when tested in accordance with 8.6.

6.7 Dimensions and tolerances

The diameter of drawing stock, measured at any point, shall conform to the tolerances given in Table 7.

Tolerances on drawing stock having a nominal diameter greater than 35 mm should be subject to agreement
between the supplier and the purchaser.
Table 7 — Tolerances
Dimensions in millimetres
Nominal diameter Tolerances
over up to and including

+ 0,5
6,0a 6,35
− 0,25
6,35 19 ± 0,4
19 25 ± 0,6
25 35 ± 0,8
a Including 6,0.

6.8 Surface condition

The drawing stock shall be supplied in one of the following surface conditions, as specified by the purchaser in
the enquiry and order [see 5 g)]:

a) as manufactured; or

b) cleaned (with, or without, a protective coating).

Cleaned drawing stock shall be treated prior to delivery to remove the surface oxides resulting from the
production process and shall have a surface suitable for cold drawing without the need for preliminary
cleaning.

6.9 Joins

Each coil of drawing stock shall be supplied in one continuous length without joins, unless they are specifically
permitted in the order [see 5 h)].
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7 Sampling

7.1 General

When required (e.g. if necessary in accordance with specified procedures of a supplier’s quality system, or when
the purchaser requests inspection documents with test results, or for use in cases of dispute), an inspection lot
shall be sampled as follows (see also Table 8):

a) in accordance with 7.2 to 7.4 for drawing stock in grade Cu-ETP1 (CW003A); or
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b) in accordance with 7.5 for drawing stock in grades other than Cu-ETP1 (CW003A).

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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Table 8 — Sampling rate

Mass of drawing stock for each sampling unit


Test
t
Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) other grades

Analysis (Oxygen) 60
Analysis (other than oxygen) 500
At the discretion of the
Diameter 60 manufacturer unless otherwise
Annealability 200 specified by the purchaser at
the time of enquiry and order.
Elongation 500
Electrical resistivity 200

7.2 Analysis (oxygen only) and measurement of diameter of Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) drawing
stock

The minimum rate of sampling shall be one sampling unit from every 60 t of drawing stock.

The sampling units shall be cut off the finished material and the test samples or test pieces prepared from
them shall not be subjected to any further treatment, other than any machining operations necessary in the
preparation of the test pieces.

7.3 Annealability testing of Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) drawing stock

For the determination of the annealability, the minimum rate of sampling shall be one sampling unit from every
200 t of finished drawing stock.

7.4 Analysis (other than oxygen) and measurement of elongation and electrical properties
of Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) drawing stock

For the determination of the composition, other than oxygen, and for elongation measurement, the minimum
rate of sampling shall be one sampling unit from every 500 t of drawing stock.

For the determination of the electrical resistivity, the minimum rate of sampling shall be one sampling unit from
every 200 t of drawing stock.

In all cases, the sampling units shall be cut off the finished material and the test samples or test pieces
prepared from them shall not be subjected to any further treatment, other than any machining operations
necessary in the preparation of the test pieces.

7.5 Tests on drawing stock in grades other than Cu-ETP1 (CW003A)


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, the sampling rates for testing drawing stock in grades other than
Cu-ETP1 (CW003A), shall be at the discretion of the manufacturer.

The sampling units shall be cut off the finished material and the test samples or test pieces prepared from
them shall not be subjected to any further treatment, other than any machining operations necessary in the
preparation of the test pieces.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

8 Test methods

8.1 Analysis

Analysis shall be carried out on the test sample(s) obtained in accordance with 7.2, 7.4 or 7.5, as appropriate.

The copper content of Cu-OFE (CW009A) and Cu-PHCE (CW022A) shall be determined by subtracting the
total percentage of the concentrations of the specified impurities present from 100 % (see Table 1).

For routine quality control purposes, the composition shall be determined using generally recognised
analytical techniques.

In cases of dispute concerning the results of analysis of Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) drawing stock, the methods used
shall be agreed between the disputing parties.

In cases of dispute concerning the results of analysis of drawing stock in grades other than Cu-ETP1
(CW003A), the method(s) of analysis to be used shall be agreed between the supplier, the purchaser and if
necessary, any mutually accepted arbitrator, and shall be for all impurities for which limits are specified in
Tables 1 to 4.

For expression of results, the rounding rules given in 8.7 shall be used.

8.2 Elongation

The elongation shall be determined on a test piece cut from the sampling unit of drawing stock obtained in
accordance with 7.4 or 7.5 as appropriate. The test shall be on the full cross-section of the drawing stock
using the tensile testing method given in EN ISO 6892-1.

The load shall be applied gradually and uniformly to a straightened length of the sampling unit. An original
gauge length of 200 mm shall be used. The rate of separation of the crossheads of the machine shall not be in
excess of 240 mm/min.

