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EXPERIMENT 8

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

8.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT

i. Calibration of Type K, and Type J thermocouples.


ii. Study the principles of a thermocouple transmitter and calibration of a thermocouple
transmitter.
iii. Calibration of Platinum Resistance thermometers

8.2 INTRODUCTION

Thermocouples are based on the Seebeck effect, Peltier Effect and Thomson Effect. Seebeck
Effect states that if wire made of two different materials are joined together at their ends and if the
two end or junctions are maintained at different temperature, a current will flow in the circuit.
Thermocouples are based on this effect. Two other effects known as Peltier Effect and Thomson
effect are also related to thermoelectric effects. The important pairs of materials used as
thermoelectric effects. The important pairs of materials used as thermocouples are shown in
Table 8.1.

Table 8.1 Important Thermocouple Pairs


Type Material Range, 0C Resolution V/0C
B Platinum 30% Rhodium- 0 to 1820 11
Platinum 6% Rhodium
E Chromel-Constantan -270 to 1000 80
J Iron-Constantan -210 to 1200 60
K Chromel-Alumel -270 to 1370 45
R Platinum 13% Rhodium- -50 to 1760 15
Platinum
T Copper-Constantan -270 to 400 60

The Temperature-EMF relantionships of the important types of thermocouples are shown in


APPENDIX table A1-A6. These tables give the EMF for the cold junction at 0 0C and the hot
junction at the temperature T.

8.2.1 Cold Junction Compensation

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Though thermocouple calibration tables are given with the cold junction at 0 0C it is rarely possible
to maintain the cold junction at that temperature except in laboratories. In industrial applications
the cold junctions are maintained at the ambient conditions and suitable corrections are applied.
The EMF of a thermcouple maintained with the hot junction at T and cold junction at 0, ET,O is
given by,

ET , O  ET , t  Et , O

where,

ET,t = temperature of the thermocouple with hot junction at T and cold junction at t
Et,0 = temperature of the thermocouple with hot junction at T and cold junction at O

In industrial thermocouple transmitters cold junction compensation is performed electronically.

8.2.2 Thermocouple connection

Law of intermediate metals in a thermocouple made up of Metals A and B at temperatures t 1 and


t2 we can introduce one ore metallic wires between A and B without altering the EMF (Figure 8.2),
provided all the junctions with which the junctions at t 1 is replaced is maintained at t1 and all the
junction with which the junctions t2 is replaced is maintained at temperature t2.

Figure 8.2 Law of intermediate metals

Because of the law of intermediate metals we can use wire made of some other material to
connect a thermocouple with the secondary measuring instruments. For this purpose we use
compensating cables for e.g. Type K compensating cable.

8.2.3 Resistance Thermometers

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Resistance thermometers work on the principles of the change in resistance of a metallic wire
with change in temperature. Platinum is the preferred metal used in resistance thermometers.
The change in resistance of platinum thermometer with temperature is shown in appendix table
A.6

8.2.4 Resistance Thermometer Connections

One of major causes of error in resistance thermometers is the change in ambient temperature
which affect the resistance of the connection wires between the resistance thermometer and the
Wheatstone Bridge which is used for measuring the change in resistance. Using the three wires
or four wire connections can minimize this error as shown Figure 8.3.In the three wire
connections any change in the resistance of lead 2 is added to the thermometer resistance.
However this is balanced by the equal change in the resistance of lead 1 which is added to the
reference resistor. In the four wire connection change in resistance of lead 1 and lead 3 are
compensated by that of lead 2 and 4 since the former adds top the thermometer resistance while
the later adds to the reference resistor.

