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Transition to 4G 3GPP Broadband Evolution to IMT-Advanced (4G) Peter Rysavy, Rysavy Research 2010 This
Transition to 4G
3GPP Broadband Evolution to IMT-Advanced (4G)
Peter Rysavy, Rysavy Research
2010
This presentation is based upon the white paper written by Peter Rysavy, Rysavy
Research, which is available for free download at www.3gamericas.org
All figures Rysavy Research or 3G Americas member contributions unless otherwise noted.
Key Conclusions (1) • The wireless technology roadmap now extends to IMT-Advanced with LTE- Advanced
Key Conclusions (1)
• The wireless technology roadmap now extends to IMT-Advanced with LTE-
Advanced being one of the first technologies defined to meet IMT-Advanced
requirements. LTE-Advanced will be capable of peak throughput rates that
exceed 1 gigabit per second (Gbps).
• Future networks will be networks of networks, consisting of multiple-access
technologies, multiple bands, widely-varying coverage areas, all self-
organized and self-optimized.
• GSM-HSPA has an overwhelming global position in terms of subscribers,
deployment, and services. Its success will continue to marginalize other
wide-area wireless technologies.
• In current deployments, HSPA users regularly experience throughput rates
well in excess of 1 megabit per second (Mbps) under favorable conditions,
on both downlinks and uplinks, with 4 Mbps downlink speed commonly
being measured. Planned enhancements such as dual-carrier operation will
double peak user-achievable throughput rates.
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Key Conclusions (2) • HSPA+ provides a strategic performance roadmap advantage for incumbent GSM-HSPA operators.
Key Conclusions (2)
• HSPA+ provides a strategic performance roadmap advantage for incumbent
GSM-HSPA operators. Features such as multi-carrier operation, Multiple
Input Multiple Output (MIMO), and higher-order modulation offer operators
multiple options for upgrading their networks, with many of these features
(e.g.,multi-carrier, higher-order modulation) being available as network
software upgrades. With all planned features implemented, HSPA+ peak
rates will eventually reach 168 Mbps.
• HSPA+ with 2x2 MIMO, successive interference cancellation, and 64
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is more spectrally efficient than
competing technologies including Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access (WiMAX) Release 1.0.
• The 3GPP OFDMA approach used in LTE matches or exceeds the
capabilities of any other OFDMA system. Peak theoretical downlink rates
are 326 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel bandwidth. LTE assumes a full Internet
Protocol (IP) network architecture, and it is designed to support voice in the
packet domain.
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Key Conclusions (3) • LTE has become the technology platform of choice as GSM-UMTS and
Key Conclusions (3)
• LTE has become the technology platform of choice as GSM-UMTS and
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)/One Carrier Evolved, Data
Optimized (EV-DO) operators are making strategic, long-term decisions on
their next-generation platforms.
• GSM-HSPA will comprise the overwhelming majority of subscribers over the
next five to ten years, even as new wireless technologies are adopted. The
deployment of LTE and its coexistence with UMTS/HSPA will be analogous
to the deployment of UMTS/HSPA and its coexistence with GSM.
• 3GPP has made significant progress on how to enhance LTE to meet the
requirements of IMT-Advanced in a project called LTE-Advanced. LTE-
Advanced is expected to be the first true 4G system available.
Specifications are scheduled to be completed in March of 2011, with earliest
availability for deployment in 2012.
• HSPA-LTE has significant economic advantages over other wireless
technologies.
• WiMAX has developed an ecosystem supported by many companies, but it
will still only represent a very small percentage of wireless subscribers over
the next five years.
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Key Conclusions (4) • EDGE technology has proven extremely successful and is widely deployed on
Key Conclusions (4)
• EDGE technology has proven extremely successful and is widely deployed
on GSM networks globally. Advanced capabilities with Evolved EDGE can
double and eventually quadruple current EDGE throughput rates, halve
latency and increase spectral efficiency.
• EPC will provide a new core network that supports both LTE and
interoperability with legacy GSM-UMTS radio-access networks and non-
3GPP-based radio access networks. Policy-based charging and control
provides flexible quality-of-service management, enabling new types of
applications, as well as billing arrangements.
• Innovations such as EPC and UMTS one-tunnel architecture will “flatten”
the network, simplifying deployment and reducing latency.
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1G to 4G Generation Requirements Comments No official requirements. 1G Deployed in the 1980s. Analog
1G to 4G
Generation
Requirements
Comments
No official requirements.
1G
Deployed in the 1980s.
Analog technology.
First digital systems.
Deployed in the 1990s.
No official requirements.
2G
Digital Technology.
New services such as SMS and
low-rate data.
Primary technologies include IS-
95 CDMA and GSM.
3G
ITU’s IMT-2000 required 144
kbps mobile, 384 kbps
pedestrian, 2 Mbps indoors
Primary technologies include
CDMA2000 1X/EV-DO and UMTS-
HSPA.
WiMAX now an official 3G
technology.
ITU’s IMT-Advanced
requirements include ability to
operate in up to 40 MHz radio
channels and with very high
spectral efficiency.
No technology meets
requirements today.
4G
IEEE 802.16m and LTE-Advanced
being designed to meet
requirements .
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Relative Adoption of Technologies LTE UMTS/HSPA GSM/EDGE 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 7 Migration to
Relative Adoption of Technologies
LTE
UMTS/HSPA
GSM/EDGE
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
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ve SubscRelati
riptions
Wireline and Wireless Advances FTTH 100 Mbps 100 Mbps ADSL2+ 25 Mbps 10 Mbps LTE
Wireline and Wireless Advances
FTTH 100 Mbps
100
Mbps
ADSL2+ 25 Mbps
10 Mbps
LTE 10 Mbps
ADSL 3 to 5 Mbps
HSPA+ 5 Mbps
1 Mbps
ADSL 1 Mbps
HSDPA 1 Mbps
ISDN
UMTS 350 kbps
128 kbps
100 kbps
EDGE 100 kbps
GPRS 40 kbps
10 kbps
2000
2005
2010
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CAPEX+OPEX For 1 GByte of Data 9 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research Sept 2010 white
CAPEX+OPEX For 1 GByte of Data
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UMTS-HSPA Voice and Data Traffic Relative Network Load WCDMA/HSPA WCDMA/HSPA Speech + Data Speech +
UMTS-HSPA Voice and Data Traffic
Relative Network Load
WCDMA/HSPA
WCDMA/HSPA
Speech + Data
Speech + Data
Speech + Data
Speech + Data
WCDMA
WCDMA
WCDMA
WCDMA
Speech
Speech
Speech
Speech
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q2
Q2
Q2
Q2
Q3
Q3
Q3
Q3
Q4
Q4
Q4
Q4
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q2
Q2
Q2
Q2
Q3
Q3
Q3
Q3
Q4
Q4
Q4
Q4
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q2
Q2
Q2
Q2
Q3
Q3
Q3
Q3
Q4
Q4
Q4
Q4
2007200720072007
2008200820082008
2009200920092009
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Global Mobile Data Growth 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2008 2009
Global Mobile Data Growth
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Year
Source: Cisco, “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update,” February 10, 2010.
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P etabytes Per Month
Deployments as of 2Q 2010 • Over 4.4 billion GSM-UMTS subscribers • Most GSM networks
Deployments as of 2Q 2010
• Over 4.4 billion GSM-UMTS subscribers
• Most GSM networks now support EDGE
• More than 478 commercial EDGE networks
• 500 million UMTS customers worldwide across 347
commercial networks
• 324 operators in 137 countries offering HSDPA services
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Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies (1) Typical Technology Type Characteristics Downlink Name Typical Uplink
Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies (1)
Typical
Technology
Type
Characteristics
Downlink
Name
Typical
Uplink Speed
Speed
M
ost w
id l
e y
d
ep oye
l
d
GSM
TDMA
cellular technology in the
world. Provides voice and
data service via
GPRS/EDGE.
EDGE
TDMA
Data service for GSM
networks. An
enhancement to original
GSM data service called
GPRS.
70 kbps
to 135 kbps
70 kbps
to 135 kbps
175
kbps to
350
kbps
expected
(Single
Evolved
Carrier)
TDMA
150 kbps to
300 kbps
EDGE
Advanced version of EDGE
that can double and
eventually quadruple
throughput rates, halve
latency and increase
spectral efficiency.
expected
350
kbps to
700
kbps
expected
(Dual Carrier)
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Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies (2) Technology Type Characteristics Name Typical Downlink Speed Typical Uplink
Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies (2)
Technology
Type
Characteristics
Name
Typical Downlink
Speed
Typical Uplink
Speed
an
3G technology providing voice
C
d d
ata capa
bili i
t es.
urrent
UMTS
CDMA
200 to 300 kbps
200 to 300 kbps
deployments implement HSPA
for data service.
HSPA
CDMA
Data service for UMTS networks.
An enhancement to original
UMTS data service.
1 Mbps to
4 Mbps
500 kbps
to 2 Mbps
HSPA+
CDMA
Evolution of HSPA in various
stages to increase throughput
and capacity and to lower
latency.
1.9 to Mbps to
8.8 Mbps
1 Mbps to
4 Mbps
LTE
OFDMA
New radio interface that can use
wide radio channels and deliver
extremely high throughput
rates. All communications
handled in IP domain.
5.9 to 21.5 Mbps
in 2 X 10 MHz
LTE Advanced
OFDMA
Advanced version of LTE
designed to meet IMT-Advanced
requirements.
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3GPP Releases (1) • Release 99: Completed. First deployable version of UMTS. Enhancements to GSM
3GPP Releases (1)
• Release 99: Completed. First deployable version of UMTS.
Enhancements to GSM data (EDGE). Majority of deployments today are
based on Release 99. Provides support for GSM/EDGE/GPRS/WCDMA
radio-access networks.
• Release 4: Completed. Multimedia messaging support. First steps
toward using IP transport in the core network.
• Release 5: Completed. HSDPA. First phase of IMS. Full ability to use
IP-based transport instead of just Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
in the core network.
• Release 6: Completed. HSUPA. Enhanced multimedia support through
Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS). Performance
specifications for advanced receivers. WLAN integration option. IMS
enhancements. Initial VoIP capability.
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3GPP Releases (2) • Release 7: Completed. Provides enhanced GSM data functionality with Evolved EDGE.
3GPP Releases (2)
• Release 7: Completed. Provides enhanced GSM data functionality with Evolved
EDGE. Specifies HSPA Evolution (HSPA+), which includes higher order modulation
and MIMO. Provides fine-tuning and incremental improvements of features from
previous releases. Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enables efficient “always-
on” service and enhanced uplink UL VoIP capacity as well as reductions in call set-
up delay for PoC. Radio enhancements to HSPA include 64 QAM in the downlink DL
and 16 QAM in the uplink. Also includes optimization of MBMS capabilities through
the multicast/broadcast single-frequency network (MBSFN) function.
• Release 8: Completed. Comprises further HSPA Evolution features such as
simultaneous use of MIMO and 64 QAM. Includes dual-carrier HSPA (DC-HSPA)
wherein two WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a doubling of throughput
performance. Specifies OFDMA-based 3GPP LTE. Defines EPC.
• Release 9: Completed. HSPA and LTE enhancements including HSPA dual-carrier
operation in combination with MIMO, EPC enhancements, femtocell support,
support for regulatory features such as emergency user-equipment positioning and
Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS), and evolution of IMS architecture.
• Release 10: Under development. Expected to be complete in 2011. Will specify
LTE-Advanced that meets the requirements set by ITU s IMT-Advanced project.
Also includes quad-carrier operation for HSPA+.
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Operator Spectrum Requirements Ope ra t o r Spec tr u m R equ ir
Operator Spectrum Requirements
Ope ra t o r Spec tr u m R equ ir e m e nt
Busiest Markets
250
200
150
100
50
0
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Year
Rysavy Research 2010
Source: Rysavy Research, “Mobile Broadband Capacity Constraints And the Need for
Optimization,” February 24, 2010.
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MHz of Spectrum
LTE Spectral Efficiency as Function of Radio Channel Size 100 90 80 70 60 50
LTE Spectral Efficiency as Function of Radio Channel Size
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.4
3
5
10
20
MHz
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% Efficie ncy Relative t o 20 MHz
Parlay X Specifications Part Title Functions 1 Common Definitions common across Parlay X specifications 2
Parlay X Specifications
Part
Title
Functions
1
Common
Definitions common across Parlay X specifications
2
Third Party Call
Creates and manages calls
3
Call Notification
Management of calls initiated by a subscriber
4
Short Messaging
Send and receive of SMS including delivery receipts
5
Multimedia Messaging
Send and receive of multimedia messages
6
Payment
Pre-paid
and
post-paid
payments
and
payment
reservations
7
Account Management
Management of accounts of prepaid customers
8
Terminal Status
Obtain status such as reachable, unreachable or busy
9
Terminal Location
Obtain location of terminal
10
Call Handling
Control by application for call handling of specific
numbers
11
Audio Call
Control for media to be added/dropped during call
12
Multimedia Conference
Create multimedia conferences including dynamic
management of participants
13
Address List
Manage subscriber groups
Management
14
Presence
Provide presence information
15
Message Broadcast
Send messages to all users in specified area
16
Geocoding
Obtain location address of subscriber
17
Application-driven QoS
Control quality of service of end-user connection
18
Devices Capabilities and
Configuration
Obtain device capability information and be able to push
device configuration to device
19
Multimedia Streaming
Control
Control multimedia streaming to device
20
Multimedia Multicast
Session Management
Control multicast sessions, members, multimedia stream
and obtain channel presence information
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Expected Features/Capabilities Year Features Evolved EDGE capabilities available to significantly increase EDGE
Expected Features/Capabilities
Year
Features
Evolved EDGE capabilities available to significantly increase EDGE throughput
rates and announced deployments.
HSPA+ peak speeds further increased to peak rates of 42 Mbps based on
Release 8.
2010
LTE introduced for next-generation throughput performance using 2X2 MIMO.
Advanced core architectures available through EPC, primarily for LTE, but also
for HSPA+, providing benefits such as integration of multiple network types
and flatter architectures for better latency performance.
LTE enhancements such as 4X2 MIMO and 4X4 MIMO available .
2011
LTE-Advanced specifications completed.
HSPA+ with MIMO and dual-carrier available.
LTE-Advanced potentially deployed in initial stages.
2012 and
HSPA+ with MIMO and quad-carrier available.
later
Most new services implemented in the packet domain.
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Peak Rates Over Time DL LTE (20MHz) 300M MIMO 4X4 Downlink Speeds DL LTE (20MHz)
Peak Rates Over Time
DL LTE (20MHz) 300M
MIMO 4X4
Downlink Speeds
DL LTE (20MHz) 140M
MIMO 2X2, 4X2
100
Mbps
20 Mbps
MIMO/64QAM 42M
MIMO 2x2 28M
UL LTE (10MHz) 50M
64 QAM
HSDPA 14.4M
UL LTE (10MHz) 25M
16 QAM
10 Mbps
HSUPA/16QAM 11M
10 Mbps
HSDPA 7.2M
Uplink Speeds
HSDPA 3.6M
HSUPA 5.6M
HSDPA 1.8M
• HSPA DL and UL peak throughputs expected
HSUPA 1.5M
to double every year on average.
1 Mbps
1 Mbps
DL R’99-384k
UL R’99 384k
Limitations not induced by the technology itself,
but time frames required to upgrade
infrastructure and transport networks, obtain
devices with corresponding capabilities, and
perform interoperability tests.
100
kbps
100 kbps
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
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Different LTE Deployment Scenarios Today Medium term Long term 3G1X 3G1X 3G1x Scenario A EV-DO
Different LTE Deployment Scenarios
Today
Medium term
Long term
3G1X
3G1X
3G1x
Scenario A
EV-DO RevA/B
EV-DO RevA
EV-DO RevA/B
LTE
CDMA to
3G1X
3G1x
3G1x
Scenario B
EV-DO RevA/B
EV-DO RevA/B
LTE
EV-DO RevA
LTE
LTE
3G 1X
Scenario C
3G1x
3G1x
LTE
LTE
GSM
GSM
GSM
Scenario A
WCDMA
WCDMA
WCDMA
W- CDMA
to LTE
LTE
Scenario B
GSM
GSM
GSM
WCDMA
WCDMA
WCDMA
LTE
LTE
GSM to
GSM
GSM
GSM
LTE
LTE
LTE
WiMAX
WiMAX
WiMAX.16 e evol
some 16m features
WiMAX
to LTE
23 | Presentation Title |
LTE
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Month 2008
Radio Resource Management 1xRTT/1xEV-DO versus UMTS/HSPA Speech Blocking Unavailable High- Speed Data Capacity
Radio Resource Management
1xRTT/1xEV-DO versus UMTS/HSPA
Speech
Blocking
Unavailable High-
Speed Data Capacity
Efficient Allocation of Resources
Between Voice and Data
EV-DO
1xRTT
1xRTT
Hi
g
h S
-
pee
d D
a a
t
Voice
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Three 1.25 M Hz Channels
One 5 MHz C hannel
Throughput Comparison Downlink Uplink Peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Network Speed Speed
Throughput Comparison
Downlink
Uplink
Peak
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
Peak
Network
Network
Speed
Speed
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
EDGE (type 2 MS)
473.6 kbps
473.6 kbps
200 kbps
200
kbps
peak
peak
EDGE (type 1 MS)
(Practical Terminal)
236.8 kbps
236.8
kbps
70 to 135
kbps typical
70 to 135
kbps typical
1 Mbps peak
400
kbps
Evolved EDGE
(type 1 MS)
350 to 700
kbps typical
expected
peak
150 to 300
1184 kbps
473.6
kbps
(Dual
kbps typical
expected
Carrier)
Evolved EDGE
(type 2 MS)
1894.4 kbps
947.2 kbps
Blue Indicates Theoretical Peak Rates, Green Typical
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Throughput Comparison (2) Downlink Uplink Peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Network Speed
Throughput Comparison (2)
Downlink
Uplink
Peak
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
Peak
Network
Network
Speed
Speed
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
UMTS WCDMA Rel’99
2.048 Mbps
768
kbps
350 kbps
350
kbps
peak
peak
UMTS WCDMA Rel’99
(Practical Terminal)
384 kbps
384
kbps
200 to 300
kbps typical
200 to 300
kbps typical
HSDPA Initial Devices
> 1 Mbps
350
kbps
1.8
Mbps
384
kbps
(2006)
peak
peak
HSDPA
14.4 Mbps
384
kbps
> 5 Mbps
peak
> 1.5 Mbps
peak
HSPA Initial
Implementation
7.2
Mbps
2 Mbps
700 kbps to
1.7 Mbps
l
typ ca
i
500 kbps to
1.2 Mbps
l
typ ca
i
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Throughput Comparison (3) Downlink Uplink Peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Network Speed
Throughput Comparison (3)
Downlink
Uplink
Peak
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
Peak
Network
Network
Speed
Speed
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
HSPA Current
Implementation
7.2 Mbps
5.76 Mbps
HSPA
14.4
Mbps
5.76
Mbps
HSPA+ (DL 64 QAM, UL
16 QAM, 2 X 5 MHz)
21.6
Mbps
1.9 Mbps to
8.8 Mbps
11.5
Mbps
1 Mbps to 4
Mbps
HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO,
28
Mbps
11.5
Mbps
DL
16 QAM, UL 16 QAM,
2
X 5 MHz)
HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO,
42
Mbps
11.5
Mbps
DL
64 QAM, UL 16 QAM,
2
X 5 MHz)
HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO,
84
Mbps
23
Mbps
DL
64 QAM, UL 16 QAM,
Dual Carrier, 2 X 10 MHz)
HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO,
168 Mbps
23
Mbps
DL
64 QAM, UL 16 QAM,
Quad Carrier, 2 X 20 MHz)
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Throughput Comparison (4) Downlink Uplink Peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Network Speed
Throughput Comparison (4)
Downlink
Uplink
Peak
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
Peak
Network
Network
Speed
Speed
Peak
And/Or
Typical User
Rate
LTE (2X2 MIMO, 2 x 10
MHz)
70 Mbps
5.9 to 21.5
Mbps
35
Mbps
LTE (4 X 4 MIMO, 2 x 20
MHz)
326 Mbps
86
Mbps
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Throughput Comparison (5) Downlink Uplink Peak Network Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed
Throughput Comparison (5)
Downlink
Uplink
Peak Network
Peak And/Or
Typical User Rate
Peak Network
Speed
Speed
Peak And/Or
Typical User Rate
CDMA2000 1XRTT
153
kbps
130 kbps peak
153
kbps
130
kbps peak
CDMA2000 1XRTT
307
kbps
307
kbps
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev 0
2.4
Mbps
> 1 Mbps peak
153
kbps
150
kbps peak
> 1.5 Mbps peak
> 1 Mbps peak
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev A
3.1
Mbps
1.8
Mbps
600 kb
p
s to 1 4
.
p
s
Mbps typical
300 to 500 kb
typical
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B (3 radio
channels MHz)
14.7 Mbps
5.4
Mbps
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B
Theoretical (15 radio channels)
73.5 Mbps
27 Mbps
WiMAX Release 1.0 (10 MHz TDD,
DL/UL=3, 2x2 MIMO)
46 Mbps
1 to 5 Mbps
typical
4 Mbps
WiMAX Release 1.5
TBD
TBD
802.16m
TBD
TBD
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Throughput Distribution 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 30 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Throughput Distribution
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
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100
%
95
%
90
%
85
%
Thro ughput [Mbp s]
80
%
75
%
70
%
65
%
60
%
55
%
50
%
45
%
40
%
35
%
30
%
25
%
20
%
15
%
10 %
5
%
0
%
HSDPA Performance in 7.2 Mbps Network Good Coverage Bad Coverage Median bitrate 3.8 Mbps Median
HSDPA Performance in 7.2 Mbps Network
Good Coverage
Bad Coverage
Median bitrate
3.8 Mbps
Median bitrate
1.8 Mbps
-106 dBm
Mobile
Performance
measured in a
commercial
network
Median bitrate
1.9 Mbps
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HSUPA Performance in a Commercial Network Mobile 100 90 80 Median bitrate 70 1.0 Mbps
HSUPA Performance in a Commercial Network
Mobile
100
90
80
Median bitrate
70
1.0 Mbps
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
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0
70
140
210
280
350
420
490
560
630
700
770
840
910
980
1050
1120
1190
1260
1330
1400
HSPA+ Performance, 2 X 5 MHz Indoor coverage RSCP: -98 dBm 7.2 21 28 100
HSPA+ Performance, 2 X 5 MHz
Indoor coverage
RSCP: -98 dBm
7.2
21
28
100
80
Median
60
MIMO:
8.2 Mbps
64QAM:
7.2 Mbps
HSPA7.2: 6.0 Mbps
40
20
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Throughput (kbps)
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
cdf, %
Drive Test of Commercial European LTE Network, 2 X 10 Mhz Mbps Migration to 4G,
Drive Test of Commercial European LTE Network, 2 X 10 Mhz
Mbps
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
LTE Throughputs in Various Modes 35 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research Sept 2010 white paper
LTE Throughputs in Various Modes
35
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
LTE Actual Throughput Rates Based on Conditions Source: LTE/SAE Trial Initiative, “Latest Results from the
LTE Actual Throughput Rates Based on Conditions
Source: LTE/SAE Trial Initiative, “Latest Results from the LSTI, Feb 2009,”
http://www.lstiforum.org.
36
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Latency of Different Technologies 700 600 500 400 300 20 0 100 GPRS EDGE EDGE
Latency of Different Technologies
700
600
500
400
300
20
0
100
GPRS
EDGE
EDGE
WCDMA Evolved
HSDPA
HSPA
LTE
37
Rel’97
Rel’99
Rel’4
Rel’99
EDGE
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
M
illiseconds
Performance Relative to Theoretical Limits 6 Shannon bound Shannon bound with 3dB margin 5 HSDPA
Performance Relative to Theoretical Limits
6
Shannon bound
Shannon bound with 3dB margin
5
HSDPA
EV-DO
IEEE 802.16e-2005
4
3
2
1
0
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
Required SNR (dB)
38
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Ach ievable Effic iency (bps/H z)
Comparison of Downlink Spectral Efficiency Future 2.5 improvements 2.4 LTE 2.3 4X4 MIMO 2.2 SIC
Comparison of Downlink Spectral Efficiency
Future
2.5
improvements
2.4
LTE
2.3
4X4 MIMO
2.2
SIC
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
LTE
1.7
4X2 MIMO
1.6
1.5
Future
Future
1.4
LTE
improvements
improvements
2X2 MIMO
1.3
Rel 1.5
Future
HSPA+
1.2
4X2 MIMO
improvements
SIC,
64 QAM
1
.
1
R
e
l
1
.
5
HSPA+
Rev B
1.0
2X2 MIMO
2X2 MIMO
Cross-Carrier
0.9
Scheduling
HSDPA
0.8
Rel 1.0
MRxD,
Rev A,
2X2 MIMO
0.7
E
qua zer
li
MRxD,
0.6
Equalizer
0.5
0.4
EV-DO Rev 0
HSDPA
0.3
0.2
0.1
UMTS R’99
LTE
UMTS/HSPA
CDMA2000
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
WiMAX
Sept 2010 white paper
Spe ctral Effic iency (bps /Hz/secto r)
Comparison of Uplink Spectral Efficiency 1.0 LTE 1x4 0.9 Receive Diversity Future 0.8 Improvements Rel
Comparison of Uplink Spectral Efficiency
1.0
LTE 1x4
0.9
Receive
Diversity
Future
0.8
Improvements
Rel 1.5
0.7
1X4
Receive
LTE 1X2
Diversity
0.6
Future
Future
Receive
Diversity
Improvements
Improvements
0.5
HSPA+
Rel 1.5 1X2
Rx Div
Interference
EV-DO Rev B,
Interference
0.4
Cancellation,
Cancellation
Rel
16 QAM
1.0
0.3
HSUPA Rel 6
EV-DO
0.2
Rev A
UMTS R’99
0.1
EV-DO
to Rel 5
Rev 0
UMTS/HSPA
LTE
CDMA2000
WiMAX
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz/s ector)
Comparison of Voice Spectral Efficiency 500 Future Improvements 450 LTE AMR 5.9 kbps 400 LTE
Comparison of Voice Spectral Efficiency
500
Future
Improvements
450
LTE AMR 5.9 kbps
400
LTE AMR 7.95
kb ps
Future
Future
Improvements
350
300
Improvements
HSPA VoIP,
Interference
Cancellation
AMR 5.9 kbps
LTE VoIP
AMR 12.2 kbps
EV-DO Rev A VoIP, IC,
EVRC-B 6 kbps
Future
1xRTT QLIC
Improvements
250
EVRC-B 6 kbps
200
UMTS MRxD
AMR 5.9 kbps
Rel 1.5
EVRC-B
1xRTT
UMTS
6kbps
EVRC 8 kbps
AMR 5.9 kbps
150
Rel 1.0
EVRC
UMTS
8 kbps
AMR 7.95 kbps
100
UMTS
50
AMR 12.2 kbps
UMTS/HSPA
LTE
CDMA2000
WiMAX
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Erlangs,
10+10 MH z
LTE and WiMAX Features Feature LTE WiMAX Release 1 0 WiMAX Impact . Release 1
LTE and WiMAX Features
Feature
LTE
WiMAX
Release 1 0
WiMAX
Impact
.
Release 1 5
.
Multiple Access
OFDM in downlink,
Discrete Fourier
Transform (DFT)-
spread OFDM in
uplink
OFDM in downlink
and uplink
OFDM in downlink
and uplink
DFT-spread OFDM reduces
the peak-to-average power
ratio and reduces terminal
complexity, requires one-tap
equalizer in base station
receiver.
Uplink Power
Control
Fractional path-loss
compensation
Full path-loss
Full path-loss
compensation
compensation
Fractional path-loss
compensation enables
flexible tradeoff between
average and cell-edge data
rates
Scheduling
Channel dependent
in time and
frequency domains
Channel dependent
in time domain
Channel dependent
in time and
frequency domains
Access to the frequency
domain yields larger
scheduling gains
MIMO Scheme
Multi-codeword
(horizontal), closed
loop with pre-
coding
Single codeword
(vertical)
Single codeword
(vertical), with rank-
adaptive MIMO
(TDD) and with
closed-loop pre-
Horizontal encoding enables
per-stream link adaptation
and successive interference
cancellation receivers.
codin
g
(FDD)
42
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
LTE and WiMAX Features (2) Feature LTE WiMAX Release 1 0 WiMAX Impact . Release
LTE and WiMAX Features (2)
Feature
LTE
WiMAX
Release 1 0
WiMAX
Impact
.
Release 1 5
.
Modulation and
Coding Scheme
Granularity
Fine granularity (1-
Coarse granularity
2 dB apart)
(2-3 dB apart)
Coarse granularity
(2-3 db apart)
Finer granularity enables
better link adaptation
precision.
Hybrid
Automatic
Repeat Request
(ARQ)
Incremental
Chase combining
Chase combining
redundancy
Incremental redundancy is
more efficient (lower SNR
required for given error rate)
Frame Duration
1 msec subframes
5 msec subframes
5 msec subframes
Shorter subframes yield
lower user plane dela
and
reduced channel quality
feedback delays
Overhead /
Control Channel
Efficiency
Relatively low
Relatively high
overhead
overhead
Relatively high
overhead apart from
reduction in pilots
Lower overhead improves
performance
43
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Relative Volume of Wireless Subscribers Across Networks 7.6 B 8,000 7.3 B Total Global Subscriptions
Relative Volume of Wireless Subscribers Across Networks
7.6 B
8,000
7.3 B
Total Global
Subscriptions
7.0 B
6.6
6.6 B
6.4
7 000
,
B
6.0 B
6.2
B
5.8
B
3GPP
6,000
5.4 B
B
5.4
Subscriptions
B
4 8
.
5,000
B
GSM-HSPA
CDMA
4,000
TD-SCDMA
3,000
Other
2,000
1,000
0
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Source: Informa Telecoms & Media Forecast, WCIS+, June 2010
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Mi
llions
UMTS FDD Bands Operating Band UL Frequencies UE transmit, Node B receive DL frequencies UE
UMTS FDD Bands
Operating Band
UL Frequencies
UE transmit, Node B receive
DL frequencies
UE receive, Node B transmit
I
1920
- 1980 MHz
2110
-2170 MHz
II
1850
-1910 MHz
1930
-1990 MHz
III
1710-1785 MHz
1805-1880 MHz
IV
1710-1755 MHz
2110-2155 MHz
V
824
- 849MHz
869-894MHz
VI
830-840 MHz
875-885 MHz
VII
2500
-2570 MHz
2620
-2690 MHz
VIII
880
- 915 MHz
925
- 960 MHz
IX
1749.9
- 1784.9 MHz
1844.9
- 1879.9 MHz
X
1710-1770 MHz
2110-2170 MHz
XI
1427.9
- 1447.9 MHz
1475.9
- 1495.9 MHz
XII
698
- 716 MHz
728
- 746 MHz
XIII
777
- 787 MHz
746
- 756 MHz
XIV
788
- 798 MHz
758
- 768 MHz
XV
Reserved
Reserved
XVI
Reserved
Reserved
XVII
Reserved
Reserved
XVIII
Reserved
Reserved
XIX
830 – 845 MHz
875
-890 MHz
XX
832
- 862 MHz
791
- 821 MHz
XXI
1447.9
- 1462.9 MHz
1495.9
- 1510.9 MHz
Source: 3GPP Technical Specification 25.104, V9.4.0
45
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
LTE FDD and TDD Bands E-UTRA Uplink (UL) operating band Downlink (DL) operating band Duplex
LTE FDD and TDD Bands
E-UTRA
Uplink (UL) operating band
Downlink (DL) operating band
Duplex
Operating
Band
BS receive
UE transmit
BS transmit
UE receive
Mode
F UL_low
F UL_high
F DL_low
F DL_high
1
1920
MHz
1980 MHz
2110
MHz
2170 MHz
FDD
2
1850
MHz
1910 MHz
1930
MHz
1990 MHz
FDD
3
1710
MHz
1785 MHz
1805
MHz
1880 MHz
FDD
4
1710
MHz
1755 MHz
2110
MHz
2155 MHz
FDD
5
824
MHz
849 MHz
869
MHz
894MHz
FDD
1
6
830
MHz
840 MHz
875
MHz
885 MHz
FDD
7
2500
MHz
2570 MHz
2620
MHz
2690 MHz
FDD
8
880
MHz
915 MHz
925
MHz
960 MHz
FDD
9
1749.9
MHz
1784.9 MHz
1844.9
MHz
1879.9 MHz
FDD
10
1710
MHz
1770 MHz
2110
MHz
2170 MHz
FDD
11
1427.9
MHz
1447.9 MHz
1475.9
MHz
1495.9 MHz
FDD
12
698
MHz
716 MHz
728
MHz
746 MHz
FDD
13
777
MHz
787 MHz
746
MHz
756 MHz
FDD
14
788
MHz
798 MHz
758
MHz
768 MHz
FDD
15
Reserved
Reserved
FDD
16
Reserved
Reserved
FDD
17
704
MHz
716 MHz
734
MHz
746 MHz
FDD
18
815
MHz
830 MHz
860
MHz
875 MHz
FDD
19
830
MHz
845 MHz
875
MHz
890 MHz
FDD
20
832
MHz
862 MHz
791
MHz
821 MHz
21
1447.9
MHz
1462.9 MHz
1495.9
MHz
1510.9 MHz
FDD
33
1900
MHz
1920 MHz
1900
MHz
1920 MHz
TDD
34
2010
MHz
2025 MHz
2010
MHz
2025 MHz
TDD
35
1850
MHz
1910 MHz
1850
MHz
1910 MHz
TDD
36
1930
MHz
1990 MHz
1930
MHz
1990 MHz
TDD
37
1910
MHz
1930 MHz
1910
MHz
1930 MHz
TDD
38
2570
MHz
2620 MHz
2570
MHz
2620 MHz
TDD
39
1880
MHz
1920 MHz
1880
MHz
1920 MHz
TDD
40
2300
MHz
2400 MHz
2300
MHz
2400 MHz
TDD
Note 1: Band 6 is not applicable.
Source: 3GPP Technical Specification 36.104, V9.4.0.
46
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Throughput Requirements • Microbrowsing (for example, Wireless Application Protocol [WAP]): 8 to 128 kbps •
Throughput Requirements
• Microbrowsing (for example, Wireless
Application Protocol [WAP]): 8 to 128 kbps
• Multimedia messaging: 8 to 64 kbps
• Video telephony: 64 to 384 kbps
• General-purpose Web browsing: 32 kbps to
more than 1 Mbps
• Enterprise applications including e-mail,
database access, and VPNs: 32 kbps to more
than 1 Mbps
• Video and audio streaming: 32 kbps to 2 Mbps
47
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
GPRS/EDGE Architecture Mobile Base Station Transceiver Station Circuit-Switched Public Switched Telephone Network
GPRS/EDGE Architecture
Mobile
Base
Station
Transceiver
Station
Circuit-Switched
Public Switched
Telephone Network
Mobile
Traffic
Station
Base
Base
Mobile
Mobile
Transceiver
Station
Switching
Station
Station
Controller
Center
Home
Location
IP
Register
Traffic
GPRS/EDGE Data
Infrastructure
Serving
Gateway
GPRS
GPRS
Support
Support
External Data
Network (e.g., Internet)
Node
Node
48
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Example of GSM/GPRS/EDGE Timeslot Structure 4.615 ms per frame of 8 timeslots 577 S per
Example of GSM/GPRS/EDGE Timeslot Structure
4.615 ms per frame of 8 timeslots
577
S
per timeslot
01234567
Possible BCCH
carrier configuration
BCCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
PDTCH
PDTCH
PDTCH
01234567
Possible TCH carrier
configuration
PBCCH
TCH
TCH
PDTCH
PDTCH
PDTCH
PDTCH
PDTCH
BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel – carries synchronization, paging and other signalling information
TCH: Traffic Channel – carries voice traffic data; may alternate between frames for half-rate
PDTCH: Packet Data Traffic Channel – Carries packet data traffic for GPRS and EDGE
PBCCH: Packet Broadcast Control Channel – additional signalling for GPRS/EDGE; used only if needed
49
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Evolved EDGE Objectives • A 100 percent increase in peak data rates. • A 50
Evolved EDGE Objectives
• A 100 percent increase in peak data rates.
• A 50 percent increase in spectral efficiency and capacity in C/I-limited
scenarios.
• A sensitivity increase in the downlink of 3 dB for voice and data.
• A reduction of latency for initial access and round-trip time, thereby enabling
support for conversational services such as VoIP and PoC.
• To achieve compatibility with existing frequency planning, thus facilitating
deployment in existing networks.
• To coexist with legacy mobile stations by allowing both old and new stations
to share the same radio resources.
• To avoid impacts on infrastructure by enabling improvements through a
software upgrade.
• To be applicable to DTM (simultaneous voice and data) and the A/Gb mode
interface. The A/Gb mode interface is part of the 2G core network, so this
goal is required for full backward-compatibility with legacy GPRS/EDGE.
50
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Evolved EDGE Methods in Release 7 • Downlink dual-carrier reception to increase the number of
Evolved EDGE Methods in Release 7
• Downlink dual-carrier reception to increase the number of timeslots that
can be received from four on one carrier to 10 on two carriers for a 150
percent increase in throughput.
• The addition of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), 16 QAM, and
32 QAM as well as an increased symbol rate (1.2x) in the uplink and a
new set of modulation/coding schemes that will increase maximum
throughput per timeslot by up to 100 percent. Currently, EDGE uses 8-
PSK modulation.
• A reduction in overall latency. This is achieved by lowering the TTI to 10
msec and by including the acknowledge information in the data packet.
These enhancements will have a dramatic effect on throughput for
many applications.
• Downlink diversity reception of the same radio channel to increase the
robustness in interference and to improve the receiver sensitivity.
Simulations have demonstrated sensitivity gains of 3 dB and a decrease
in required C/I of up to 18 dB for a single cochannel interferer.
51
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Evolved EDGE Two-Carrier Operation Slot N Slot N + 1 (Idle Frame) Slot N +
Evolved EDGE Two-Carrier Operation
Slot N
Slot N + 1
(Idle Frame)
Slot N + 2
Slot N + 3
Rx1
Rx2
Tx (1)
Neighbor Cell Measurements
Uplink Timeslot
Downlink Timeslot
52
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Evolved EDGE Theoretical Rates • Type 2 mobile device (one that can support simultaneous transmission
Evolved EDGE Theoretical Rates
• Type 2 mobile device (one that can support simultaneous
transmission and reception) using DBS-12 as the MCS and a
dual-carrier receiver can achieve the following performance:
– Highest data rate per timeslot (layer 2) = 118.4 kbps
– Timeslots per carrier = 8
– Carriers used in the downlink = 2
– Total downlink data rate = 118.4 kbps X 8 X 2 = 1894.4
kbps
• This translates to a peak network rate close to 2 Mbps and a
user-achievable data rate of well over 1 Mbps!
53
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Evolved EDGE Implementation 54 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research 2010 white paper
Evolved EDGE Implementation
54
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
UMTS Multi-Radio Network Packet-Switched GSM/EDGE Networks WCDMA, UMTS Core Network (MSC, HLR, SGSN, GGSN)
UMTS Multi-Radio Network
Packet-Switched
GSM/EDGE
Networks
WCDMA,
UMTS
Core Network
(MSC, HLR,
SGSN, GGSN)
Circuit-Switched
HSDPA
Networks
Other
e.g., WLAN
Other Cellular
Operators
Common core network can support multiple radio access networks
55
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
High Speed Downlink Packet Access • High speed data enhancement for WCDMA/UMTS • Peak theoretical
High Speed Downlink Packet Access
• High speed data enhancement for WCDMA/UMTS
• Peak theoretical speeds of 14 Mbps
• Current devices support 7.2 Mbps throughput
• Methods used by HSDPA
– High speed channels shared both in the code and
time domains
– Short transmission time interval (TTI)
– Fast scheduling and user diversity
– Higher-order modulation
– Fast link adaptation
– y
Fast h brid a tomatic-re eat-re
u
p
qu
est (HARQ)
56
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
HSDPA Channel Assignment - Example User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 2 msec
HSDPA Channel Assignment - Example
User 1
User 2
User 3
User 4
2 msec
CoChanne
deslization
1 User 2 User 3 User 4 2 msec CoChanne deslization Time Radio resources assigned both
Time Radio resources assigned both in code and time domains 57 Migration to 4G, Rysavy
Time
Radio resources assigned both in code and time domains
57
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
HSDPA Multi-User Diversity User 1 High data rate User 2 Low data rate Time User
HSDPA Multi-User Diversity
User 1
High data rate
User 2
Low data rate
Time
User 2
User 1
User 2
User 1
User 2
User 1
Efficient scheduler favors transmissions to users with best radio conditions
58
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Signal Quali ty
High Speed Uplink Packet Access • 85% increase in overall cell throughput on the uplink
High Speed Uplink Packet Access
• 85% increase in overall cell throughput on the uplink
• Achievable rates of 1 Mbps on the uplink
• Reduced packet delays to as low as 30 msec
• Methods:
– An enhanced dedicated physical channel
– A short TTI, as low as 2 msec, which allows faster
responses to changing radio conditions and error
conditions
– Fast Node B-based scheduling, which allows the
base station to efficiently allocate radio resources
– Fast Hybrid ARQ, which improves the efficiency of
error processing
59
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
HSPA+ Objectives • Exploit the full potential of a CDMA approach before moving to an
HSPA+ Objectives
• Exploit the full potential of a CDMA approach before moving to an
OFDM platform in 3GPP LTE.
• Achieve performance close to LTE in 5 MHz of spectrum.
• Provide smooth interworking between HSPA+ and LTE, thereby
facilitating the operation of both technologies. As such, operators
may choose to leverage the EPC/SAE planned for LTE.
• Allow operation in a packet-only mode for both voice and data.
• Be backward-compatible with previous systems while incurring no
performance degradation with either earlier or newer devices.
• Facilitate migration from current HSPA infrastructure to HSPA+
infrastructure.
60
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
HSPA Throughput Evolution Technology Downlink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate Uplink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate HSPA
HSPA Throughput Evolution
Technology
Downlink (Mbps)
Peak Data Rate
Uplink (Mbps)
Peak Data Rate
HSPA as defined in Release 6
14.4
5.76
Release 7 HSPA+ DL 64 QAM,
21.1
11.5
UL 16 QAM
Release 7 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO,
28.0
11.5
DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM
Release 8 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO
42.2
11.5
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM
Release 8 HSPA+ (no MIMO)
Dual Carrier (2 X 10 MHz)
42.2
11.5
Release 9 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO, Dual
Carrier (2 X 10 MHz)
84.0
23.0
Release 10 HSPA + 4X4 MIMO, Quad
Carrier (2 X 20 MHz)
168.0
23.0
61
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Dual-Cell Operation with One Uplink Carrier Uplink 1 x 5 MHz Downlink 2 x 5
Dual-Cell Operation with One Uplink Carrier
Uplink
1 x 5 MHz
Downlink
2 x 5 MHz
UE1
1 x 5 MHz
2 x 5 MHz
UE2
62
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Dual-Carrier Performance Ped A, 10% load 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 RAKE,
Dual-Carrier Performance
Ped A, 10% load
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
RAKE, single-carrier
RAKE, multi-carrier
20
GRAKE single-carrier
,
GRAKE, multi-carrier
10
GRAKE2, single-carrier
GRAKE2, multi-carrier
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Achievable bitrate [Mbps]
63
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
C DF [%]
HSPA/HSPA+ One-Tunnel Architecture Traditional HSPA Architecture HSPA with One-Tunnel Architecture Possible HSPA+
HSPA/HSPA+ One-Tunnel Architecture
Traditional HSPA
Architecture
HSPA with One-Tunnel
Architecture
Possible HSPA+ with
One-Tunnel Architecture
GGSN
GGSN
GGSN
User Plane
SGSN
SGSN
SGSN
Control Plane
RNC
RNC
Node B
Node B
Node B
64
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Summary of HSPA Functions and Benefits Uplink DTX + downlink DRX Lower UE power consumption
Summary of HSPA Functions and Benefits
Uplink DTX + downlink
DRX
Lower UE power consumption
CS voice over HSPA
Higher voice capacity
Downlink 64QAM, MIMO
and Dual carrier
Higher downlink peak data
rates and higher data capacity
Uplink 16QAM
Higher uplink peak data rates
L2 optimization
(Flexible RLC)
Higher L2 throughput and less
processing requirements
High speed FACH + High
speed RACH
Lower latency = better
response times
More efficient common
channels = savings in channel
elements
Flat architecture
optimization
Less network elements
65
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
CS Voice Over HSPA Scheduler prioritizes voice packets CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer
CS Voice Over HSPA
Scheduler prioritizes
voice packets
CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer
depending on terminal capability
AMR adaptation
possible
Transport
queues etc
AMR
adapt.
CS R99
IuCS
HSPA scheduler
HSPA
Combined
to one
carrier
IuPS
PS R99
NodeB
RNC
66
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Smooth Migration to VoIP over HSPA 1.4 1.4 1.4 V V V o o o
Smooth Migration to VoIP over HSPA
1.4
1.4
1.4
V
V
V
o
o
o
IP
IP
IP
1.2
1.2
1.2
CS
CS
CS
1 1 1
CS + VoIP
CS + VoIP
CS + VoIP
0.8
0.8
0.8
0
0
0
6
6
6
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
2
2
2
4
4
4
6
6
6
8
8
8
10
10
10
12
12
12
14
14
14
PS Evolution
PS Evolution
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Rela tive Cap acity
Rela tive Cap acity
Rela tive Cap acity
LTE Capabilities • Downlink peak data rates up to 326 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth
LTE Capabilities
• Downlink peak data rates up to 326 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth
• Uplink peak data rates up to 86.4 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth
• Operation in both TDD and FDD modes.
• Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz, covering 1.4, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20
MHz
• Increased spectral efficiency over Release 6 HSPA by a factor of two to
four
• Reduced latency, to 10 msec round-trip time between user equipment and
the base station, and to less than 100 msec transition time from inactive to
active
LTE Configuration
Downlink (Mbps)
Peak Data Rate
Uplink (Mbps)
Peak Data Rate
Using 2X2 MIMO in the Downlink and 16
QAM in the Uplink
172.8
57.6
Using 4X4 MIMO in the Downlink and 64
QAM in the Uplink
326.4
86.4
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HSPA Migration to LTE to Advanced, 4G, Rysavy Rysavy Research Research
Sept 2010 2009 white white paper paper
LTE OFDMA Downlink Resource Assignment in Time and Frequency User 1 User 2 User 3
LTE OFDMA Downlink Resource Assignment in
Time and Frequency
User 1
User 2
User 3
User 4
Time
Minimum resource block consists of
14 symbols and 12 subcarriers
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Fre quency
Frequency Domain Scheduling in LTE C arr er i b an d w idth Resource
Frequency Domain Scheduling in LTE
C
arr er
i
b
an
d
w
idth
Resource block
Frequency
Transmit on those resource
blocks that are not faded
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
LTE Antenna Schemes Source: 3G Americas’ white paper “MIMO and Smart Antennas for 3G and
LTE Antenna Schemes
Source: 3G Americas’ white paper “MIMO and Smart Antennas for 3G and 4G Wireless
Systems – Practical Aspects and Deployment Considerations,” May 2010.
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Sept 2010 white paper
Evolution of Voice in LTE Networks 72 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research Sept 2010 white
Evolution of Voice in LTE Networks
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
TDD Frame Co-Existence Between TD-SCDMA and LTE TDD 73 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research Sept
TDD Frame Co-Existence
Between TD-SCDMA and LTE TDD
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation Release 10 LTE-Advanced UE resource pool Rel’8 Rel’8 Rel’8 Rel’8 Rel’8
LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation
Release 10 LTE-Advanced UE resource pool
Rel’8
Rel’8
Rel’8
Rel’8
Rel’8
100 MHz bandwidth
20 MHz
Release 8 UE uses a
single 20 MHz block
Source: "LTE for UMTS, OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access,”
Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, Wiley, 2009.
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LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation at Protocol Layers Source: “The Evolution of LTE towards IMT-Advanced”, Stefan
LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation
at Protocol Layers
Source: “The Evolution of LTE towards IMT-Advanced”,
Stefan Parkvall and David Astely, Ericsson Research
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
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IMT-Advanced and LTE-Advanced IMT-Advanced Item Requirement LTE-Advanced Projected Capability Peak Data Rate
IMT-Advanced and LTE-Advanced
IMT-Advanced
Item
Requirement
LTE-Advanced
Projected Capability
Peak Data Rate Downlink
1 Gbps
Peak Data Rate Uplink
500 Mbps
Spectrum Allocation
Up to 40 MHz
Up to 100 MHz
Latency User Plane
10
msec
10
msec
Latency Control Plane
100 msec
50
msec
Peak Spectral Efficiency DL
15
bps/Hz
30
bps/Hz
Peak Spectral Efficiency UL
6.75
bps/Hz
15
bps/Hz
Average Spectral Efficiency DL
2.2
bps/Hz
2.6
bps/Hz
Average Spectral Efficiency UL
1.4
bps/Hz
2.0
bps/Hz
Cell-Edge Spectral Efficiency DL
0.06
bps/Hz
0.09
bps/Hz
Cell-Edge Spectral Efficiency UL
0.03
bps/Hz
0.07
bps/Hz
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
LTE-Advanced Relay Direct Link Relay Link Access Link 77 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research Sept
LTE-Advanced Relay
Direct Link
Relay Link
Access
Link
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
IP Multimedia Subsystem IMS SIP Application Server Home Subscriber Server (HSS) SIP Media Resource Function
IP Multimedia Subsystem
IMS
SIP Application
Server
Home Subscriber
Server (HSS)
SIP
Media Resource
Function Control
DIAMETER
C
a ll S
ess on
i
C
(SIP Proxy)
on ro
t
l
F
unc
ti
on (
CSCF
)
Media Resource
Gateway Control
UMTS/HSPA
Packet Core
Network
DSL
Wi-Fi
Multiple Possible Access Networks
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Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
2010 white paper
Heterogeneous Networks 79 Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research Sept 2010 white paper
Heterogeneous Networks
79
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Efficient Broadcasting with OFDM LTE will leverage OFDM-based broadcasting capabilities 80 Migration to 4G, Rysavy
Efficient Broadcasting with OFDM
LTE will leverage OFDM-based broadcasting capabilities
80
Migration to 4G, Rysavy Research
Sept 2010 white paper
Evolved Packet System Rel’7 Legacy GSM/UMTS GERAN SGSN UTRAN One-Tunnel Option PCRF MME Control IP
Evolved Packet System
Rel’7 Legacy GSM/UMTS
GERAN
SGSN
UTRAN
One-Tunnel
Option
PCRF
MME
Control
IP
Evolved RAN,
e.g., LTE
User Plane
Serving
PDN
Services,
Gateway
Gateway
IMS
EPC/SAE Access Gateway
Non 3GPP
IP Access
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2010 white paper
Evolved Packet System Elements • Flatter architecture to reduce latency • Support for legacy GERAN
Evolved Packet System Elements
• Flatter architecture to reduce latency
• Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN networks
connected via SGSN.
• Support for new radio-access networks such as LTE.
• The Serving Gateway that terminates the interface
toward the 3GPP radio-access networks.
• The PDN gateway that controls IP data services, does
routing, allocates IP addresses, enforces policy, and
provides access for non-3GPP access networks.
• The MME that supports user equipment context and
identity as well as authenticates and authorizes users.
• The Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF)
that manages QoS aspects.
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Conclusion • 2010 saw the success of smartphones as mobile broadband industry established itself. •
Conclusion
• 2010 saw the success of smartphones as mobile broadband industry established
itself.
• Through constant innovation, the EDGE/HSPA/LTE family provides operators and
subscribers a true mobile broadband advantage.
• UMTS/HSPA provides for broadband services that will deliver increased data
revenue and provide a path to all-IP architectures.
• LTE is now the most widely chosen technology platform for the forthcoming
decade and with deployment imminent, LTE offers a best-of-breed, long-term
solution that matches or exceeds the performance of competing approaches.
• UMTS/HSPA and/or LTE offer an excellent migration path for GSM operators, as
well as an effective technology solution for greenfield operators.
• HSPA+ has peak theoretical rates of 168 Mbps, and in 5 MHz will largely match
LTE capabilities. Expected throughput typical throughput rates will be between 1.9
and 8.8 Mbps in early versions of the technology (based on 64 QAM.)
• EDGE/HSPA/LTE is one of the most robust portfolios of mobile-broadband
technologies and is an optimum framework for realizing the potential of the
wireless-data market.
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2010 white paper