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Module 1: Cells as the basis of life | Stage 6 | BIOLOGY

Summary Context Duration


Module 1 implemented as the This unit of work focusses on differential learning abilities of students in a mixed ability environment. It allows students to 6 weeks
introductory module in the year analyse cells as the basis of life and examine what distinguishes one cell from another and how different cells interact with
11 Biology course. each other to coordinate their activities. It provides students opportunities to develop scientific working skills while
understanding the cellular interactions.

Content Focus
Cells are the basis of life. They coordinate activities to form colonial and multicellular organisms. Students examine the structure and function of organisms at both the cellular
and tissue levels in order to describe how they facilitate the efficient provision and removal of materials to and from all cells in organisms. They are introduced to and investigate
biochemical processes through the application of the Working Scientifically skills processes.
Students are introduced to the study of microbiology and the tools that scientists use in this field. These tools will be used throughout the course to assist in making predictions
and solving problems of a multidisciplinary nature.

Working Scientifically Focus


In this module, students focus on conducting investigations to collect, process and analyse data and identify trends, patterns and relationships related to cell structure and
function. Students should be provided with opportunities to engage with all Working Scientifically skills throughout the course.

Skills Outcomes Knowledge and Understanding Outcomes


A student: A student:
› conducts investigations to collect valid and reliable primary and secondary data and › describes single cells as the basis for all life by analysing and explaining cells’
information BIO11/12-3 ultrastructure and biochemical processes BIO11-8
› selects and processes appropriate qualitative and quantitative data and information
using a range of appropriate media BIO11/12-4

Key inquiry questions


1. What distinguishes one cell from another?
2. How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?

Assessment overview
Assessment for Learning Assessment as Learning Assessment of Learning
Informal teacher assessment of prior- Students self-assessment through Summative assessment
1
understanding and developing learning - Reflections on prior-learning, discussions to reinforce learning Practical investigation:
through - Worked and try it yourself problems to solve problems “Effects of environment on enzymatic reactions”
- Kahoot, Venn diagrams, mind maps/ - Designing own microscopes
concept maps - Preparing tabulated summaries and notes The task requires the students to work in
- Formation of learning through simulations, Quizlets and Kahoot collaboration and visualise the effects of
- Student involvement, contribution, and
- Research investigations to inform learning environmental factors on enzymatic reactions
performance, in discussions, group
- Evaluation of hypothesis through practical investigations between milk and rennin (a reaction used in
activities, investigations
- Model preparation (fluid mosaic model and enzyme models) and their commercial production of cheese). This task provides
(practical/research based)
demonstrations an opportunity for students to demonstrate their
- Performance in quizzes, worksheets - Justification and evaluation of responses collaborative and individual scientific working skills
- Monitoring student explanations and - Confirmatory experiments (modelling investigations) to reinforce of investigating and formulating an evidence-based
justifications learning argument.
- Preparation of investigation reports by comparing with provided
checklist and scaffolds

Peer-assessments through assessments of posters and modelling


activities

Literacy Focus Numeracy Focus ICT Focus


- Use of scientific vocabulary - Calculations of surface area and volume ratios - Participation in Kahoot and Quizlets
- Oral discussions - Dependent and independent variables - Google docs for justifications, extended responses
- Writing investigation reports - Worked and try it yourself problems for SA: V in cell - Online simulations and interactive activities and
- Poster presentations - Calculations for total magnification animations
- Writing extended responses, hypothesis, justifications - Preparations of graphs to represent data - Virtual lab
and evidence-based arguments - Conversions of units - Online jigsaw puzzles
- Concept/ mind maps & Venn diagrams - Measurements of solutions in investigations - Videos
- Preparation of tour report and notes - Use of weighing balance to weigh chemicals - Creation of stop-motion animations
- Diagrammatic representations and labelling - Conceptual understanding of concentration gradient - Creation of video dairy
- Calculation of average to confirm accuracy of data - Researching relevant secondary sources

Inquiry question: What distinguishes one cell from another?

