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# Course Logistics

## • HW3 due today

• Feedback form online
• Midterms distributed
• HW4 available tomorrow
• No class Wednesday
• Midterm 2, 11/25
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Geometric Design
Fall 2008
CEE 320

CEE 320
Anne Goodchild
Introduction

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U_JF_x
PhpKA
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Outline
1. Concepts
1
2. Vertical Alignment
a. Fundamentals
b. Crest Vertical Curves
c. Sag Vertical Curves
d
d. E
Examples
l
3. Horizontal Alignment
a. Fundamentals
a
b. Superelevation
4. Other Stuff
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Draw a roadway

• Street view
• Arial view
• Side view
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Identify a point on that roadway

## • Address (relative system)

p
• Milepost system
y
– Linear referencing system
• Grid system
– Longitude and latitude
– Altitude
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Highway Alignment

## • Simplify from x-y plane to a linear

reference system (distance along that
roadway)
• Assume travel is along some horizontal
plane,
l nott the
th surface
f off the
th earth
th
• Elevation from this horizontal plane
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Concepts

• Alignment is a 3D problem
broken down into two 2D
problems
– Horizontal Alignment
(arial or plan view)
– Vertical Alignment
(side or profile view)
Fall 2008
CEE 320

Concepts

design problem

## – Along horizontal alignment

– One station is 100 feet along the
h i
horizontal
t l plane
l
– 12+00 = 1,200 ft.
– The ppoint of origin
g or reference is at
station 0+00
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Stationing – Linear Reference System
Horizontal Alignment
g

Vertical Alignment
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Stationing – Linear Reference System
Horizontal Alignment
g

## 0+00 1+00 2+00 3+00

Vertical Alignment

100 ffeett

>100 ffeett
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Questions

## • How are mileposts or mile markers

different from stations?

## • Could two distinct pieces of roadway have

th same station?
the t ti ?

• Why stationing?
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Kawazu Nanadaru Loop Bridge
Kawazu-Nanadaru
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Alignment

## • Main concern is the transition between

two constant slopes
• Vertical alignment this means transition
between two grades
• Horizontal alignment this means transition
between two directions
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Existing tools

## • Autodesk AutoCAD Civil 3D

p
• http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/inde
x?siteID=123112&id=8777490
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Alignment
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Alignment

## • Objective: Determine elevation to ensure

• Proper drainage
• Acceptable level of safety
– Can a driver see far enough ahead to stop?
– Do the driver’s light illuminate the roadway far
enough
g ahead to stop? p
– Can the vehicle be controlled during the
transition under typical conditions?
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Alignment

G1 G2

G1 G2

## G is roadway grade in ft/ft.

G=0.05 is a 5% grade.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

## • Assume parabolic function

– Constant rate of change of slope

y = ax + bx + c
2

## • y is the roadway elevation x stations

(or feet) from the beginning of the curve
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

## L=curve length on horizontal

x

y = ax + bx + c
2
Ch
Choose Either:
Eith
• G1, G2 in decimal form, L in feet
Fall 2008
CEE 320

## • G1, G2 in percent, L in stations

Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

x

## PVC and PVT may have some elevation difference

Rate of change of grade is constant
constant, not grade itself
Maximum height of the curve is not necessarily at L/2
Fall 2008
CEE 320
y = ax + bx + c
2

At the PVC : x = 0
Fall 2008
CEE 320
y = ax 2 + bx
b +c

dY
=
dx

At the PVC : x = 0
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Choose Either:
• G1, G2 in decimal form, L in feet

Relationships • G1, G2 in p
percent,, L in stations

d 2Y G2 − G1 G2 − G1
Anywhere : 2
= 2a = ⇒a=
dx L 2L

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

L
x
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Example
A 400 ft. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of
100+00 at 59 ft. elevation. The initial grade is 2.0 percent and the final
grade is -4.5 percent. Determine the elevation and stationing of PVT,
and the high point of the curve.

