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Sep 26, 2018

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digitial image processing ppt

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digitial image processing ppt

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sensors/cameras/CCD Cameras etc.. In digital

form.

2. Image Enhancement

This refers to processing an image so that the

result is more suitable for a particular

application. Example include:

a) Sharpening or de-blurring an out of focus

image

b) Highlighting the edges

c) Improving Image contrast or Brightening

and Image

d) Removing Noise.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

3. Image restoration

This may be considered as reversing the

damage done to an image by a known cause,

for example:

a) Removing of blur caused by linear motion

b) Removal of optical distortions

c) Removing periodic interference.

4. Image segmentation

This involves subdividing an image into

constituent parts, or isolating certain aspects

of an image:

a) Finding lines, circles, or particular shapes in

an image,

b) In an aerial photograph, identifying cars,

trees, buildings, or roads.

5. Wavelets

• Wavelets are used to represent the images at

various degrees.

• It also used for compression.

6. Morphology

• Extraction of image feature that may be useful

to identify shapes or structures or boundaries

or skeletons.

Gray Scale or Intensity

• Pixels with Neighborhoods

Image Interpolation

• It is tool used for image zooming, shrinking, rotating

and geometric corrections.

times to 1000x1000 pixels. Simplest way is to create an

imaginary 1000x1000 grid with the same pixels spacing

in the original image, and then shrink it so that it fits

exactly over the original image. Obviously the pixel

spacing in the shrunken 1000x1000 grid will be less

than the pixel spacing in the original image.

Interpolation types

• NEAREST NEIGHBOR INTERPOLATION: assigning

intensity to its nearest neighbor in the original image.

This approach is simple but it creates undesirable

artifacts such as distortion of straight edges.

• BILINEAR INTERPOLATION: In this interpolation we use

4 nearest neighbors to estimate intensity at a given

location. Let (x,y) denote the coordinates of the

location to which we want to assign intensity value

and let v(x,y) be a intensity value. Then it can be

determine;

v( x, y) ax by cxy d

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Interpolation types

• BICUBIC INTERPOLATION: This involves sixteen nearest

neighbors of a point. The intensity value that assign to

a point (x,y) is given by the eq.

3 3

v ( x, y ) a x y ij

i j

i 0 j 0

fine details than BILINEAR.

• BICUBIC INTERPOLATION is used in commercial editing

programs likes Adobe Photoshop and Corel Photopoint.

Different Image Standard

• JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group

• GIF Graphics Interchange Format

• BMP Bit Mapped

• TGA Truevision Graphics Adaptor

• PNG Portable Network Graphics

• TIFF Tagged Interchange/Image File Format

• EXIF Exchangeable Image File Format

• PCX Personal Computer eXchange

Types of Digital Images

• BINARY IMAGES : Each pixel is BLACK or

WHITE since there is only 2 possible values for

each pixel.

a) Only required only 1 bit to sore 1 pixel.

b) These images are suitable for finger print,

or architectural plan.

1. A BINARY IMAGE

• A binary image is shown in figure below. In

this image, we have only the two colours:

White for the edges, and black for the

background.

2. A GRAY SCALE IMAGE

• Each pixel is a shade of gray, normally from 0 (BLACK)

to 255 (WHITE).This range means that each pixel can

be represented by eight bits, or exactly one byte.

This is a very natural range for image file handling.

Other grayscale ranges are used, but generally they

are a power of 2. Such images arise in medicine (X-

rays), images of printed works, and indeed 256

different gray levels is sufficient for the recognition

of most natural objects.

FIGURE OF GRAY SCALE IMAGE

3. TRUE COLOUR OR RGB IMAGE

• Each pixel has particular colour, that colour is

described by the amount of RED, GREEN and

BLUE in it.

• If each these have a components 0-255, this

gives a total of 2563 =16777216 different

possible colours in the image. This is enough

for any image.

• Total number of bits required for each pixel is

24 bits colour image.

A TRUE COLOUR IMAGE

4. INDEXED IMAGE

• Most colour image has only a small subset of

colour image of more than sixteen million

possible colours.

• For convenience to store and file handling the

image has associated a colour map or colour

palette which is simply a all colours used in the

image.

• Each pixel has a value which does not gives its

colour but index to a colour map.

• It is convenient if a colour image has 256 colours

or less then only 1 byte is required to store each

pixel.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

FIGURE OF AN INDEX COLOUR IMAGE

IMAGE FILE SIZE

• A BINARY IMAGE: Let us consider a 512 x 512

binary image. The number of bits used in this

image is:

512 x 512 x1=262,144 bits

=32768 bytes

• A GRAY SCALE IMAGE: A gray scale image of

same size requires:

512 x 512 x 8= 2097152 bits

=262144 bytes

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

IMAGE FILE SIZE

• A COLOUR OR RGB IMAGE: Let us consider a

512 x 512 colour image. The number of bits

used in this image is:

512 x 512 x 3 x 8= 6291456 bits

= 786432 bytes

MATLAB under standing

• IMREAD: reading a image file

a=imread(‘lena.jpg’);

• IMSHOW: showing a image file in MATLAB

imshow(a);

• SIZE: determine the size of image

size(a);

• a(100,200,1:3); all values of colours at pixel

(100X200).

• impixel(a,100,200); it will also gives all values of

colours at pixel (100x200).

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

MATLAB under standing

• Imfinfo(‘lena.jpg’); will get the information

about the image file ‘lena.jpg’.

DATA TYPES & CONVERSION

>>a=24

>>b=uint8(a);

>>b

24

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

IMAGE CONVERSION

• Image can be converted from one type to

another. We can understand with the below

tables.