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1. Review prior-learning on working scientific skills and
content knowledge

1.1 Mind map & discussion on scientific investigative skills: 1.1 PowerPoint slides to
In teams, students will discuss and construct mind maps on discuss the concepts and
considerations/ requirements for designing, planning and show examples
conducting investigations. This activity requires students to
reflect on their understanding of scientific investigations and
the important steps involved.
- Teacher will use open-ended questions to guide team
responses and will fill in the gaps in student understanding
to form a complete picture of an effective scientific
investigation.
- As a class, teacher will encourage discussion on
identification of the problem or inquiry question,
formulation of hypothesis, risk assessment, identification
of variables independent/dependent) and constants,
observations vs inference, data collection and
representation, research using secondary sources, data
analysis, formulation of an evidence-based response and
effective scientific communication.

1.2 Structuring a scientific report: 1.2 Adjustment: 1.2 Template of a scientific


BIO 11/12-7: Students: select In this activity students will reflect on their understanding of a Scaffolded template for report showing the structure;
and use suitable forms of digital, scientific report and practise the process of structuring a the structure of report Worked examples and data to
visual, written and/or oral report. Students (in pairs) will first create a step-by-step showing dot practise the art of writing a
communication graphic organiser to layout steps involved in writing a points/checklist under scientific report.
scientific report. In step two, students will be provided with each step. For example:
examples and template of scientific reports to reflect and Materials used cab be
understand the layout of reports and significance of each step. scaffolded with respect
Finally, they will be allowed to practise writing a report using to, chemicals,
the provided scientific data. concentration or amount
of equipment, glassware
etc.

1.3 Kahoot for prior-understanding on cells: 1.3 Adjustment: 1.3 Prepared Kahoot (see
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Students will undertake the given Kahoot to assess their prior- Include videos/ pictures Annexure 1)
knowledge on cells, cell theory, cell structure, cell shape, cell to guide student
size, cell division, unicellular/ multicellular organisms and cell understanding of the
function. quiz questions.
This activity will provide an opportunity for a formative
assessment to check the benchmark of learning for this unit.

Students: 2. Examining prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells


investigate
BIO11/12-4: Students select 2.1 Identification of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: 2.1 Google docs worksheet
different
qualitative and quantitative data with pictures of range of cells
cellular
and information and represent Think-pair & share: Students will identify the cells with differing with respect to
structures,
them using a range of formats, respect to their structure and types of organelles and classify shape, structure, size, types
including but
digital technologies and them as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. This activity will allow of organelles present and
not limited to:
appropriate media (ACSBL004, them to use their prior-knowledge of stage 4 and 5 syllabi. room for explaining their
- examining a Students will be provided with pictures of a range of cells choices.
ACSBL007, ACSBL064,
variety of (different shapes, sizes, types) on google docs and they will be
prokaryotic ACSBL101)
required to classify them as prokaryotic or eukaryotic and
and eukaryotic provide reasons for their choices.
cells
(ACSBL032, BIO11/12-5: Students derive 2.2 Venn diagram to compare the two cell types: 2.2 Adjustment: 2.2 Worksheet with Venn
ACSBL048) trends, patterns and relationships In pairs, students will construct Venn diagram to compare the Scaffolded document diagram scaffolded with dot
in data and information. prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. This activity will allow them with examples of points to guide students to
to compare the similarities and differences between the two similarities and find similarities and
types of cells. Students will compare their diagrams with differences in general dissimilarities.
others to assess their own work and rectify their understanding. with few examples
This activity provides an opportunity for individual informal (visual and written)
formative assessment.