At the completion of the test, the measured elongation value shall be valid, whatever the position of the
fracture, if the minimum specified value is achieved. If the minimum value is not reached, the determination
shall only be considered valid if the fracture occurs between the gauge marks and is not closer than 25 mm to
either mark.

For expression of results, the rounding rules given in 8.7 shall be used.

8.3 Electrical resistivity

The volume resistivity, corrected to 20 °C, shall be determined on the sampling unit of drawing stock obtained
in accordance with 7.4 or 7.5, as appropriate, either;

a) by direct measurement on a cleaned sampling unit of the drawing stock; or


Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

b) by measurement on a length of wire which has been drawn from the sampling unit to 2,00 mm ± 0,01 mm
diameter, coiled to a diameter of not less than 200 mm and annealed in an inert atmosphere at
500 °C ± 10 °C for not less than 30 min.

The volume resistivity shall be determined by one of the methods given in IEC 60468. The routine method
shall normally be used. In cases of dispute, however, the reference method shall be used.

For expression of results, the rounding rules given in 8.7 shall be used.
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NOTE Information on the relationships between volume resistivity and conductivity are given in Annex A.

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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

8.4 Annealability

Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, the producer can choose between the AR-Test method
described in Annex B and the standard method given in EN 12893, in order to secure the annealability of the
finished drawing stock.

If the AR-Test result is less than 20 %, or in case of controversy, the spiral elongation test method given in
EN 12893 shall be used as the reference method on the sampling unit obtained in accordance with 7.3.

NOTE Annealability testing is applicable to grade Cu-ETP1 (CW003A) only.

8.5 Hydrogen embrittlement

The sampling unit of the drawing stock obtained in accordance with 7.5 shall be heated in a hydrogen
atmosphere, quenched in water, and assessed for hydrogen embrittlement, all in accordance with the method
given in EN ISO 2626.

NOTE The hydrogen embrittlement test is not applicable to grades Cu-ETP1 (CW003A), Cu-ETP (CW004A),
Cu-FRHC (CW005A), CuAg0,04 (CW011A), CuAg0,07 (CW012A) and CuAg0,10 (CW013A) (see Table 5).

For drawing stock in grades Cu-OFE (CW009A) and Cu-PHCE (CW022A), the reverse bend test piece shall
be used and the assessment of embrittlement shall be by the reverse bend test (10 reversals), followed by
visual examination for cracks, all in accordance with EN ISO 2626.

For drawing stock in all other grades for which the test is applicable, the close-bend test piece shall be used,
and the assessment of embrittlement shall be by the close-bend test, followed by visual examination for
cracks, all in accordance with EN ISO 2626.

8.6 Scale adhesion

The scale adhesion test method given in ISO 4746 shall be used on the sampling unit obtained in accordance
with 7.5.

NOTE Scale adhesion testing is applicable to grade Cu-OFE (CW009A) only.

8.7 Rounding of results

For the purpose of determining conformity to the limits specified in this standard for composition, elongation or
electrical resistivity, an observed or a calculated value obtained from a test shall be rounded in accordance
with the following procedure, which is based upon the guidance given in Annex B of ISO 80000-1:2009. It
shall be rounded in one step to the same number of figures used to express the specified limit in this standard,
except that for elongation the rounding interval shall be 0,5 %.

The following rules shall be used for rounding:

a) if the figure immediately after the last figure to be retained is less than 5, the last figure to be retained
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

shall be kept unchanged;

b) if the figure immediately after the last figure to be retained is equal to or greater than 5, the last figure to
be retained shall be increased by one.

9 Declaration of conformity and inspection documentation

9.1 Declaration of conformity

When requested by the purchaser [see 5 j)] and agreed with the supplier, the supplier shall issue for the
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product the appropriate declaration of conformity in accordance with EN 1655.

16
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

9.2 Inspection documentation

When requested by the purchaser [see 5 k)] and agreed with the supplier, the supplier shall issue for the
product the appropriate inspection document in accordance with EN 10204.

10 Marking
Coils shall be marked individually, or otherwise identified with the following information:

a) the manufacturer's name, brand or trademark;

b) the number of this standard (EN 1977) and the grade designation for the material;

c) coils made by continuous casting and rolling shall also be identified with the coil production number and
the date of manufacture;

d) the net mass of the coil.

Any requirement for additional marking of coils shall be agreed between the purchaser and the supplier.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Annex A
(informative)

Information on electrical resistivity and conductivity relationships

A.1 Volume resistivity


The greatest use of copper drawing stock is for manufacturing electrical conductor wire that is drawn to close
dimensional tolerances (usually round). Therefore volume resistivity (resistance of a cross-section per unit
length) is the property most usually determined. Volume resistivity is therefore the mandatory property in this
European Standard.

