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1 (de) vizualizări14 paginiAnalysis, synchronisation and circuit
implementation of a novel jerk chaotic
system and its application for voice encryption

Sep 26, 2018

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Analysis, synchronisation and circuit
implementation of a novel jerk chaotic
system and its application for voice encryption

© All Rights Reserved

1 (de) vizualizări

Analysis, synchronisation and circuit
implementation of a novel jerk chaotic
system and its application for voice encryption

© All Rights Reserved

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2, 2017 153

implementation of a novel jerk chaotic

system and its application for voice encryption

Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan*

Research and Development Centre,

Vel Tech University,

Avadi, Chennai-600 062, Tamil Nadu, India

Email: sundarvtu@gmail.com

*Corresponding author

Aceng Sambas

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Universitas Muhammadiyah Tasikmalaya, Indonesia

Email: acenx.bts@gmail.com

Mustafa Mamat

Faculty of Informatics and Computing,

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin,

Juala Terengganu, Malaysia

Email: must@unisza.edu.my

Mada Sanjaya WS

Department of Physics,

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung,

Indonesia

Email: madasws@gmail.com

Abstract: In this research work, a novel 3D jerk chaotic system with one-quadratic nonlinearity

and two-cubic nonlinearities is designed to generate complex chaotic signals. We show that the

novel jerk chaotic system has a unique equilibrium at the origin, which is a saddle-focus and

unstable. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 0.30899,

L2 = 0 and L3 = –4.11304. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk chaotic system is

obtained as DKY = 2.0751. The qualitative properties of the novel jerk chaotic system are

described in detail and MATLAB plots are shown. Next, we use backstepping control method to

establish global chaos synchronisation of the identical novel jerk chaotic systems with unknown

parameters. Next, an electronic circuit realisation of the novel jerk chaotic system is presented

using MultiSIM to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model. Finally, we present an

application of the novel jerk chaotic system for voice encryption. The comparison between the

MATLAB 2010 and MultiSIM 10.0 simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the

proposed voice encryption scheme.

Keywords: chaos; chaotic systems; jerk systems; Lyapunov exponents; chaos synchronisation;

backstepping control; circuit implementation; voice encryption.

Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Vaidyanathan, S., Sambas, A., Mamat, M.

and Sanjaya WS, M. (2017) ‘Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel

jerk chaotic system and its application for voice encryption’, Int. J. Modelling, Identification and

Control, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp.153–166.

Biographical notes: Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan is a Professor and the Dean at the Research

and Development Centre, Vel Tech University, Chennai, India. He earned his DSc in Electrical

and Systems Engineering from the Washington University, St. Louis, USA in 1996. His current

research focuses on linear and nonlinear control systems, chaotic and hyperchaotic systems,

chaos control and synchronisation, FPGA, backstepping control, sliding mode control, intelligent

control, mathematical models of biology, computational science and robotics. He has published

three text-books on mathematics and ten research books on computational intelligence, chaos and

control. He has published over 320 Scopus-indexed research publications. He has delivered

plenary lectures on control systems and chaos theory in many international conferences. He has

also conducted many workshops on computational science using MATLAB and SCILAB.

154 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

Indonesia since 2015. He received his MSc in Mathematics from the Universiti Sultan Zainal

Abidin (UniSZA), Malaysia in 2015. His current research focuses on dynamical systems, chaotic

signals, electrical engineering, computational science, signal processing, robotics, embedded

systems and artificial intelligence.

Mustafa Mamat is currently a Professor and the Dean of Graduate School at Universiti Sultan

Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Malaysia since 2013. He was first appointed as a Lecturer at the

Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) in 1999. He obtained his PhD from the UMT in 2007

with specialisation in optimisation. Later on, he was appointed as a Senior Lecturer in 2008 and

then as an Associate Professor in 2010 also at the UMT. To date, he has successfully supervised

more than 60 postgraduate students and published more than 150 research papers in various

international journals and conferences. His research interests include conjugate gradient methods,

steepest descent methods, Broydens family and quasi-Newton methods.

Mada Sanjaya WS received his PhD in Mathematics from the University Malaysia Terengganu,

Malaysia in 2012. He was first appointed as a Lecturer at the UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung,

Indonesia in 2009. His research interests include nonlinear dynamical systems, chaotic systems,

artificial intelligence, soft computing and robotic systems.

lasers (Antonelli and Mecozzi, 2009), etc.

Chaotic systems are nonlinear dynamical systems which

There are many methods available for chaos

display exponential sensitivity to even small perturbations

control such as OGY method (Ott et al., 1990) and also

in the initial conditions. The sensitivity to initial conditions

time-delayed feedback control such as Pyragas (1992)

of chaotic systems is usually called as the ‘butterfly effect’

method, etc.

(Azar and Vaidyanathan, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2016) and

Recently, time-delayed feedback method has been also

hence, long-term prediction is impossible for chaotic

considered for chaos control in economic model (Holyst and

systems.

Urbanowicz, 2000) and inducing or suppressing chaos in a

Since the discovery of chaos in weather patterns

double-well Duffing oscillator (Sun et al., 2006).

(Lorenz, 1963), chaos theory has found applications in

Synchronisation of nonlinear systems is an important

several areas of science and engineering (Vaidyanathan and

research area where the trajectories of a set of two systems

Volos, 2016a, 2016b).

called master and slave systems are synchronised with the

There are many classical chaotic systems such as Chen’s

help of some feedback controls (Arabyani and Nik, 2016).

system (Chen and Ueta, 1999), Lü-Chen system (Lü and

The synchronisation of chaotic systems has important

Chen, 2002), Liu-Chen system (Liu and Chen, 2002), Wang

applications in areas such as secure communications,

(2009) system, etc. There are many novel chaotic systems

cryptosystems, etc. (Vaidyanathan and Volos, 2016b).

such as Akgul system (Akgul et al., 2016), Vaidyanathan

Many different techniques have been devised for the

systems (Vaidyanathan, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c, 2015a,

synchronisation of chaotic systems such as backstepping

2015b, 2015c, 2015d, 2015e, 2015f, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c,

control (Vaidyanathan et al., 2014, 2015a; Vaidyanathan

2016d, 2016e, 2016f, 2016g; Vaidyanathan and Azar,

and Rasappan, 2014), active control (Karthikeyan and

2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d), Sundarapandian-Pehlivan

Sundarapandian, 2014; Sarasu and Sundarapandian, 2011a,

system (Sundarapandian and Pehlivan, 2012),

2011b; Vaidyanathan and Rajagopal, 2011; Vaidyanathan

Vaidyanathan-Madhavan system (Vaidyanathan and

et al., 2015b), adaptive control (Abouelsoud and Mohamed,

Madhavan, 2013), Vaidyanathan-Pakiriswamy systems

2015; Sarasu and Sundarapandian, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c;

(Vaidyanathan and Pakiriswamy, 2015, 2016),

Sundarapandian and Karthikeyan, 2011a, 2011b, 2012a,

Vaidyanathan-Volos system (Vaidyanathan and Volos,

2012b; Vaidyanathan, 2015z; Vaidyanathan and Rajagopal,

2015), Vaidyanathan-Boulkroune system (Vaidyanathan

2012; Vaidyanathan et al., 2015d, 2015e), sliding mode

and Boulkroune, 2016), Pehlivan system (Pehlivan et al.,

control (Cao et al., 2016; Dhanalakshmi et al., 2015; Meng

2014), Pham systems (Pham et al., 2015, 2016), Tacha

et al., 2014; Rhif, 2014; Sundarapandian and Sivaperumal,

system (Tacha et al., 2016), Sampath systems (Sampath

2011; Vaidyanathan and Sampath, 2012; Vaidyanathan

et al., 2015, 2016), etc.

et al., 2015c) and intelligent control (Boujelben et al., 2016;

Chaos has important applications like chemical

Eftekhari and Eftekhari, 2016; Zhu and Azar, 2015).

reactions (Vaidyanathan, 2015g, 2015h, 2015i, 2016h,

In this research work, a novel 3D jerk chaotic system

2016i), Brusselators (Vaidyanathan, 2015j, 2015k),

with one quadratic nonlinearity and two cubic nonlinearities

Tokamak systems (Vaidyanathan, 2015l, 2015m), biology

is designed to generate complex chaotic signals. We show

(Vaidyanathan, 2015n, 2015o, 2015p, 2015q, 2015r, 2015s,

that the novel jerk chaotic system has a unique equilibrium

2015t, 2015u, 2015v, 2016j, 2016k, 2016l, 2016m, 2016n,

at the origin, which is a saddle-focus and unstable. The

Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 155

Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk chaotic system are Figure 1 Strange attractor of the novel jerk system (see online

obtained as L1 = 0.30899, L2 = 0 and L3 = –4.11304. The version for colours)

Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk chaotic system is

obtained as DKY = 2.0751 The qualitative properties of the

novel jerk chaotic system are described in detail and

MATLAB plots are shown to describe the phase portraits of

the novel jerk chaotic system.

Next, we use backstepping control method to establish

global chaos synchronisation of the identical novel jerk

chaotic systems with unknown parameters. Next, an

electronic circuit realisation of the novel jerk chaotic system

is presented using MultiSIM to confirm the feasibility of the

theoretical model.

Finally, we present an application of the novel jerk

chaotic system for voice encryption. This is an innovative

contribution of this research work. The comparison between

the MATLAB and MultiSIM 10.0 simulation results

demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed voice

encryption scheme. Figure 2 2D projection of the novel jerk system in (x1, x2) plane

(see online version for colours)

A famous dissipative cubic jerk chaotic system (Sprott,

1997) is given by the differential equation

x + Ax − xx 2 + x3 = 0

(1)

Sprott showed that the differential equation (1) displays

chaotic behaviour when A = 3.6.

In system form, Sprott’s cubic jerk system (1) can be

expressed as

x1 = x2

x2 = x3 (2)

x3 = − Ax3 + x1 x22 − x13

in system form as

Figure 3 2D projection of the novel jerk system in (x2, x3) plane

x1 = x2 (see online version for colours)

x2 = x3 (3)

x3 = −ax1 + bx1 x2 − cx3 + px1 x22 − qx13

one-quadratic nonlinearity and two-cubic nonlinearities.

In this work, we show that the system (2) is chaotic

when the parameter values are taken as

a = 3, b = 0.01, c = 3.8, p = 0.1, q = 0.1 (4)

jerk system (2) as

x1 (0) = 0.3, x2 (0) = 0.3, x3 (0) = 0.3 (5)

156 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk system (3) for By Liouville’s theorem, we have

the parameter values (4) and initial conditions (5) are

dV

numerically determined using MATLAB as

dt

= ∫ (div f ) dx

Ω (t )

1 dx2 dx3 (10)

L1 = 0.30899, L2 = 0, L3 = −4.11304 (6)

Since there is a positive Lyapunov exponent in (6), it is For the system (3), the divergence of the vector field f is

immediate that the novel jerk system (3) is chaotic. determined as

Figure 1 shows the strange attractor of the novel jerk ∂f1 ∂f 2 ∂f 3

chaotic system (3) in R 3 . Figures 2 to 4 give the 2D div f = + + = −c < 0 (11)

∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3

projections of the novel jerk chaotic system in (x1, x2),

(x2, x3) and (x1, x3) planes, respectively. since c = 3.8 > 0.

Substituting the value of divergence of f in (10), we get

Figure 4 2D projection of the novel jerk system in (x1, x3) plane

dV

(see online version for colours)

dt

= ∫ (−c) dx

Ω (t )

1 dx2 dx3 = −cV (t ) (12)

solution as

V (t ) = exp(−ct ) V (0) (13)

t → ∞.

Hence, the asymptotic motion of the jerk chaotic system

(3) settles exponentially onto a set of measure zero, i.e., a

strange attractor.

The equilibrium points of the jerk chaotic system (3) in R3

are obtained by solving the system of equations

⎧ f1 ( x) = x2 =0

⎪

3 Qualitative properties of the novel jerk chaotic f

⎨ 2 ( x ) = x3 =0 (14)

system ⎪ f ( x) = −ax + bx x − cx + px x 2 − qx3 = 0

⎩ 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 1

In vector notation, we can write the system (3) as Solving the nonlinear system (14) with the parameter

values (4), we obtain the unique equilibrium point at the

⎡ f1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) ⎤ origin, i.e.,

⎢ ⎥

x = f ( x) = ⎢ f 2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) ⎥ (7) ⎡0⎤

⎢⎣ f3 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) ⎥⎦

E0 = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ . (15)

where ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

f 2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x3 (8) ⎡0 1 0 ⎤

⎢

J 0 = J ( E0 ) = ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥⎥

f3 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = − ax1 + bx1 x2 − cx3 + px1 x22 − qx13 (16)

⎢⎣ −3 0 −3.8⎥⎦

We take the parameter values as in the chaotic case (4).

The divergence of the vector field f on R3 is defined by The eigenvalues of J0 are calculated using MATLAB as

∂f1 ∂f 2 ∂f3

3

∂fi λ1 = −3.9886, λ2,3 = 0.0943 ± 0.8621i (17)

div f = + +

∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3

= ∑ ∂x i

(9)

i =1 This shows that the equilibrium E0 is a saddle-focus point,

which is unstable.

Let Ω be any region in R 3 with smooth boundary.

Let Ω(t) = Φt(Ω), where Φt is the flow of f.

Let V(t) denote the hypervolume of Ω(t).

Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 157

3.3 Lyapunov exponents As the master system, we take the novel jerk chaotic

system dynamics

We take the initial values of the nonlinear system (1) as

x1 = x2

x1 (0) = 0.3, x2 (0) = 0.3, x3 (0) = 0.3 (18)

x2 = x3 (23)

We take the parameter values of the system (3) as x3 = −ax1 + bx1 x2 − cx3 + px1 x22 − qx13

a = 3, b = 0.01, c = 3.8, p = 0.1, q = 0.1 (19)

As the slave system, we take the controlled novel jerk

The Lyapunov exponents of the system (3) are numerically chaotic system dynamics

found using MATLAB as y1 = y2

L1 = 0.30899, L2 = 0, L3 = −4.11304 (20) y 2 = y3 (24)

Since there is a positive Lyapunov exponent in (20), the y3 = −ay1 + by1 y2 − cy3 + py1 y22 − qy13 +u

nonlinear system (3) is a chaotic system. In (23) and (24), the system parameters are unknown and

Also, we note that the design goal is to find an adaptive feedback control law

L1 + L2 + L3 = −3.8040 < 0. (21) that uses estimates for the system parameters so as to render

the states of the systems (23) and (24) fully synchronised

This substantiates our results in Section 3.1 that the asymptotically.

nonlinear dynamical system (1) is dissipative. The synchronisation error between the jerk chaotic

Figure 5 shows the Lyapunov exponents of the system systems (23) and (24) is defined as

(3) as calculated in MATLAB.

e1 = y1 − x1

Figure 5 The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk chaotic e2 = y2 − x2 (25)

system (see online version for colours)

e3 = y3 − x3

e1 = e2

e2 = e3

(26)

e3 = − ae1 + b ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) − ce3

+ p ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − q ( y13 − x13 ) + u

ea = a − a(t )

eb = b − b(t )

ec = c − c(t ) (27)

e p = p − p (t )

eq = q − q(t )

3.4 Kaplan-Yorke dimension

t)

ea = − aˆ(

The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk chaotic

system (3) is calculated as eb = −bˆ(t )

t)

ec = −cˆ( (28)

L1 + L2

DKY = 2 + = 2.0751 (22)

L3 e p = − pˆ (t )

t)

eq = − qˆ(

which is fractional.

Theorem 1: The 3D novel jerk chaotic systems (23) and

(24) with unknown system parameters a, b, c, p and q are

4 Global chaos synchronisation of identical novel

globally and exponentially synchronised by the adaptive

chaotic jerk systems feedback control law

In this section, we use backstepping control method

to derive an adaptive control law for globally and

exponentially synchronising identical novel 3D jerk chaotic

systems with unknown system parameters.

158 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

u = − [3 − aˆ (t ) ] e1 − 5e2 − [3 − cˆ(t ) ] e3 3

−bˆ(t ) ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) − pˆ (t ) ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) (29)

V = − ∑z

i =1

2

i + z3 S − ea aˆ − eb bˆ − ec cˆ − e p pˆ − eq qˆ (42)

where k > 0 is a gain constant, with S = z3 + z2 + z3 = z3 + z2 + 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 (43)

z3 = 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 (30) Simplifying the equation (43), we obtain

and the update law for the parameter estimates is given by S = (3 − a )e1 + 5e2 + (3 − c)e3 + b ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 )

(44)

aˆ = e1 z3 + p ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − q ( y13 − x13 ) + u

bˆ = z3 ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) Using (29), we can simplify equation (44) as

cˆ = −e3 z3 (31) S = −ea e1 − ec e3 + eb ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 )

(45)

pˆ = z3 ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) +e p ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − eq ( y13 − x13 ) − kz3

qˆ = − z3 ( y 3 − x3 )

1 1 Substituting (45) into (42), we get

Proof: We prove this result via backstepping control V = − z12 − z22 − (1 + k ) z32 + ea ⎣⎡ e1 z3 − aˆ ⎦⎤

method and Lyapunov stability theory (Khalil, 2001).

First, we define a quadratic Lyapunov function +eb ⎡⎣ z3 ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) − bˆ ⎤⎦ + ec ⎡⎣ −e3 z3 − cˆ ⎤⎦

(46)

1 +e p ⎡⎣ z3 ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − pˆ ⎤⎦

V1 ( z1 ) = z12 (32)

2 +eq ⎡⎣ − z3 ( y13 − x13 ) − qˆ ⎤⎦

where

Substituting (31) into (46), we obtain

z1 = e1 (33)

V = − z12 − z22 − (1 + k ) z32 (47)

Differentiating V1 along the dynamics (26), we get

which is negative semi-definite on R8 .

V1 = e1e2 = − z12 + z1 ( e1 + e2 ) (34)

From (47), it follows that the vector z = (z1, z2, z3) and

Now, we define the parameter estimation errors are globally bounded.

Also, it follows from (47) that

z2 = e1 + e2 (35)

V ≤ − z12 − z22 − z32 = − || z ||2 (48)

Using (35), we can write (34) as

That is,

V1 = − z12 + z1 z2 (36)

|| z ||2 ≤ −V (49)

Next, we define a quadratic Lyapunov function

Integrating (49) from 0 to t, we get

1 2 1 2

V2 ( z1 , z2 ) = V1 ( z1 ) + z2 = ( z1 + z22 ) (37) t

2 2

∫ z(τ )

2

dτ ≤ V (0) − V (t ) (50)

Differentiating V2 along the dynamics (26), we get 0

V2 = − z12 − z22 + z2 ( 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 ) (38) From (50), it follows that z(t) ∈ L2, while from (26), it can

be deduced that z (t ) ∈ L∞ .

Now, we define

Thus, using Barbalat’s lemma (Khalil, 2001), we can

z3 = 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 (39) conclude that z(t) → 0 exponentially as t → ∞ for all initial

Using (39), we can rewrite (38) as conditions z (0) ∈ R3 .

Hence, it follows that that e(t) → 0 exponentially as

V2 = − z12 − z22 + z2 z3 (40) t → ∞ for all initial conditions e (0) ∈ R3 . ■

Finally, we define a quadratic Lyapunov function For numerical simulations, we take the parameter values

as in the chaotic case (4), viz.

1 2 1 2 2 2 2

V = V2 ( z1 , z2 ) + z3 + ( ea + eb + ec + e p + eq2 ) (41) a = 3, b = 0.01, c = 3.8, p = 0.1, q = 0.1 (51)

2 2

From (41), it is clear that V is positive definite on R8 . We take the gain constant as k = 20.

Differentiating V along (26) and (28), we obtain

Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 159

Figure 6 Synchronisation of the states x1 and y1 (see online Figure 9 Time-history of the synchronisation errors (see online

version for colours) version for colours)

Figure 7 Synchronisation of the states x2 and y2 (see online

version for colours) x1 (0) = 1.7, x2 (0) = 3.2, x3 (0) = −1.6 (52)

y1 (0) = 5.8, y2 (0) = −2.3, y3 (0) = 1.2 (53)

identical novel jerk chaotic systems (23) and (24). Figure 9

shows the time-history of the chaos synchronisation errors.

In this section, an electronic circuit is designed to realise the

novel jerk system (3). The novel jerk system equation (3)

can be realised by the circuit of Figure 10, which consists of

Figure 8 Synchronisation of the states x3 and y3 (see online three channels to realise the integration, addition, and

version for colours) subtraction of the three state variables x1, x2, and x3,

respectively. The circuit employs simple electronic

elements, such as resistors, capacitors, multiplier and

operational amplifiers. The nonlinear term of system (3) are

implemented with the analogue multiplier. The

corresponding circuit equation can be described as:

1

x1 = x2

C1 R1

1

x2 = x3

C2 R2

(55)

1 1 1

x3 = − x1 + x1 x2 − x3

C3 R3 10C3 R4 C3 R5

1 1

+ x1 x22 − x13

100C3 R6 100C3 R7

160 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

Figure 10 Schematic of the proposed novel jerk circuit by using MultiSIM 10.0 (see online version for colours)

VCC1

-30V

R8

C1

10kΩ U2A

R11

4

R13 10nF x1Signal

4 10kΩ U6A

2

R1 U1A

10kΩ 1 2 4

R12

3 10kΩ 1 2

8 TL082CD 10kΩ

3 1

8 TL082CD

3

8 TL082CD 30V

VCC2

R3 VCC1

A2

Y 3.33kΩ C3 -30V

R4

X

10nF R9

100kΩ U5A C2

A1 1 V/V 0 V 4 10kΩ

Y R5 U3A

A3 2 x3signal R10

4

10nF

X Y 2.63kΩ 1 2

U4A 4

R2

R6 3 10kΩ 1 2 x2signal

X

1 V/V 0 V TL082CD

8 10kΩ

3 1

A5 A4 1kΩ TL082CD

8

Y Y 1 V/V 0 V 3

TL082CD

8

R7

X X

1kΩ 30V

1 V/V 0 V 1 V/V 0 V

VCC2

Figure 11 2D projection of the novel jerk circuit in (x1, x2)-plane (see online version for colours)

Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 161

Figure 12 2D projection of the novel jerk circuit in (x2, x3)-plane (see online version for colours)

Figure 13 2D projection of the novel jerk circuit in (x1, x3)-plane (see online version for colours)

We choose R1 = R2 = R8 = R9 = R10 = R11 = R12 = R13 = observations of system (3) as shown in Figures 11 to 13. As

10 kΩ, R3 = 3.33 kΩ, R4 = 100 kΩ, R5 = 2.63 kΩ, R6 = R7 = compared with Figures 2 to 4, a good qualitative agreement

1 kΩ, C1 = C2 = C3 = 1 nF. The circuit has three integrators between the numerical simulation and the MultiSIM 10.0

(by using Op-amp TL082CD) in a feedback loop and a results of the novel jerk circuit is confirmed.

multiplier (IC AD633). The supplies of all active devices

are ±30 V. With MultiSIM 10.0, we obtain the experimental

162 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

Figure 14 MATLAB simulation of original speech in the chaos mdecryption = mencrytion − m jerk _ circuit (57)

masking communication system (see online version

for colours) So, mdecryption(t) is the original message with a little noise

0.2 that is assumed to become from the channel.

Numerical simulations are performed on the novel jerk

0.15

oscillator for the strategy of building for voice encryption.

0.1 To demonstrate the system presentation with the help of

MATLAB program, a wave file containing a segment of

0.05 speech (Good morning) is taken to be used as a message

0

moriginalspecch with sampling frequency of 10,000 Hz.

Figure 14 represents the original message while

A m plitude

signal mencryption is shown in Figure 16 and the message

-0.1

signal has been perfectly recovered by using the signal

-0.15 masking of chaotic novel jerk circuit as shown in

Figure 17.

-0.2

-0.25

Figure 16 MATLAB simulation of original speech in the chaos

masking communication system (see online version

-0.3 for colours)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

30

Original message(t) 4

x 10

20

Figure 15 MATLAB simulation of chaotic signal in the chaos

masking communication system (see online version

for colours) 10

30

Amplitude

20

-10

10

-20

Amplitude

0 -30

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Encryption with AWGN 4

x 10

-10

Figure 17 MATLAB simulation of received message in the

chaos masking communication system (see online

-20 version for colours)

0.3

-30

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0.2

Chaotic mask signal x1(t) 4

x 10

0.1

Amplitude

in the novel jerk system, the modulation of the signal -0.1

moriginal_speech(t) and the chaotic signal mJerk_circuit(t), produced

by the Jerk circuit, is the new encryption signal mencryption, -0.2

which is given by equation (56).

-0.3

mencryption = moriginalspeech + m jerk _ circuit + n(t ) (56)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(3). Where n(t) is the additive white Gaussian noise Decryption message 4

x 10

(AWGN) that is coming from the channel. After finishing

the encryption process the original signal can be recovered

with the following procedure.

Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 163

‘Sliding mode control of shape memory alloy actuated

In this work, the qualitative properties of the novel jerk structure for vibration control’, International Journal of

chaotic system have been described in detail and MATLAB Modelling, Identification and Control, Vol. 23, No. 2,

plots were exhibited. Next, we used adaptive backstepping pp.121–130.

control method to establish global chaos synchronisation of Eftekhari, M. and Eftekhari, M. (2016) ‘Controller design for

the identical novel jerk chaotic systems with unknown multivariable nonlinear control systems based on gradient

based ant-colony optimisation’, International Journal of

parameters. Moreover, it is implemented via a designed

Modelling, Identification and Control, Vol. 25, No. 1,

circuit and tested experimentally with MultiSIM. The pp.38–47.

MultiSIM results of the novel jerk system were well-agreed

Holyst, J.A. and Urbanowicz, K. (2000) ‘Chaos control in

with the simulation results. In this study, the encryption economical model by time-delayed feedback method’,

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demonstrated in simulation that chaos can be applied to Vol. 287, Nos. 3–4, pp.587–598.

encryption systems schemes. Karthikeyan, R. and Sundarapandian, V. (2014) ‘Hybrid chaos

synchronization of four-scroll systems via active control’,

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No. 3, pp.274–279. ISBN: 978-3-319-12882-5.

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