Image data type conversion Eg.

>>c=imread('cameraman.tif');

>> cd=double(c);

>> imshow(c),figure,imshow(cd)

Type double, the imshow function expects the values to be between 0 and 1,

where 0 is displayed as black, and 1 is displayed as white.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

>>imshow(cd/255)

>>imshow(cd/512)

>>imshow(cd/128)

BINARY IMAGE

• A binary image will have only two values: 0 and 1.

MATLAB does not have a binary data type.

• Gray Scale images can be transformed into a sequence

of binary images by breaking them up into their bit-

planes.

• If we consider the Gray value of each pixel of an 8-bit

image as an 8-bit binary word, then the 0th bit plane

consists of the last bit of each gray value. Since this bit

has least effect in terms of value, it is called LSB.

• Similarly the 7th bit plane consists of the first bit in

each value. This bit has the greatest effect in terms of

the magnitude of the value, so it is called the most

significant bit, and the plane consisting of those bits

the most significant bit plane.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

A Gray Scale to Binary Image

• If we take a Grayscale image, we start by making

it a matrix of type double; this means we can

perform arithmetic on the values.

>> c=imread('cameraman.tif');

>> cd=double(c);

• We now isolate the bit planes by simply dividing

the matrix cd by successive powers of 2,

throwing away the remainder, and seeing if the

final bit is 0 or 1. We can do this with the mod

function.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

>> c0=mod(cd,2);

>> c1=mod(floor(cd/2),2);

>> c2=mod(floor(cd/4),2);

>> c3=mod(floor(cd/8),2);

>> c4=mod(floor(cd/16),2);

>> c5=mod(floor(cd/32),2);

>> c6=mod(floor(cd/64),2);

>> c7=mod(floor(cd/128),2);

The most significant bit plane, c7, is actually a threshold of the

image at level 127.

>> ct=c>127;

>> all(c7(:)==ct(:))

We can recover and display the original image with:

>> cc=2*(2*(2*(2*(2*(2*(2*c7+c6)+c5)+c4)+c3)+c2)+c1)+c0;

>>Dinesh

imshow(uint8(cc))

K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Spatial Resolution

• Spatial resolution is the density of pixels over the

image.

• The greater the spatial resolution, the more pixels

are used to display the image.

• We can experiment with spatial resolution with

MATLAB

• imresize function. Suppose we have an 256 X 256

8-bit Grayscale image saved to matrix X Then

command

>>imresize(x,1/2); will halve the size of image

>>x2=imresize(imresize(x,1/2),2); can recover

orginal.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Relationship between pixels

(0,0)

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Neighbors of pixels

(x-1,y-1)

(x-1,y) p (x+1,y)

(x,y-1)

(x+1,y-1)

(x-1,y)

(x-1,y+1) (x,y+1) (x+1,y+1) (x+1,y)

N8(p) = (x-1,y+1)

(x,y+1)

(x+1,y+1)

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Neighbors of pixels

(x-1,y-1)

p

(x+1,y-1)

ND(p) = (x-1,y1)

(x+1,y+1)

(x-1,y+1) (x+1,y+1)

neighbor pixels.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Connectivity

• Connectivity is adapted from neighborhood relation.

• Two pixels are connected if they are in the same class

(i.e. the same color or the same range of intensity) and

they are neighbors of one another.

w 4-connectivity: p and q are 4-connected if q N4(p)

w 8-connectivity: p and q are 8-connected if q N8(p)

w mixed-connectivity (m-connectivity):

p and q are m-connected if q N4(p) or

q ND(p) and N4(p) N4(q) =

adjacency

• A pixel p is adjacent to pixel q if they are

connected. Two image subsets S1 and S2 are

adjacent if some pixel in S1 is adjacent to some

pixel in S2.

S1

S2

Adjacency

• We can define type of adjacency:

a) 4-adjacency: 2 pixel p & q with value from

V are 4-adjacent if q is in the set of N4 (p).

b) 8-adjacency: 2 pixel p & q with value from

V are 8-adjacent if q is in the set of N8 (p).

c) m-adjacency:(Mixed): 2 pixel p & q with

value from V are m-adjacent if:

1) q is in N4 (p) or

2) q is in ND (p) and the set N4 (p) N4 (q )

has no pixel whose values are from V.

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Path

A path from pixel p at (x,y) to pixel q at (s,t) is a sequence

of distinct pixels:

(x0,y0), (x1,y1), (x2,y2),…, (xn,yn)

such that

(x0,y0) = (x,y) and (xn,yn) = (s,t)

and

(xi,yi) is adjacent to (xi-1,yi-1), i = 1,…,n

q

p

depending

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma,on

Ph.D. type of adjacency.

Paths (Examples)

8-path m-path

p p p

q q q

solves this ambiguity

results in some ambiguity

Distance

For pixel p, q, and z with coordinates (x,y), (s,t) and (u,v),

D is a distance function or metric if

w D(p,q) = D(q,p)

De ( p, q) ( x - s)2 ( y - t )2

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Distance [Contd..]

D4-distance (city-block distance) is defined as

D4 ( p, q) x - s y - t

2

2 1 2

2 1 0 1 2

2 1 2

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

Distance [contd..]

D8-distance (chessboard distance) is defined as

D8 ( p, q) max( x - s , y - t )

2 2 2 2 2

2 1 1 1 2

2 1 0 1 2

2 1 1 1 2

2 2 2 2 2

Dinesh K. Vishwakarma, Ph.D.

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