For irregular sections, or in cases where the actual cross-sectional area is difficult to determine, mass
resistivity can be calculated from the resistance, mass and length of a sampling unit. If the density of the
sampling unit is known to be close to the density of standard copper, this method is an acceptable alternative
to volume resistivity.

In cases where the density is unknown or known to vary greatly, it is essential that the actual density of the
sample be determined in order to obtain the required accuracy of the value of resistivity.

A.2 Standard annealed copper (IACS)


IEC 60028 establishes a fixed value for the resistance to flow of an electric current within an imaginary "standard"
annealed copper. This is based on a volume resistivity of 1/58 µΩ∙m or 0,017 241 µΩ∙m at 20 °C. The introduction
of the International ohm in 1948 altered the volume resistivity of standard annealed copper by only 0,049 %.

The standard annealed copper is also allotted a density of 8 890 kg/m3 (8,89 g/cm3).

Hence, as the mass resistivity is the product of the volume resistivity and the density, the mass resistivity of
standard annealed copper is 0,153 28 Ω∙g/m2.

A.3 Commercial annealed copper


IEC 60028 states that “the (electrical) conductivity of commercial annealed copper shall be expressed as a
percentage, at 20 °C, of that of standard annealed copper given to approximately 0,1 %” on the assumption
that “the density of commercial annealed copper at 20 °C is 8,89 g/cm3”.

A.4 Nominal mass resistivity


The density of commercial copper varies with small changes in composition, particularly oxygen content.
Thus, true mass resistivity can only be calculated from a measured volume resistivity if the true density of the
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

particular sample is known or is measured to the requisite degree of accuracy, i.e. better than 0,1 %.

For general purposes, however, a nominal mass resistivity may be calculated using the density of
8 890 kg/m3, as referred to in A.2 (this practice has been adopted in Table 6 of this European Standard in
presenting values for nominal mass resistivity and for nominal conductivity corresponding to the mandatory
volume resistivity).
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EN 1977:2013 (E)

A.5 Differences between measured and nominal values


If true mass resistivity or true conductivity is required from measured volume resistivity and therefore actual
density is used in calculation, differences of up to 0,6 % (for example for oxygen-free coppers) may result
between these values and the corresponding nominal values.

Conductivity calculated from the ratio of the mass resistivity of standard annealed copper (0,153 28 Ω ∙ g/m2)
to the derived mass resistivity may also exhibit a similar disparity.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Annex B
(normative)

Rapid Elongation Test method (AR-Test) for


diameter 8 mm Cu-ETP1 wire rod

B.1 General
The test described in this annex is a short and fast method to obtain a good approximation for the
annealability. It is applicable for diameter 8 mm copper wire rod grade Cu-ETP1 only. It is based on the
essays that producers apply to perform a routine test according to their experience.

B.2 Procedure

B.2.1 Sampling and preparation of the test sample

The frequency of sampling shall be in accordance with Table 8 of this European Standard.

The sample shall be drawn down to diameter 6,30 mm ± 0,02 mm in one drawing step. In case of using a
drawing drum, the drum should have a minimum diameter of 400 mm.

The pointing zones at the ends of the wire shall be discarded. The length of the test sample excluding the
pointing zone shall be 270 mm.

The sampling and preparation parameters, tolerances and remarks are described in Table B.1, Steps 1, 2
and 3.

B.2.2 Annealing procedure

The exact handling of the annealing procedure is the key factor to obtain exact and repeatable results.

The main parameters are: 260 °C ± 1 °C annealing temperature and 480 s ± 2 s annealing time.

After this period in the silicon oil or salt bath, the annealing agent shall be removed within 5 s and then the
sample shall be quenched in water at room temperature.

It is allowed to anneal up to three samples at the same time in a minimum of 20 l of annealing agent.

The annealing and quenching parameters, tolerances and remarks are described in Table B.1, Steps 4 and 5.

B.2.3 Tension test


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Tension test shall be done in accordance to the requirements of EN ISO 6892-1.

The measuring length is 200 mm and the distance between the clamps 220 mm.

The elongation A200 in percent is equal to the AR-value.

