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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT) Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm A Publisher

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976

Enhancing Image Compression Process using Thresholding Haar Transform for X-Ray Imaging

C.Rajeswari 1 , Dr.S.Prakasam 2

1 Research Scholar, 2 Assistant Professor SCSVMV University

, Kanchipuram

ABSTRACT

In image enhancement, x-ray imaging is based on a peculiar approach which is haar transform. Haar transform has proven to be very effective and is used to decompose the high frequency sub images of wavelets, this helps us to extract high frequency information effectively. Thresholding is a powerful method and is to create binary images from a grayscale image. Haar transform requires only additions so the computation time is short. Thresholding haar transform model is designed for medical images to transmit images over the network , it reduce the memory size. The performance evaluation of the image quality is measured using compression ratio. It produces high compression ratio and running time is very less for different haar compression key value with good compressed image quality.

Keywords: Haar Transform, Thresholding, Image Compression, PSNR

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 IMAGE COMPRESSION Image compression is to reduce irrelevance data and redundancy of the image data in order to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form. Across the network, all images are transferred from one place to another place. It needs more memory space to store an that image. In proposed work, compressed image needs less memory space to store it. Image compression method has two types are lossy method and lossless method.

method has two types are lossy method and lossless method. Figure1. Compression- Decompression process 1.2. LOSSLESS

Figure1. Compression- Decompression process

1.2. LOSSLESS COMPRESSION

In the lossless data compression method, the original data can be exactly reconstructed as the original data. This type of

compression techniques are generally used in executable programs, text documents, and source codes. Some example of lossless compression techniques are:

• a. Zip file format, and

• b. Tiff image format

1.2. LOSSY IMAGE COMPRESSION

Lossy algorithms are especially suitable for transmit images across the network with minor loss of information. Lossy compression means that some data from the original image file is lost without affect the quality and it is not visible to human. JPEGS and GIFS are example of lossy image formats. But, our human eyes do not really notice the difference between JPEGS, GIFS, PNGS or other formats. The biggest benefit of lossy compression is that it significantly reduces the size of the image file.

1.3. JPEG The term "JPEG" is an acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created the standard. JPEG is used for lossy compression in digital images, with little perceptible loss in image quality. JPEG files usually have a filename

little perceptible loss in image quality. JPEG files usually have a filename Volume 6, Issue 9,
little perceptible loss in image quality. JPEG files usually have a filename Volume 6, Issue 9,

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT) Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm A Publisher

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976

extension of .jpg or .jpeg. JPEG supports a maximum image size of 65,535×65,535( 32-bit image i.e. 2^32) pixels. JPEG compression is used in image file formats. JPEG is the most common image format used by digital cameras or digital systems.

1.4. PEAK SIGNAL TO NOISE-RATIO

PSNR is commonly used to measure the quality of reconstruction of lossy compression images. PSNR ranges between 30dB and 50dB. PSNR value is derived from mean squared error (MSE) value. The mean square error (MSE) between the original image I(i,j) and the reconstructed image K(i,j) is,

original image I(i,j) and the reconstructed image K(i,j) is, The PSNR is defined as: Where MAX

The PSNR is defined as:

the reconstructed image K(i,j) is, The PSNR is defined as: Where MAX I =2 n -1

Where MAX I =2 n -1 and MAX I =255 for n=8bits

1.5. COMPRESSION RATIO In the process of image compression, it is important to know how much detail coefficient can discard from the input data information of the original data. Compression ratio (CR) is a measure of the reduction of the detail coefficient of the data. It can be defined as,

CR= output image size(bytes)/input image size(bytes) a=whos(‘inputfile’) input=a.bytes b=whos(‘outputfile’) output=b.bytes CRatio=output/input Whos function describes the file name, size (rows, columns,dimension), size in bytes, class(uint8/uint16) and additional information.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW Neha Sikka et.al., in studies, A lossless technique of Image processing is proposed by considering Haar wavelet and Vector transform techniques. 97% compression percentage is achieved , low SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) values and high RMSE values are achieved for the proposed system. A hybrid technique for image compression is proposed, the output images obtained the lesser value of RMSE, larger value for SNR, High compression percentage and high compression ratio for the proposed method. Hybrid technique for image compression is formed compression percentage is 96.64

