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1)

Solución

2)

3)

EJERCICIO

1

UNIDAD VI

DETERMINE SI LATRANSFORMACIÓN DADA DE V

I.- T: R 2

R 3 ; T

(X, Y)= (X, Y)

W ES LINEAL O NO.

 T [ (X 1, Y 1 ) + (X 2 , Y 2 ) ] = T [(X 1, +X 2 ) + (Y 1 , Y 2 )] = [(Y 1, +Y 2 ) + (X 1 , X 2 )]

(Y 1, +Y 2 ) =

T(X 1 , Y 1 )

T

[ (X 1, Y 1 ) +

(X 2 , Y 2 ) ]

Y

(X 1 , X 2 ) =

= T(X 1 ,

X 2 ) + T (Y 1 ,

T(X 2 , Y 2 )

Y 2 )

T [ K (X, Y) ] = T ( KX, KY) = KT(X, Y) = (Y, X)

SI ES UNA TRANSFORMACIÓN LINEAL

EJERCICIO 2

 2.- T: R 3 R 2 ; T (X, Y, Z) = (1, Z) T [ (X 1, Y 1 , Z 1 ) + (X 2 , Y 2 , Z 2 ) ] = T [(X 1, +X 2 ) + (Y 1 + Y 2 ) (Z 1 + Z 2 )]
 = [( 1 ) + (Z 1 , Z 2 )] T [ (1, Z 1 ) + (1, Z 2 )] = T(1, Z 1 ) + T(1, Z 2 ) T [ K (X, Y, Z) ] = T ( KX, KY, KZ) = KT(X, Y, Z) = K(1, Z) = (K, KZ)

NO ES UNA TRANSFORMACIÓN LINEAL.

EJERCICIO 3

 2.- T: R 3 R 2 ; T (X, Y, Z) = (X, Y) T [ (X 1, Y 1 , Z 1 ) + (X 2 , Y 2 , Z 2 ) ] = T [(X 1, +X 2 ) + (Y 1 + Y 2 ) (Z 1 + Z 2 )] = [( X 1 , X 2 ) + (Y 1 , Y 2 )] T [ (X 1 , Y 1 ) + (X 1 , Y 2 )] = T(X 1 , Y 1 ) + T(X 2 , Y 2 ) T [ K (X, Y, Z) ] = T ( KX, KY, KZ) = K(X, Y) = KT(X, Y)

SI ES UNA TRANSFORMACIÓN LINEAL.

EJERCICIO

4

4.-

T: R 2

R 2 ; T

(X, Y) = (1, Y)

T

[ (X 1, Y 1 ) +

(X 2 , Y 2 ) ]

= T

[(X 1, +X 2 ) + (Y 1 + Y 2 )]

 = [( 1 ) + (Y 1 , Y 2 )] T [ (1, Y 1 ) + (1, Y 2 )] = T(1, Y 1 ) + T(1, Y 2 ) T [ K (X, Y) ] = T ( KX, KY,) = KT(X, Y) = K(1, Y) = (K, KY)

NO ES UNA TRANSFORMACIÓN LINEAL

EJERCICIO 5

 5.- T: R 2 R 2 ; T (X, Y) = (X + Y, X - Y, 3Y) T [ (X 1, Y 1 ) + (X 2 , Y 2 ) ] = T [(X 1, +X 2 ) + (Y 1 + Y 2 )]

=

[

(X 1 + X 2 +Y 2 +Y 2 ), (X 1 + X 2 -Y 2 -Y 2 ), (3Y 1 +3Y 2 )]

=

[

(X 1 + Y 1 , X 2 +Y 2 , 3Y 1

)

+

( X 2 -Y 2 , X 2 -Y 2 , 3Y 2 )]

(X 1 + Y 1

, X 2 +Y 2 , 3Y 1 ) = T (X 1 , Y 1 )

Y

( X 2 -Y 2 , X 2 -Y 2 , 3Y 2 ) = T (X 2 , Y 2 )

 T [ (X 1, Y 1 ) + (X 2 , Y 2 ) ] = T [(X 1, +X 2 ) + (Y 1 + Y 2 )] T [ K (X, Y) ] = T ( KX, KY) = ( KX + K Y. KX – KY, 3KY) = k( X + Y, X – Y, 3Y) = KT (X, Y)

SI ES UNA TRANSFORMACIÓN LINEAL.

OBTENER LA IMAGEN, NÚCLEO, RANGO Y NULIDAD DE LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DEFINIDA POR:

EJEMPLO 1

T (X, Y, Z) = ( X + Y, Y + Z, 0 )

 B = { (1, 0, 0), ( 0, 1, 0), ( 0, 0, 1)} T = ( 1, 0, 0) = ( 1, 0, 0) T = ( 0, 1, 0,) = ( 0, 1, 0) T = ( 0, 0, 1) = ( 0, 1, 0)

1

0

0

1

0 1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

a(1, 0, 0) + a( 0, 1, 0) = ( x, y , z)

a = x

a = y

z = 0

II = { ( a, a, 0 )

/ a, a,

Œ R }

( X + Y, Y + Z, 0 ) = ( 0, 0 ,0)