The elongation parameters, tolerances and remarks are described in Table B.1, Step 6.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Table B.1 —Parameters for the AR-Test procedure

Step Description Parameter Value Tolerance Remarks

Take sample of
1 diameter 8 mm Nominal diameter 8,00 mm ± 0,4 mm
wire rod

According to the
Drawing speed
producer machine test.
One single drawing Diameter Horizontal drawing can
step to obtain Drawing drum
2 min. 400 mm be used.
diameter 6,30 mm
wire Lubrication Grease
Nominal diameter of
6,30 mm ± 0,02 mm
final wire
Sample preparation Discard length Pointing zone
3 at diameter
6,30 mm Sample length 270 mm

Oven annealing agent


20 l Minimum capacity
capacity
Silicon oil or According to the
Bath type
salt bath producer.
Controlled by a
Annealing temperature 260 ºC ± 1 ºC calibrated thermometer
(very critical).
4 Hot annealing According to the
Bath stirrer
producer.
Starting when the
sample is covered with
Annealing time 480 s ±2s
the liquid and ending
when leaving the bath.
At the air, to remove
Drying 5s
liquid from the sample.

Quenching
15 ºC to 25 ºC Room temperature
temperature
5 Sample quenching
Water or cleaning
Quenching media
agent
According to
Sample preparation
EN ISO 6892-1:
and test procedure
2009, Annex D

Elongation type A200


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Test temperature 15 ºC to 25 ºC Room temperature

6 Elongation test According to


Test speed EN ISO 6892-1:
2009
Distance between
220 mm
clamps
Measuring length 200 mm
Measurement Manual
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

B.3 Test results


The AR-value (elongation A200) of the annealed 6,3 mm wire shall be at least 20 %. In the case the result of
the AR is below 20 %, the spiral elongation number (S.E.N.) of the original wire rod shall be determined
according to EN 12893.
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DIN EN 1977:2013-04
EN 1977:2013 (E)

Bibliography

[1] EN 1412, Copper and copper alloys — European numbering system

[2] IEC 60028, International standard of resistance for copper

[3] ISO 80000-1:2009, Quantities and units — Part 1: General

[4] ISO 1190-1, Copper and copper alloys — Code of designation — Part 1: Designation of materials
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D EUTSCHE NORM May 1998
Copper and copper alloys
Copper cathodes {
English version of DIN EN 1978 EN 1978
ICS 77.150.30 This standard, together
with DIN EN 1976,
Descriptors: Copper, cathodes. May 1998 edition,
supersedes DIN 1708,
January 1973 edition.
Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen – Kupfer-Kathoden

European Standard EN 1978 : 1998 has the status of a DIN Standard.

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 133.
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuß Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee).

Amendments
DIN 1708, January 1973 edition, has been superseded by the specifications of EN 1978.

Previous editions
DIN 1708: 1925-04, 1935-10, 1941-02, 1953-07, 1960-09, 1973-01.
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EN comprises 17 pages.
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© No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN EN 1978 : 1998-05
DIN Deutsches
Copper 1 : Basic standards Institutedited
Testing standards, für Normung e.V.,
by e.V. DIN, Berlin.
Beuth English price group 09
Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211. Sales No. 1109
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on 2018-05-18 D-10772 Berlin, has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
02:17:44. 10.98
EN 1978

March 1998

ICS 77.150.30
Descriptors: Copper, cathodes.

English version

Copper and copper alloys


Copper cathodes

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre – Catho- Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


des en cuivre Kupfer-Kathoden

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1998-02-28.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any
CEN member.
The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the
same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
and the United Kingdom.
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ÈÉË
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels


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© 1998. CEN – All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 1978 : 1998 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national members.

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EN 1978 : 1998
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EN 1978 : 1998
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D EUTSCHE NORM May 2003

Copper and copper alloys {


Master alloys
English version of DIN EN 1981 EN 1981
ICS 77.120.30 Supersedes August 1998 edition.

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen – Vorlegierungen

European Standard EN 1981 : 2003 has the status of a DIN Standard.

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 133 ‘Copper and copper alloys’ (Secretariat: Germany).
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Technical Committee Gusslegierungen.

Amendments
See Foreword on page 3.

Previous editions
DIN 17657: 1973-03; DIN EN 1981: 1998-08.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Continued overleaf.
EN comprises 12 pages.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

© No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN EN 1981 : 2003-05
DIN Deutsches
Copper 1 : Basic standards Institutedited
Testing standards, für Normung e. V.,
by e.V. DIN, Berlin.
Beuth Beuth
Verlag, 2015.Verlag GmbH,
ProQuest Ebook10772 Berlin,
Central, Germany, English price group 09
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211. Sales No. 1109
Created from vimaru-vnhas
on the exclusive
2018-05-18 right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
02:20:15. 09.03
EN 1981

February 2003

ICS 77.120.30 Supersedes EN 1981 : 1998.


Descriptors:

English version

Copper and copper alloys


Master alloys

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre – Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Alliages-mères Vorlegierungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2002-11-28.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national stand-
ards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any
CEN member.
The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has
the same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

|
ÈÉË
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Management Centre: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels


7541014/10787806875Biblio

© 2003. CEN – All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 1981 : 2003 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national members.

