0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

1 (de) vizualizări9 paginiSep 10, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

1 (de) vizualizări

© All Rights Reserved

- Analysis
- Portal Method
- Design of Guide Wall-rev 1 Latest
- Lecture 7 - Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram 1
- Girder Design
- Bm and Shear Force
- Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials-Transverse Shear 1
- Bridge Abutment Design Example
- Finalterm Exam
- lec14_4.pdf
- CW_fuselage (2).docx
- proiect beton.docx
- 229734750-ES-02-Courbon-Engesser-Methods.pdf
- influence lines for static
- SA2 Ques papers.pdf
- CHAPTER 03 pdf 01.pdf
- Slab HP B=44
- Structural Performance of Steel Concrete Composite Deck for Steel Box Girder Bridges
- Diagramas.
- Motores qubicaamf

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

Pages: 22-30

www.ijemr.net

E.Vijaya Kumar

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Siddhartha Institute of Technology & Sciences, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad, INDIA

ABSTRACT

The paper deals with the Design and analysis of shaft and rotor assembly for hammer mill crusher of capacity 0.1

(100kg/hr) tones per hour transmitting 20 B.H.P and a speed of 750 rpm. The design is based on the standard design procedure.

In the present work by using the standard design procedure, diameter of rotor shaft of hammer mill crusher has been designed. The

design should be safe when the values obtained from the present design procedure were compared with the values and results

obtained from the analysis using Ansys package.

When the shaft is rotated at rated speed (rpm) and the loads applied to the shaft it should not bend during rotation. When

the shaft is rotated under free conditions, deflections will be created due to the critical speed of the shaft.

To compare this deflection shaft was designed such that the natural frequency and speed is under limits. In this project the shaft and

rotor assembly of hammer mill crusher was modeled using Pro-e modeling package and the FEM model of the shaft was developed

using Ansys package. Meshing of the shaft model was done and the loads, stresses that were applied for the shaft to be checked out

that the design should be safe one.

coal. Coal enters from the top and is violently

A crusher is a machine designed to thrown against the breaker blocks by the

reduce large solid material objects into a smaller hammers. The final crushing is done between the

volume, or smaller pieces. Crushers may be used hammer faces and the screen bars. Then the

to reduce the size, or change the form, of waste crushed coal goes to the conveyors below and is

materials so they can be more easily disposed of carried to the storage bunker. Tramp iron or

or recycled, or to reduce the size of a solid mix material that will not go out between the screen

of raw materials (as in rock ore), so that pieces of bars is dropped into the iron pocket and is later

different composition can be differentiated. removed. The final crushing is done between the

Crushing is the process of transferring a force hammer faces and the screen bars. Then the

amplified by mechanical advantage through a crushed coal goes to the conveyors below and is

material made of molecules that bond together carried to the storage bunker. Tramp iron or

more strongly, and resist deformation more, than material that will not go out between the screen

those in the material being crushed do. Crushing bars is dropped into the iron pocket and is later

devices hold material between two parallel removed.

or tangent solid surfaces, and apply sufficient Hammer mill features:

force to bring the surfaces together to generate Material is reduced by impact from

enough energy within the material being crushed free-swinging bar hammers

so that its molecules separate from (fracturing), Finished Product size controlled by

or change alignment in relation to (deformation), grates or crusher sizes

each other. The earliest crushers were hand-held Materials can be reduced to granular

stones, where the weight of the stone provided a powder at high rate.

boost to muscle power, used against a stone Heavy-duty cast-iron or carbon steel

anvil. Querns and mortars are types of these construction

crushing devices. Right-hand or left-hand machine

available

II. WORKING OF MACHINE Easy access for maintenance and

crusher/grate change

When coal is delivered to the hammer mill

crusher, it is prepared for cyclone furnace firing Applications of Hammer mill crushers:

22

Material used for Shafts:

Recycling glass

The material used for shafts should have the

Feed industry

following properties:

Stone crushing

1. It should have high strength

Size reduction of waste materials

2. It should have good machinability.

Electronics recycling

3. It should have low notch sensitivity.

Ceramics

4. It should have good heat treatment

Pulverization of sea shells

property.

Minerals

5. It should have high wear resistant

Wood particles for fuel wood

property.

Limestone

Depending on the requirement, the shafts can be

made of plain carbon steel or alloy steel.