PVI

PVT

EL 59 ft.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
PVI

PVT

EL 59 ft.
ft

## Determine the ele

elevation
ation and stationing of PVT
PVT, and
the high point of the curve.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
PVI

PVT

EL 59 ft.
ft
Fall 2008
CEE 320
PVI

PVT

## PVC: STA 100+00

EL 59 ft.
ft
Fall 2008
CEE 320
•G1, G2 in percent
Other Properties •L
L in feet

G1

PVT
PVC

G2

PVI
A = G1 − G2

## A is the absolute value in grade differences,

if grades
d are -3%
3% andd +4%
+4%, value
l iis 7
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Rate of change of slope different
from slope

Fall 2008
CEE 320

## Slope of curve changes, but at a constant rate

•G1, G2 in percent
Other Properties •L
L in feet
•Y versus y

G1 x

PVT
PVC

Y
Ym G2

PVI Yf
A = G1 − G2

A 2 AL AL
Y= x Ym = Yf =
200 L 800 200
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Go back to the parabola

y = ax + bx + c
2
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Other Properties

## • K-Value (defines vertical curvature)

– The number of horizontal feet needed for a 1%
change in slope

L
K=
A

## high / low pt. ⇒ x = K G1

• G is in percent, x is in feet
Fall 2008
CEE 320

• G is in decimal, x is in stations
CEE 320
Fall 2008
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

• Parabolic function
– Constant rate of change of slope
– Implies equal curve tangents

y = ax + bx
2
b +c

## • y is the roadway elevation x stations

(or feet) from the beginning of the curve
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

x

## PVC and PVT may have some elevation difference

Rate of change of grade is constant
constant, not grade itself
Maximum height of the curve is not necessarily at L/2
Fall 2008
CEE 320
CEE 320
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Fall 2008

PVC
PVI
PVT
Vertical Curve Fundamentals

PVI
G1 δ
PVC G2
PVT
L/2

## L=curve length on horizontal

x

y = ax + bx + c
2
Ch
Choose Either:
Eith
• G1, G2 in decimal form, L in feet
Fall 2008
CEE 320

## • G1, G2 in percent, L in stations

•G1, G2 in percent
Other Properties •L
L in feet

G1 x

PVT
PVC

Y
Ym G2

PVI Yf
A = G1 − G2

A 2 AL AL
Y= x Ym = Yf =
200 L 800 200
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Other Properties

## • K-Value (defines vertical curvature)

– The number of horizontal feet needed for a 1% change in
slope
L
K=
A

## high / low pt. ⇒ x = K G1

– Small K – tighter curves, less L for same A, slower
speeds
– Larger K – gentler curves, more L for same A, higher
speeds
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves
Fall 2008
CEE 320

## from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)

## • Practical stopping distance plus distance travelled

during driver perception/reaction time
• Distance
Di t ttravelled
ll d along
l the
th roadway
d
• Use this to determine necessary curve length

V12
SSD = + V1 ×t r
⎛a ⎞
2 g ⎜⎜ ± G ⎟⎟
⎝g ⎠
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sight Distance (S)

## • Horizontal distance between driver of height H1 and

a visible object of height H2

## • Want to design the roadway such that length of

curve, L, allows a driver to observe an object with
enough time to stop to avoid it (S=SSD).
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Roadway Design

## • Want to design the roadway such that length of

curve, L, allows a driver to observe an object with
enough time to stop to avoid it.
it
• Set SSD = S.
• Approximation works in our favor.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curves

## For S < L For S > L

L=
A(S )
2

L = 2(S ) −
(
200 H1 + H 2 )
2

(
200 H1 + H 2 )
2
Fall 2008

A
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curves

## • Assumptions for design

– h1 = driver’s eye height = 3.5 ft.
– h2 = tail light height = 2.0 ft.

• Simplified Equations
For S < L For S > L
A(S )
2
L = 2(S ) −
2158
L=
2158 A
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curves
• Assume L > S and check
– Generally true
– Always safer
2
S
K=
2158

## • If assumption does not hold

– K values cannot be used
– At low values of A it is possible to get a negative curve
length
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves
Light Beam Distance (S)

G1
headlight
g beam ((diverging
g g from LOS by
y β degrees)
g ) G2

PVC PVT

h1 PVI
h2=0

L
• Sight distance limited by headlights at
night
g t
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves
Light Beam Distance (S)

G1
headlight
g beam ((diverging
g g from LOS by
y β degrees)
g ) G2

PVC PVT

h1=H PVI
h2=0

L
For S < L For S > L

## A(S ) 200(H + (SSD ) tan β )

2
L= L = 2(S ) −
200(H + S tan β ) A
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves

## • Assumptions for design

– H = headlight height = 2.0 ft.
– β = 1 degree

• Simplified Equations
For S < L For S > L

## A(S ) ⎛ 400 + 3.5(S ) ⎞

2
L= L = 2(S ) − ⎜ ⎟
400 + 3.5(S ) ⎝ A ⎠
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves

• Assuming L > S…

2
S
K=
400 + 3.5S

• Again,
Again set SSD=S
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves
Fall 2008
CEE 320

## from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004

Example 1
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road
through a 150 ft. long sag vertical curve. The entering grade is -2.4
percent and the exiting grade is 4.0 percent. A tree has fallen
across the road at approximately the PVT. Assuming the driver
cannott see the
th tree
t until
til it iis lit b
by h
her h
headlights,
dli ht iis it reasonable
bl tto
expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree?

1 Assume S<L
1.
A(S )
2
L=
400 + 3.5(S )

## Driver will see tree when it is 146 feet in front of her.

Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curve

• Required SSD

V12
SSD = + V1t r
⎛a ⎞
2 g ⎜⎜ ± G ⎟⎟
⎝g ⎠

## • What do we use for grade?

• 196.53 ft
• assumes 0 grade
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Sag Vertical Curves
Light Beam Distance (S)

G1
diverging from horizontal plane of vehicle by β degrees G2

PVC PVT

h1 PVI
h2=0

## Daytime sight distance unrestricted

Fall 2008
CEE 320
Example 2
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road
through a 150 ft. long crest vertical curve. The entering grade is 3.0
percent and the exiting grade is -3.4 percent. A tree has fallen
across the road at approximately the PVT. Is it reasonable to
expectt the
th driver
di tto b
be able
bl tto stop
t b before
f hitti
hitting the
th tree?
t ?

1. Assume S<L
A(S )
2
2. A=6.4 L=
2158
3. S=+/- 224.9 ft. But our curve only 150 ft. So assumption wrong.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Crest Vertical Curve

L = 2(S ) −
2158
A
V12
SSD = + V1t r
⎛a ⎞
2 g ⎜⎜ ± G ⎟⎟
• S = 243 ft ⎝g ⎠
• SSD = 196.53 ft

## • Yes she will be able to stop in time.

Fall 2008
CEE 320
Example 3
A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed. One
section of the roadway must go up and over a small hill with an
entering grade of 3.2 percent and an exiting grade of -2.0 percent.
How long must the vertical curve be?

## Using Table 3.2, for 45 mph, K=61

K 61
L = KA = (61)(5.2) = 317.2 ft.
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Passing Sight Distance

## • Only a concern on crest curves

g curves
• On sag
– Day: unobstructed view
– Night: headlights can be seen

L=
A(S )
2

L = 2(S ) −
(
200 H1 + H 2 )
2

(
200 H1 + H 2 )2
A

– H1=H2=3.5
=3 5 ft
ft, let S=PSD
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Underpass Sight Distance
Fall 2008
CEE 320
Underpass Sight Distance

## • On sag curves: obstacle obstructs view

• Curve must be long enough to provide
adequate
d t sight
i ht distance
di t (S=SSD)
(S SSD)

S L
S<L S L
S>L

A(S ) H1 + H 2 ⎞
2

Lm = 800⎜ H c − ⎟
⎛ H1 + H 2 ⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠
800⎜ H c − ⎟ Lm = 2 S −
⎝ 2 ⎠ A
Fall 2008
CEE 320