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Course Logistics

• HW3 due today


• Feedback form online
• Midterms distributed
• HW4 available tomorrow
• No class Wednesday
• Midterm 2, 11/25
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Geometric Design
Fall 2008
CEE 320

CEE 320
Anne Goodchild
Introduction

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U_JF_x
PhpKA
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Outline
1. Concepts
1
2. Vertical Alignment
a. Fundamentals
b. Crest Vertical Curves
c. Sag Vertical Curves
d
d. E
Examples
l
3. Horizontal Alignment
a. Fundamentals
a
b. Superelevation
4. Other Stuff
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Draw a roadway

• Street view
• Arial view
• Side view
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Identify a point on that roadway

• Address (relative system)


p
• Milepost system
y
– Linear referencing system
• Grid system
– Longitude and latitude
– Altitude
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Highway Alignment

• Simplify from x-y plane to a linear


reference system (distance along that
roadway)
• Assume travel is along some horizontal
plane,
l nott the
th surface
f off the
th earth
th
• Elevation from this horizontal plane
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Concepts

• Alignment is a 3D problem
broken down into two 2D
problems
– Horizontal Alignment
(arial or plan view)
– Vertical Alignment
(side or profile view)
Fall 2008
CEE 320

Piilani Highway on Maui


Concepts

• Stationing is a measurement system for the


design problem

– Along horizontal alignment


– One station is 100 feet along the
h i
horizontal
t l plane
l
– 12+00 = 1,200 ft.
– The ppoint of origin
g or reference is at
station 0+00
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Stationing – Linear Reference System
Horizontal Alignment
g

Vertical Alignment
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Stationing – Linear Reference System
Horizontal Alignment
g

0+00 1+00 2+00 3+00


Vertical Alignment

100 ffeett

>100 ffeett
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Questions

• How are mileposts or mile markers


different from stations?

• Could two distinct pieces of roadway have


th same station?
the t ti ?

• Why stationing?
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Kawazu Nanadaru Loop Bridge
Kawazu-Nanadaru
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Alignment

• Main concern is the transition between


two constant slopes
• Vertical alignment this means transition
between two grades
• Horizontal alignment this means transition
between two directions
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Existing tools

• Autodesk AutoCAD Civil 3D


p
• http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/inde
x?siteID=123112&id=8777490
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Alignment
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Alignment

• Objective: Determine elevation to ensure


• Proper drainage
• Acceptable level of safety
– Can a driver see far enough ahead to stop?
– Do the driver’s light illuminate the roadway far
enough
g ahead to stop? p
– Can the vehicle be controlled during the
transition under typical conditions?
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Alignment

Sag Vertical Curve

G1 G2

G1 G2

Crest Vertical Curve

G is roadway grade in ft/ft.


G=0.05 is a 5% grade.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

• Assume parabolic function


– Constant rate of change of slope

y = ax + bx + c
2

• y is the roadway elevation x stations


(or feet) from the beginning of the curve
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

L=curve length on horizontal


x

y = ax + bx + c
2
Ch
Choose Either:
Eith
• G1, G2 in decimal form, L in feet
Fall 2008
CEE 320

• G1, G2 in percent, L in stations


Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

L=curve length on horizontal


x

PVC and PVT may have some elevation difference


Rate of change of grade is constant
constant, not grade itself
Maximum height of the curve is not necessarily at L/2
Fall 2008
CEE 320
y = ax + bx + c
2

At the PVC : x = 0
Fall 2008
CEE 320
y = ax 2 + bx
b +c

dY
=
dx

At the PVC : x = 0
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Choose Either:
• G1, G2 in decimal form, L in feet

Relationships • G1, G2 in p
percent,, L in stations

d 2Y G2 − G1 G2 − G1
Anywhere : 2
= 2a = ⇒a=
dx L 2L

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

L
x
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Example
A 400 ft. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of
100+00 at 59 ft. elevation. The initial grade is 2.0 percent and the final
grade is -4.5 percent. Determine the elevation and stationing of PVT,
and the high point of the curve.