III. DESIGN OF SHAFT Designing of Shafts:

A shaft is a rotating machine element, The shafts may be designed on the basis of

which is used to transmit power from one place 1) Strength and 2) rigidity and stiffness

to another. The power is delivered to the shaft by In designing shafts on the basis of strength, the

some tangential force and the resultant torque (or following cases may be considered:

twisting moment) set up within the shaft permits 1) Shafts subjected to twisting moment or

the power to be transferred to various machine torque only.

linked up to the shaft. 2) Shafts subjected to bending moment

The following stresses are induced in the only.

shafts: 3) Shafts subjected to combined twisting

1. Shear stresses due to the transmission of and bending moment

torque (i.e. due to torsional load). 4) Shafts subjected to axial loads in

2. Bending stresses (tensile or addition to combined torsion &

compressive) due to the forces acting bending loads

upon machine element like gears,

pulleys etc. Shafts subjected to twisting moment or

3. Stresses due to combined torsional and torque only:

bending loads. When the shaft is subjected to twisting

moment (or torque) only, then the diameter of

the shaft may be obtained by using the torsion

IV. CLASSIFICATION OF equation. We know that

SHAFTS

Shafts involved in power transmission may be

Where,

classified as T=Twisting moment acting on the shaft,

1) Transmission shafts are used to transmit J=Polar moment of inertia of the shaft

power between source and the machines using about the axis of rotation,

the power. They include line shafts, jackshafts F s =Torsional shear stress, and

and counter shafts. r=Distance from neutral axis to the outer

i) Line shaft is a long continuous most fiber

shaft, which receives power from =d/2 where

the source and distribute to We know for round solid shaft, polar moment of

different machines. inertia,

ii) Jackshaft is directly connected to

the source of power and from

which other shafts are driven.

iii) Counter shafts receive power from The equation may be written as

line shaft and transmit to a T/πd4= 2f s /32d

machine. T = f s πd3/ 16

Twisting moment (T) may be obtain by the

2) Machine Shafts are incorporated within the

following relation:

machine, such as crank shaft

23

In S.I units, power transmitted (in watts) by the 1) Guest’s Theory: According to maximum

shaft, shear stress theory the maximum shear stress due

to combined load is

Let

P=2πNT/60 or

f s = Shear stress induced to

T=(P х 60)/2πN

twisting moment

Where,

f b = bending stress (tensile or

T=Twisting moment in N-m

compressive) induced to Bending moment

N=Speed of the shaft in RPM

According to Maximum shear stress theory, the

In M.K.S units, horse power transmitted by the

maximum shear stress in the shaft

shaft,

P=2πNT/4500

f s ( max) =√[( f b )2 + 4(f s )2]

T=P х 4500/2πN

Where,

Substituting the values of f b & f s as per above

T=Twisting moment in N-m and

equations

N=Speed of the shaft in rpm

πd3 х f s = 16 х √ (M2+T2)

Shafts subjected to bending moment only: f s =√ (32M/ πd3)2+4(16T/ πd3)

When the shaft is subjected to a bending moment

only, then the maximum stress (tensile or 3) Rankine’s Theory: According to

maximum normal stress theory, the

compressive) is given by the bending equation.

We know that maximum normal stress in the shaft

Where, f b = (16/ πd3) х (M+√ (M2+T2))

M=Bending moment, N-mm Shafts subjected to fluctuating loads:

In above equations shafts are subjected to

I=Moment of inertia of cross-sectional

area of the shaft about the constant twisting moment & bending moment

Axis of rotation, mm4 but in actual practice shafts are subjected to

fluctuating torque & bending moments. In order

F b =Bending stress, N/mm2 and

Y=Distance from neutral axis to the to design such shafts like line shaft &counter

outer-most fiber, mm shaft combined shock & fatigue factor to be

We know that, Moment of Inertia, for a round considered for calculating33 twisting moment

solid shaft and bending moment

I = πd4 /64 and Substituting these factors in above equations

y = d/2 For maximum shear stress theory

Substituting these values in the above equation (πd3/16) х f s =√ [(K m хM)2+ (K t хT)2] =T e

Bending Moment M= (πd3 /32) х fb

For maximum normal (tensile or

compressive) theory

Shafts subjected to combined twisting and (πd3/16) х f s = [(K m хM) /2] +√ [(K m хM)

2

+ (K t хT) 2] =M e

bending moment:

Where:

When the shaft is subjected to combined M= Bending Moment

twisting and bending moment then the shaft must f b = Bending stress

be designed on the basis of the two moments T = Twisting moment (Torque)

simultaneously. The maximum induced stress upon the shaft

can be obtained by considering the following f s = Tensional shear stress

theories. K m = Combined shock &

1) Maximum shear stress theory or Guest’s fatigue factor for bending

theory. It is used for ductile materials K t -= Combined shock &

such as mild steel. fatigue factor for twisting

2) Maximum normal stress theory or d = diameter of the shaft

Rankin’s theory. It is used for brittle

materials such as cast iron. Shaft calculations:

24

Given Data: We know

100hp

Π /16 х 650 х d³

• Speed of the shaft =750 rpm =√[(2x54000)²+(2x9549) ²]

2000/384x2.1x10^6x1198.4

• Bending stress =300 kg/cm²

= 0.009246cm

Twisting Moment:

Allowable deflection = L/1500

Power p=2πNT/4500

= 0.11cm

100= (2π х 750 х T)/4500

Factor of safety = Allowable deflection

T=95.49 kg-m (or) 9549 kg-cm / Actual deflection

We know = 0.11/0.009246

T= (π/16) х f s х d³ = 11

9549= π /16 х 650 х d³ Selected diameter of shaft =122.7mm ≈

125mm

d=4.21 cm (or) 42.1mm

V. DESIGN OF BEARINGS

Bending Moment:

supports another moving machine element,

= 4500 х 27 knows as journal. It permits a relative motion

between the contact surfaces of the member,

=54000 kg-cm while carrying the load. The efficiency of the

mechanical system depends to a great extent on

We know the efficiency of its bearings.

A necessity for the efficient working of the

M = (π /32) х f b х d³ bearings is that the running surface should be

adequately supplied with lubricant. For this

54000= π /32 х 300 х d³ purpose the oil is supplied through a lubricating

ring firmly clamped on the shaft at the after end

d=12.2cm (or) 122.3mm and a wiper device fitted in the upper part. This

device, together with correctly formed oil

Combined Bending and Twisting Moment:

grooves in the bearing shells ensure that in

We know that bearings the oil supply is maintained in all

circumstances even at low revolutions.

Π /32 х f b х d³= [M+√M²+T²]/2

VI. SPHERICAL ROLLER

Π /32 х 300 х d³= [54000 +√ (54000²+9549²)]/2

BEARING

d=12.2cm (or) 122.7 m

A spherical bearing is a bearing that

Fluctuating Loads: permits angular rotation about a central point in

25

two orthogonal directions within a specified axial direction only. The outer surface of the

angular limit based on the bearing geometry. inner ring and the inner surface of the outer ring

Typically these bearings support a rotating shaft are collectively considered the raceway and they

in the [bore] of the inner ring that must move not slide against each other, either with a lubricant or

only rotationally, but also at an angle. a maintenance-free based liner. Some spherical

Construction of spherical bearings can be bearings incorporate a rolling element such as a

hydrostatic or strictly mechanical. A spherical race of ball bearings, allowing lower friction.

bearing by itself can consist of an outer ring and The design of this bearing permits radial load

an inner ring and a locking feature that makes the and heavy thrust load in either direction.

inner ring captive within the outer ring in the

Type of bearings used: spherical roller bearings

Selected diameter of the shaft=125mm

N=speed of the shaft=750 r.p.m

L h =nominal/rated speed in hours =10000 hrs, 10hrs per a day heavy shock load

Then life of bearing in millions of revolutions

L=60NL h /106

L= (60 х 750 х 10000)/106

L=4500 millions of revolutions

Where L is life that 90% of a group of apparently identical group of bearings will complete

26

Fig Rotor Assembly with Bearings

BEAM3 is a uni-axial element with tension, compression, and bending capabilities. The element has

three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and rotation about the

nodal z-axis. Other 2-D beam elements are the plastic beam.

2D Beam Analysis:

3D Shaft Analysis:

27

Fig Deformed Shape

28

Fig. Von Mises Stress

Now we can see the stresses in shaft. 10.As per analysis of shaft and rotor

Maximum stress developed in shaft is 36.15 assembly done in Ansys, deflection values

N/mm2 which is far less than the yield strength of the shaft and rotor assembly are 0.008637

of the material, which is 45 N/mm2. So that shaft and 0.006404.

will not fail under these conditions

REFERENCES

IX. CONCLUSIONS

1. Scham Tickoo, “Pro-Engineer-

As per drawings and information provided 2001”, 2nd edition.

by Bevcon, 3D models are developed in Pro-e 2. J.N.Reddy, “An Introduction

and the shaft of crusher is analyzed in Ansys to Finite Element Method”, 3rd

package. edition.

