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ry Eonar Som asinst FEC doc pply to RCE. Consquenly, decker arguments ‘iat Frankf syle coantererampls to PAP Els apd RCE therefore ‘howe hat PAP ne necerary fore wil ve in ibertaran sens, "Nothing inthis agua bth inpiaton that Wberearan fre wl is neve companied by alsrative pores Te my be trae hn ‘ost sae in which an agent act with re wil rt moral responsible, ‘he agent an do otros, WhaeFaskfer-stle counterexamples show Iscnly tht the ably to do oterwise it esas to a reaction oF ln action for which the agate morally responsible. Imight nonetheless ‘the case Wat the abil to do others ir what the meiealsclled Sh atid scien, an acdene dae secompanis fee wil or moe “sponsbly moch or een amor ll of he une" Tilly this discusion of Prakaresyle countereramper shows ‘what enti oe wl f he ability vo do otherwise not essenta. Tn Wierker's view, librarians old that 1 A decion i z nly if (1) “the deion fi) aot «5 eal Acces aed =o he ges ren ed aking” As Large abow,L1 i too bro and shouldbe replaced with L's the decison i ot the outcome ofa caval chain that originates ina cause ‘uri the agent The succes of Frankfurt syle counterexamples sbows {hat Lt eats oo strong. What i necesary for Hbertaran fe wil 5 ‘Aquinas say, that She lime soure of the ston be te agen’ Own wil and eognive fale, wheter or pot the agen bat akermave Possbiies open to him inthe ccumseances Wigerke’ definition of Fiprariantn can tes be emended or reformat in hs way {ER Ament ody act ifr nlf) seat ioe he ote o ‘sel cham ta cng in nee ste get and) the ae (ofthe ait agent's own vl sn copie nae Libertarians thus need not acept PAR, and ite ascoptance int neces: acy for recon of compatbiem, since + eompadbiist could not ‘tpt LR, Frankuresylecounterermpls are succsfl aginst PAP; ‘bo contrary co what Wierker suppose, the iberaian has nothing. feat fom them, Unless extreme Caren dealin ithe ight theory of the mind, iberaransm woud bein setious wouble fe could be shows, that neural vets ae alas cased by event enteral tothe agent. But Frankfuresyle counterexamples en ceraily not demonstrate ht, and either science nor philosophy gives any sign of being able 1 do ‘0 ther™| 5 Real Freedom James Ross Fasanss Homing a Imagine Sinem Nowra Preface Some notions of feedom ae philosophic nd theological dead ends. Some make in anagonitic wade off brewer human choice and the tango dine cartons Ochs ak the mol ecoieed ean fon) snd fed, nein la. Bot some make crexion an inexplicable Pretrence for dhe Conmoe ower "nore perfect” words aking morale Speaipee ‘B'meid dhe dead ends, 1 redeploy the ies that itegrl human freon (and underaning har so modes Ones “axa” and the tree "sapemacua hgh diving the ter ha way ppc he Sarl the reside afer he iterated whole i ot berase the Sopereataral ona the earl “eminenly™ the way olpie wining outa enclop the qualifying skile™ In my acoout humans were “ever “ery object nau sall—dhat objets, slong ones nd gers snd dinosurs shat are etiely consequences of mater and bio in, or epics the wn tro and vlenoe are. Haman never nds “copies ulilnene-ha can be deine by conditions af tary He or atained by “Hooriching” at other ving things do iter, humans hie sli tha are pose satura mysteries beware (0 they lack cul acnuneexprenible in ers ofthe pincer of ature (ven na dealer scence of patie), and (2) bums ave "ullines pote yond the seve sili of any mater ng %*° Jame Boss ‘Among “pose natral” mysteries, Linclude (1) ch atral phenom ena 8 out itll powers and rational respons @) peyehic nergy and positive emergence, ax well athe being of the covmos as 4 ‘hol, which cannot be the consequence ofthe Ins or secesrses of ‘ature because i coma thm, andthe being of anything all, which cannot be accounted for by causation because cauaon presipposs being: aswell () he outrighesperatua,whic defined sek os ‘Phenomena accounted for by God inthe daction of vine person, ‘ot merely by aseipion but by the opposition of rlations that const ‘ate the Tiny of Persons. "luman mature simed at Ife with Go, is superna ight fom the beaming: from cresson and always theréaerFlaman feedom i the divine freedom. Human redom, integral feedom che sity ostsin life with God, is retored by redemption sod individ fath, Those are nny themes, themes that ate central to Se Pal, St. Angustne, and Se Thomas Aquias but haw not recently been exploited to reseve philosophical problems. Yt even Zeno the Ste (300 nc) sad "all {hd men are slaves and only the good are res” at dd Diogenes Leander tnd Plato as well How right they were although ander conditions they Coal ne know. mark the cheologial character ofthis cussion with literary form such ike the Tenebrae Service for Good Fridays Te has repeted te pons (some lines from Psalm 8, nine less, snd many lesions Inatked with Hebrew leters (on which thre are matical chans wih Spanish even Moris, vartons); the pot ofthe form being pat of sheargement “The am of my reasoning iss follows: we can understand the freedom of God only through is eles, more pareslstly, out own fendom. Bacintegral human freedom, the eeadom tate effec of God she ftendom that Adam los and tha the tedecmer exercnes. Sone can understand ourseles, and therefore Gody only though the redemption ‘We los ou: integral eedom and oar understanding of with the Fal, Ieepng ony remnants oft: responslty anda ein sponta.” We los the ase ably to ve with God but raved tesponsby, ‘whi is enough to ean damnation (separation from God), We abo low he knowledge sha ie with God our fallen We can find out full freedom ony ia respons a “an nner divine invitation,” st Aguas pt it In finding the redeamer, we can begin to understate freon of the Creator that is ota response to the merit of things, but ram that makes the god of things by desc ofthe divine wil, which love’ Thus, God does not lot dings beaut they are good thing Ral fveedom a they ete thi god, awl th bing. fom Go's oe the way 5 png rece whey rm the lene of he pier ap, A2ig snd beauy fromthe Gren of singe, Th or ony cope {Serb the eco ofthe Crstng Godby epoca te ers ‘Secched bythe New Adams an that sppecaion comer only by hy dong - . Trl they he sian uy: even candle ae exiogishe oat by on, wih anions, pm, leo, and lamentaton, ike the faving ages of bums idomn ser che Pll wo the a Big ingtied, olen ol drs toe lnc, “he lee sty ‘temp space” ncn be bolas oly bys aew gh renee, Antphon ‘What ieman, Lor, That Thos ae mindflof him, andthe son of msn tne You vst iy? You made hie Hil lee than the angele and You ‘crowned Hin with ory Fest Lesson: Flourishing and Fulfillment ft 90 made of freioms one dol epoxies Arend’ notion ofthe solenary. Tes the notion of responssle ation, that is teton of sana anna vimed sd ct by is Bas towne i ‘Swe aadartood good. Gentine vation (of which animal have ‘counterpart ake the human moral age, subjet to moral prise tndblame "Thats one focal nocon of fresdom-—che vluntarnes cha ithe bars ‘of moral agency vic har toggered many