PVI

PVT

PVC: STA 100+00


EL 59 ft.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
PVI

PVT

PVC: STA 100+00


EL 59 ft.
ft

Determine the ele


elevation
ation and stationing of PVT
PVT, and
the high point of the curve.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
PVI

PVT

PVC: STA 100+00


EL 59 ft.
ft
Fall 2008
CEE 320
PVI

PVT

PVC: STA 100+00


EL 59 ft.
ft
Fall 2008
CEE 320
•G1, G2 in percent
Other Properties •L
L in feet

G1

PVT
PVC

G2

PVI
A = G1 − G2

A is the absolute value in grade differences,


if grades
d are -3%
3% andd +4%
+4%, value
l iis 7
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Rate of change of slope different
from slope

Slope of curve at highpoint is 0


Fall 2008
CEE 320

Slope of curve changes, but at a constant rate


•G1, G2 in percent
Other Properties •L
L in feet
•Y versus y

G1 x

PVT
PVC

Y
Ym G2

PVI Yf
A = G1 − G2

A 2 AL AL
Y= x Ym = Yf =
200 L 800 200
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Go back to the parabola

y = ax + bx + c
2
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Other Properties

• K-Value (defines vertical curvature)


– The number of horizontal feet needed for a 1%
change in slope

L
K=
A

high / low pt. ⇒ x = K G1


• G is in percent, x is in feet
Fall 2008
CEE 320

• G is in decimal, x is in stations
CEE 320
Fall 2008
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

• Parabolic function
– Constant rate of change of slope
– Implies equal curve tangents

y = ax + bx
2
b +c

• y is the roadway elevation x stations


(or feet) from the beginning of the curve
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

L=curve length on horizontal


x

PVC and PVT may have some elevation difference


Rate of change of grade is constant
constant, not grade itself
Maximum height of the curve is not necessarily at L/2
Fall 2008
CEE 320
CEE 320
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Fall 2008

PVC
PVI
PVT
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

L=curve length on horizontal


x

y = ax + bx + c
2
Ch
Choose Either:
Eith
• G1, G2 in decimal form, L in feet
Fall 2008
CEE 320

• G1, G2 in percent, L in stations


•G1, G2 in percent
Other Properties •L
L in feet

G1 x

PVT
PVC

Y
Ym G2

PVI Yf
A = G1 − G2

A 2 AL AL
Y= x Ym = Yf =
200 L 800 200
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Other Properties

• K-Value (defines vertical curvature)


– The number of horizontal feet needed for a 1% change in
slope
L
K=
A

high / low pt. ⇒ x = K G1


– Small K – tighter curves, less L for same A, slower
speeds
– Larger K – gentler curves, more L for same A, higher
speeds
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves
Fall 2008
CEE 320

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004


Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)

• Practical stopping distance plus distance travelled


during driver perception/reaction time
• Distance
Di t ttravelled
ll d along
l the
th roadway
d
• Use this to determine necessary curve length

V12
SSD = + V1 ×t r
⎛a ⎞
2 g ⎜⎜ ± G ⎟⎟
⎝g ⎠
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sight Distance (S)

• Horizontal distance between driver of height H1 and


a visible object of height H2

• Want to design the roadway such that length of


curve, L, allows a driver to observe an object with
enough time to stop to avoid it (S=SSD).
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Roadway Design

• Want to design the roadway such that length of


curve, L, allows a driver to observe an object with
enough time to stop to avoid it.
it
• Set SSD = S.
• Approximation works in our favor.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curves

For S < L For S > L

L=
A(S )
2

L = 2(S ) −
(
200 H1 + H 2 )
2

(
200 H1 + H 2 )
2
Fall 2008

A
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curves

• Assumptions for design


– h1 = driver’s eye height = 3.5 ft.
– h2 = tail light height = 2.0 ft.