1. Based on calculations and analysis 3. R.K.Allan,“Rolling Bearing “,

reports the safe diameter is selected as 3rd edition

125mm, which is safe.

4. S.S.Rao, “Mechanical

2. Factor safety for selected diameter is

Vibrations’’, 4th edition.

11. This factor of safety chosen for

crusher to address sudden impact and 5. Richard G.Budynas Jata,

shock loads created by the material. “Advanced Strength and

3. Deflection of shaft as per theoretical Applied Stress Analysis”, 2nd

edition

calculations is 0.009mm. .

4. Deflection of shaft in Ansys analysis is 6. V.B. Bhandari, “Introduction

0.007mm (load applied on shaft only). to Machine Design”.

5. Deflection of total rotor assembly in 7. Robert L.Norton, “Machine

Ansys is 0.006mm. Design”, 2nd edition.

6. Selected bearing for this application 8. Hall, Holowenko Laughlin,

based on shaft diameter 125mm is “Theory and Problem of

heavy-duty spherical roller bearings on Machine Design”, Schanm’s

adapter sleeve. series.

7. 3D models developed in pro-e 9. PERRY, r.h., and d.w.Green,

& analyzed reports have been “Perrys Chemical Engineers”

submitted to Bevcon for their handbook, “7th ed.

consideration in their designs 10. F.D.Bond, “Crushing

8. We suggested to consider this analysis Calculations”.

report to reduce the bearing diameter 11. Pennsylvania, “Crushing

metal for optimizing the rotor design Technologies”.

of the hammer mill crusher. 12. P.C.Hayes, “Construction of Hammer

9. Bearing life for selected bearings is 450 Mill Crusher”.

Millions of revolutions.

29

30

- AnalysisÎncărcat dekifayathulla003
- Portal MethodÎncărcat demartin
- Design of Guide Wall-rev 1 LatestÎncărcat deHarathi Venugopal Kishan
- Lecture 7 - Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram 1Încărcat deimranjami
- Girder DesignÎncărcat deraymond
- Bm and Shear ForceÎncărcat deManish Bokdia
- Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials-Transverse Shear 1Încărcat depoom2007
- Bridge Abutment Design ExampleÎncărcat deloyalmate
- Finalterm ExamÎncărcat deNaresh Keshari
- lec14_4.pdfÎncărcat deDharmendra Jain
- CW_fuselage (2).docxÎncărcat deChameera Nawanjana
- proiect beton.docxÎncărcat deAgavriloaei Ioana
- 229734750-ES-02-Courbon-Engesser-Methods.pdfÎncărcat dew1000000
- influence lines for staticÎncărcat desergiob0107SBA
- SA2 Ques papers.pdfÎncărcat depdhurvey
- CHAPTER 03 pdf 01.pdfÎncărcat deVipul Kurkutiy
- Slab HP B=44Încărcat detini
- Structural Performance of Steel Concrete Composite Deck for Steel Box Girder BridgesÎncărcat deDedy Dharmawansyah
- Diagramas.Încărcat deAldo Sandoval Cedillo
- Motores qubicaamfÎncărcat deChuck norris
- PPT-SF BM 1Încărcat deSudhir Patel
- bendingmomentsandshearingforcesinbeams2-100114165451-phpapp01Încărcat deAly Arquillano Jr
- Bending of open section beamsÎncărcat deRavishanker Baliga
- Dontyne Brochure2013 WebÎncărcat deDejan Drumac
- Códigos de ErroÎncărcat deFranciscoOliveira
- De Question Bank-1Încărcat deDharmendra Singh
- kuzelove_drtice_aj.pdfÎncărcat deKukuh Trisno Aji
- SET-1 & 2 NUMERICALÎncărcat deHanamanagouda Bevoor
- FEM SEMINARÎncărcat dePRADEEP NARU
- IJETT-V10P331.pdfÎncărcat dekalai