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Page 2
EN 1981 : 2003

Page

3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
12
12
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EN 1981 : 2003
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EN 1981 : 2003
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EN 1981 : 2003
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D EUTSCHE NORM March 1999

Copper and copper alloys {


Determination of spring bending limit on strip
English version of DIN EN 12384 EN 12384
ICS 77.150.30 Supersedes DIN 50151,
July 1987 edition.
Descriptors: Copper, strip, spring bending limit, testing.

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen – Bestimmung der Federbiegegrenze


von Bändern

European Standard EN 12384 : 1999 has the status of a DIN Standard.

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 133.
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuß Nichteisenmetalle (Non-
ferrous Metals Standards Committee), Technical Committee Bänder und Bleche für allgemeine Verwendung,
Federn und Systemträger.

Amendments
DIN 50151, July 1987 edition, has been superseded by the specifications of DIN EN 12384.

Previous editions
DIN 50151: 1957-07, 1987-07.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EN comprises 11 pages.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

© No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN EN 12384 : 1999-03
DIN Deutsches
Copper 1 : Basic standards Institutedited
Testing standards, für Normung e. V.,
by e.V. DIN, Berlin.
Beuth English price group 09
Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211. Sales No. 1109
Created from vimaru-vnBeuth Verlag GmbH,
on 2018-05-18 D-10772 Berlin, has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
02:20:33. 08.99
EN 12384

January 1999

ICS 77.150.30
Descriptors: Copper, strip, spring bending limit, testing.

English version

Copper and copper alloys


Determination of spring bending limit on strip

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre – Déter- Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


mination de la limite élastique en Bestimmung der Federbiegegrenze
flexion de bande von Bändern

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1998-12-13.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national stand-
ards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN
member.
The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the
same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
and the United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

ÈÉË
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels


7541014/10787806875Biblio

© 1999. CEN – All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 12384 : 1999 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national members.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211.
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Page 2
EN 12384 : 1999

2 6
6
3 6

3 6
6
3
7
4 7

4 8

4 8
4
5
5 9
5
5 11

6
6
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EN 12384 : 1999
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EN 12384 : 1999
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EN 12384 : 1999
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EN 12384 : 1999
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EN 12384 : 1999
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EN 12384 : 1999
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EN 12384 : 1999
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

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EN 12384 : 1999
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D EUTSCHE NORM October 1999

Copper and copper alloys – Scrap {


English version of DIN EN 12861
EN 12861
ICS 77.150.30

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen – Schrotte

European Standard EN 12861 : 1999 has the status of a DIN Standard.

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 133.
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuß Nichteisenmetalle (Non-
ferrous Metals Standards Committee), Technical Committee Schrotte.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EN comprises 27 pages.
7541014/10787806875Biblio

© No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN EN 12861 : 1999-10
DIN Deutsches
Copper 1 : Basic standards Institutedited
Testing standards, für Normung e. V.,
by e.V. DIN, Berlin.
Beuth English price group 14
Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211. Sales No. 1114
Created from vimaru-vnBeuth Verlag GmbH,
on 2018-05-18 D-10772 Berlin, has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
02:20:52. 03.00
EN 12861

July 1999

ICS 77.150.30

English version

Copper and copper alloys – Scrap

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre – Scrappes Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Schrotte

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1999-07-01.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national stand-
ards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN
member.
The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the
same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
and the United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

ÈÉË
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels


7541014/10787806875Biblio

© 1999. CEN – All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 12861 : 1999 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national members.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211.
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Page 2
EN 12861 : 1999

2 8
8
3 8
9
3 11
11
3
11
5
5 11
5
12
6
20
6
6 26
6
6
7 27
7
7
7
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EN 12861 : 1999
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Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:20:52.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.
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EN 12861 : 1999
Page 10
Inspection of
incoming
material

Inspection for
radioactivity
Call
Consignment
No authorities
within national
regulations

Yes

Visual inspec-
tion and gross
mass determi-
nation
Acceptance
after agree-
ment between
the purchaser
Acceptance and the Rejection
of the supplier with of the
consignment No No consignment
respect to the
requirements 1)
Yes

Acceptance
Net weight End of
without further
Yes determination inspection
testing

No

Determination Determination Determination Determination Determination Determination


Determination Determination
of the amount of foreign of the size/ of the metal of the metal of the
of “free iron” 2) of moisture 2)
of insulation 2) substances 2) diameter 2) yield 2) content 2) composition 2)
7541014/10787806875Biblio

1 ) For the limits see 7.2.