 X + Y = 0 X + Y = 0

0 = 0

X = -Y

Y = - Z

Z = Z

SI

Z = 1,

y = -1,

B N { ( 1, -1, 1 )}

X = 1

 a ( 1, -1. 1) = ( X. Y . Z) X = a Y = -a Z = a N = { (a, -a, a) / a Œ R}

N = 1

EJEMPLO 2

2.- T ( X, Y , Z) = ( 2Y + Z, 3X + 1, 1+ Y)

B = { (1, 0, 0), ( 0, 1, 0), ( 0, 0, 1)}

 T = ( 1, 0, 0) = ( 0, 4, 1) T = ( 0, 1, 0,) = ( 2, 1, 1) T = ( 0, 0, 1) = ( 1, 1, 1)

0 4

2 1

1 1

1

2

1

1

2

0

1

1

4

1

2

1

0

1

0 -1

0

4

1

1

-1

1

0 -1 -1

0

7

1

0

1

a(1, 1, 1) + a( 0, -1, -1) +a (0, 0, -7)= ( x, y , z)

a = x

a - a = y

a

- a

- 7a = Z

 II = { ( a, a - a, a - a - 7a, 0 ) / a, a, a Œ R } R = 3

( 2Y + Z, 3X + 1, 1+ Y) = ( 0, 0, 0)

2Y + Z = 0 3X + 1= 0 1+ Y = 0

X = - 1/3

Y = - 1

Z = 2

B N { ( - 1/3, -1, 2 )}

 a (- 1/3, -1, 2 ) = ( X. Y . Z) X = -1/3a Y = -a Z = 2a N = { ( -1/3a, -a, 2a) / a Œ R}

EJEMPLO 3

3.- T ( X, Y , Z) = (3X + Y,

N = 1

Z + 1, 3Y + 1)

 B = { (1, 0, 0), ( 0, 1, 0), ( 0, 0, 1)} T = ( 1, 0, 0) = ( 3, 1, 1) T = ( 0, 1, 0,) = ( 1, 0 ,4) T = ( 0, 0, 1) = ( 0, 2, 1)

3 1

1

2

0

1

1

4

1

1

3

0

1

1

2

4

1

1

1
0
0

1

1

1

-2 -11

2

4

1

1

0 -2 -11

0

0 -10

a(1, 1, 4) + a( 0, -2, -11) +a (0, 0, -10)= ( x, y , z)

a = x

a - a = y

4a

-11 a

- 10a = Z

 II = { ( a, a - a,4 a - 11a - 10a, ) / a, a, a Œ R } R = 3

( 3X + Y, Z + 1, 3Y + 1) = ( 0, 0, 0)

3X + Y= 0

Z + 1= 0

3Y + 1 = 0

X =

Y = - 1/3

1/9

Z =-1

B N { (

1/9, -1/3, -1 )}

 a ( 1/9, -1/3, -1 ) = ( X. Y . Z) X = -1/9a Y = -1/3a Z = -1a N = { ( 1/9a, -1/3a, -1a) / a Œ R}

EJEMPLO 4

4.- T ( X, Y , Z) = ( X + Z, Y,

X + Z)

N = 1

 B = { (1, 0, 0), ( 0, 1, 0), ( 0, 0, 1)} T = ( 1, 0, 0) = ( 1, 0, 1) T = ( 0, 1, 0,) = ( 0, 1, 0) T = ( 0, 0, 1) = ( 1, 0, 1)

0

1

1 0

1

0

1
0
1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

a(1, 0, 1) + a( 0, 1, 0) = ( x, y , z)

a = x

a = y

a= Z

II = { ( a, a)

/ a, a

Œ R }

R

= 2

( X + Z,

X + Z= 0

Y= 0

X + Z = 0

X =

-Z

Y, X + Z) = ( 0, 0, 0)

 Y = 0 Z = Z SI Z = 1, X = -1, Y = 0 B N { ( -1, 0, 1 )} a ( -1, 0, 1 ) = ( X. Y . Z) X = -a

Y = 0

Z = a

EJEMPLO 5

5.- T ( X, Y , Z) = ( X + Z,

0)

 B = { (1, 0, 0), ( 0, 1, 0), ( 0, 0, 1)} T = ( 1, 0, 0) = ( 1, 0, 0) T = ( 0, 1, 0,) = ( 0, 1, 0) T = ( 0, 0, 1) = ( 1, 0, 0)

1

0

1

0

1

0

0
0
0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

a(1, 0, 0) + a( 0, 1, 0) = ( x, y , z)

a = x

a = y

0= Z

 II = { ( a, a, 0) / a, a Œ R } R = 2
 ( X + Z, Y, 0) = ( 0, 0, 0) X + Z= 0

N = { ( -a, 0, a)

N = 1

/ a Œ R}

0 = 0

 X = -Z Y = 0 Z = Z SI Z = 1, X = -1, Y = 0 B N { ( -1, 0, 1 )} a ( -1, 0, 1 ) = ( X. Y . Z) X = -a

Y = 0

Z = a

N = { ( -a, 0, a)

N = 1

/ a Œ R}