BIO11/12-4: Students select 2.3 Examination of the unknown cells under the microscope:
qualitative and quantitative data 2.3 Extension: Students 2.3 Pre-prepared slides of
and information and represent Scenario based practical investigation: will individually prepare onion root tip and E. coli,
them using a range of formats, Students will be given a scenario in which they need to help a the temporary mounts of light microscopes,
digital technologies and scientist identify the unknown cells. They will examine the cells from given samples worksheets specifying the
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appropriate media (ACSBL004, pre-prepared temporary mounts of unknown specimens (like, (onion root tip and E. purpose of activity, safety
ACSBL007, ACSBL064, onion root tip cells and E. coli cells) under light microscope coli suspension) and guidelines, field of views for
ACSBL101) and classify them as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. They will have later examine them. students to draw and record
to diagrammatically record and label their observations under Teacher will support their observations.
BIO11/12-5: Students derive
the microscope and justify their responses. Students will be through demonstrations, Supporting questions to
trends, patterns and relationships
required to briefly mention the function of cellular structures safety guidelines, one on guide their observations, data
in data and information
observed under the microscope. This activity allows students to one aid and activity collection and analysis.
demonstrate their skills of microscopy, observation and protocol. Provision of room for
collection of first-hand data, representation of data and analysis Use demo video adjustments.
to make informed judgement. http://bit.ly/2uhUfWo

2.4 Reinforce understanding:


a. Discussion: Students will participate in class discussion 2.4a. Interactive animation
to share their results in past activities and compare their on identifying different cells
findings with other. Teacher will use interactive https://bit.ly/2G53LC2;
animations/ videos/ apps and allow students to visualize ‘Inside the cell” – interactive
BIO11/12-7: Students select and inside of the cell and reflect on their understanding of cell animation on cell organelles
use suitable forms of digital, structures. and their significance
visual, written and/or oral forms http://bit.ly/LqNjeW
of communication
b. Communicate the understanding: (individual activity) 2.4b. Tabulated worksheet
Students will complete a worksheet to summarise the with cellular components and
structure and function of parts of prokaryotic and room for summarising the
eukaryotic cells. structure and function.

Students:
investigate 3. Exploring the technologies for examining cells
different
cellular 3.1 Revisit the common lab microscope: Flipped classroom 3.1a. Lab microscopes staged
structures, In Classroom: on stations, scaffolded
including but a) Reflect on prior-knowledge: Students (in pairs) will study worksheet with picture of
not limited to: the microscopes used in the school labs and reflect on microscope, room for
their prior-understanding of its parts, functions and labelling, table to enlist the
- describe a
working. This activity requires them to enlist the parts of parts and describe their
range of
a microscope and describe their corresponding functions function and a blank a step-
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technologies and importance. They will then relate the working of a by-step graphic organiser.
that are used microscope with its parts and present it in a step-by-step
to determine graphic organiser.
a cell’s
structure and b) Teacher-led demonstration: on the effective use of a 3.1b. Microscope,
function microscope, points to remember while operating one and PowerPoint to zoom onto the
BIO11/12-6: Students use its maintenance. parts, video on operating a
modelling (including microscope
mathematical examples) to https://bit.ly/2DXBbN5
explain phenomena, make Outside Classroom: (students to do in their own time)
predictions and solve problems c) Self-study: on field of view, resolution and magnification. 3.1c. PowerPoint slides
using evidence from primary
and secondary sources d) Problem solving: Students will work on the provided
worksheet 3.1d. Worksheet divided into
(ACSBL006, ACSBL010)
- To solve problems on calculations of magnification. two parts – Part 1 With
- To answer critical inquiry-questions which check their problems on total
understanding of presence of specific parts of a magnification and Part B
BIO11/12-3: Students microscope and how their absence effects it’s working. focussing on critical inquiry-
select and extract information based questions on
from a wide range of reliable microscopy.
secondary sources and
acknowledge them using an 3.2 Research investigation on different microscopes
accepted referencing style (in groups of 4): ‘Poster presentation’ 3.2 Adjustment: Provide 3.2 Scaffold describing the
BIO11/12-7: Students select and Students will assess secondary sources to enlist and describe a list of types of task, checklist of what needs
use suitable forms of digital, different microscopes – their features, functions, working, microscopes – light, to be done, referencing style
visual, written and/or oral forms current applications and limitations (if any). They will work in electron, fluorescence, (with examples) assessment
of communication groups of four to research and formulate a list of different confocal etc. for criteria. Room for specifying
microscopes. Each group member will then collect information students to research on. names and roles of each
on different aspects of selected microscopes. The groups will group member. Supporting
collate their information through google docs in a tabulated Extension: Design your inquiry questions for doing
format, reference the sources for submission to the teacher and own microscope: the research, few simple
present their findings as a poster for assessment. Students will follow the research articles and
instructions on websites. Instructions with
https://bit.ly/2pHHlg5 to required layout of the poster
design their own and its size.
microscope using their
smartphone and
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provided materials. This
activity allows them to
apply their knowledge
on working of a
microscope.
3.3 Importance of staining and different stains:

Teacher-led demonstration
Teacher demonstrates the importance of stains in microscopy 3.3 Extension: Students 3.3 Demonstration of
and displays the microscopic view of different pre-prepared will use the virtual lab to staining; PowerPoint slides;
slides for students to compare the view in presence and simulate staining of cell Pre-prepared slides with and
absence of stain. Students will record their observations and samples. without stained cells.
make notes. Virtual lab for simulation of
staining
https://stemsims.com/simulat
ions/gram-staining#methods
3.4 Other digital technologies for analysis of microscopic
observations:
- Class excursion to Australian Centre for Microscopy & 3.4 Approval for visit to
Microanalysis (ACMM): ACMM, necessary
Students will learn about optical and digital imaging documentation covering
techniques and equipment currently used by scientists at student safety, team of
ACMM. Students will be given a tour of ACMM to teachers and commutation
visualise facilities including, light and laser microscopy, vehicle.
transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron
microscopy and image visualisation and data analysis.
Students will take notes and pictures to prepare a brief
tour report on their experience at ACMM.

Students: 4. How small is small and how big is small: conversions and
investigate a scale
variety of
prokaryotic and 4.1 Units used for measurements: Explicit teaching 4.1 PowerPoint slides on
eukaryotic cell Students will look at different units used for measurements and Units and conversions;
structures, estimation of length (m, cm, mm, µm, nm). Different scales metric ruler, mini grid,
including but can be shown to students in the form of a metric ruler, mini hemocytometer; worksheet
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not limited to: grid and a hemocytometer. They will be taught about the on conversions and questions
- drawing conversions between the units and appropriateness of different to apply the units in
scaled units in measuring different things. This activity will allow measurements.
diagrams of a them to get familiar with smaller units and their applications
variety of cells through examples.
(ACSBL035)
4.2 Correlation between cell size and scale: 4.2 Smart devices; Weblink
Interactive activity for interactive activity
Students will explore different cells with respect to their sizes. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/
This activity allows them to visualise how small are the cells as content/cells/
compared to objects and how big they are as compared to
molecules and atoms. The interactive task enables students to
correlate the size with scale.

4.3 Drawing scaled diagrams of cells:

BIO11/12-4: select qualitative a. Concept simulation (paired task): Students will use the 4.3a. Drawings of different
and quantitative data and grid method to scale provided drawing of a cartoon. They cartoons on A4 paper,
information and represent them will use the provided data to determine the scale bar using pencils, rulers, erasers, blank
using a range of formats, digital the formula “scale = actual length of the provided A3 papers.
technologies and appropriate drawing/ length of the enlarged drawing”. They will first
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, draw a grid over the provided drawing and then replicate
the drawing into an enlarged grid by drawing exactly
ACSBL064, ACSBL101)
what they see in smaller grid to its corresponding cells in
the larger grid. This simulation allows them to calculate
the magnification ratio for accurate representation of the
drawing.
BIO11/12-4: Students apply
quantitative processes where b. Application of simulation (Individual task): Students will 4.3b Adjustment: 4.3b. Tabulated worksheet
appropriate study the electron micrographs of a range of cells to draw Students will observe a with a range of micrographs,
scaled diagrams of the individual cells. They will use the range of prepared slides room for calculation of scale
provided data to determine the scale bar using the formula under a light microscope bar and room for drawing
“scale = actual length of cell/ diameter or length of the to draw scaled diagrams scaled diagrams of specific
drawing”. Students will draw and label the scaled of specific cell types. cell types.
diagram and mention the scale bar at the base.