• Simplified Equations
For S < L For S > L
A(S )
2
L = 2(S ) −
2158
L=
2158 A
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curves
• Assume L > S and check
– Generally true
– Always safer
2
S
K=
2158

• If assumption does not hold


– K values cannot be used
– At low values of A it is possible to get a negative curve
length
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves
Light Beam Distance (S)

G1
headlight
g beam ((diverging
g g from LOS by
y β degrees)
g ) G2

PVC PVT

h1 PVI
h2=0

L
• Sight distance limited by headlights at
night
g t
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves
Light Beam Distance (S)

G1
headlight
g beam ((diverging
g g from LOS by
y β degrees)
g ) G2

PVC PVT

h1=H PVI
h2=0

L
For S < L For S > L

A(S ) 200(H + (SSD ) tan β )


2
L= L = 2(S ) −
200(H + S tan β ) A
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves

• Assumptions for design


– H = headlight height = 2.0 ft.
– β = 1 degree

• Simplified Equations
For S < L For S > L

A(S ) ⎛ 400 + 3.5(S ) ⎞


2
L= L = 2(S ) − ⎜ ⎟
400 + 3.5(S ) ⎝ A ⎠
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves

• Assuming L > S…

2
S
K=
400 + 3.5S

• Again,
Again set SSD=S
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves
Fall 2008
CEE 320

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004


Example 1
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road
through a 150 ft. long sag vertical curve. The entering grade is -2.4
percent and the exiting grade is 4.0 percent. A tree has fallen
across the road at approximately the PVT. Assuming the driver
cannott see the
th tree
t until
til it iis lit b
by h
her h
headlights,
dli ht iis it reasonable
bl tto
expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree?

1 Assume S<L
1.
A(S )
2
L=
400 + 3.5(S )

2. Solve for S. Roots 146.17 ft and -64.14 ft.

Driver will see tree when it is 146 feet in front of her.


Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curve

• Required SSD

V12
SSD = + V1t r
⎛a ⎞
2 g ⎜⎜ ± G ⎟⎟
⎝g ⎠

• What do we use for grade?

• 196.53 ft
• assumes 0 grade
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves
Light Beam Distance (S)

G1
diverging from horizontal plane of vehicle by β degrees G2

PVC PVT

h1 PVI
h2=0

Daytime sight distance unrestricted


Fall 2008
CEE 320
Example 2
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road
through a 150 ft. long crest vertical curve. The entering grade is 3.0
percent and the exiting grade is -3.4 percent. A tree has fallen
across the road at approximately the PVT. Is it reasonable to
expectt the
th driver
di tto b
be able
bl tto stop
t b before
f hitti
hitting the
th tree?
t ?

1. Assume S<L
A(S )
2
2. A=6.4 L=
2158
3. S=+/- 224.9 ft. But our curve only 150 ft. So assumption wrong.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curve

L = 2(S ) −
2158
A
V12
SSD = + V1t r
⎛a ⎞
2 g ⎜⎜ ± G ⎟⎟
• S = 243 ft ⎝g ⎠
• SSD = 196.53 ft

• Yes she will be able to stop in time.


Fall 2008
CEE 320
Example 3
A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed. One
section of the roadway must go up and over a small hill with an
entering grade of 3.2 percent and an exiting grade of -2.0 percent.
How long must the vertical curve be?

Using Table 3.2, for 45 mph, K=61


K 61
L = KA = (61)(5.2) = 317.2 ft.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Passing Sight Distance

• Only a concern on crest curves


g curves
• On sag
– Day: unobstructed view
– Night: headlights can be seen

L=
A(S )
2

L = 2(S ) −
(
200 H1 + H 2 )
2

(
200 H1 + H 2 )2
A

– H1=H2=3.5
=3 5 ft
ft, let S=PSD
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Underpass Sight Distance
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Underpass Sight Distance

• On sag curves: obstacle obstructs view


• Curve must be long enough to provide
adequate
d t sight
i ht distance
di t (S=SSD)
(S SSD)

S L
S<L S L
S>L

A(S ) H1 + H 2 ⎞
2

Lm = 800⎜ H c − ⎟
⎛ H1 + H 2 ⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠
800⎜ H c − ⎟ Lm = 2 S −
⎝ 2 ⎠ A
Fall 2008
CEE 320