Figure 8.3 Resistance Thermometer Connections

8.3 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

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The equipment required for performing the experiments are shown in Table 8.4

Table 8.4 Equipment Required

Description Unit name Model no


Experimental Units Temperature Measurement Unit Yokogawa Model YTC-01

Constant Temperature Bath Isotech Model Jupiter 650

Handheld Communicator Yokogawa Model BT200

Digital Indicator Yokogawa Model UM330

Units Under Test (UUT) Thermocouple Sets – Types K, J, E,


T, B and R
Plantinum Resistance Thermometer
100 Ohms
Thermocouple Transmitter Yokogawa Model YTA110
ResistanceThermometer Yokogawa Model YTA110
Transmitter
Master Standard Units Wheatstone Bridge Yokogawa Model 275597
(MSU) Digital Thermometer Yokogawa Model 756301

8.4 PROCEDURE

8.4.1 Calibration of thermocouples

8.4.1.1 Experimental Setup and Procedure

Thermocouples can be calibrated up to 6500C using the constant temperature bath (Figure 8.5)

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Figure 8.5 Calibration of Thermocouple

A platinum resistance thermometer together with Model 756301 digital thermometer is used as
the Master Standard Unit. A thermocouple together with UM330 digital indicator is used as the
Unit Under Test.

1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 8.5.Use a Type K thermocouple as the UUT.
2. Set the constant temperature bath temperature to 40 0C and allow the temperature to
stabilize. We can consider the temperature to be stabilized if the MSU reading does not
change for say 5 minutes.
3. Note the MSU reading and the UUT reading
4. Increases the thermostat setting by 10 degrees. After the bath temperature stabilize take
the MSU and UUT readings.
5. Proceed as above in steps of 50 degrees till the bath temperature is 300 0C. After each
change wait for about 15 minutes for the temperature to stabilize. Enter the data as
shown in Table 10.6
6. Determine the mV corresponding to the UUT reading and fill in the last column of the
table 15.6
7. Plot a graph between the temperature given by MSU and UUT
8. Determine the standard deviation. Use Excel statistics function.
9. Repeat the experiment for the type J thermocouples.

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8.4.1.2 Data Reduction, Calculation, Graphs

i. Plot a graph with MSU temperature on the axis and mV on the y-axis. Plot the graph for all
the thermocouples on the same graph paper.
ii. Compare with the literature values given in Appendix table A1 to A6.
iii. Fit a curve mV = a +bT where mV is the voltage and T is the absolute temperature for the
data between 40 and 3000C. Determine the standard deviation.

Table 8.6 Type K Thermocouple Calibration


UUT Type K Thermocouple
MSU 3 wire Resistance thermometer
Digital Thermometer Type Yokogawa Model No 756301
Temperature Bath Used Jupiter 650
No Bath Temp 0C MSU reading 0C UUT reading 0C UUT reading table
A3-1
mV

Table 8.7 Type J Thermocouple Calibration


UUT Type J Thermocouple
MSU 3 wire Resistance thermometer
Digital Thermometer Type Yokogawa Model No 756301
Temperature Bath Used Jupiter 650
No Bath Temp 0C MSU reading 0C UUT reading 0C UUT reading table
A3-1
mV

8.4.1.3 Discussion

i. Discuss about the sensitivity of thermocouples J and K. Calculate the sensitivity and compare
with the values reported in literature as given in Table 8.1
ii. Discuss about the linearity of the thermocouples over the temperature range.

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8.8 Sensitivity of Thermocouples
Thermocouple Type Standard deviation Sensitivity (V/0C)
Literature REsult
Value
Type K
Type J

8.4.2 Step response of thermocouples

In this section the dynamic response of the thermocouple is determined by step testing.
The experimental setup for performing step response testing is shown in figure 8.8.

Figure 8.8 Step response of thermocouples

8.4.2.1 Experimental Set-up and Procedure

1. Connect the equipment as shown in figure 8.8


2. Keep the thermocouple in the air outside the constant temperature bath.
3. Adjust the bath temperature at say 700C.
4. Suddenly dip the thermometer into the bath and keep it there. This way we are
introducing a step change

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5. Note the change in temperature with respect to time.
6. After the temperature reading has become constant, do the reverse step by suddenly
taking out the thermometer from the bath and keeping it in the air. Wait till the
temperature again stabilizes.