B.Venkateswara Reddy et.al., Region of interest (ROI) based image compression is an intelligent technique in medical image storage. Embedded zero-tree wavelet (EZW) is simple and efficient. In his research, MRI medical images are measured for compression and ROI based image compression is reported. The results reported good image quality. Also the evaluation of lossless compression using two different wavelets is made possible to study the performance of each technique. The technique of selecting the ROI and performing lossless compressing while the lossy compression is performed on the background image . The adopted methodology yielded good results in terms of

the background image . The adopted methodology yielded good results in terms of Volume 6, Issue
the background image . The adopted methodology yielded good results in terms of Volume 6, Issue

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT) Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm A Publisher

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976

image quality metrics like MSE and PSNR. DbWT offered better results when compared with HWT with unified approach of using EZW technique for lossy compression on non-ROI. The measured MSE and the PSNR are 0.8546 and 97.6266

D.Ravichandran et.al., Analyze the performance of 3D medical image compression based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) over the 2D medical images. The photo-realistic 3D models are not only for representation and visualization but also for smart movement and transport of substance for the Image Guided Surgery (IGS). One of the challenges, obstacles and hurdles faced by the health care institutions is limited data transmission speed to get to, exchange and share these therapeutic pictures for the smart E-health services. 3D medical images are normally high frequency patterns, wavelets provide better PSNR even at the higher values compression ratio than the corresponding 2Dimages. The proposed methods can be applied to extract their components necessary for a proper analysis, diagnosis and medical treatment. Compression ratio is 33.55

Yuslinda Wati Mohamad Yusof et.al., The transformation Techniques Discrete Cosine Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Integer Wavelet Transform and Principal Component Analysis are applied to magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography image (CT). These modalities provide the reviewing of the anatomical cross sections and physiological states of patient. The finding shows that the wavelet techniques provided highest peak signal to- noise ratio. The comparative analysis of various image transformation techniques are applied on medical images. The results obtained that discrete wavelet transform, Haar is the best technique in providing the quality. It is observed that the MSE using DWT Haar is almost zero that implies this transformation technique is able to secure almost towards original image during reconstruction. DWT (Haar) transform produced PSNR value is 289.2335

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1. PROPOSED THRESHOLDING HAAR TRANSFORM ALGORITHM

// Input Image selection Step 1: Read an input image as X [.jpg format only] Step 2: Read haar compression key value as n // Composite into an 8-bit Step 3: Convert input image into 8X8 image as X Step 4: Read that pixel value of an image Step 5: Rescales the matrix X to int in the range[1,16] // Compression Process Step 6: Decomposite the wavelet transform using Haar method Step 7: Read thresholding values using wdcbm2() function Step 8: Compress the image using wavedec2() function // Decompress or reconstructed image Step 9: Decompress the image using inverse function waverec2() function // Display CR & reconstructed image Step 10: Display compression ratio using wdencmp() function Step 11: Display PSNR value of input & output image Step 12: Display elapsed time using TOC (in seconds) Step 12: Display the output image

3.2 PROPOSED ALGORITHM PROCESS The proposed algorithm process is shown in Figure2. The input image is read and apply various methods to compress, encryption and decompression. Finally the output image is displayed with good image quality. The compression ratio, PSNR and running time also displayed.

good image quality. The compression ratio, PSNR and running time also displayed. Volume 6, Issue 9,
good image quality. The compression ratio, PSNR and running time also displayed. Volume 6, Issue 9,

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT) Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm A Publisher

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976

September 2018 Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976 Figure2. Proposed algorithm process • Wcodemat() martix

Figure2. Proposed algorithm process

Wcodemat() martix scaling function rescales the input X as integers in the range [1 16].

Wavedec2() function returns the wavelet decomposition of the matrix X at level n.

Wdencmp() function compresses image using hard thresholding

Waverec2() function returns multi level 2-D wavelet reconstruction

4. RESULTS

The input .jpg image is selected using uigetfile function

[imagefile1 , pathname]= uigetfile('.jpg','Open An image');

title('original image');

imshow(imagefile1);

From Matlab results, compared with existing PSNR value and proposed PSNR values. Propsed algorithm produced good PSNR value compared with existing PSNR value. From Medial images, the x-ray images are tested in Matlab according to thresholding values. The output is shown in Table1 as below:

Table1. Comparison between proposed and existing results

Image

Image

Existing

 

Proposed Algorithm

Running

Name

size(in

PSNR(dB)