- Prater Hammermills (1)Încărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Fibrous MatÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Vol37No1ManTIOgedengbeJul2014.pdfÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- 6.pdfÎncărcat dekevin guao
- Fine Art Directory and Guidance Information for Toronto and Canadian Artists www.theartjournal.wordpress.comÎncărcat deDWDWiltonDesign
- Exploration drilling programmesÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Design Fabrication and Testing of a Laboratory Size Hammer Mill1Încărcat deEsteban San Martín Maulén
- Brochure DFZK Vertica Hammer Mill EnÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Www.specac.com Userfiles File N26AtlasAutoPressÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- c CatalogÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- 39028557-Hammer-MillÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Hammer MillÎncărcat deKamil Irfani
- -Jaw Crusher BrochureÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- 13 Series Industrial Grinder.brochureÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Fb Pellet Dies and Roll Shells en DataÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Sales Template -PBM -1Încărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Core Splitter Brochure 1 1 14Încărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- -Jaw crusher Brochure.pdfÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Standardiso Fops 3449Încărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Industrial SymbolsÎncărcat dejavilian
- ISGbulletin3Încărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Solids Notes 10 Hopper DesignÎncărcat deellantidinesh
- Dust FighterÎncărcat deAnil Kumar Kn
- Mechanism w SampleÎncărcat dealavi405
- Mechanism Design With Pro EÎncărcat deBertrandMezatio
- 4502-Pro-e-Interview-QuestionsÎncărcat deVenkata Sateesh
- SI Book Chapter 9Încărcat deehwanbakti

- Non NewtonianÎncărcat deAziz Rahmatullah
- Optical MemoryÎncărcat dev_gurucharan
- Short Course Mechanical-TestingÎncărcat deAndrei Costache
- Report Car Cooling SystemÎncărcat deOdie Sani Muharman
- CH2AÎncărcat demahamaya singh
- EtraLED-PHI-7050 for Philips Modular Passive Star LED Heat Sink Φ70mmÎncărcat deleo
- Cohesive Zone Model for Surface Cracks using Finite ElementÎncărcat deMahdi
- sc 5 p 10 4-transformation of electrical energyÎncărcat deapi-263271261
- 9789810682415_ppt_15Încărcat deDickson Leong
- CBSE Class 11 Physics Study Material-All ChaptersÎncărcat decpawan_699508
- anchoring table seasons labÎncărcat deapi-264818116
- Surfile - Profile - XY-CONC 2008Încărcat deMax Ferre
- Introduction to SAR-Marjolaine RouaultÎncărcat deMOST PASON
- he contribution of mineral admixture i.e.Alccofine-1203 to the mechanical properties of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete with high strength and workability is investigated. It reduces thermal, shrinkage cracks and increases strength as compared to conventional concrete. Fiber volume fraction (VF) 1.5% by volume of concrete was added with Alcoffine-1203 contribution of 5%, 7.5% and 10% by weight of cement. Hybrid fibers contribute to increase the flexural strength while the Alccofine-1203 boosts the compressive strength of concrete.Încărcat deAJER JOURNAL
- 4. Part 4 Mesin FluidaÎncărcat deARFAI020797
- GATE Solved Question Papers for Chemical Engineering [CH] by AglaSem.ComÎncărcat deaglasem
- Digital SLR Photography 2013-10 (Onlinepdfbooks.blogspot.com)Încărcat deWillimSmith
- At-ut-uss Bulletin 331f 2Încărcat delethanhvan186
- Cooler E-102Încărcat deMohd Arif
- I-AxÎncărcat dearness22
- 80IJMPERDDEC201880Încărcat deTJPRC Publications
- 1aa3 2012 Test1 SolutionsÎncărcat deDavid
- structural design of piles shafts.pdfÎncărcat deamanpreet_ahuja
- Rotor-Stator Rubbing Contact in an Overhung Rotordynamic SystemÎncărcat detanha56313955
- Cryogenics and heat treatmentÎncărcat denitesh
- ACI 212.3R-91 Chemical Admixtures for ConcreteÎncărcat depanjol Civil
- What is a Mobile c ArmÎncărcat deVamsi Mani Deep Elapakurty
- KRAGH, Helge - Julius Thomsen and Classical ThermochemistryÎncărcat deCarlo Fuentes
- NPM LAb ManualÎncărcat deTarun Vatwani
- 3C-3D VSP: Normal moveout correction and VSPCDP transformationÎncărcat dePEDRO

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.