comping analyses, mostly ‘concerned with what we have fo be ale odo, oro ae order to be responsible for our as, and with the degree an kind of casa detomin- ‘Spr hat can coexist ia tee ways with moral responsibly: (1) physi- «ally, for example, by miromarer, by ches and eet forces; 2) poycholgialy, for example, by animal fling std by snconscioar snd focal cater and (3) onslogielly, for example by divine eurston of tring." Such anise focus on the aouon of freedom to ground the sppropriatenes of prac and bam, jst 5 Aquinas argued ae without ftcedom there would be no baie for moral praise or blame, We praise fad blime domesie animals "Good dog "Badl"—to mold thir 2 ome ot cine rm tis desi, ths ingerevlkons bat wa do ot fenunely anbue met eawonfiocs wo anil open te fecal fecng wowed og da pl nr ate fer ir oF sine en roving Ta cnet wl Yoon So repo, whee ions origins dance! walt ering, eres moter fr natn of Seton ‘prem. eat sponta when we a0) af for the soa Gis ard witht ean or move, expe for te ve-xpeon or the epyment of win we doy 9) wf ore, ven ating energy tro the my ad () arf em ep nto og on on {Ehiy w nese, tan oy cpl our ping Chopo bese ve ot flay Chop dba tapi ovr waking om Sr sii 0 rally ‘plano mea ing fem or yen man lien» Stayer ston expe by teow ce caer nearly thy a eabyent inthe taty te race aor ne sa, oot of ne sliced acituvaneclcren Ge lomed prt for ch we he ial ulna ting tnking, malig loving or Bing. oF tore comple anes fhe plying Chops aac eck cing ‘Sane pytolgy ea pop, oakg ord, pois sd eth Fugen, anderen pitching bball. The rsa e see, hear, fel et and tne aay tht ding vow an exelecesatag in Sal The wry ee of thee uke a mode of ‘Sstcton "Ts nestled bythe ene tle of tporebnon whee tein hao be gored or moe a al cosy {oP comple recding of sqrt taro, So ery or ot cn earl rum expe oe ranon ia appopee teage of spel” But (alloc keedom, spotanens Cerbng {Gil aon ou ofthe bio meted a ato ined ie wih Gods tht na dvi cha comple tama eign wih oe denen forgone ls by Alan's rors by Go “Far ond fn of comerps holga cord: ae degned fore with Cod the Ty of Ferma, ad are goed wo ain thie by our om ding. To he led ered nob ae odo ‘crating now tn scouts lvig with God whoa cope oot Dass ton dei in chugs neta whe wr d,s rh ee. ‘Getic ew, enue ar by Geigy eed tc Tay, oc loving God sey or easy fy tn cn also nach pref Cor Big tha teeta of lv explains ur cong the sey. ‘Ti tater fom the power that aes pps ¢ feces Conte loving for some papas ba for fae. Spomanene rng. eal frend % x entertanding or ght cing site our spans sing. Altea ‘here ae some things ne need tose and woul seck tose, che fact ‘hat, under sormal condions, we wane wo see because we se, and not ‘oe vera The negative sie of spontaneity, a Angusine indicates ia his “Conferon, that humane ate eventually dasoned with al eretres, snd with everything tht ir not enjoyed at something that cannot be (shen away spins our wil (ed is mens to le with God). "Al ‘aya he separ says everything tars to dst, even "The tos for humans es beyond nature (ihe cosmo) and beyood any power in nue to stain Thi i because requies energy fom Our reining the Oba, an envisioning that requires = divine dolore (Gevelstion) ard an erablement that Aquinas says i a “supernatural Alsposton” by grace.” (This is analogous to the poten itligibity fof mater, whose acwalzaton lis Beyond the matter, and requires Inelgene an immaterial power tact tar with Arnot’ theory ‘lintel agen) Furthermore, reason discloses agin the cochusions ofthe cen ‘har humans, wl having many fom of sacral flowing to which ‘ntonal action is ordered Sch are, philosophy, economy, agriculture ‘Eetesmanahip, family love, service to humanity, ene Do nara {ullimet, no compleson nature, a2 do the plate and animals" Philosophy, at undertanding, i ot, athe ancients thought, human completion’ Thats for plan or anna to urs for iste ito be failed.” Nor so with umaa: ast vo ours is tobe incomplete. Ia fae it ofa "Now, the ancient philosophers had no inking chat human flillmen seguir sn eneonter (Ie) with God, the Peron, and, thor, reirer (en sre than acqusntan with the Good, fale, wich was Pact Inspired guess. Therefor, they woud and did reasonably ink fle sment es in some specially eflecve Nourishing, peculiar to humans and pecliar o which oman i Tn his way, caret rezoning prodeed one of she lntng confusions of Wetern tought: (1) Hoarshing however Sting oterwie 20 2 ‘atonal snimal that didnot promise comple fulfillment was thought Secondary, inferior; (2) ie was thought that with ick, endowment, and foodnes one can arain human faillnent by te highe human acti By, thar ofthe understanding (philosophy). Falllmene wa oe ved fut in fe of vrs and s0 the wiser ofthe ancients conlad that “resposble acy in accord wih excellence” (vrue) apled tothe highese power, tha i, understanding (phosophy), ithe actual ability roracain human fleas. Thus “responsiey” and “alillment™ * ees a were molded together pars fenton This wa mike frit Ty redom sme Sur we sine wih God, and by revponiity alone thaw tai soa fom God ad from une “Arse in parca among che ancient gest, thought dha pio- sous! coneuplaion in sie of moral sinue nas + geaine natal {elena ora buman, hows se toys cenents we Bnd in Plo, but Baked swey te parson ovcome: ht my By fa mow people fi oe je nee or een by tbarown fel the ar ‘ono of bch, a when ns bor lind they ate bor in thd ee Foro rope, te bar wh hey ito gusautemoopines the sapere ale of oesting At ‘Aan humel renurte the Rberr "ie 3 bud buns hig ty mr an nce iy * malaga + maer of god forte ether than goo ‘educa onary forthe arstocrcy. For one needs to be hey, ‘fealty, and wise and morly lucky, besides, to be happy, a Greck {ams tnaes cer, But sll not guaran" Soy cher humans ‘ho: be happy ld) elo cone of meng ee sod {oe stained fr another way ‘Sa ook to remon Ike one abil, reponuble son, and its satura bur unas success, Bepiness, ae scully dine. "They are Sed oal nigral human ate, wih happiness (ether imposible Gp suing a onde sce ad muchng abi orpuing he fetes of naire so aan ium lie nly beyond naar to sin, ts wii bie a agin rik of content) withowsreaon. Without feveltion the human condion ser the als broken sytney + ‘Exgnenaton fom which the nls pi nate conor even be ook ot eiooe Senighanmene"™ Sey akhowgh reson doctor he oleae ofthe hemas Sonon canoe reeonmrce integral Raman ume, Conn dour st only evel something cold ave demon ‘ste (the bing of Go), be sop the Crestor, and begin the ‘Sion histor in whieh itera! human sare i divinely reeled Sadreatced. First Lamentation [Aleph] The philosopher” disabling sovons of feedom, causation and bung, come from (1) ewzoss of the understanding and (2) an tderappresadon of revelation [Beth] A neurons of the understanding isan enduriog obsessive. el eedom 8 mpi ig feos cna ia dre, Say pete chp om ile oa Igepal ese el se py fe dese See = Suttn e Clesechig lene iovageoees fom matey tion Ged wid har ono thet nmin stow of npr Seay omcey EE ales, vi cava