8.4.2.2 Data Reduction, Calculation and Graphs

1. Plot the response curve.


2. Calculate the fraction incomplete response
3. Plot the fraction incomplete response against time.
4. Identify whether the response is first order or higher order.
5. If the response is first order determine the time constant T and Gain K of the system from
the graph.
6. If the system has a higher order response determine the gain and two time constants T 1
and T2 by one of the three methods,
a. Slope intercept method
b. Method of harriot
c. Method of Oldenbourg and Sartorius
7. Process the data from the reverse step response in the identical manner.

Table 8.9 Step response of thermocouple


Thermocouple without protection sheath (thermowell)
Temperature setting of Jupiter temperature bath = 700C
Response with thermocouple introduced into the bath
Time (sec) Response Fraction Incomplete
Response
Temperature T, 0C
1-{(T-T1)/(Tf-T1)}

Table 8.10 Step response of thermocouple


Thermocouple without protection sheath (thermowell)
Temperature setting of Jupiter temperature bath = 700C
Response with thermocouple taken out of the bath
Time (sec) Response Fraction Incomplete
Response
Temperature T, 0C
1-{(T-T1)/(Tf-T1)}

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8.4.2.3 Discussion

i. Discuss the response of thermocouple and other measuring elements.


ii. Discuss the time constant obtained for heating and cooling
iii. Discuss the Fraction Incomplete response graphs plotted.

8.4.3 Thermocouple transmitter

The function of the temperature transmitter is to convert the mV output given by different types of
thermocouples to standard 4-20 mA output. Yokogawa YTA110 transmitter will be calibrated in
this experiment. In this experiment distributor is introduced to supply 24 VDC to the transmitter
and convert its 4-20 mA output to 1-5 V.

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8.4.3.1 Experimental Set-up and Procedure

Figure 8.11 Thermocouple Transmitter Calibration

1. Connect the equipment as shown in figure 8.11.


2. Adjust the bath temperature for 40 0C. After the temperature has stabilized read the value
given by the digital thermometer and the digital indicator.
3. Increase the bath temperature setting to 500C. Repeat the experiment.
4. Repeat the experiment by increasing the bath temperature setting so that temperature
increases in steps of approximately 500C till 3000C.
5. Enter the data in table 8.12

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Table 8.12 Temperature Calibration of Transmitter
Type of Thermocouple used Type K
Type of transmitter used YTA110
Transmitter range 0 to 5000C
UM330 range 1 to 5 V
No Bath Temp 0C Digital UM 330 Temperature
Thermometer reading 0C corresponding to
0
C UM330 reading, 0C

8.4.3.2 Data Reduction and Graphs

i. Convert the output of the transmitter to corresponding temperature.


ii. Plot a graph between temperature given by the UUT (transmitter) and MSU (digital
thermometer)
iii. Calculate the maximum error and check whether it corresponding to the specification of
the UUT.

Specifications of YTA110 is as follows:

Total accuracy = {(A/D accuracy)/span + D/A accuracy} or  0.1% of span, whichever is greater.
For thermocouple inputs, add Cold Junction Compensation accuracy of  0.50C to the total
accuracy.

For type K TC,


Total accuracy = (0.25/500 + 0.02% of 500) + 0.5 0C or (0.1% of 500 + 0.5)
= 0.85 or 1.0
=  10C

8.4.4 Resistance thermometer transmitter

8.4.4.1 Experimental Set-up and Procedure

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Two and three wire connections in resistance thermometers

Figure 8.13 Resistance thermometer connection

1. Make connections as shown in figure 8.13 for 3 wire connection


2. Disconnect the lead wires from the YTA110 transmitter. Measure the resistance of the
lead wire (terminal B and B) using the wheatstone bridge. The lead wire resistance for
terminal A and B is same as lead wire resistance for terminal B and B.
3. Reconnect the two lead wires to the transmitter YTA 110.
4. For the three wire connection read the output of the transmitter on UM330 Digital
Indicator.
5. Connect brain terminal to the transmitter. Change sensor type from 3 wire to 2 wire.
6. Read the output of the transmitter on UM330 Digital indicator’.
7. Adjust the temperature bath for 500C.
8. Repeat step 1 to 6 with the lead wires in the temperature bath.
9. Enter the data in table 8.14.
10. Use the following equation for calculating the resistance for the system:
2 wire and 3 wire system
Transmitter (YTA110) range = 0 to 5000C