2 ) Refer to table 1 for applicable methods.
Figure 1: Inspection of incoming material
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D EUTSCHE NORM July 2001

Copper and copper alloys {


Determination of residual stresses in the border area of slit strip
English version of DIN EN 13147 EN 13147
ICS 77.150.30

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen – Bestimmung von Restspannungen im Schnittkantenbereich von Bändern

European Standard EN 13147 : 2001 has the status of a DIN Standard.

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 133 ‘Copper and copper alloys’ (Secretariat: Germany).
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Technical Committee Walzerzeugnisse.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Continued overleaf.
EN comprises 12 pages.
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© No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN EN 13147 : 2001-07
DIN Deutsches
Copper 1 : Basic standards Institutedited
Testing standards, für Normung e. V.,
by e.V. DIN, Berlin.
Beuth Beuth
Verlag, 2015.Verlag GmbH,
ProQuest Ebook10772 Berlin,
Central, Germany, English price group 08
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Created from vimaru-vnhas
on the exclusive
2018-05-18 right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
02:21:08. 12.01
EN 13147
April 2001

ICS 77.150.30
Descriptors:

English version

Copper and copper alloys


Determination of residual stresses in the border area of slit strip

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre – Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Détermination des contraintes Bestimmung von Restspannungen im
résiduelles sur les rives des Schnittkantenbereich von Bändern
bandes cisaillées

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2001-03-08.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national stand-
ards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any
CEN member.
The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has
the same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
and the United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

|
ÈÉË
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Management Centre: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels


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© 2001. CEN – All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 13147 : 2001 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national members.

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Page 2
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2 5

3 7
7
3 7
7
3 9
10
3
11
4
4
4 11
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August 2013

DIN EN 13603
D
ICS 25.220.40; 77.150.30 Supersedes
DIN EN 13603:2002-07

Copper and copper alloys –


Test methods for assessing protective tin coatings on drawn round
copper wire for electrical purposes;
English version EN 13603:2013,
English translation of DIN EN 13603:2013-08

Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen –


Prüfverfahren zur Beurteilung von Schutzüberzügen aus Zinn auf gezogenen
Runddrähten aus Kupfer für die Anwendung in der Elektrotechnik;
Englische Fassung EN 13603:2013,
Englische Übersetzung von DIN EN 13603:2013-08
Cuivre et alliages de cuivre –
Méthodes d’évaluation des revêtements en étain sur les fils ronds étirés en cuivre pour
usages électriques;
Version anglaise EN 13603:2013,
Traduction anglaise de DIN EN 13603:2013-08
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Document comprises 17 pages


7541014/10787806875Biblio

Translation by DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original shall be considered authoritative.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing


©
No part of this translation may be reproduced without prior permission of
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany,
standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest
has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen). Ebook Central,
English price group 10
www.din.de !%(6~"
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211.
Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:25:06. www.beuth.de 07.13 2051991
DIN EN 13603:2013-08

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This document (EN 13603:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and
copper alloys” (Secretariat: DIN, Germany).

The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Nichteisenmetalle
(Nonferrous Metals Standards Committee), Working Committee NA 066-02-04 AA Strangpress- und
Zieherzeugnisse.

Amendments

This standard differs from DIN EN 13603:2002-07 as follows:

a) the standard has been editorially revised.

Previous editions

DIN EN 13603: 2002-07


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 13603
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM June 2013

ICS 25.220.40; 77.150.30 Supersedes EN 13603:2002

English Version

Copper and copper alloys - Test methods for assessing


protective tin coatings on drawn round copper wire for electrical
purposes

Cuivre et alliages de cuivre - Méthodes d'évaluation des Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Prüfverfahren zur
revêtements en étain sur les fils ronds étirés en cuivre pour Beurteilung von Schutzüberzügen aus Zinn auf gezogenen
usages électriques Runddrähten aus Kupfer für die Anwendung in der
Elektrotechnik

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 25 April 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United
Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels


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© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13603:2013: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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DIN EN 13603:2013-08
EN 13603:2013 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4
2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................4
3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................4
4 Thickness of the unalloyed tin coating ...............................................................................................4
5 Continuity of the tin coating .............................................................................................................. 10
6 Adherence of the tin coating ............................................................................................................. 12
7 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 14
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

Figures
Figure 1 — Alternative method for supporting fine wire or wire which cannot be straightened .......................... 6

Figure 2 — Preparation of the test piece ........................................................................................................... 13

Tables
Table 1 — Test parameters ............................................................................................................................... 11
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DIN EN 13603:2013-08
EN 13603:2013 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 13603:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 “Copper and
copper”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn
at the latest by December 2013.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 13603:2002.

In comparison with EN 13603:2002, the following changes have been made:

 Editorial modifications.