png pt of ucrog atnting ly cy a ie ane tal tar secs ee th lin Spang ene eo Tee eta ok nny lm afer 160 sarod lou eens veh pyre flap Sian of lg ewan ely as Siasonn cpt npctet os wis Whe At pices Sioa get ae ht cd see Oa {Tenia eld pr pnt) wmaaaed Se orm ort yn oye ened pins ass Soe Ina on a he Gore of nerd hema of th impo of te nerceminon of gpa lary of coc Tere cic emeion te terme opi asin Sa of he mao Eocene net Roles hy'at g ntae ge om fom nc ns Aon ool aa hero ‘pea pop cuyelene™ ch gnete pies hls real en nh Se he Seino er (Ci Sod of ou anh oe i ill ti alent tsi, eee tego Secs font al ono pct Co ter pc no mtn bo dra org ‘ilo fos ned ny we ea ce lee fds ak tet oy py Dia eg a,c! ou ou sing a ort bef how ge wb ay See pte rnd pln Ft yada ee SS sme’ in yah ea sh ge cain try ale sry yUpkoeat alo at ‘the contorted thinking." wrens o “icra Ean set on ai” 37, The rs Ce %6 me oe philosophers ae like persons gone deaf fom the violence of sound: in Donde to ther metaphors So, conser the net leon. Antiphon ‘What ie man, Lord, That Thow art indo him, andthe son of man that You vs en? You sade hi ile lee thn the angele and You ‘rowed him with lor. Second Lesion: The Imagination Is the Master of Fabity The imagination isthe mater offal. Fit, without imagination, there sno last boro fora here rao understanding withos ial ogniton, whch reqies imagination, a8 Astode and Aquinas both ‘erly. Understanding bogies with demserialinatin fail ana tres, which requtes imagination, Ar Ariotle vid, "where thee is ppest, sherman.” ‘Stcond, nothing me imgine i ever ere, in dhe suc sense dhat any ‘hing or stuaton we inane eve becomes (or could be) ra." There ould never be nayihing a indefinite as any objet or setion we Smagins And we can neteringine aything se fine 3 rel thing ‘sto be™ So what te imapiation msker whae ener “Tic and sight to my poin hee, she emaginton isthe master of {akg a8 coach forthe sndersanding. Imagination prompts and ares pire for thing, ineleculiy ero sketches, by whch we are “xp. Fred as Wisgenscin wa isl epeared by che “piture™ theory of trai), Imagination tpicly makes the local appearance ito the model for gene bel" and th lime the tinkable Fr stance tha the "ied stts” 60 not move was beeved even by great sees for centuries (becaase sich ditances, 8 would be reguted for ack of tnovemens to be meray aparen, were wsimaginabe (and expressible {erable notation) The maginaion maker "the dreams and terrors ‘ofthe nigh.” prayed aus inthe Compline Hymna: "Proc eclant Sonne notum phantasmata” Tnftution wth Smagonaton is neatly fatal disease for philosophy." (One is “capeued by the pictures” 8 Wingeneen called i one ie “inking scoring to appenaaces only” or remoing from “fale Ros edo ” imagination a Aquinas ella o, as Hume elle tin the Tesi, making “tions” by the mind's propensity co spread itself on things.” ‘Eee che Pani got carried avy. In Pel 21 he says “ava me x fore Ions, et comibus unicorum olater eam"! "Fro the homme of enicors ss my humility.” Indeed There noshing, beyond ‘he phantasmata, forthe word "econ" eo name The Polit words, for a phioupbe, ae a bouomles pit. Tb imagine that there an be emp name, ames for sorts of things that hare no eases, chimera, Imacores, marcns, and antics, sto fal forere "= ""Wansng toe seni” invites imagination so say he demands of logical notation by saying sat there are divine est "for" what never 5 to exit, so, we got conundrum about how God i o choo amon, world, cosidved as posible objects or thir Hel surrogates (e+ ‘vine eas “Third Lesson: There Are No Divine Ideas for Things Never to Be Leti sulfice tht God no more ha to contain by itemized represents. tion what he knows and contains eminenl by pelecion, than the Moe “Lisa has to hae sections slices, shitmigs, oF Felleions, corresponding te “every posible adequate copy of te The ove self knowing i a8 ‘Megute “tention for knowing all things, a Ana ed." Furthermore, being (hati "to be") cannot be exhausted logcly by “division” ino posible things and Kinds, for thee is 20 “last [salle] diference the make deen of thing Moreowes, there is'no “what” [eg human”} that even an infty of cases would legislly exis “ein i ike a contnaum: ay division Lae jt at cha there wa vo begin with: Therefore to we s “ine” model, no domain of diferent ted posites (6 kinds species, oF indvidul) dons te demain ‘of wniferntsted possibly." Therefore there cat be domain, Sierentated ream, of “everything that iz possible,” or of "very posible Lind," wo be the ange of rterence for (quaiied mod) lope, Selora theology of crestion of human Freedom. “There sno point then, i imagining dat God picks among worlds td individuals, oF among icons for them, like « chi picking among ere oy coat: cmegsn spon ig not ie Pictures of divine ideas a divine cflecons ia dinorting iors (linited parcipason), ae just meaphyscal nightnars, The creator Imakes the env being ofthe thing without an anermedite vemplt, 8 ome Ross blapriny, o reflection. God doesnot mode icons into mace, There fren such os in the ir place. The whole ontology sale." "Cerin lamenccons are order, rom the leson that there are no crnpy names, nd no vine images for what is never tbe second Lamentation [Aleph] Te contrary 0 fac it my ep. Sots mo by preference “oye” what never tobe, hat God as chosen what wo make ‘Considers variation (lie an otnamented Spanish Chast on the He- brow eter (Alo that explains thie, What mag have-been has con- tent ony ao far ait i tefeeialy rooted in the acta, abé in 0 fa a6 ‘Eecaualeonnectone” whaeer they relly ae in the etal extend” torcwhat did not happen” Causlisy really» problem Beeause “1 fd eaten powdered lady tablespoon per dy for 2 month, T would fave lead poisoning” sant quite determinate whereas "asic were fotapeitoe, then giving person srenic would mot be murder (nls i ‘ou like round gles instend)," seams quite diferent, arth by semantic Inheriane alone "Tmight have sn sick vodsy” seems fall rooted ia the acl ‘might hive been president of Upanda” sem rooted, bur only by ‘Hesse: for wile “I” and "Uganda" and "bing president of” ae relretally anchored, the whole i aoe, fom reality and from rel ‘runtion, a te law ofeatre and hory now sand.