Sunteți pe pagina 1din 108

CONSTUCTION MANUAL FOR GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED GYPSUM

BASED (GFRG) BUILDING PANELS

INTRODUCTION

GFRG building panel is a very versatile eco-friendly building material manufactured utilizing

industrial waste phosphogypsum. It is reinforced with high technology glass fibres to improve

its tensile strength / ductility. Panels are hollow panels of size 12.0 m x 2.85m with overall

thickness of 124 mm as shown in Fig.1. It can be used for walls as well as for slabs. The panels

can be easily cut to any sizes depending on the room size. Cut outs in the wall panels to

accommodate door and window frames can also be done. The cavities in the wall panel make

the buildings made of these panels thermally more comfortable. It is resistant to water and fire.

These panels have many other advantages compared to other conventional building materials.

GFRG panels can be used as walling elements, as flooring / roofing element as well as

compound walls / security walls. Design of the buildings using these panels is discussed in this

Construction Manual. This manual gives guidelines for the construction of buildings using GFRG

panels with details of joints, sanitary fittings etc. Please note that this manual gives only general

guidelines. Builders are advised to follow the construction drawings prepared by professionally

qualified designers for construction of structures using these panels.

USES OF THE PANELS

Most common use of GFRG panels is as a load bearing walls. Cavities of walls can be unfilled or

can be filled with concrete or reinforced concrete as shown in Fig.2 depending on the load

coming on to the panels. Generally panels without filling might be sufficient to carry loads due

to two storeys. For additional floors, the wall panels have to be strengthened with concrete

infilling or with reinforced concrete infilling depending on the intensity of load acting on the

1
wall panels. Panels have to be integrated with floor slabs / beams with starter bars in the case

of unfilled or in filled panels without any reinforcements. When load bearing multi-storeyed

building is subjected to fairly high lateral load like wind / earthquake in addition to gravity load

like dead load and live load, the panels will be subjected to relatively high in plane bending in

addition to vertical load. Such panels invariably filled with reinforced concrete. For design

purpose the wall panels can be assumed to be simply supported all-round the panel. In the case

of conventional framed constructions with beams and columns, GFRG panels without filling can

be used as filler walls. The portion of the GFRG panels above the door / window openings can

act like lintels, without filling for small openings of doors and windows or with reinforced

concrete filling for large openings of doors and windows in the case of internal walls. But for

external doors / windows sunshade shall be provided always. Then the lintels can be of

reinforced concrete only.

Panels without concrete infilling is ideally suited to use as roofing element in a pitched roof of

low income group housing. Pitched roofing with or without reinforced concrete micro beams

can also be covered with Mangalore Tiles for architectural considerations. GFRG panels can be

used as flooring / flat roofing with reinforced micro beams.

These panels can also be very effectively used for the construction of compound walls / security
walls.

USE AS A WALLING ELEMENTS

GFRG panels even without concrete filling can be used as a load bearing walling elements for

buildings up to about two storeys (Fig.2a). In the case of buildings of height more than about

two storey load coming on the panel will be so high that many a time unfilled panel will not be

able to resist that load. In such cases infilled panels shall be used (Fig.2b). Grade of concrete

infill depends on the design based on the load coming on the panel. In most of the cases infilled

2
panels are enough for buildings up to about five to six storeys. When the number of storeys is

more them five to six, the load coming on the walls will be so large that even infilled panel will

not be able to resist the load. In such cases panels have to be filled with reinforced concrete

(Fig. 2C). When multi-storeyed buildings with load bearing walls are subjected to relatively

high wind / earthquake load, it is likely that panel in the bottom storey will be subjected to in

plane tensile forces which panels cannot resist. In such cases also we have to use reinforced

concrete panels.

When the panels are used as walling elements, the erection of wall panels shall done following

the steps given below:

STEPS INVOLVED IN THE ERECTION OF GFRG PANELS

Many of the steps given below is common whether the building consists of only one or two

floors with unfilled panels or five to six storeys with infilled panels but without reinforcement

or still taller building with reinforced concrete infill.

Preliminary Requirements

• Clear plinth beams / slabs of ponding water if applicable.


• Mark grid lines for set out from established survey grid provided by client.
• Clear plinth beams / slabs of debris and equipment (by others).
• Position mickey pins in internal / external corners and reference location points.

Stage One

• Identify and mark panel numbers on floor set out .


• Transfer set out details from GFRG Panel schedule to the slab / plinth beam to accommodate

the starter bars.

• Provide continuous blocking to floor slab on one side of wall only if required.
• Set out and mark all door and window locations, unless pre-cut in the factory.

3
• Complete set out to enable 100% of GFRG panels to be erected in any given area.

Stage Two

• Drill holes in concrete at predetermined centres to accommodate starter bars, if starter bars are
not already provided.
• Remove dust residue.
• Place yellow safety caps over dowel (not required if done simultaneously with panel erection).
• Remove each rod after mixing and placing of epoxy in the hole, insert dowel and rotate to
ensure firm embedment.
• Ensure all unwanted dowels, rubbish, epoxy is removed from work zone.

Stage Three

• Determine method of lifting panels from stillage. This is determined by the length of the panel
and will either be the hydraulic or manual jaws.

• Ensure on a daily basis that jaws are in good working order prior to start of day’s lifting.

• Crane stillage directly from semi-trailer, and place in a location suitable for placement of panels
and location of crane age.

• Erect in place mobile scaffolding or ladder at work face and stillage for placement of hydraulic
or manual jaws (maximum height 2.4 m).

• Reference to GFRG Cutting Schedules and stillage loading for order of placement of panels.

• Attach jaws to panel required and extract from stillage and crane into position.

• Position braces for GFRG Panel vertical and temporarily secures to floor slab via a 10mm dia. x
40mm DynaBolt, ensuring true plumb and alignment.

• Release jaws and repeat process.

• On completion sweep and place all off cuts and debris in waste bins provided.

• Dismantle stillages and strap up to 5 stillages maximum stacked one upon another for craneage
4
and removal to nominated storage area.

Stage Four

• Cut and place door and window heads including temporary propping.

• Place and secure all manual GFRG panels as shown on working drawings.

Stage Five

• Cut and fit 13 x 13 metal perforated angle to top of designated GFRG panels via adhesive and
20mm clout nails. This avoids damage to edges of GFRG panel when placing precast beams onto
top of panel i.e. required for Ultra floor or similar only.

• Provide continuous support to both sides at base of panel, and at intersection when filling GFRG
panel with concrete in accordance with standard details. This also applies at internal / external
door openings and windows similarly where 124 mm channel needs to be screwed off and
supported prior to concrete placement.

• Repair or brace any damaged section of GFRG as a result of installation / transportation prior to
any concrete placement.

Stage Six

• On completion (i.e. floor by floor basis) check all panels located in correct position and they are
both true and plumb, and braced where necessary. With Ultrafloor check that installation of
beams has not moved panels out of plumb.

• Check all openings i.e. door, window are in correct location and where required, braced and
supported to receive concrete.

Stage Seven

Concrete Filling

• Prepare concrete of required strength and specified slump and expected volume of concrete to
be placed.
• Do not commence filling if there is no light or rain is likely to come.

5
First Pour

• Fill panels to 0.75 m checking continuously below to ensure over filling or panel damage is not
occurring.

Second Pour

• Fill balance of panel to full height provided first pour has reached initial set (i.e. Min. 2 hours). If
panel damage occurs, limit second pour to 1.5m and complete with a third pour.

• If rain occurs, then attempt to complete filling panels to full height within limitations outlined
above. If complete filling is not possible, block panel openings to prevent ingress of moisture.

• Wash down any concrete spillage before it hardens.

Stage Eight

On completion of floors being constructed over GFRG panels, carry out the following:

• Remove temporary braces of walls, stack and relocate to the next level.

• Remove temporary supports from door and window openings after sufficient curing period
where concrete filling has taken place
• Note condition of walls, especially after concrete placement and clean off concrete runs.

CONNECTION BETWEEN PANELS AND FOUNDATION

Depending on the type of soil and the nature of the building, foundation can be strip footing

(wall footing) or independent footing / raft foundation / pile foundation together with a plinth

beam. Typical connection between the strip footing and the three types of walls are shown in

Fig.3. After the plinth beam together with starter bars is ready, the panel is placed in position

following the steps listed out above. Then the cavities to be filled shall be filled with concrete.

This type of footing shall be adopted when all the panels are subjected to compression under all

6
possible loading combination and shall not be adopted when there is net tension in the bottom

most panels.

Almost the same procedure is followed in the construction with wall panel resting on plinth

beams which in turn is supported by independent footings / raft foundation / pile foundation

as shown in Fig.4. Bottom-most wall panels in this type of construction can resist tension also.

In such cases, panels shall be adequately reinforced to take the tension and the starter bars

shall start from the bottom plinth beam, tying the panels effectively to the plinth beam as

shown in Fig.4.3.

The panels can also be used to extend the existing buildings. The existing building can be of

framed one or load bearing one. On top of the roof slab, starter bars are inserted into the holes

drilled and epoxy grouted. Once this is done, erection sequence will be the same as that

discussed earlier for new construction. Details of connection between the existing building and

the panels in the case of framed building and also in the case of load bearing brick masonry

construction are shown in Fig.5.

VERTICAL JOINT BETWEEN PANELS:

While constructing buildings, various types of wall to wall vertical joints have to be provided.

Depending on plans shapes, these joints can be L type (which can be named as joint J1), T-

shaped (J2), Star shaped (J3) and it can be one in which panels joining at the joint subtends an

obtuse angle (J4) or joint between straight panels (J5).

L-JOINT (J1)

In the case of J1 type of joint, 3 starter bars shall be provided one exactly in the corner and

other two in the centre of adjoining cells in the adjoining panels on either side of joint as shown

7
in Fig.6. The tie rods of minimum diameter 10mm shall be tied with starter bars and length of

these tie rods shall be such that either they get anchored into the upper floor walls to act as

starter bars for these walls if there are walls above the panel under consideration or they shall

get anchored into the roof slab above in case the walls under consideration are topmost

internal panels. If the panels happened to be topmost external walls then these tie rods shall be

extended into the full height of the parapet wall above to start as anchor rods for parapet walls.

The vertical tie rods are tied together with 6 mm φ diameter horizontal ties @ 600 mm c/c so

that the steel cage becomes L-shaped. It shall be ensured that the spacing between bottom most

two ties is not more than 300mm. The web of the adjoining cavity in the panels adjacent to the

joint is cut for both panels so that L-shaped steel cage will occupy the centre of the panels.

Panels are placed in position only after steel cage is made ready in position. Then the panels are

lowered in such a way that the two corner tie rods will be at the centre of the end cavities. After

proper alignment of the panels and bracing, the joints are filled with free flowing M20 concrete.

10 mm and down size coarse aggregate shall be used for concrete. It is also advisable to use

suitable non-shrink compound while mixing concrete to reduce the shrinkage of the infill

concrete. Gentle vibration can be imparted to the concrete. Once the concrete hardens, the

joints will become an integral joint. Joint between the panels is scaled with joint sealant to make

the joint water proof.

T-JOINT (J2)
In the case of T-joint between panels, two alternatives are possible. One alternative is in which

two panels in the same plane is formed out of one panel in which the inner flange of the panel

where the perpendicular panel is joining is cut for a width of 94mm (J2-1). The web of the

perpendicular panel adjacent to the joint is also cut. The vertical tie rods are tied to the starter

bars with the horizontal ties so that the whole steel cage will be rigid. Then the panels are

8
erected, aligned, braced and joint concrete is laid as in the case of joint J1. Details of this joint

are given in Fig. 7(a). Joint between the longitudinal panel and cross panel is sealed with joint

sealant.

Joint J2-2 is almost similar to the joint J2-1 except that the panels in the same plane are made of

two panels instead of one. In this case web adjacent to the joint in the two panels adjoining the

joint are also cut to accommodate the horizontal ties of the joint as shown in Fig.7 (b). All other

procedures are the same as joint J2-1.

STAR JOINT (J3)

In the case where four panels are joining at the same point, details shown in Fig. 8 are adopted

(J3). The steps involved in the construction are the same as that in the case of joints J1 and J2.

JOINT SUBTENDING AN OBTUSE ANGLE (J4)

From architectural consideration, if two walls have to be joined subtending an obtuse angle,

then the web in the adjoining panels adjacent to the joint is cut. The three vertical tie rods and

horizontal ties are tied together to form a mesh as shown in Fig.9 (J4). All other steps involved

in the construction of this joint are almost the same as that of other joints.

STRAIGHT JOINT (J5)

In some cases, it might be necessary to extend the wall in the same vertical plane. Then the joint

shown in Fig.10 (J5) can be adopted. Other details are similar to the other joints.

There shall be at least two horizontal ties in the bottom 400 mm, the starter bar length. In the

case of unfilled panels, the cell with starter bars alone is filled with concrete up to a height of

450 mm so that there will be an end cover of at least 50 mm for the starter bars. For the cells

9
near the joints, the concrete shall be placed for the full height even in the case of unfilled panels.

All the concrete shall be well compacted using needle vibrator. In the case of infilled panels and

the reinforced panels, all the cavities are filled with M20 concrete.

GFRG WALL PANEL AS A FILLER WALL IN FRAMED BUILDING

Unfilled GFRG wall panels can be used as a filler wall in a framed building with very many

advantages. When the concrete frames including the columns and walls are constructed 10mm

diameter steel dowels are left in the columns and the floor beams so that these dowels will

project for a length of 100 mm from the face of the columns or beams as shown in Fig.11. There

shall be at least four anchors for the column, one at top and one at bottom and the other two at

two intermediate points. While casting the columns, the dowels are left flush with the column

face and pulled back before placing the walls.

There are recesses of size 100 mm x 150 mm cut in the inner flange of the panels as shown in

Fig.11 to match with the spacing of the dowels in the columns and beams. It is better if the

flange is not fully cut for the recess. Instead top and bottom of the recess is fully cut through the

full thickness of the flange of the panel and the vertical cut is done without fully penetrating the

thickness of the flange, so that it will hang like a flap which can be pushed back in position after

filling the recess. The wall panels are pushed from outside the building into the space between

the columns and the beams. In the case of interior walls, it can be from any one convenient side.

After the alignment of the wall panel the cavities near the column faces are filled with M20

concrete through recess in the flange of the wall panels and the cavities enclosing the anchor

rods from the beam will be filled using the recess out in the top of the panel as shown in Fig.11.

The joint between the column face and the wall panel and also that between soffit of the top

beam and the wall panel are sealed with joint sealant as shown in Fig.11. After filling the recess,

10
cut in the flange of the panel is finished smooth with gypsum plaster. In the case where the

storey height between the top of one floor and the soffit of the beam above is more than 2.85 m,

a tie beam can be run between the columns with the soffit of this tie beam is at 2.85m from the

top of the slab. The GFRG wall panel is erected below the tie beam and above the floor slab as

discussed earlier. Details are shown in Fig.12 similarly panels shall also be erected above the tie

beam below the soffit of the beam above as described earlier. Width of the tie beam can be kept

as 124 mm. Details are shown in Fig.12.

LINTELS:

Lintels provided in a building with GFRG wall panels can be essentially of two types, one

internal lintel and the other external lintel. Internal lintels, themselves are of two types,

unreinforced and reinforced lintels depending on the span. Generally unreinforced lintel is

used when the opening size is less than about 1.80 m.

Unreinforced internal lintels in unfilled panels, infilled panels and reinforced panels supporting

conventional R.C. slab are shown in Figs. 13 through 15. In Figs. 13 and 14, the starter rods for

the upper storey wall panels start from the floor level horizontal tie beams. In the case of

reinforced wall panels, reinforcements in the panel itself can be extended beyond the floor

above to act as starter bars for the wall panels in the upper storey as shown in Fig.15. Internal

lintels in the three cases of wall panels unfilled, infilled and reinforced wall panels supporting

GFRG floor slabs are shown in Figs.16 through 18. As in the unreinforced lintel in wall panels

supporting conventional RC slab, at least one starter bar for upper storey wall panel shall be in

the mid span region of the lintel.

Internal unreinforced lintels in three types of wall panels, unfilled, infilled and reinforced wall

panels supporting conventional RC roof slab and GFRG roof slab are shown in Figs. 19 through

11
21.

When the opening size is more than about 1.8 m, lintels have to be reinforced. Internal

reinforced lintels in the three cases of panels, unfilled, infilled and reinforced wall panels

supporting conventional RC floor slab are shown in Figs. 22 through 24. In this case one of the

flanges in the wall panels is cut for a length equal to the length of the lintel which is equal to the

width of the opening plus the bearing length on either side. Webs in the panel in the length and

depth of the lintel are also removed. This can be done in the GFRG panel production factory

itself. This cutting can also be done at the site. After the erection and alignment of the panel, 8

mm thick plywood strip 94 mm wide and length equal to the bearing length of the lintel is kept

in the recess cut in the web of the unfilled panel so that this plywood strip is supported by at

least two webs such that plywood strip will be stable. Then tie the reinforcements for the lintel.

After placing the shutter on the side where the flange is cut and also in the soffit of the lintel,

pours the concrete from top of the panel. A predetermined quantity is poured so that up to the

desired depth of the lintel the concrete gets filled up. The shutter shall overlap the flange on the

cut face by about 25mm so that there will not be any spill over of the concrete.

Same procedure can be followed for the lintels in the infilled and reinforced panels. Only

difference is that in these cases no plywood strips need to be placed. First the concrete is placed

in the panel up to the bottom of the lintel beam. After tying the reinforcements, the concrete is

laid from top up to the full height of the panel and during this process lintel concrete also will

be placed.

Figs.25 through 27 show the details of the internal reinforced lintels in the unfilled, infilled and

reinforced wall panels supporting GFRG floors. Procedure will almost the same as that

12
described earlier.

Details of reinforced concrete internal lintels in unfilled, infilled and reinforced concrete wall

panels supporting ordinary RC roof slab or GFRG roof slab are shown in Figs. 28 through 30.

In the case of external lintels, there will be always sunshade along with the lintel. Hence all the

external lintels are reinforced lintels irrespective of the span.

External lintel supporting conventional R.C. slabs in the case of three types of panels unfilled,

infilled and reinforced panels are shown in Figs. 31 through 33. In this case, external flange

together with the webs of the panel for a depth equal to the lintel beam depth is cut for the full

length of the lintel. Then the steel reinforcement for the lintel together with that for the

sunshade is tied. First the concrete for the sunshade is laid up to the face of the panel. Then the

side shutter for the lintel beam is placed above the sunshade and concrete for the lintel beam is

poured from the top of the panel. In the case of unfilled panel, a strip of 8mm thick plywood of

width 94 mm is placed over the recess cut in the web of the panel in the bearing region of the

lintel before placement of predetermined quantity of concrete. As in the case of internal lintel

plywood strip is not required in the case of infilled and reinforced panels since in any case the

panel has to be filled to the full extent. Shuttering for the sunshade and lintel is kept until the

lintel concrete attained required strength and also until the placement of floor / roof slab over

the panel above the lintel. Starter bars for the upper floor wall panel is taken from the lintel also

so that the lintel will have better support.

Details of the external lintel supporting GFRG floor slabs for three cases i.e. unfilled, infilled and

reinforced wall panels are shown in Figs. 34 through 36. As far as lintel is concerned, details

will almost the same as that in the panels supporting the conventional RC slab.

13
External lintel with conventional RC roof slab and parapet wall for three cases of panels

unfilled, infilled and reinforced are shown in Figs. 37 through 39. Corresponding cases with

GFRG roof slab are shown in Figs. 40 through 42. In all these cases, construction details for

sunshades and lintels are almost the same as discussed earlier.

HORIZONTAL JOINT BETWEEN WALL PANELS AND FLOOR / ROOF SLABS

Horizontal joints play a very important role in the stability of the buildings made of GFRG wall

panels especially against the action of lateral forces like earthquake, wind etc.

CONNECTION BETWEEN INTERNAL WALL PANEL AND RC / GFRG FLOOR SLAB

A continuous edge of an RC slab may be supported by three types of walls, namely unfilled

walls, infilled walls and reinforced walls depending on the load coming on to the walls. Fig.43

shows the horizontal joint at the junction of unfilled wall panel and RC slab / GFRG floor slab. In

this case, after hardening of the concrete in the vertical joints between the panels, 94 mm wide

8mm thick plywood strip is laid in the recess made by cutting the webs of the bottom panel for

a depth of 8 mm to support the concrete laid for the floor slab. In the region of the panel where

cavities are filled for full depth, plywood strip need not be laid. Starter bar for the upper floor

wall is raised from the horizontal floor level tie beam as shown in Fig.43. After laying the

reinforcements for floor level horizontal tie beam and floor slab, concrete is placed. Almost the

same details are adopted for buildings with infilled wall panels and reinforced wall panels

except that no plywood strip needs to be placed while placing the concrete for the floor slabs.

Details of these cases are shown in Figs. 44 and 45.

Details of horizontal joints between three types of external wall panels and two types of floor

slabs namely RC and GFRG floor slabs are shown in Figs. 46 through 48. Sequence of

14
construction and other details will be almost the same as that in the case of internal wall panels.

In the case of flooring or roofing with GFRG panels, the GFRG panels are placed over the wall

panels with a bearing of about 25 mm. Then the reinforcements for the micro beams and

welded mesh for the screed concrete are laid over the panel. Reinforcement for the horizontal

tie beams is laid along with the starter bars. Then the concrete for the slab is laid along with the

junction of the slabs and wall panels. As in the earlier case, plywood strip has to be laid when

the wall panel is unfilled and no plywood strip is laid in other cases. These joint details are

shown in Figs 43 through 48.

In the case of horizontal joints between the wall panels and roof slabs, details are almost the

same as that in the case of horizontal joint between GFRG wall panel and RC / GFRG floor slabs

but no starter bars are required as in the case of internal walls supporting floor slabs. Details of

these joints in the wall panels, unfilled, infilled and reinforced wall panels are shown in Figs. 49

through 51. However in the case of roof slab and external wall panels, starter bars have to be

provided to enable the connection of parapet walls with the roof slabs. Details of these types of

horizontal joint between the external wall panels and reinforced concrete roof slabs are shown

in Figs. 52 through 54. Horizontal joint between the external wall panels and the GFRG roof

slabs for three cases of wall panels, unfilled, infilled and reinforced wall panels are shown in

Figs.55 through 57. Starter bars for parapet walls can start from the roof slabs in the case of

unfilled and infilled walls. In the case of reinforced walls, reinforcements from some of the

cavities can extend beyond the roof slab to act as starter bars for parapet walls. Arrangements

will almost the same, whether the roof slabs is of conventional R.C. slabs / GFRG slabs.

FLOOR / ROOF SLAB USING GFRG PANEL

GFRG SLAB IN A LOAD BEARING CONSTRUCTION

15
Floor slab / roof slabs in buildings either load bearing or framed can also be constructed using

GFRG panels. In the load bearing construction, the walls can be made of GFRG panels. GFRG

panel with necessary cut-outs to form micro beams are placed with atleast 25mm bearing on

the walls on all the four sides. In case, one of the clear room dimensions along the length of the

web is more than 2800 mm, an additional panel of required length shall be cut and placed

abutting each other with webs in the two panels in the same line. Edges abutting each other

shall be properly supported by a runners and props so that both pieces will be in one horizontal

plane. Then the reinforcements for the micro beams, floor / roof level horizontal tie beams at

the junction of the walls and floors and the welded mesh for the screed concrete shall be placed

and tied. Later the concrete is laid and compacted well. When the concrete attains the required

strength, the props can be removed. Details of the slabs using the GFRG panels in buildings with

unfilled wall panels are shown in Fig.58. For the other two cases of GFRG slabs in building using

infilled wall panels and reinforced wall panels are shown in Figs.59 and 60.

GFRG roof slab with parapet wall for the external edge and without parapet wall for the internal

wall can be constructed suitably modifying the details given in Figs. 28 to 30 and 40 to 42. GFRG

floors can be used as a one way slab / two way slabs depending on the length / width ratio of

the slab. Sequence of construction is almost the same as that discussed in previous section for a

floor in a load bearing construction with GFRG panels as load bearing walls.

In the case of construction of GFRG slabs in framed buildings, there are two options. One option

is in which the panels are supported on the side forms of the beams. Here the side shutter

erected up to the soffit of the slab. Then the panel with the cut for the micro beams are placed

on the side shutters with a bearing of 25mm. Then the reinforcements for the micro beams

(positive in the bottom near the middle and negative over the support) placed in position

together with welded mesh for the screed concrete. As usual the beam reinforcements are tied.

16
Then the concrete for the entire beam depth together with concrete for the slab is laid. Details

of this type of floor construction are shown in Fig.61. When the clear spacing between the main

beams is more than 2.85m, additional panel is cut and laid abutting the full sized panel with the

webs of both the panels in the same line. Edges of the panels abutting each other are vertically

supported by runner and props until the concrete hardens as discussed in the case of load

bearing construction.

Another alternative is to cast the main beams and secondary beams connecting the columns up

to the soffit of the slab. Then GFRG panels with necessary cut out for the micro beams are

placed with a bearing of about 25mm. Remaining steps involved in the construction is similar to

the steps discussed above for the case where the entire concreting is done in one go.

PITCHED ROOF

For the construction of houses for low income groups and also for architectural purposes for

higher income groups housing, pitched roofs can be constructed using GFRG panels. Tie beams

are cast along the wall horizontally and also along the slope in the case of gable wall as shown

in Fig.62 for the case of a construction with unfilled wall panels. From the tie beams starter bars

are laid at required spacing. Then GFRG roof panels are laid with required slope. The panels are

properly supported so that it can remain in position during concreting. Where the starter bars

from the wall panels have to be accommodated, a small cut out has to be provided in the bottom

flange of the roof panels. The roof panels are supported until the hardening of the concrete.

Free flowing of concrete of predetermined quantity is poured from the ridge into the

appropriate cavities in the roof panels to integrate the roof panel and the wall panels through

the starter bars. Before the roof panels are placed cuts outs are made in the web of the roof

panels to accommodate the ridge beam reinforcements as shown in the Fig. 62. 8 mm thick 94

mm wide plywood strips are placed as shown in Fig.62 to act as a lost form for the placement of

17
ridge beam concrete. After placement of ridge beam reinforcements, concrete is placed in the

ridge beam. When the concrete attains the required strength, props are removed. Fig.62 shows

the details of a pitched roof slab building with unfilled panels.

Almost the same details could be adopted when the wall panels are infilled or reinforced as

shown in Figs.63 and 64. Many a time it is not necessary to use infilled or reinforced GFRG wall

panels to support pitched roof because load coming on to the walls will be less. Only difference

in the case of infilled or reinforced panels no plywood strips need to be placed in the wall

panels to serve as a lost form. However plywood strip is required to be placed on top to serve as

a last shutter while placing the concrete for the ridge beam. When architecturally one desires to

place Mangalore Tiles on top of the pitched roof, beeding could be constructed using cement

mortar or gypsum plaster at required intervals and over that tiles could be placed as shown in

Fig.65. Already the building with GFRG floor will be cool and placement of these tiles will make

the building cooler.

When the span perpendicular to the ridge is more, appropriate member of micro beams

perpendicular to the ridge together with screed concrete with welded mesh reinforcements can

be laid as in the GFRG roof slab. A typical detail is shown in Fig.66. Details of pitched GFRG roof

with micro beams supported on infilled or reinforced wall panels are shown in Figs.67 and 68.

In the case of infilled and reinforced walls, there is no necessity to provide plywood strip in the

wall panels as a lost form. In all the three types of construction, plywood lost forms is required

in between the micro beams to retain the ridge beam concrete.

FIXING OF DOOR AND WINDOW FRAMES

Doors and window frames can be made of steel, aluminium or timber. It is a trend now not to

use timber because good quality timber, which is durable, is practically not available and even if

18
available it is very costly. Hence this manual illustrates only the use of steel frames. Other cases

with aluminium and timber frames can be suitably adapted depending on the situation.

External doors and window frames are manufactured in such a way that there is an overlap of

frame material by 20mm over the outside flange of the wall panel all-round the periphery of the

door and window openings in the panel as shown in Fig.69 (a). However in the case of internal

door / window this flange can be removed and the door and window frames can be fixed as

shown in Fig.69 (b). Corresponding to the location of holdfasts in the door and window frames,

recess of suitable size is cut in the outside flange of the panel to accommodate the holdfasts in

the frames. The frames together with holdfasts fixed to the frames are pushed from outside into

the locations and aligned. Concrete is poured into the cavities in the wall panel adjacent to the

door and window frames through the cut outs made in the panel. When the concrete is

hardened the bracings shall be removed. The frames are kept in the aligned position by bracing

them until the concrete placed in the cavities of the panel adjacent to the floor / window frames

hardened. Junction of the door/window frame and the insitu concrete / wall panel is sealed

with sealant.

FIXING OF PLUMBING ITEMS:

GFRG panels being hollow, all the service lines like water supply and sewage lines can easily be

taken through the cavities in the panel. There are some variations in the design of wash basins

and water closets and fixing details can vary depending on the design. What is illustrated is only

a typical one and builders are advised to modify the same depending on the details of the

washbasins and water closets.

FIXING OF WASH BASIN

19
Three cavities in the GFRG panel near the wash basin location are filled with concrete leaving

the middle one empty. When the concrete hardens, steel / aluminium brackets supporting the

wash basin can be fixed to the wall using anchor fasteners / screws and wooden plugs. Typical

fixing details are shown in Fig. 70.

FIXING OF INDIAN WATER CLOSET

As in the case of wash basin fixing, fill two of three cavities adjoining the flush tank of the closet

up to a height of 800 mm leaving the middle one empty. Flush tank can be fixed to the wall

using anchor fasteners / screws and wooden plugs. Water inlet line can be taken through the

middle empty cavity in the panel and connected to the flush tank and outlet from the flush tank

also can be taken through the middle empty cavity in the panel and connected to the closet.

Fixing of the closet is almost in the same way as conventional way of fixing the water closet. The

soil line can be taken out as shown in Fig.71.

FIXING OF EUROPEAN WATER CLOSET

Fixing details of the flush tank of the European water closet is almost the same as that in the

case of Indian water closet. Water closet as such can be fixed to the floor / wall panels,

depending the type of water closet used. Typical fixing details are shown in Fig.72.

FIXING OF ELECTRICAL FITTINGS

GFRG panels being hollow, it is very simple to take the electrical lines through the cavities in the

panels. Wherever lines have to be taken a small cut out can be made in the flange of the panel

and the lines can be taken out. The cut out can be easily covered with switch box board. Even in

the case of slabs using GFRG Panels wiring can easily taken through cavities in the GFRG panel.

20
It shall be ensured that wherever fan hooks to be fixed, there shall be a concrete micro beam.

TEMPORARY FIXTURES FOR ERECTION OF PANELS

After the erection of the wall panel and before releasing of the crane hook, the wall panel shall

be propped using bracing made of steel pipes as shown in Fig.77. Plumb and line shall be

ensured by adjusting the turn brick arrangement. Props can be removed after the placement of

slabs and integration with the wall panels since it is planned to place concrete in the joint

between panels, it is necessary to hold the panels together during the placement of concrete.

Otherwise there is a chance of widening the gap between the panels. Suggested types of fixtures

for various types of joints J1, J2, J3, J4, etc. are shown in Figs.73 through 76. Between the flanges

of the panels, tie rods are taken through PVC pipes so that when the tie rods can be pulled out

very easily. The tie rods shall be retained for about one day. Please note the fixtures suggested

are only typical. Builders are advised to suitably modify the scheme given here, if found

necessary.

LIFTING JAWS FOR LIFTING OF PANELS

The details of lifting jaws used for lifting the panels are shown in Fig.78.

21
INDEX OF DRAWINGS
SL.No. Fig. No. Title Page No.
1 1 GEOMETRY OF THE GFRG PANEL 23
2 2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF PANELS 24
3 3.1 CONNECTION BETWEEN WALL FOOTING AND UNFILLED WALL PANEL 25
4 3.2 CONNECTION BETWEEN WALL FOOTING AND INFILLED WALL PANEL 26
5 4.1 CONNECTION BETWEEN PLINTH BEAM AND UNFILLED WALL PANEL 27
6 4.2 CONNECTION BETWEEN PLINTH BEAM AND INFILLED WALL PANEL 28
7 4.3 CONNECTION BETWEEN PLINTH BEAM AND REINFORCED WALL PANEL 29
CONNECTION BETWEEN EXISTING BUILDING AND NEW GFRG PANEL FOR EXTENSION OF
8 5 30
EXISTING BUILDING
9 6 VERTICAL L - JOINT (J1) BETWEEN WALL PANELS. 31
VERTICAL T - JOINT (J2 - 1) BETWEEN WALL PANELS WHERE INPLANE WALL IS
10 7(a) 32
CONTINUOUS
VERTICAL T - JOINT (J2 - 2) BETWEEN WALL PANELS WHERE INPLANE WALLS ARE
11 7(b) 33
DISCONTINUOUS
12 8 VERTICAL STAR - JOINT (J3) BETWEEN WALL PANELS. 34
13 9 VERTICAL OBTUSE ANGLE JOINT (J4) BETWEEN WALL PANELS. 35
14 10 STRAIGHT JOINT (J5) BETWEEN WALL PANELS. 36
15 11 CONNECTION BETWEEN FILLER WALL PANEL AND BEAMS AND COLUMNS. 37
CONNECTION BETWEEN FILLER WALL PANEL WITH BEAMS AND COLUMNS WHEN THE
16 12 38
WALL HEIGHT IS MORE THAN 2.85 METERS.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C
17 13 39
FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A INFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C
18 14 40
FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING
19 15 41
R.C FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING
20 16 42
GFRG FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A FILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING GFRG
21 17 43
FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING
22 18 44
GFRG FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C
23 19 45
ROOF SLAB / GFRG ROOF SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A FILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C
24 20 46
ROOF SLAB / GFRG ROOF SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING
25 21 47
R.C ROOF SLAB / GFRG ROOF SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING AN R.C
26 22 48
FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A INFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING AN R.C
27 23 49
FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING AN
28 24 50
R.C FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN AN UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING A
29 25 51
GFRG FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN AN UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING A
30 26 52
GFRG FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN AN REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING
31 27 53
GFRG FLOOR SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C
32 28 54
ROOF SLAB / GFRG ROOF SLAB.
TYPICAL REINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A FILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C ROOF
33 29 55
SLAB / GFRG ROOF SLAB.
TYPICAL UNREINFORCED INTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING
34 30 56
R.C ROOF SLAB / GFRG ROOF SLAB.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN AN UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING AN R.C FLOOR
35 31 57
SLAB.
36 32 TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN AN INFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING AN R.C FLOOR SLAB. 58
SL.No. Fig. No. Title Page No.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING AN R.C FLOOR
37 33 59
SLAB.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN AN UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING A GFRG FLOOR
38 34 60
SLAB.
39 35 TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN AN FILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING A GFRG FLOOR SLAB. 61
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING A GFRG FLOOR
40 36 62
SLAB.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUYPPORTING R.C ROOF SLAB AND
41 37 63
PARAPET WALL.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN INFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C ROOF SLAB AND
42 38 64
PARAPET WALL.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING R.C ROOF SLAB
43 39 65
AND PARAPET WALL.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN UNFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING GFRG ROOF SLAB AND
44 40 66
PARAPET WALL.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN INFILLED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING A GFRG ROOF SLAB
45 41 67
AND PARAPET WALL.
TYPICAL EXTERNAL LINTEL IN A REINFORCED WALL PANEL SUPPORTING A GFRG ROOF
46 42 68
SLAB AND PARAPET WALL.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF INTERNAL UNFILLED WALL PANELS AND FLOOR
47 43 69
SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF INTERNAL INFILLED WALL PANELS AND FLOOR
48 44 70
SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF INTERNAL REINFORCED WALL PANELS AND
49 45 71
FLOOR SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF EXTERNAL UNFILLED WALL PANELS AND FLOOR
50 46 72
SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF EXTERNAL INFILLED WALL PANELS AND FLOOR
51 47 73
SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF EXTERNAL REINFORCED WALL PANELS AND
52 48 74
FLOOR SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF UNFILLED INTERNAL WALL PANEL,AND R.C /
53 49 75
GFRG ROOF SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF INFILLED INTERNAL WALL PANEL,AND R.C /
54 50 76
GFRG ROOF SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF REINFORCED INTERNAL WALL PANEL AND
55 51 77
ROOF SLABS.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF UNFILLED EXTERNAL WALL PANEL,R.C. ROOF
56 52 78
SLAB AND PARAPET WALL.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF INFILLED EXTERNAL WALL PANEL,R.C. ROOF
57 53 79
SLAB AND PARAPET WALL.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF REINFORCED EXTERNAL WALL PANEL, R.C
58 54 80
ROOF SLAB AND PARPET WALL.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF UNFILLED EXTERNAL WALL PANEL,GFRG ROOF
59 55 81
SLAB AND PARAPET WALL.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF INFILLED EXTERNAL WALL PANEL,GFRG ROOF
60 56 82
SLAB AND PARAPET WALL.
HORIZONTAL JOINT AT THE JUNCTION OF REINFORCED EXTERNAL WALL PANEL, GFRG
61 57 83
ROOF SLAB AND PARPET WALL.
TYPICAL GFRG FLOOR SLAB FOR A ROOM WHOSE LENGTH / BREADTH RATIO < 2.0 AND
62 58 84
CLEAR DIMENSION ALLONG THE WEB > 2800.WITH UNFILLED PANELS.
TYPICAL GFRG FLOOR SLAB FOR A ROOM WHOSE LENGTH / BREADTH RATIO < 2.0 AND
63 59 85
CLEAR DIMENSION ALLONG THE WEB > 2800.WITH INFILLED PANELS.
TYPICAL GFRG FLOOR SLAB FOR A ROOM WHOSE LENGTH / BREADTH RATIO < 2.0 AND
64 60 86
CLEAR DIMENSION ALLONG THE WEB > 2800.WITH REINFORCED PANELS.
TYPICAL GFRG FLOOR SLAB IN A FRAMED BUILDING WHOSE LENGTH / BREADTH RATIO
65 61 87
OF ONE BAY > 2.0.
66 62 TYPICAL GFRG SLOPING ROOF WITH UNFILLED WALL PANEL. 88
67 63 TYPICAL GFRG SLOPING ROOF WITH INFILLED WALL PANEL. 89
68 64 TYPICAL GFRG SLOPING ROOF WITH REINFORCED WALL PANEL. 90
SL.No. Fig. No. Title Page No.
69 65 TYPICAL GFRG SLOPING ROOF WITH MANGALORE TILES FOR UNFILLED WALL PANEL. 91

70 66 TYPICAL GFRG SLOPING ROOF WITH MICRO BEAMS FOR AN UNFILLED WALL PANEL. 92

71 67 TYPICAL GFRG SLOPING ROOF WITH MICRO BEAMS FOR AN INFILLED WALL PANEL. 93

72 68 TYPICAL GFRG SLOPING ROOF WITH MICRO BEAMS FOR AN REINFORCED WALL PANEL. 94
73 69 EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL DOOR / WINDOW FRAME FIXING DETAILS. 95
74 70 TYPICAL FIXING DETAILS FOR WASH BASINS. 96
75 71 TYPICAL FIXING DETAILS OF INDIAN WATER CLOSETS. 97
76 72 TYPICAL FIXING DETAILS OF EUROPEAN WATER CLOSETS. 98
77 73 HOLDING DOWN BOLTS FOR JOINT J1. 99
78 74(a) HOLDING DOWN BOLTS FOR JOINT J2 - 1. 100
79 74(b) HOLDING DOWN BOLTS FOR JOINT J2 - 2. 101
80 75 HOLDING DOWN BOLTS FOR JOINT J3. 102
81 76 HOLDING DOWN BOLTS FOR JOINT J4. 103
82 77 DETAILS OF FIXING OF BRACINGS. 104
83 78 DETAILS OF LIFTING JAW 105
(1101)

SECTION A-A
4° MAX 4° MAX

95
°T
YP
RAISED LETTERING .M
O
VE
BOTH SIDES M
EN
T

75

SWL 750kg MAX

(1015)
798
475

13
20 70

(643)

(834)

FIG. No. 78 : DETAILS OF LIFTING JAW

105 SECTION B-B

NOTE:
1. FINISHED ASSEMBLY IS TO BE PAINTED IN AN APPROPRIATE YELLOW SAFTY COLOUR.
2. ALL FASTENERS ARE TO COMPLY OR BETTER AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS.
3. MAXIMUM LIFTING CAPACITY OF ONE JAW IS 750Kg.