Within its programme of work, Technical Committee CEN/TC 133 requested CEN/TC 133/WG 4 "Extruded
and drawn products, forgings and scrap" to prepare the revision of the following standard:

EN 13603:2002, Copper and copper alloys — Test methods for assessing protective tin coatings on drawn
round copper wire for electrical purposes

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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DIN EN 13603:2013-08
EN 13603:2013 (E)

1 Scope

This European Standard specifies methods for assessing the tin coating on drawn round copper wire for the
manufacture of electrical conductors, e.g. according to EN 13602.

This European Standard includes test methods for the determination of the following characteristics:

a) thickness of the unalloyed tin coating;

b) continuity of the tin coating;

c) adherence of the tin coating.

WARNING — This European Standard can involve the use of hazardous materials, operations, and
equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with their
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2 Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 610, Tin and tin alloys — Ingot tin

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
unalloyed tin coating
layer of pure tin on the surface of tinned wire

3.2
alloyed tin coating
diffusion layer of copper and tin formed at the copper wire and tin coating interface during tinning and
subsequent drawing and annealing processes

3.3
total tin coating
sum of the thicknesses of the unalloyed tin coating and the alloyed tin coating
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

3.4
measuring area
area of the surface over which a single measurement is made

4 Thickness of the unalloyed tin coating

4.1 Principle
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Anodic dissolution of a well-defined area of the unalloyed coating using a suitable electrolyte, followed by
detection of the virtually complete dissolution of the unalloyed coating by a rapid change in cell voltage.

4
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DIN EN 13603:2013-08
EN 13603:2013 (E)

Calculation of the unalloyed coating thickness from the quantity of electricity (in coulombs) used, which can in
turn be calculated from:

a) the time interval between the start of the test and the first rapid change of cell voltage, if it is conducted at
constant current density; or

b) the integrated quantity of electricity used in dissolving the unalloyed coating.

4.2 Reagents and materials

4.2.1 Electrolyte, either a hydrochloric acid electrolyte or an electrolyte recommended by the instrument
manufacturer.

For the hydrochloric acid electrolyte, dilute 170 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl), ρ = 1,18 g/ml, to 1 000 ml with
deionised water.

NOTE The unalloyed tin coating dissolves anodically at an efficiency of nearly 100 %; for determination of the
electrolyte efficiency, see 4.5.6.

WARNING — Hydrochloric acid causes burns and is irritating to the respiratory system. Avoid
breathing the vapour and prevent contact with eyes and skin.

This electrolyte dissolves tin coatings at very low cell voltages at which there is no anodic attack on the
substrates when they are exposed at the end of the test.

4.2.2 Tin, tin grade in accordance with EN 610.

4.3 Apparatus

Suitable instruments may be constructed from readily available components. Alternatively, a proprietary
instrument may be used.

4.3.1 Direct reading instruments

Proprietary direct reading instruments are available for use with electrolytes recommended by the manufacturer.

The calculation of thickness of tin coating from current density is made electronically. The instrument shall have
some means of indicating when the unalloyed tin coating has been fully removed.

4.3.2 Other instruments

Instruments other than proprietary direct reading instruments record the quantity of electricity, in coulombs, used
in dissolving the unalloyed coating from the measuring area, usually in arbitrary units, from which the thickness
can be calculated using factors or tables.
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

4.3.3 Electrolytic cell

The electrolytic cell consists of a container for the electrolyte, a cathode and an anode, which is the test sample.
If the container is made of metal, such as stainless steel, the container can serve as the cathode. If the container
is made of insulating material, a separate cathode is required.

Also required are a device for supporting the appropriate length of the test sample and an agitation mechanism.
Depending on the wire diameter, the test sample may be a straight length of wire or, if necessary to obtain
sufficient surface area for smaller diameter wires, a holding device such as that shown schematically in Figure 1
is required. A magnetic stirrer or similar system shall be used to provide agitation.
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DIN EN 13603:2013-08
EN 13603:2013 (E)

Key
1 tee-frame to support test piece of non-conducting material, manufactured from nylon or other plastics
2 test piece
3 test piece connection (anode)
4 cathode connection
5 electrolyte level
6 test piece length L
7 electrolyte
8 non-metallic pin
9 cathode (stainless steel or lead), container (beaker)

Figure 1 — Alternative method for supporting fine wire or wire which cannot be straightened

4.4 Preparation of the test piece

Select a suitable length of test sample in order to provide the appropriate test piece area for exposure to the
electrolyte. If necessary, clean the test surface with a suitable organic solvent (see 4.5.4.5).

Care should be taken to avoid removal of metal during the cleaning operation.