“ maighe Bae teen presidene of Uganda” might be (I) a mere truth by inherance, which isa verbal consequence of oxer ths or (2) legal consequence 1 Ugandan constitutional prioge that tater “anyone whom the people hoot may be presidente bu ha nor like “Mondale might hae been prsiect” when Mondale war the runner-up. Some couneracanls are [tc ony been being semantically wel formed, ashing Known makes ‘he condition (Light have been president of Unda) fe, the ‘vay sy, that" might hae ben Emperor of Rome” “Counter eypily have trata, fat asad most do not sall™only by iabertance, Thy do eo ave earned thas rom Somplant rive (egy my bving been or being sometie president of ‘Uganda, or your having been an atonast), Bees, erath about formal ‘byes ike mumbes) species tah y infltin " [Beth] There ave mo Phy about ompey nde Thee ae 20 “ways things might hve bee” for things of sore that never ae. So, th bo altereatiee” for God to know, or male, or choose among, ‘alien problems abost our and Go's edo sale el reed ” [Cah] There are no empey kinds, So, there are no merely posible indoual Te llows frothing sid ales. [Dale] There is no divine lnowledge of that might have boon instead of anything the That follow fom the absence of ay Sach cbjcts How mba i might have ben rearranged another mate: Bat ‘vat thee might hae been amend i enti empty even though God i ‘rompla of whatever night have Ben {Gime} God could not have chosen this word instead of some ater define word because God's knowing extend a st i casetion (7, 1s, 14); God does no make what will never by so thee i nothing to Know beyond what i God knows his abi to do. otherwise by knowing hi actual doing, rather than by speulson on what he mht hme done, jt at «dancer knows what se might have dane inthe ese and exealzce of her do [Beth] Thre ino mide knowledge i God." That is beste, for ‘the most par, what en a ata hing mig have dae ie too inde rinse #9 consi 8 ral akersatve”™ Alerts are sehemate Skeletal shadows of what is, And whutimighthaveboen, involving feopty individunls and Kinde that hive no cist, i simply. waout ‘content aknowable (and, 20, imposible ofcourse) Va] The acual—and the potential in -vexbants the powible with conten ad extra for God [ain] Ths, whatever God doc, screator, is entecedenty imposible, notimponible for incosieney (which soy a consequence of thought {nd langage), but impossbefor lack of content, and, of court, cannot be refered t (or alled impossible) excep foes the vantage (and supposition) of what i made™ ‘ation on [Zan]. Wht God might hme done it eniely without content bese of unaken divine lessons required for it to bite ‘content. Satu ays, a det Aquinas, that itis Gods own bing tha the soure of al dine knomledge! Many hing az sd abou the es, but neni ty wae neve sy, ‘en ithe dew mere not menonc, ole wl be Know sow Toy Pesosion, Taso eralshed, tar Tay enn ee pot ron of Towing ti copsorcens) ey knob whut ie ey ron (spect fhe wale Len who wheel sn en dot nod to lay here ver a Grek apd Pane word ™ [Néither Scout nor Aquinas thought thee was any range of divine Seas hat war the expatrinted domain of Pao et ad te ios that 100 me Ros exesmine the posi of wha might hve een Al the nowable ad ‘Si depends pon die cen, All tai Koomabe she work of tore 23) Tha nal Kinds marl ews he aan ‘Son of hing to mal the cones se om he vine widom. ft, “Heya rote divine msds le Agua yo" that he ‘*Shatto make he universe such views ocenty date sald [Produce such ad suc rents whence sch woes wold ise ecrdagys went sonlode tat the elude an ies of ‘rset proceeded from one poncple from the order of Wi ‘Tom Ruin ale yy slog with Rabb Moses, whom he es lc ote en oe eee ge ay thn vnc. Today tbe also te independent seal constants ‘Sell erat ape hanple} In fs for We ne daponion of the et cy eon nae eed athe i be mer ‘tifa he nor [Sy he sppomemen of Exel guano ‘ua for he ule depend on mar lf of Gad een does {hecappoinmene of» fed guuney of danensio."™ Ad Agias Tepelt atte al of bie somes "Te Suing of the metre tome ents onthe mes wil of Co, who wilke he word should not ‘fesy hn bray bus shold ve begining, een 35 he wile the iret be euther rener or malta they te" Then Agi, ear of hao naga ery, got onto sy “The ast ‘Soa of lane wil ndad Ue th dof the peu ot the beining {Pinte (DPS Sad to thecla ovement wl ene (a) {he subsequent ro wil not bei ine (DP 3,5 al 10) and 9s) he Shien ail remain fore: (DP. 725. When bower, te heres LSU ln moon here lt another case of torso, Steely toy caaot be deoyed exe by an ens ets, bat en dhe needy movement ces, Bat enc esr wl cease ao" Ps. Ti vovcdude hese end Inestations ht wher God dos i antec amps) witToomas wid vrsion om Zin teed ol bings ile how ontrctee Dna oe ped no ‘iced are open sew opons in poopy sad thely, And unre one wantin ging hat my hp wh Se 5s stealer m Aatphon ‘What is man, Lord, That Thos are mindfl of him, andthe om of man saat You vst hi? You ade him si les than the angels and You ‘owned hm with glory. Ral veedon 101 Fourth Leson: Double Truth and the Adorament of Things Many ofthe problems abou freedom ar cus by our face so ackoonlelge ta there re antage rth wich conlcng standpcis, {nd tae here ar lnconenvurle kent cannot be ermine. ime som you “Agsins is mpriing eis known fn opponet of she “double seul docine seb co Sper of aban” See ht dtle truth docene of sown! Furthermore, ir aot a wali the doctrines {0 be found in Maionide, Arceons, ad free, as eacking Schoo hive ss though be dowrnor owns schig one thing ‘bout erprre to she word tod stab tote lent exept ‘ctr Rtn ee Rate cy ee {© do wha we now cll “ngoihing concep sche” 1 wal ‘Spin wha he sayy snd he boson i ope ‘Aguas, answering quédon shoe erpeion of Gress over “whether the fara divs wats om ters” pins ou tat 2 “peril ening might led to 4 cw Ue te "hel By ain losers fom aq, tt he arent of Keen ig bed fare he ns wow om he wn om ies unde the heen, sine they took mer to e the ein them all Ba, he sae ence his hry cn beste file sl esd cot Hoobs eve of aly Sepne el rae copied ft ws ws pin ran pro hot f sno tha wea be ur Bren oly ick age put © ‘sv tad ing Bre ata pe seeing foal tat TSE Te re Lowen pr {ake be apc eseoling fb ons ngs rr “Deine vn foe hr fe pte nan asc ‘s010 say, upon the water. “ : “i (Clearly, Aquinas acknowledges tao messager, one bated on what the people at large can understand from the penance of thing, and the other, the whole or further truth for thove who age “capable of Understanding ic" Furthermore, he exlicly ats th princple tat ‘whats “Showa tobe fase on sold reasons cannot be helo be the Sense of scripture.” "Noy this ota pasinglapee of iy but his wrked-out postion, In| Question 73,"On the Work of Mormmen,” in Arie 1, a, Aquat Abseribes the view of Prlemy thatthe “heweny mires hive thet ‘own movement” and Ariat’ oppored view "that the sata fixed 102 oes os in tir orbits and in recy have no other movement but chat ofthe shee," and goes ony td yet our ene peresinthe mort fhe amis noe ht of {Bespin (De Con et) Bo Moe eer mbar obi Sent of cmdocenn Te ppaar grornce, a me ey td [QQ e740 6803) en tough te dnesan aot ptt the TEAS temany Moe allows for ahoogh so te sess there ‘pes tone amen ies igh an lowe Bema {Bfe cil tat which wurde on the scond ds, sad onthe each ‘iors were fin higher mame ‘This remarkable pesage has parle in De Povonia, for example, “Moses coming down tothe level of an unetered people described ‘ings they sppene" (DP 4,2, ad 30, and bar paral aewhere whe (Aquinas says Moses describes the rare atthe adorament™”of the fpeene, when they ain ft" sabes” “out of condescension to the nay things appear to jgnorane and ulewered people” and when ‘Aguins says, “Arto Bre and a, sting dat he common people donot teatd them a parts of the world, Moses does not mention them ‘xpeesiy” (DP 4,2, 5 34). Tall of thove content Aquinas diinguisbed rath according 10 sppoorance to the senses fom the “whole” oe senteeut, althowgh 2 does not ive a name, Hke “cine” or "whole" for the tinge Kowa tothe lemed. In each of these cases except the last the orporelity ofa, whasAguna ook tobe the "sient" or "wha tout, as tamed out nt to be te ata Tie istracie, forthe "ther tray” sappouely ali t the leaned, ay ot be 5 close to he way thing ely ae athe vantage erat, based sn how things lok, ‘which aval to deur, “That ins leon, The "scienic” deverptions of shins, desiged to provide ingermechasism explaitions (ey Art's theory tha the ‘as are lke feels in eperer that move, ike plats, the srs being ‘unmoving in themsees), turn, diconceringly often, to hae 50 any tmerapslment thai fe Bsr to say tat they ae just fae, ed tha their explanatory fre snot the same 3 and is independent fei eh ™ ‘Now why shiz important? Because theres a whol las of higs| thar hive t be eid about God to explain the serpeares especially to ‘else God's ce in history spin he arg, and to expres the story of {aston thar can be counted tuts onl according to “unadjusted Rel frecdom 103 common sete hi only asrding othe “peti pean” of thing, by nich pono ight it nd pst wads bo the oot the tation, Some of te “tk acorn to appear he ake atamptons, and yet cans be sepaced bec of i ‘pes postons ne prodamation of the ah (eg, “God knows ‘iran wher wl appen” wih he esos od fs tenporly orld knowlege apd prepa te’ worl) Orher {reo pyetce me tly atthe wl eds bot a bere fn withoat qr as fra they 0 (ey “God enderes frees” ‘tderood a "does nt op) Considers he scp oare—cven de fie formulation ‘orknolege nd pcenonion, prying nd coring rage, {he Kingdom o cnet Srl flpmens dn acon a he cone of ory the sls of Mary and esas with Gods andthe boy Ioan of eu in “eae,” hat part ofa coet understanding of {beta aod ye (I) a God eld somporl wnag om atures thu (2 doc fe compor with he “scelly” debe a Pm, the aly of God cian inmby. Undenlythre ae ‘onplentnary bu dane cen amare nous Garg dict ‘stor nit ani) thw wo ‘Sib dre rales poy, Harory, tly law synoptic popes Prophesy, leer, ceeh and byway pape, Brgy ae comelat Proskmaons Moran, “esenie frmuaions be no cede {rope che serpy ongated wording ofthe procined ty Toray sy wo he ove raga rol emperly ad spay ‘raed ete sb Ga for cpl soot cee prayer Ste srangy af orgie ohne whose moved by pce ck 5. Seni rahe no spear a aa caaion over th vantage, bob ensataly snd lets ine wey ies chet appr (Statins vs bev oppress Fomine fete it canonbe cay pace he Fence Tempers ‘ese of dine parc Gn Hound of Hse) may he been stu ‘Som tie for which we koe so “ese” eplcenmt, The same fei or maps decor) ‘Notonly here no zest con on 0 of ath wih anther Gut bec they ae ead bo ged or the dln anges ‘Seamed ton pro he navies ade conju of te frome ath wih “scenic” acai" Tere ino any of 1 cejonton.” Nos ju sy pa of be canbe cojie,td prtave tea (4 snple pre ofthe propsonl eae or ae 10 ome Ross Pus no gener pplication de rhe “bb clements of meaning” tha form semantic neighborhoods) Denil of relipously sanctioned commonsense, temporally and pe sonalywantaged sfimations about God isto be aoided, no mater bow tel jnuied on “sient” grounds. This is bees i may ivite the lal co aliem a conary commonsence chim that enele both = ommonsense fay and aden faleiy about God. Thu we da't fy, "No, you are wrong; God doesnt know what gong to happen.” “because aohing i going co happen for God,” beats the bebeve is iplicly invited toy, Well then, there is tomething tht God doer fot koow, early, whats going happen, because, surly, something {going to happen.” Dicpure with diverse supposition, is Vivid torment roc and equivocaion T think Aguas adopted the pacipes thar 1) you bae to explain things within framework thatthe heater can endersand (gidguid ‘espa, recprur modo recipients) 2) that ntl ofthe releran tah ‘be communicated to everyone and (3) hat not even enough can be Somminicited 0 core al fase sposison ia the ith, eve perhaps Swher they are leaned. His view is peuy much what Maimonies and ‘he Modiam theologians thought, too. Commentxors on Auinas say that Rabbi Mower and the Arabs were wig to Tee secs ence (dintle's mesaphysis diate thar porons of sripeare re not erally true, wherexs Aguiar stood forte poston that te believing commu ‘iy, ide bythe Spr isthe authority onthe meaning of Seite, ‘rip that he alo ys, what is "showa on solid reasons ro be false, ‘sot be the sense of Serie,” jut Rabb Move and the amie Pllosopersdid™ Fith Lesson: Double Teuth and More aboot Neatly Everything 1. The presente appearance of things doce noe usally change ‘when you find out she sienttic eth ometimes i doe) The ils of the Parthenon do not look slanted when we Bnd out tha they are” “Thr i for a very good reson: our experience is eataged in the sppearnces; thet ie the endpont, the perspective, from which We ‘ipan things ™ Moreover, i eligious mater, cats where many of {he things appear that need to be expined sin, grace, repemanc, {slvation the course of histor, fe man, andthe Kingdom of God 2 'The scents tah often be diferent strmpsions spd ensiment| ‘hat ate noe even stable 1 replace the commonsense sppexance of things: Despite some slentife reins who say that midi! objects te Ral edom 195 “je iusions (2g, W. Slr, A. Eddington, .Churcland, 20 one lieve thar you can see cloud of molcies instead of ables, or eat stmospheie compressions or frequencies instead of sounds (ace P {Chateland or percsve phe frequencies ined of colors"” 3. Emmporlly seoteged bec out God are eligonaly neetry, juat a sling by the contains waa neestay for tlleninof dep Sex nwigaon. There i rightfalieplaceabe place for sth vantage inappesances, 4 Caaou micas, with ful knowlege, re character of Chis ‘an theology (spec that of Aquinas). For example, fe might be all Fight to say thatthe gly Andromad the last star inthe handle of the Lite Diper i ix ba i noel sgh lo to sy that gles Me nare, withoo qualifying the conten. The same oe for God "Whee you re dtetion of temiacine (Gots keswing re thing) fi, by eling conten of knowing “propositions,” sod, by posting that for evry realty thee i content (proposition) to be Known, and, thr, by posting that some chings to be known are inherenly tempor! (egy what tine iis now, what Jon wil do tomorom), you crete + confit betwen the unchangeablity of God sd the requirement for knowing eveything. The conised nuare of those problems an be "read off" the very statement a the problem. Yet, such conundrums have bees taken seriously for years by many. The sricley ofthe problem, partculry ts wading on the made-up Fexores of bras sbetacions ike "propositions" sin ones patience, (Can here philosopher be seo?) Wihout the need quaifcaionr, most dacasions of divine freedom sre sue. For instance, the bb! that God causes everyting, without preempting nature or diabing che will (. DP 3,7) sno supposed to Er scrambled withthe presence tut chi