 

time

(in

KB)

Compressed

PSNR(dB)

Compression

seconds)

image

ratio

size(in KB)

Brain.jpg

6.34

120.32

1.07

29.93

99.9834

5.98

Image2.jp

8.54

20.36

1.60

45.04

98.6453

7.48

g

Img1-

9.78

32.08

2.61

23.65

98.6674

7.76

hand.jpg

g Img1- 9.78 32.08 2.61 23.65 98.6674 7.76 hand.jpg Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018 Page
g Img1- 9.78 32.08 2.61 23.65 98.6674 7.76 hand.jpg Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018 Page

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT) Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm A Publisher

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976

September 2018 Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976 Figure3. Decompressed Image Figure4. PSNR value and

Figure3. Decompressed Image

ISSN 2321-5976 Figure3. Decompressed Image Figure4. PSNR value and running time 5. DISCUSSION From the

Figure4. PSNR value and running time

5. DISCUSSION

From the Matlab results, the proposed algorithm Thresholding Haar Tranform produces as following:

Good compression ratio.

Less memory space.

Good PSNR value.

Running time is less

Good image quality

6. CONCLUSION Image compression is the main process in image processing. In the proposed work, the gray scale input image[256X256] is compressed and then decompressed using haar compression key values. Compression ratio, PSNR is tested various input image according to various haar compression key values. The running time is very less compared with previous algorithm. Compared with the previous research, the proposed algorithm produces good compression ratio, PSNR and good image quality using Matlab. It is used to medical application such as x-ray imaging to transfer images or store in a digital computer.

such as x-ray imaging to transfer images or store in a digital computer. Volume 6, Issue
such as x-ray imaging to transfer images or store in a digital computer. Volume 6, Issue

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT) Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm A Publisher

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation

Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2018

Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5976

REFERENCES [1]. Neha Sikka , “Lossless Image Compression Technique using Haar Wavelet and Vector transform”, International

Conference on Research Advances in Integrated Navigation Systems, 2016.

[2]. B.Venkateswara Reddy , “Lossless Compression of Medical Images for Better Diagnosis”, IEEE 6 th International

Conference on Advance Computing, 2016.

[3]. D.Ravichandran , “Performance Analysis of Three-Dimensional Medical Image Compression Based on Discrete

Wavelet Transform”, IEEE Conference 978-1-4673-8993-8/16, 2016.

[4]. Yuslinda Wati Mohamad Yusof , “A Comparative Analysis of Transformation

Techniques for the Reconstruction of Medical Images”, ICEESE, 2 nd International Conference on Electrical,

Electronics & System Engineering, 2014.

[5]. Hassan.K , “Grayscale Image Compression using Bit Plane Slicing and Developed RLE Algorithms”, Vol.6,

Issue 2,IJARCCE. 2017.

[6]. Divya. R, “JPEG Image Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression using Matlab”, Vol.1,Issue 5, AIJRRLJSM,

2016.

[7]. Er.Ramandeep , “ Image Compression Using Discrete Cosine Transform and Discrete Wavelet Transform”, ISSN:

2229-6166 , 2012.

[8]. Anilkumar Katheritiya “Comparative Analysis between DCT & DWT Techniques of Image Compression”, Vol.1

No.2, IJEA, 2011.

[9]. Prabhakar Telagarapu, “Image Compression Using DCT and Wavelet Transforamation”, VI: 4-No.3, IJSIP, 2011 .

[10]. D.Malarvizhi, ”A New Entropy Encoding Algorithm For Image Compression Using DCT”, IJETT, Vol.3 Issue 3,

ISSN: 2231-5381, Alagappa University, 2012.

[11]. Neeraj Manglani, “Gray Scale Image Compression”, Vol.5, Issue 6, IJARCCE, 2016.

[12]. Maneesha Gupta, “Analysis of Image Compression Algorithm Using DCT”, VI: 2 pp. 515-521, 2012.

[13]. “Digital Image Processing”, by Rafael C.Gonzalez and Richard E.woods

[14]. “Digital Image Processing”, by S.Jayaraman ,S.Esakkirajan and T.Veerakumar.

[15]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/26156035/Image-Compression-Using-DCT-Implementing-Matlab

[16].https://ia700307.us.archive.org/7/items/Lectures_on_Image

Processing/EECE253_02_DigitalImagesAndMatlab.pdf

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