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Let output of YTA110 (UM330 reading) = x V
Tempearture = (x-1)/4  5000C (1)

Table 8.14 Two wire and three wire connections


Lead wire temperature 2 wire system 3 wire system
Room temperature A : Lead Wire Resistance D : Lead Wire Resistance
=  = 
Output of tranmitter (UM330 Output of tranmitter (UM330
reading) reading)
= V = V
B : Temperature From eq 1 E : Temperature From eq 1

500C C: Lead Wire Resistance K: Lead Wire Resistance


=  = 
Output of tranmitter (UM330 Output of tranmitter (UM330
reading) reading)
= V = V
D : Temperature From eq 1 J : Temperature From eq 1

Error, % of span for lead wire {(D-B)/100}/(C-A) x 100 {(J-E)/100}/(K-D) x 100


temp change = % = %

8.4.5 Resistance thermometers


8.4.5.1 Experimental Set-up and Procedure

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Figure 8.15 Calibration of resistance thermometer up to 300 0C

1. Connect the equipment as shown in figure 8.15. Use a 2 wire resistance thermometer as
the UUT. Short circuit terminal 2 and 3 at the back of UM330.
2. Set the constant temperature bath to 40 0C and allow the temperature to stabilize. We can
consider the temperature to be stabilized if the MSU reading does not change for say 5
minutes.
3. Note the MSU reading and the UUT reading
4. Increase the thermostat setting by 10 degrees. After the bath temperature stabilizes take
the MSU and UUT readings.
5. Proceed as above in steps of 50 degrees till the bath temperature is 300 0C. After each
change wait for about 15 minutes for the temperature to stabilize.
6. Repeat the experiments for the 3 wire resistance thermometer.
7. Determine the resistance corresponding to the MSU and UUT reading and fill in the table
8.16

Table 8.16 2 wire resistance thermometer


Resistance thermometer type : 2 wire

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Ro : 100 Ohms
Digital thermometer type : Yokogawa Model No 756301-C-5/J
Temperature bath setting MSU reading UUT reading

Temp Resistance Temp Resistance


corresponding corresponding
to MSU temp to UUT temp

Table 8.16 3 wire resistance thermometer


Resistance thermometer type : 3 wire
Ro : 100 Ohms
Digital thermometer type : Yokogawa Model No 756301-C-5/J
Temperature bath setting MSU reading UUT reading

Temp Resistance Temp Resistance


corresponding corresponding
to MSU temp to UUT temp

8.4.5.2 Data Reduction, Calculation and Graphs

i. Plot a graph between temperature and the thermometer resistance. Check whether the line
passes through 100 Ohm at 00C. Determine the slope of the line giving the sensitivity of the
thermometer in Ohm/ 0C.
ii. Corresponding to the MSU and UUT temperature reading determine the actual resistance.
Use the equation,
R100 = R0 (1+At+Bt2)
Where
A = 3.9083 x 10-3 0C-1
B = -5.7750 x 10-12 0C-2
Enter the values of the resistance in the 3rd column of the table above.
iii. Plot a graph between the true value of the resistance and the measured value. Determine
the standard deviation.

8.4.5.3 Discussion

i. Compare the sensitivity of a resistance thermometer with a thermocouple.

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8.5 REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. State and explain Seebeck Effect, Peltier Effect and Thomson Effect.
2. Tell the names of 4 commonly used thermocouple pairs.
3. What is meant by cold junction compensation?
4. On what factors does the time constant of a thermocouple depend on?
5. Which has a higher resolution a thermo couple or a resistance thermometer?
6. What is meant by a transmitter? What is the output of a transmitter?
7. What is the purpose of using 2 wire and 3 wire connections?
8. If the supply voltage to a Wheatstone bridge changes, will it affect the balance point of
the bridge?

8.6 REFERENCES

1. Coughanowr, D. R, Process System Analysis and Control, 2 nd edition McGraw Hill New
York 1991.

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