reactions hve no eause Bethe wil Sotho ew lesan. For now, nots dat chee realy 2 eantaged eat: double rth, and ‘more, not only about God, bat about everything” Many tata ae ange on diferent bases thar cannor siply displace one another, chat fi diferent purposes, socal fonctions, and asumprtions, but are not t0 be commingled sbi or arly ins ills pols, o picked ‘over ke + teenage ooking forthe et fateing saphena Besides, a Aguna's own scientific mistakes make lear, we need fuiasserions, founded inthe authority of srigrre and wadiion, chat do not depend on fashions in wience,™ The reterendal and concept bbuser of rich anterdont (e.g, "ese i Bodily in beswen”) will not oii or rndly wands tio nineteen or eweatetirentry cor 106 oes a mology, and, of course, eed not. The sme bods for “The Bachar is rally the body and blood of Cis" What has tutto do withthe toler composon of bresd and bod? The statements This my ‘body and "This my blood” do no belong tos seman et work that mediately zest ny sttement one wa ofthe thet, bout moles lar compostion. T ate one's anda for“ he same sulfa frm role cence, and thy clege the cal Euchre presence, ply on whi dope tgs ac holy “Agsits wet far enough in th reson of Rabb Moss and rerocs saying, wih them, tht what seer recs "on solid reason” cannot Bt the sense of seria: That such forthe han we can go today wth tur diminished bell inthe cerainy of science. Aguiar's ae is sober the hes ep ce be demon tora, ths, et be nepave helopel shor. Bu ht expecee tins of science were unfounded, aki own ale belts make clear ‘Nevrthle, exaggerated cline tht scence nga actorny for theology, indeed for understanding the serps, hn een retertd sd renewed every century since the Middle Ages Receny those ‘raggeradons hve been counterbalanced by phibrphes of scene, who {0 ofr in the ther rection, claiming tht cece nota authority fn an independent reality at all We ean see thi in snes and Imealim, not © meaton odorous views sbosedeconstrcting the polaryof "te" and "le" dit over fom the Connene™ The {xem are oth wrong: cence, uy geology. cy f approved bythe community ofthe fitful, nee «too Iter earhatg rom scp ‘ure; but acence cannot show thar che Bachar iv noc te body ad blood of Jeu by showing tae itis made entirely of whe, yest, ad ter molecules, whereas re odie are made of ment moles The frameworks of dicoun ar inommensiraie, "We shel ne, then, be contemprsoe of iba fandamenaists who inst upon the rue principe that he commaniy of te ffl (or the ‘Spr enlightening beer), note sent, dxrmines te conten of serptre. Rather, we should encourage a wer, mae alert community ‘OF the faithfl to exerci an onderanding of crite. Abe Fand ‘mesa pringple righ, that suppored sees that coafiew wich ‘Scriptural uth wrong, ras Aguas, Maimonides, andthe Modems ‘wee ight chat what ts demonstrably fae cannot be the sense of Serpe, il the logical pace betwen the ewo principle, sd bmited respect for scene, along witha moderate eran about sxipar, ‘eres us to acknowledge mui of descrip vantage, some al Frendom 107 vith contig, and otbers with disparate, sumptions and “bei Alemens of meaning” Wiha dae eve noe to gee mized up between teats of appearance and made-up scence (or beewen trths belonging to incommenurabl eerential and conceptal bres), we ll want 1 Iinow: Is reation God's ety pace one? Tn oe sense yen nother, 0, becase te creature has being ofits ov. as i Pi 35 nd a Ga et a td mena of being: God's wills the cate of the goodness of thing and God loves things by causing ee being (goodaes)y and nt on acount of thir being and goodness 8 we do, In DP 31, a he ap "cat hich is made «thing the sss" Bu, ike Michanpl' legends thy frechand drawing of "perfect cle the being ofthe thing Sed #6 perfecon i al fom his hand every featare ofthe hig (igootng the ‘Patel the pis and sure for ow). fhe work i subse ot ‘seater ary ina materi medi (he way anise composion, vet srizen on, subs inte mem of sound) even though bars Faas rom the erator (who makes the nti as wel) ill te ‘am being and nor the being of the comporer, However ll ts being ‘pends onthe composer throughout i hele time of being, So Se rable here so make clear ht divine creative cnstion ibe Then i i ll ightto say tht she being of creatures the erase sctviyof Goa f only inthe sense of something God dee the wy 2 Brinig is what ts pater dos, or paying of an cade wha spat foes oF Son is the singe’ modultedbreshing(consced fem the ‘antageo the form, the “wh” inhereat inthe oda bes). ‘Were to jump fom lmted snl to intel in Uke cosy 2 sream on broken ie. Creatd being i lie electromagnet ndueson it isthe produc of the charged source, continsously dependent onthe sure haa etre from the sare (or modi by ote ings fom the ove source supposed her) snd cess tobe “institaneoui “withthe cestion ofthe soare frtaancous craton beng a tude ‘of appearance or imagination that Aquinas rls on in his acount of rnihiaion [DP 5,3). Created being ikea holograms whey rom ‘helight, yer oot the ame athe ligt = “The movement ofthe sary canst, “Gad operates inthe oper sions of mature and the will” says Aquinas (DP 3,7, “but nots to defeat causation by created things” (he says Rabi Moses reports that the Moorish sags shouht). Rater, says Aguinay God “act n very ent immediatly and wibout peace tothe scton of the wll and of re" Yer, “creation not migll with she work of eature" (OP 33, 4120), How is that o be understood? 108 me oe God doesn, hen, sticy, maketh stars move; hasan anf commonsense bl. The rey sha explains how thing lok tat wy, [that God mas the thurman art be, And hai he tory for tll of naace and forall fee acon. For at Aquinas say, the proper tfc of Goda cate, i beng "Tae ede ofthe divincion beewen cau of being and cause of change ss blunted when seteteeth-ceatry theory (gy Desaes required {God oexphin tie waiver determinie locomotion of mater. So God sees sen a8 "giving" a iil motion sha ir detrminindclly rans Terme and concred in materiel Lvs, That wat + dep reform tion ofthe “Unmoved Mover” notion frome Aristotle and placed God ivan imaginary relation tothe world hate opposed to «good “sien Bone ‘God is not tobe sad 0 “preprogram,prevision or provide” in the same fmework of samprion in which me 1y""God the ene cre, ‘without miceson, ofthe whole spasotamporl oto, the cause of the thar acting bing thet ae, the ease ofthe easing of things ad of time” For one thing, the conserving cause of the cosmos mos at ‘thou pad limon ight velocity) on physical snustion, and ‘tout limison othe relist of me. Otherwine, cannot conserve the being of spasiouporlly extended cosmo. Bese a» Augustine ‘Sid, God ich eure of Tine, a well Space and everything changing. The vantages are diverget and even oppose like for example, New” tooian theory with inetal mas ear Enrteisn General Relativy, ‘th rave ma, or Uke he dncoure in which we mean by "divine TT che enti ening wil, vers oer dour in wich we mean the lealasve promrprse wil To ths you may say, Uke « leroed ‘bcor, “wily with one tue? Because, of oppored aserdon, not tlle wie" I repy, "tt parade already passed.” Geng ght not Jute amin some propoale and reecng she rey ti far more = Tater of puting te tems dat belong together onthe right shelves in the apie order “There ste objective appenrancs, ike the telatsity of motion (ander special raiviy theory). That there ae appearances containing {ements of llsion or eror bu, ike te "being smaller” of abject 2 ‘dveance, hich adver effect of tue ops, are the satura conse ‘ence ofthe micromechanims of things. So it so with lage pars fhe ft seated fom she viewpoint in ne and history of those who te redeemed and who conten expect the completon ofthe divine ‘ingdom i the ure, Tir te that God watches over his creer instant by instant Rel Freedom 109 preserving hem nbs, cing for hi ceion a» ards, lot erent, ands frend trwring appeal, hoping om moment 1 mo- ‘Set snd ining tee him wih feat period enticement, Ie frac fora ve ‘Thone we al eh, Bor us vantage inthe tppanoce of things 02 bun stated cemporaly td oy on te tar They ar vatagd in ing ta cleat hth trea cnse, Newnes, thst he sbpesbe spent, the ay thing ought to ppc jar ehe ob aul an” Te ojotne doped of tg ar rch pro the fel Sig of hs Me the wailed rs aurea expan the ppeamnce aed Sought byte scenes. Se do ot gece de that tah sod to appearances leas “infrierth necestatng se rence, Sucre ts ely tow things hold ape yt tte sed yp wh eo ining ppearace rn the ontology, rhe microns at oes them. Metaphysical account acs renege of bse rms ‘pone of religous tents we expesence: That one aon whys at ‘guint nay, reo 08 neerence wih o real are wl BP 35, 582) So ths eno i: Duk uth is man sapere, sone needing comection, sme t,x tome, with ined and eves ae sumption, ot rly to be oped bese of orp poston i be coat of aos hon) on fos of apne, ‘orden snd effete ath ‘hid eon eng fhe "hd fc” iting a “Tid Lamentation {Alept] God is woknowabl in “hates.” [Beth] God incomprehensible [Capi Thee iso content ad ers gen to Godby divine wel ndereandng {as the Plone thous), aod 30:00 domain of “the posible” determined by God's bg {Gimel] Thur, Gods power is completely ulinited, encompass beer he chooses, inte fo make "ese non-at sna” past [avin sys, within ny power whatever {Daleth] Creing is at of Gols al cosl power (which is he same rity 1 his being, even hough God ix able 10 he made sr mer of ether hing whine tires would edie oly ation. 0 meso [od Ther it no unesercsed ability or unui capaci in God the sense of "sonpossibl,” for lack of eontene. [Heth There ae o divine des, excep one, The Verbum, [Nau] There are a een us, except one [ain Theres nothing necessary in eextures and therefore, “neces tier of matre,” the ery natures of ting are merely rapposional fom God's wll rom Praceal Wisdom), a are ll the actons, and “fom ‘he very fat chat being i bred wo a aid, aot only ithe guiiey ‘sid wobe, buco be crated” (DP 3, $342) “Tha seems oleae the problems harder than ever. God causes dhe tharaesing restate tobe, bow cn the reste bere? w Aniphon What rman, Lord, That Tho at mindfl of him, and theron of man that You vst in? You made hi il lee than the angels and You ‘owned him with ory. Sixth Leon: Fate Fatalism ‘The leaned objectors sy, “Go aus metodo what do, if Goi the complete cause of the being of his ezesture.” But tha cannot be "ght. For if God is dhe agent, and Tony the isteument, then T do othiag, God can ony be the complete cause of the Being of te agent if he agen fee. "lf God makes me do ity 1 do noe realy doi” as ‘rey whining child who blame sibling knows But could really be that nothing dat asa xa of lie being oer than tell is ever gouinel fre r tvs geninely a case, athe aie ‘occesinaliss think? That an outcome even the objector does aot want Sowhst is wrong? rt cannot be tue that both (1) thes freely acing-ereaure am ently cand tobe by God, and @) tht Go canes me to do what To The two are inconsistent, and ie the eend ha fale. Second, it eannor be tre that God causes the wun co move ti Jos and tha evi (causes the san to move a does, because, a the Moslems Feasoed, if God's causation i really the cause, then gravity cases rothing a al Again, right Rea rcdon m The supposition that God cases the cents in nature is incompable withthe scheme of acral eases So we have to conclude tha Gods taking the dus-eauting natal wats tobe sed the treating Haman wo be ancl meer natal caston nor fee wl bu rahe issue and necessary to enable ech That exaly what Aguas srucd ei ie ss iprovson with an active composing cae bat Internal exlnatory sacars foe wit llows wise Tow, 1 hw te mal reine that my ogi sappsiton is ‘ncamsient: that God can ese thus acing-creatre the 4th Irelyscing eetire to bee all Chriss secep tat God doe, throughout nature, xu thu-amig-beings fo be. Even can do tat. ins musical ompositon; ns mage rama ina pay: bya sng, ad v0 tne whore ect on youn (et make you sad), bat requis the being thats eased by me dont ake you fad with my sa 00 inthe same way the sd og makes you sid Lerner and Lowe rp ditpheyeu, bot is by ee eaarton af “On te Stes Where You Lie © ‘Now, ifthe crestor mot make the thur-rong-beings to ey then cideny, the creor ust make she thor fly Sting ong to bey ‘without casing them 20 toa: (by any natural carton), becrse that ‘sent fFendom. Thos, the enly way God ean ake a cosere fee treater i by aking the thar-cy cing begs to be And ths, hile God could defen any fee action by mideving being fom tht {ent before or during the ston, Go makes the centre fe, by bath fare and grace sheen desrbds and take She fe restr Be by’ constant (rom the temporal cere’: vantage) custon of being hrouphow fs aeons, “mung the deen cesar to be” Sek ‘Agia S71 105,33) Memeo ion wile, God mes acting ements of the conor ober making the tempera beng of ll ig esr win rou eal oS ie snaking «quar note; thee pel lng, ony a eae lengthy Serna oe you ime tomate whl oS t me haa and bird and protons relatos drains and casstons are egied by ‘that is made That ut what he crestor os, The temperay of ‘what is dove isa fear of whaeismade, not of the making v Antiphon ‘Whats man, Lord, That Tho at mind of hi, andthe son of man ‘hat You vise him? You made hi ate les than the angels and You ‘owned him with ory. m ame Rae ‘Seventh Leron: True Freedom Is Not of This Wold There isa mystery about man. The mystery is abeted by misunder- standings. By misunderstanding our freedom, we misundertand God's i whose image we ae made, and 0 further hisundersand our oe ‘Cee isthe paradigm of freedom, bu i 0 fr fom what me expect that we hate wo tndrstand other elements ofthe revelation and alvation to ghasp what kind of human acting could achieve flea, and thereby, understand creation, fom which we Bally underand out he. repeat inthis fourth lamentation wht freedom snot Fourth lamentation [Aleph] Freedom is ot the ably to at fom preponderant dee in ‘he absence of external cases, Even lome ental hae tha. {Beth] From is noe the ability vo ac from onl principle inthe sence of defexing conditions (goorace, fxr, violence and passion). ‘Thais esponbiy (Daleh] Freedom is oe js the sity to ct from rational appeite, «en on the raonal preponderace of dsr, ax Arle thought and ‘Aguas id (ST Tse, 6, 1), because (1) dat wl no achiewe bmn falilent and (2) there may be other cational smal, soch a higher apes, oF whales, that ve weaker reason, ye sil have Lied respons iy. [Giml}Freadom ina paricular ati at “bing able wo have done oberwise han ado under he very same condone a Tact wlingy™ brute the beer my reson snd habs se the les free 1 oul be For a holy will wong acon is ot a live opdon. Further, Tan act willy, noe knowing tht I base wo other choice (eg, Bing Iocked 4a) and ll act trey. Again, T can seek happiness (or God) fey (lig), even hough I would doe anyway by naar (wing). 1 will uve no choice is the presence of God, but all enjoy God ely (rilingy). Besides, thet sno active ability tha onstrate ‘Hewal sates Freedom canno comitin ty being able to ine done Something didnot do. The orm of analy ides. {Heth} Freedom is noe the ability 29 do ocerwise, more broadly concrived, for example, as "a second order ably" “had U choven ‘therns, I would hae done otherwise” because dat condition might be stsicd when I'mar not fee in my actions at aly for example, drugged, wowing locked up, orto sick o comprebend.™ Moreover, Res edo 13 that condition can be satisfied when there it 20 other lie opcion. Further, the ruppored analysis wues the very notion of fee choosing to be explained Again, the form of analyst is else, a6 ell a the content. [Tech] Besides, redom and liber canbe necessitated: a God's doing ‘he ight; andthe blesed loving God. Even she samy can each rac sch oly wil tht wong scons are “dead option,” jut me morder ‘would be to you; yer you ate fee in your confority 0 the Fh ‘Commandment [ao] Freedom se jst olan, not just responsibil, though shar is enough, wroaly exercised, for damnation. Tenderand Avg Sine, Aquinas Calin, Luther, and all he rest Chan tadtons, ‘Belang the holy oriodox chore, ro afin tha. [Zain] Creion dererminer the content of ra posibiliy, ands of all aecesiy ad exe with content. Fighth Lesson: True Freedom Is the Spontaneous Choice ‘ofthe Right from Abandonment to Love St. Augustine, in De Unt redend el his Manihess fend (who swans the whole sacere of his ie o be founded on rational pips for which there ae convincing arguments, and ro nants to be argoed into he fash "you ar ellering Irom an lines tat only God ean cure.” He ruging that you bine to Belee inorder to understand. So ook a wh there 10 bere "As St.Paul sys, freedom comes only by fit, fsedon from sin and “option a sons of God” Se john, al, sy "dedi cis peste flos Dei fii" obs Ss-14). Se. Pel x clear thar withoat ath there 10 freedom, though thet is danaton. Some ait i aking. No one SS clearer tat freedom comes by faith oe, that faith ive am ably to fet an tha cates ian setvey posable to 3 person who freedom, ot © one "eniaved to sin” Aquinas says supernatural dipositon, ‘eformiy, ie evento the understandings che more perfec, te me ‘neha charity (STI, 12, 5-6). sic possible then that "freedom," the gift of grace, ius condition, 4 parcularly favorable condition of responsibilty? Noy ‘eens the obj simed ain partir, ife with God, i beyond the ‘apaiy of unluminated reason to concer or ehe wll 2 at, In Jat, the esence of God cannot be presented to our underranding by slsteacion om sensible appearance and so veges "rete light” Grins). “4 oes as St, Augustine (De Lib Arb) ss that com berm eb) i che able a gly. He maker evden, Two hae thogh or ang tt en apni oe my eon four acing wrongly. In Cofeions, Auguste ays ta before he TEA TAba plame, Tig nied a mete ney by doing wih inponiy thingy caperited tn, darkened Hear 0 yout Sriporence” ST rerpectlly dingze with tore who sy, "We afew et Gots invfaion You Rae to be roponabl ores God: No is oot Sk che w meapt or mc God Roping Gols coniton tt ‘gute feedom-orofer, but the abendonmet of not the Scrcieof ree choice ike rnning and winning opposed to fling down, or ot saree ike rvng wl not an sy ohne scien, Shon, De eke) cn de es wi he ably wo keep vprightnn of wil forks Owe sake.” For Satz (ae {Caw Diebold, datnaton comes by alloc, by the faire to exec freedom tht anowiedges Gots moa soverogary, when the opportt- thy heed. The tory Anse elles sme ferns fromm: ‘Anu sll that Stn, nosing thatthe ference that ely couse that Gods vvreign acknowledging 0 supenor and cs = oe Imear witout make) coors (wis by volute) tbe te lawmaker whims depsing God and cling 1 be sovereign for ‘Sl ln perce wy be thoes tr cpg, beeing sreegn ‘ver chon, bet Toca aiiy fr sige of wil (redo) eink the same fc ip atained by poste reponsty to acknowledge ‘God's sovereign as lawmaker and tele wo d 0. ins wor, the “hace” eo secepe God or rot Goi cofi of spe shiooney er eon ants ind ah Pebeams to snp he Cody dowchy sng fedy ead beng Sy in rw anoying rey we 2a fc ‘hough scing respon the eae hat Sserves lane he wong. Se Brown tnd Sd tft song rs ee "We fave to sand on revelation and agate the ploopbes her, 1 propose to md with Angstne med Agoes, who dent dk, equ ofthe rle of evolution (whether as for potent innate [panes seminal) or een a many covesive now 83 szenion of sign changer nore ou by naar slo), cht mane ver ad 3 ‘rund end, flint in sre, Reon igpors thew art ofthe wy. Ie apport te confson shat hums Lilien 8 iniidae by fone ed of ealence of Real Freed 45 scivity. The pagan hilonpbere lal aed that humans ae for Something though they di noe sre sboe ws, orsbut how tain hn very bron tos, care tnt had somes fo wih wisdom td scton a asrd with son “Moreover, son sappore rvitinepatey bythe fale of ay plilsopher to put formrd an end schicrabe by exelne that would Fai he deeper human longings sot be terminated by Seah la ies tne simply dione thar rei ore efor ans envielycomined in early ie, Hara capecy a obit Cleay Serpathe comix pows nt. © the fondamental gustionabowt whether we ae geninl ee is thsis there conn fillies tinge humans and oe ne fave te means tach, one ha aot Hlotery, bu acl fered Sua ‘Ancient esi sd pardons show pin Chistian thinkers, 0, fovinstance, Per Ges’ soon fom The Vite that people ke acorns, mos of wich alt th rund a ron ming eet fal ie, becase,in ete, hy he ot “boy chosen,” Such ews ee sen suru, eoneouy I tink © Agus: Newctsesy gly “anneal” in whic God res Fis ouster o ero ses qual implarbl, Thre docs ot rom fo bea sasonly eal Br principle forthe dba of cous pce Fethapa ta Suh Sure Tre fedom i th poteneous choice of he god from lowe of the sod. om aandonnt ole Horas at etc so bro Gad {ters The newer gen by Ange: “Thou has made ws oe ‘hyst alone, © God, snd ou hats ee tl they rata Thee Bat as Angusiae sd about wisdom, we hn to fod» manera ie fing oor nds a mode af table con. We Bad ths oly by Hag ‘hoon te new cet, he edenpion Tor gien tat the sbjesive superar tht che enablement i superna nd hat the eset node of aston ip nos wha eso