4.5 Procedure for determining the thickness of unalloyed tin coatings

4.5.1 General
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If commercial equipment is used, follow the manufacturer's instructions with respect to the operating procedure
for measurement, the electrolyte and, if necessary, calibration. Appropriate attention shall be given to the factors
listed in 4.5.4. The performance of the instrument shall be checked using a reference specimen of pure tin wire.
A tin grade in accordance with EN 610 shall be used. The test shall be carried out in accordance with 4.5.6.

If the instrument readings or the calculation of K give an electrolytic efficiency of equal to or greater than 98 %,
the instrument may be used without further adjustment. Otherwise, the cause of discrepancy shall be
remedied. Proprietary instruments shall be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
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DIN EN 13603:2013-08
EN 13603:2013 (E)

4.5.2 Determination of measuring area

For the determination of the measuring area, the length L of the test piece in millimetres shall be determined
with an accuracy of 1 % and the diameter d of the test piece for wires with a nominal diameter of < 0,6 mm
shall be determined with an accuracy of 1 % and for wires with a nominal diameter of ≥ 0,6 mm with an
accuracy of 0,5 %. The measuring area A in square centimetres is given by the Formula (1):

d × L ×π
A= (1)
100

NOTE An exact area of stripping is necessary for accuracy and the main source of error is due to the meniscus and
current field at the electrolyte surface.

4.5.3 Electrolysis (Dissolution of the unalloyed tin coating)

The electrolyte (4.2.1) and test piece shall be introduced into the cell so that a known area is exposed to the
electrolyte. Efforts shall be made to ensure that no gas bubbles occur on the measuring area by use of the
agitation mechanism. The electrical connections shall be made and the agitator operated. Electrolysis shall be
continued until dissolution of the unalloyed tin coating is complete, as indicated by a sharp change in the anode
potential or cell voltage, or by the operation of the automatic cut-out.

After completion of the test, the test piece shall be removed from the cell, rinsed with water and examined to
ensure that complete removal of the unalloyed tin coating has occurred over the measuring area (see 4.5.4.9).

4.5.4 Factors affecting the measuring accuracy

4.5.4.1 Coating thickness

The optimum accuracy is achieved with coating thicknesses in the range 0,2 μm up to 50 μm.

4.5.4.2 Current variation

For instruments using the constant current and time measuring technique, current variation will cause errors. For
instruments using a current-time integrator, too large a change in current can change the anode current
efficiency or interfere with the end-point, causing an error.

4.5.4.3 Area variation

The accuracy of the thickness measurement will be no better than the accuracy to which the measuring area is
known. Area variations due to electrolyte level (excessive agitation), can lead to measurement errors. In some
cases it can be advantageous to measure the length after electrolysis is complete and re-calculate the area.

4.5.4.4 Agitation
Copyright © 2015. Beuth Verlag. All rights reserved.

Agitation (i.e. the rate of stirring) shall be sufficient to remove any gas bubbles formed during the test, which can
adhere to the test piece or cathode. Excessive agitation shall be avoided to prevent interference with the length
of test piece submerged.

4.5.4.5 Condition of the test piece surface

Oil, grease, paint, corrosion products, staining or other surface chemical treatments can interfere with the test.

4.5.4.6 Cleanliness of the cell


7541014/10787806875Biblio

Deposition of tin can take place on the cathode in some electrolytes. This deposit can alter the cell voltages. It is,
therefore, essential to keep the cathode clean.

Copper 1 : Basic standards Testing standards, edited by e.V. DIN, Beuth Verlag, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/vimaru-vn/detail.action?docID=2051211. 7
Created from vimaru-vn on 2018-05-18 02:25:06.
DIN EN 13603:2013-08
EN 13603:2013 (E)

4.5.4.7 Cleanliness of the electrical connections

In the case of instruments other than the constant current type, if the electrical connections are not clean, the
current/potential relationship will be disturbed and false end-points obtained.

4.5.4.8 Calibration standards

Measurements made using calibration standards are subject to the additional error of the calibration standards.

4.5.4.9 Non-uniform dissolution

If the rate of dissolution is not uniform over the measuring area, a premature end-point can be obtained and yield
low results. Examination of the surface shall be made after the test (see 4.5.3) to verify that most of the coating
has dissolved.

The presence of other matter in the coating, the roughness of the coating surface and the presence of porosity in
the coating can cause fluctuation of the cell voltage. Such fluctuation can affect the end-point.

4.5.4.10 Electrolyte efficiency

The determination of tin thickness by this method depends upon the efficiency of the electrolyte K being at least
98 %. The value of K should be determined periodically (see 4.5.6).

4.5.5 Measurement uncertainty

The test equipment and the procedure shall be such that the coating thickness can be measured to within a
5,0 % uncertainty under the following conditions: