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Int. J. Modelling, Identification and Control, Vol. 28, No.

2, 2017 153

Analysis, synchronisation and circuit


implementation of a novel jerk chaotic
system and its application for voice encryption

Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan*
Research and Development Centre,
Vel Tech University,
Avadi, Chennai-600 062, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: sundarvtu@gmail.com
*Corresponding author

Aceng Sambas
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Universitas Muhammadiyah Tasikmalaya, Indonesia
Email: acenx.bts@gmail.com

Mustafa Mamat
Faculty of Informatics and Computing,
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin,
Juala Terengganu, Malaysia
Email: must@unisza.edu.my

Mada Sanjaya WS
Department of Physics,
Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung,
Indonesia
Email: madasws@gmail.com
Abstract: In this research work, a novel 3D jerk chaotic system with one-quadratic nonlinearity
and two-cubic nonlinearities is designed to generate complex chaotic signals. We show that the
novel jerk chaotic system has a unique equilibrium at the origin, which is a saddle-focus and
unstable. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 0.30899,
L2 = 0 and L3 = –4.11304. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk chaotic system is
obtained as DKY = 2.0751. The qualitative properties of the novel jerk chaotic system are
described in detail and MATLAB plots are shown. Next, we use backstepping control method to
establish global chaos synchronisation of the identical novel jerk chaotic systems with unknown
parameters. Next, an electronic circuit realisation of the novel jerk chaotic system is presented
using MultiSIM to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model. Finally, we present an
application of the novel jerk chaotic system for voice encryption. The comparison between the
MATLAB 2010 and MultiSIM 10.0 simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the
proposed voice encryption scheme.
Keywords: chaos; chaotic systems; jerk systems; Lyapunov exponents; chaos synchronisation;
backstepping control; circuit implementation; voice encryption.
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Vaidyanathan, S., Sambas, A., Mamat, M.
and Sanjaya WS, M. (2017) ‘Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel
jerk chaotic system and its application for voice encryption’, Int. J. Modelling, Identification and
Control, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp.153–166.
Biographical notes: Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan is a Professor and the Dean at the Research
and Development Centre, Vel Tech University, Chennai, India. He earned his DSc in Electrical
and Systems Engineering from the Washington University, St. Louis, USA in 1996. His current
research focuses on linear and nonlinear control systems, chaotic and hyperchaotic systems,
chaos control and synchronisation, FPGA, backstepping control, sliding mode control, intelligent
control, mathematical models of biology, computational science and robotics. He has published
three text-books on mathematics and ten research books on computational intelligence, chaos and
control. He has published over 320 Scopus-indexed research publications. He has delivered
plenary lectures on control systems and chaos theory in many international conferences. He has
also conducted many workshops on computational science using MATLAB and SCILAB.

Copyright © 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


154 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

Aceng Sambas is currently a Lecturer at the Muhammadiyah University of Tasikmalaya,


Indonesia since 2015. He received his MSc in Mathematics from the Universiti Sultan Zainal
Abidin (UniSZA), Malaysia in 2015. His current research focuses on dynamical systems, chaotic
signals, electrical engineering, computational science, signal processing, robotics, embedded
systems and artificial intelligence.

Mustafa Mamat is currently a Professor and the Dean of Graduate School at Universiti Sultan
Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Malaysia since 2013. He was first appointed as a Lecturer at the
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) in 1999. He obtained his PhD from the UMT in 2007
with specialisation in optimisation. Later on, he was appointed as a Senior Lecturer in 2008 and
then as an Associate Professor in 2010 also at the UMT. To date, he has successfully supervised
more than 60 postgraduate students and published more than 150 research papers in various
international journals and conferences. His research interests include conjugate gradient methods,
steepest descent methods, Broydens family and quasi-Newton methods.

Mada Sanjaya WS received his PhD in Mathematics from the University Malaysia Terengganu,
Malaysia in 2012. He was first appointed as a Lecturer at the UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung,
Indonesia in 2009. His research interests include nonlinear dynamical systems, chaotic systems,
artificial intelligence, soft computing and robotic systems.

1 Introduction 2016o), ecology (Vaidyanathan, 2015w, 2015x, 2015y),


lasers (Antonelli and Mecozzi, 2009), etc.
Chaotic systems are nonlinear dynamical systems which
There are many methods available for chaos
display exponential sensitivity to even small perturbations
control such as OGY method (Ott et al., 1990) and also
in the initial conditions. The sensitivity to initial conditions
time-delayed feedback control such as Pyragas (1992)
of chaotic systems is usually called as the ‘butterfly effect’
method, etc.
(Azar and Vaidyanathan, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2016) and
Recently, time-delayed feedback method has been also
hence, long-term prediction is impossible for chaotic
considered for chaos control in economic model (Holyst and
systems.
Urbanowicz, 2000) and inducing or suppressing chaos in a
Since the discovery of chaos in weather patterns
double-well Duffing oscillator (Sun et al., 2006).
(Lorenz, 1963), chaos theory has found applications in
Synchronisation of nonlinear systems is an important
several areas of science and engineering (Vaidyanathan and
research area where the trajectories of a set of two systems
Volos, 2016a, 2016b).
called master and slave systems are synchronised with the
There are many classical chaotic systems such as Chen’s
help of some feedback controls (Arabyani and Nik, 2016).
system (Chen and Ueta, 1999), Lü-Chen system (Lü and
The synchronisation of chaotic systems has important
Chen, 2002), Liu-Chen system (Liu and Chen, 2002), Wang
applications in areas such as secure communications,
(2009) system, etc. There are many novel chaotic systems
cryptosystems, etc. (Vaidyanathan and Volos, 2016b).
such as Akgul system (Akgul et al., 2016), Vaidyanathan
Many different techniques have been devised for the
systems (Vaidyanathan, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c, 2015a,
synchronisation of chaotic systems such as backstepping
2015b, 2015c, 2015d, 2015e, 2015f, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c,
control (Vaidyanathan et al., 2014, 2015a; Vaidyanathan
2016d, 2016e, 2016f, 2016g; Vaidyanathan and Azar,
and Rasappan, 2014), active control (Karthikeyan and
2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d), Sundarapandian-Pehlivan
Sundarapandian, 2014; Sarasu and Sundarapandian, 2011a,
system (Sundarapandian and Pehlivan, 2012),
2011b; Vaidyanathan and Rajagopal, 2011; Vaidyanathan
Vaidyanathan-Madhavan system (Vaidyanathan and
et al., 2015b), adaptive control (Abouelsoud and Mohamed,
Madhavan, 2013), Vaidyanathan-Pakiriswamy systems
2015; Sarasu and Sundarapandian, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c;
(Vaidyanathan and Pakiriswamy, 2015, 2016),
Sundarapandian and Karthikeyan, 2011a, 2011b, 2012a,
Vaidyanathan-Volos system (Vaidyanathan and Volos,
2012b; Vaidyanathan, 2015z; Vaidyanathan and Rajagopal,
2015), Vaidyanathan-Boulkroune system (Vaidyanathan
2012; Vaidyanathan et al., 2015d, 2015e), sliding mode
and Boulkroune, 2016), Pehlivan system (Pehlivan et al.,
control (Cao et al., 2016; Dhanalakshmi et al., 2015; Meng
2014), Pham systems (Pham et al., 2015, 2016), Tacha
et al., 2014; Rhif, 2014; Sundarapandian and Sivaperumal,
system (Tacha et al., 2016), Sampath systems (Sampath
2011; Vaidyanathan and Sampath, 2012; Vaidyanathan
et al., 2015, 2016), etc.
et al., 2015c) and intelligent control (Boujelben et al., 2016;
Chaos has important applications like chemical
Eftekhari and Eftekhari, 2016; Zhu and Azar, 2015).
reactions (Vaidyanathan, 2015g, 2015h, 2015i, 2016h,
In this research work, a novel 3D jerk chaotic system
2016i), Brusselators (Vaidyanathan, 2015j, 2015k),
with one quadratic nonlinearity and two cubic nonlinearities
Tokamak systems (Vaidyanathan, 2015l, 2015m), biology
is designed to generate complex chaotic signals. We show
(Vaidyanathan, 2015n, 2015o, 2015p, 2015q, 2015r, 2015s,
that the novel jerk chaotic system has a unique equilibrium
2015t, 2015u, 2015v, 2016j, 2016k, 2016l, 2016m, 2016n,
at the origin, which is a saddle-focus and unstable. The
Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 155

Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk chaotic system are Figure 1 Strange attractor of the novel jerk system (see online
obtained as L1 = 0.30899, L2 = 0 and L3 = –4.11304. The version for colours)
Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk chaotic system is
obtained as DKY = 2.0751 The qualitative properties of the
novel jerk chaotic system are described in detail and
MATLAB plots are shown to describe the phase portraits of
the novel jerk chaotic system.
Next, we use backstepping control method to establish
global chaos synchronisation of the identical novel jerk
chaotic systems with unknown parameters. Next, an
electronic circuit realisation of the novel jerk chaotic system
is presented using MultiSIM to confirm the feasibility of the
theoretical model.
Finally, we present an application of the novel jerk
chaotic system for voice encryption. This is an innovative
contribution of this research work. The comparison between
the MATLAB and MultiSIM 10.0 simulation results
demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed voice
encryption scheme. Figure 2 2D projection of the novel jerk system in (x1, x2) plane
(see online version for colours)

2 A novel jerk chaotic system


A famous dissipative cubic jerk chaotic system (Sprott,
1997) is given by the differential equation
x + Ax − xx 2 + x3 = 0
 (1)
Sprott showed that the differential equation (1) displays
chaotic behaviour when A = 3.6.
In system form, Sprott’s cubic jerk system (1) can be
expressed as
x1 = x2
x2 = x3 (2)
x3 = − Ax3 + x1 x22 − x13

In this work, we propose a new jerk system, which is given


in system form as
Figure 3 2D projection of the novel jerk system in (x2, x3) plane
x1 = x2 (see online version for colours)
x2 = x3 (3)
x3 = −ax1 + bx1 x2 − cx3 + px1 x22 − qx13

The system (3) is a seven-term novel jerk system with


one-quadratic nonlinearity and two-cubic nonlinearities.
In this work, we show that the system (2) is chaotic
when the parameter values are taken as
a = 3, b = 0.01, c = 3.8, p = 0.1, q = 0.1 (4)

For numerical simulations, we take the initial values of the


jerk system (2) as
x1 (0) = 0.3, x2 (0) = 0.3, x3 (0) = 0.3 (5)
156 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk system (3) for By Liouville’s theorem, we have
the parameter values (4) and initial conditions (5) are
dV
numerically determined using MATLAB as
dt
= ∫ (div f ) dx
Ω (t )
1 dx2 dx3 (10)
L1 = 0.30899, L2 = 0, L3 = −4.11304 (6)

Since there is a positive Lyapunov exponent in (6), it is For the system (3), the divergence of the vector field f is
immediate that the novel jerk system (3) is chaotic. determined as
Figure 1 shows the strange attractor of the novel jerk ∂f1 ∂f 2 ∂f 3
chaotic system (3) in R 3 . Figures 2 to 4 give the 2D div f = + + = −c < 0 (11)
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
projections of the novel jerk chaotic system in (x1, x2),
(x2, x3) and (x1, x3) planes, respectively. since c = 3.8 > 0.
Substituting the value of divergence of f in (10), we get
Figure 4 2D projection of the novel jerk system in (x1, x3) plane
dV
(see online version for colours)
dt
= ∫ (−c) dx
Ω (t )
1 dx2 dx3 = −cV (t ) (12)

Solving the ordinary differential equation (12), we get the


solution as
V (t ) = exp(−ct ) V (0) (13)

From (13), we find that V(t) shrinks to zero exponentially as


t → ∞.
Hence, the asymptotic motion of the jerk chaotic system
(3) settles exponentially onto a set of measure zero, i.e., a
strange attractor.

3.2 Equilibrium points


The equilibrium points of the jerk chaotic system (3) in R3
are obtained by solving the system of equations
⎧ f1 ( x) = x2 =0

3 Qualitative properties of the novel jerk chaotic f
⎨ 2 ( x ) = x3 =0 (14)
system ⎪ f ( x) = −ax + bx x − cx + px x 2 − qx3 = 0
⎩ 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 1

3.1 Dissipativity where a, b, c, p, q are positive constants as given in (4).


In vector notation, we can write the system (3) as Solving the nonlinear system (14) with the parameter
values (4), we obtain the unique equilibrium point at the
⎡ f1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) ⎤ origin, i.e.,
⎢ ⎥
x = f ( x) = ⎢ f 2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) ⎥ (7) ⎡0⎤
⎢⎣ f3 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) ⎥⎦
E0 = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ . (15)
where ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

f1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x2 The Jacobian matrix of the system (3) at E0 is given by


f 2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x3 (8) ⎡0 1 0 ⎤

J 0 = J ( E0 ) = ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥⎥
f3 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = − ax1 + bx1 x2 − cx3 + px1 x22 − qx13 (16)
⎢⎣ −3 0 −3.8⎥⎦
We take the parameter values as in the chaotic case (4).
The divergence of the vector field f on R3 is defined by The eigenvalues of J0 are calculated using MATLAB as
∂f1 ∂f 2 ∂f3
3
∂fi λ1 = −3.9886, λ2,3 = 0.0943 ± 0.8621i (17)
div f = + +
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
= ∑ ∂x i
(9)
i =1 This shows that the equilibrium E0 is a saddle-focus point,
which is unstable.
Let Ω be any region in R 3 with smooth boundary.
Let Ω(t) = Φt(Ω), where Φt is the flow of f.
Let V(t) denote the hypervolume of Ω(t).
Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 157

3.3 Lyapunov exponents As the master system, we take the novel jerk chaotic
system dynamics
We take the initial values of the nonlinear system (1) as
x1 = x2
x1 (0) = 0.3, x2 (0) = 0.3, x3 (0) = 0.3 (18)
x2 = x3 (23)
We take the parameter values of the system (3) as x3 = −ax1 + bx1 x2 − cx3 + px1 x22 − qx13
a = 3, b = 0.01, c = 3.8, p = 0.1, q = 0.1 (19)
As the slave system, we take the controlled novel jerk
The Lyapunov exponents of the system (3) are numerically chaotic system dynamics
found using MATLAB as y1 = y2
L1 = 0.30899, L2 = 0, L3 = −4.11304 (20) y 2 = y3 (24)

Since there is a positive Lyapunov exponent in (20), the y3 = −ay1 + by1 y2 − cy3 + py1 y22 − qy13 +u
nonlinear system (3) is a chaotic system. In (23) and (24), the system parameters are unknown and
Also, we note that the design goal is to find an adaptive feedback control law
L1 + L2 + L3 = −3.8040 < 0. (21) that uses estimates for the system parameters so as to render
the states of the systems (23) and (24) fully synchronised
This substantiates our results in Section 3.1 that the asymptotically.
nonlinear dynamical system (1) is dissipative. The synchronisation error between the jerk chaotic
Figure 5 shows the Lyapunov exponents of the system systems (23) and (24) is defined as
(3) as calculated in MATLAB.
e1 = y1 − x1
Figure 5 The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk chaotic e2 = y2 − x2 (25)
system (see online version for colours)
e3 = y3 − x3

Then the synchronisation error dynamics is derived as


e1 = e2
e2 = e3
(26)
e3 = − ae1 + b ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) − ce3
+ p ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − q ( y13 − x13 ) + u

The parameter estimation errors are defined as


ea = a − a(t )
eb = b − b(t )
ec = c − c(t ) (27)
e p = p − p (t )
eq = q − q(t )

Differentiating (27) with respect to t, we get


3.4 Kaplan-Yorke dimension
 t)
ea = − aˆ(
The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk chaotic

system (3) is calculated as eb = −bˆ(t )
 t)
ec = −cˆ( (28)
L1 + L2
DKY = 2 + = 2.0751 (22)
L3 e p = − pˆ (t )
 t)
eq = − qˆ(
which is fractional.
Theorem 1: The 3D novel jerk chaotic systems (23) and
(24) with unknown system parameters a, b, c, p and q are
4 Global chaos synchronisation of identical novel
globally and exponentially synchronised by the adaptive
chaotic jerk systems feedback control law
In this section, we use backstepping control method
to derive an adaptive control law for globally and
exponentially synchronising identical novel 3D jerk chaotic
systems with unknown system parameters.
158 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

u = − [3 − aˆ (t ) ] e1 − 5e2 − [3 − cˆ(t ) ] e3 3

−bˆ(t ) ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) − pˆ (t ) ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) (29)
V = − ∑z
i =1
2
i + z3 S − ea aˆ − eb bˆ − ec cˆ − e p pˆ − eq qˆ (42)

+ qˆ(t ) ( y13 − x13 ) − kz3 where


where k > 0 is a gain constant, with S = z3 + z2 + z3 = z3 + z2 + 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 (43)
z3 = 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 (30) Simplifying the equation (43), we obtain
and the update law for the parameter estimates is given by S = (3 − a )e1 + 5e2 + (3 − c)e3 + b ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 )
(44)
aˆ = e1 z3 + p ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − q ( y13 − x13 ) + u

bˆ = z3 ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) Using (29), we can simplify equation (44) as
cˆ = −e3 z3 (31) S = −ea e1 − ec e3 + eb ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 )
(45)
pˆ = z3 ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) +e p ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − eq ( y13 − x13 ) − kz3
qˆ = − z3 ( y 3 − x3 )
1 1 Substituting (45) into (42), we get
Proof: We prove this result via backstepping control V = − z12 − z22 − (1 + k ) z32 + ea ⎣⎡ e1 z3 − aˆ ⎦⎤
method and Lyapunov stability theory (Khalil, 2001). 
First, we define a quadratic Lyapunov function +eb ⎡⎣ z3 ( y1 y2 − x1 x2 ) − bˆ ⎤⎦ + ec ⎡⎣ −e3 z3 − cˆ ⎤⎦
(46)
1 +e p ⎡⎣ z3 ( y1 y22 − x1 x22 ) − pˆ ⎤⎦
V1 ( z1 ) = z12 (32)
2 +eq ⎡⎣ − z3 ( y13 − x13 ) − qˆ ⎤⎦
where
Substituting (31) into (46), we obtain
z1 = e1 (33)
V = − z12 − z22 − (1 + k ) z32 (47)
Differentiating V1 along the dynamics (26), we get
which is negative semi-definite on R8 .
V1 = e1e2 = − z12 + z1 ( e1 + e2 ) (34)
From (47), it follows that the vector z = (z1, z2, z3) and
Now, we define the parameter estimation errors are globally bounded.
Also, it follows from (47) that
z2 = e1 + e2 (35)
V ≤ − z12 − z22 − z32 = − || z ||2 (48)
Using (35), we can write (34) as
That is,
V1 = − z12 + z1 z2 (36)
|| z ||2 ≤ −V (49)
Next, we define a quadratic Lyapunov function
Integrating (49) from 0 to t, we get
1 2 1 2
V2 ( z1 , z2 ) = V1 ( z1 ) + z2 = ( z1 + z22 ) (37) t
2 2
∫ z(τ )
2
dτ ≤ V (0) − V (t ) (50)
Differentiating V2 along the dynamics (26), we get 0

V2 = − z12 − z22 + z2 ( 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 ) (38) From (50), it follows that z(t) ∈ L2, while from (26), it can
be deduced that z (t ) ∈ L∞ .
Now, we define
Thus, using Barbalat’s lemma (Khalil, 2001), we can
z3 = 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 (39) conclude that z(t) → 0 exponentially as t → ∞ for all initial
Using (39), we can rewrite (38) as conditions z (0) ∈ R3 .
Hence, it follows that that e(t) → 0 exponentially as
V2 = − z12 − z22 + z2 z3 (40) t → ∞ for all initial conditions e (0) ∈ R3 . ■
Finally, we define a quadratic Lyapunov function For numerical simulations, we take the parameter values
as in the chaotic case (4), viz.
1 2 1 2 2 2 2
V = V2 ( z1 , z2 ) + z3 + ( ea + eb + ec + e p + eq2 ) (41) a = 3, b = 0.01, c = 3.8, p = 0.1, q = 0.1 (51)
2 2
From (41), it is clear that V is positive definite on R8 . We take the gain constant as k = 20.
Differentiating V along (26) and (28), we obtain
Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 159

Figure 6 Synchronisation of the states x1 and y1 (see online Figure 9 Time-history of the synchronisation errors (see online
version for colours) version for colours)

We choose the initial values of the master system (23) as


Figure 7 Synchronisation of the states x2 and y2 (see online
version for colours) x1 (0) = 1.7, x2 (0) = 3.2, x3 (0) = −1.6 (52)

We take the initial values of the slave system (24) as


y1 (0) = 5.8, y2 (0) = −2.3, y3 (0) = 1.2 (53)

Also, as initial values of the parameter estimates, we take

aˆ (0) = 4, bˆ(0) = 3, cˆ(0) = 6, pˆ (0) = qˆ (0) = 1 (54)

Figures 6 to 8 show the complete synchronisation of the


identical novel jerk chaotic systems (23) and (24). Figure 9
shows the time-history of the chaos synchronisation errors.

5 Analogue circuit simulation using MultiSIM


In this section, an electronic circuit is designed to realise the
novel jerk system (3). The novel jerk system equation (3)
can be realised by the circuit of Figure 10, which consists of
Figure 8 Synchronisation of the states x3 and y3 (see online three channels to realise the integration, addition, and
version for colours) subtraction of the three state variables x1, x2, and x3,
respectively. The circuit employs simple electronic
elements, such as resistors, capacitors, multiplier and
operational amplifiers. The nonlinear term of system (3) are
implemented with the analogue multiplier. The
corresponding circuit equation can be described as:
1
x1 = x2
C1 R1
1
x2 = x3
C2 R2
(55)
1 1 1
x3 = − x1 + x1 x2 − x3
C3 R3 10C3 R4 C3 R5
1 1
+ x1 x22 − x13
100C3 R6 100C3 R7
160 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

Figure 10 Schematic of the proposed novel jerk circuit by using MultiSIM 10.0 (see online version for colours)
VCC1
-30V

R8
C1
10kΩ U2A
R11
4
R13 10nF x1Signal
4 10kΩ U6A
2
R1 U1A
10kΩ 1 2 4
R12
3 10kΩ 1 2
8 TL082CD 10kΩ
3 1
8 TL082CD
3
8 TL082CD 30V
VCC2

R3 VCC1
A2
Y 3.33kΩ C3 -30V
R4
X
10nF R9
100kΩ U5A C2
A1 1 V/V 0 V 4 10kΩ
Y R5 U3A
A3 2 x3signal R10
4
10nF
X Y 2.63kΩ 1 2
U4A 4
R2
R6 3 10kΩ 1 2 x2signal
X
1 V/V 0 V TL082CD
8 10kΩ
3 1
A5 A4 1kΩ TL082CD
8
Y Y 1 V/V 0 V 3
TL082CD
8
R7
X X

1kΩ 30V
1 V/V 0 V 1 V/V 0 V
VCC2

Figure 11 2D projection of the novel jerk circuit in (x1, x2)-plane (see online version for colours)
Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 161

Figure 12 2D projection of the novel jerk circuit in (x2, x3)-plane (see online version for colours)

Figure 13 2D projection of the novel jerk circuit in (x1, x3)-plane (see online version for colours)

We choose R1 = R2 = R8 = R9 = R10 = R11 = R12 = R13 = observations of system (3) as shown in Figures 11 to 13. As
10 kΩ, R3 = 3.33 kΩ, R4 = 100 kΩ, R5 = 2.63 kΩ, R6 = R7 = compared with Figures 2 to 4, a good qualitative agreement
1 kΩ, C1 = C2 = C3 = 1 nF. The circuit has three integrators between the numerical simulation and the MultiSIM 10.0
(by using Op-amp TL082CD) in a feedback loop and a results of the novel jerk circuit is confirmed.
multiplier (IC AD633). The supplies of all active devices
are ±30 V. With MultiSIM 10.0, we obtain the experimental
162 S. Vaidyanathan et al.

Figure 14 MATLAB simulation of original speech in the chaos mdecryption = mencrytion − m jerk _ circuit (57)
masking communication system (see online version
for colours) So, mdecryption(t) is the original message with a little noise
0.2 that is assumed to become from the channel.
Numerical simulations are performed on the novel jerk
0.15
oscillator for the strategy of building for voice encryption.
0.1 To demonstrate the system presentation with the help of
MATLAB program, a wave file containing a segment of
0.05 speech (Good morning) is taken to be used as a message
0
moriginalspecch with sampling frequency of 10,000 Hz.
Figure 14 represents the original message while
A m plitude

-0.05 Figure 15 is the chaotic signal mJerk_circuit(t). The transmitted


signal mencryption is shown in Figure 16 and the message
-0.1
signal has been perfectly recovered by using the signal
-0.15 masking of chaotic novel jerk circuit as shown in
Figure 17.
-0.2

-0.25
Figure 16 MATLAB simulation of original speech in the chaos
masking communication system (see online version
-0.3 for colours)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
30
Original message(t) 4
x 10

20
Figure 15 MATLAB simulation of chaotic signal in the chaos
masking communication system (see online version
for colours) 10
30
Amplitude

20
-10

10
-20
Amplitude

0 -30
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Encryption with AWGN 4
x 10

-10
Figure 17 MATLAB simulation of received message in the
chaos masking communication system (see online
-20 version for colours)
0.3

-30
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0.2
Chaotic mask signal x1(t) 4
x 10
0.1

6 Application for voice encryption 0


Amplitude

To study the effectiveness of signal masking approach


in the novel jerk system, the modulation of the signal -0.1
moriginal_speech(t) and the chaotic signal mJerk_circuit(t), produced
by the Jerk circuit, is the new encryption signal mencryption, -0.2
which is given by equation (56).
-0.3
mencryption = moriginalspeech + m jerk _ circuit + n(t ) (56)

The signal mJerk_circuit(t) is one of the parameters of equation -0.4


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
(3). Where n(t) is the additive white Gaussian noise Decryption message 4
x 10
(AWGN) that is coming from the channel. After finishing
the encryption process the original signal can be recovered
with the following procedure.
Analysis, synchronisation and circuit implementation of a novel jerk chaotic system and its application 163

7 Conclusions Dhanalakshmi, K., Umapathi, M. and Ezhilarasi, D. (2015)


‘Sliding mode control of shape memory alloy actuated
In this work, the qualitative properties of the novel jerk structure for vibration control’, International Journal of
chaotic system have been described in detail and MATLAB Modelling, Identification and Control, Vol. 23, No. 2,
plots were exhibited. Next, we used adaptive backstepping pp.121–130.
control method to establish global chaos synchronisation of Eftekhari, M. and Eftekhari, M. (2016) ‘Controller design for
the identical novel jerk chaotic systems with unknown multivariable nonlinear control systems based on gradient
based ant-colony optimisation’, International Journal of
parameters. Moreover, it is implemented via a designed
Modelling, Identification and Control, Vol. 25, No. 1,
circuit and tested experimentally with MultiSIM. The pp.38–47.
MultiSIM results of the novel jerk system were well-agreed
Holyst, J.A. and Urbanowicz, K. (2000) ‘Chaos control in
with the simulation results. In this study, the encryption economical model by time-delayed feedback method’,
system speech signal has been presented. We have Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications,
demonstrated in simulation that chaos can be applied to Vol. 287, Nos. 3–4, pp.587–598.
encryption systems schemes. Karthikeyan, R. and Sundarapandian, V. (2014) ‘Hybrid chaos
synchronization of four-scroll systems via active control’,
Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp.97–103.
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