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Students: 5. Identifying the cell organelles & arrangements in
investigate a bacterial, plant and animal cells
variety of
prokaryotic and 5.1 Connect with prior-learning: Jigsaw puzzles 5.1 Adjustment: Hard 5.1 Computers/ smart
eukaryotic cell Students will solve the jigsaw puzzles on animal, plant and copies of the jigsaw devices; Jigsaw puzzle links:
structures, bacterial cells to visualise their cellular structures. In groups of pieces can be printed animal cell
including but three, students will use the provided weblinks and spend 10 and pasted on https://bit.ly/2E3taXe
not limited to: minutes on each set and present their results to the teacher. cardboards for students plant cell
This activity gives them an indication of how these cells look to solve the physical https://bit.ly/2GdLp27
- comparing
different in appearance. puzzle instead of using bacterial cell
and
weblinks. https://bit.ly/2Gaw0zk
contrasting
different cell
organelles and BIO11/12-3: Students employ 5.2 Identify cell organelles: Practical investigation 5.2 Extension: Students 5.2 Pre-prepared cell
arrangements and evaluate safe work practices Students will prepare temporary wet mounts from provided will draw scaled suspensions of leaf epidermal
and manage risks (ACSBL031) cell suspensions of leaf epidermal cells, yeast cells and E. coli diagrams of their cells, yeast cells and E. coli
cells to identify different cell organelles and their structure. In observations. cells, glass slides, droppers,
BIO11/12-4: select qualitative groups of three, students will follow the given procedure to Students will search the distilled water, cover slips,
and quantitative data and prepare the slides and observe them under a light microscope. internet for electron safety gloves, safety glasses
information and represent them Using the given scaffold, they will complete the investigation micrographs for these lab coats, light microscopes
using a range of formats, digital report to diagrammatically record and label their observations cells and compare the and forceps.
technologies and appropriate and answer the questions on how these three cell types differ differences among two Scaffolded investigation
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, from each other. microscopic report providing a template
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) observations. to fill in the title,
aim/purpose, hypothesis, risk
assessment, materials used,
methodology, diagrams and
supporting questions to guide
student thinking.

5.3 Cell organelles & their functions: Flipped classroom


5.3a. Self-study material
a. Self-study: Students will be provided with self-study (notes, PowerPoint slides,
material (notes, PowerPoint slides, teacher-led lecture video) to teacher-led lecture video,
learn about different cell organelles and their functions in cells. video links, Computers/
This activity allows them to learn in their own time and at their smart devices;
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own pace.
5.3b. Quizlet link
b. Quizlet: Students will self-assess their formed knowledge on https://quizlet.com/_1t9lkv
animal, plant and bacterial cell structure and function of
organelles. They will access the provided weblink for quizlet
and use the - learn, flashcards, write and match tools to check
their learning and submit their scores for teacher review and
feedback.

6. Comparing & contrasting the cell organelles &


arrangements in bacterial, plant and animal cells

BIO11/12-4: select qualitative 6.1 Compare & Contrast different cell types: 6.1 Adjustment: Explicit 6.1 Instruction sheet for the
and quantitative data and teaching of the scaffolding the task
information and represent them Research investigation differences in cell requirements, expectations
using a range of formats, digital Students will collect the information from secondary sources to organelles and their and success criteria. Marking
technologies and appropriate compare the cell organelles & arrangements in different cells. respective functions in criteria for peer assessment.
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, In groups of three, they will undertake a research investigation different cell types. Examples of weblinks for
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) on types of cell organelles in bacterial, plant and animal cells. Teacher to assign the gathering research data.
BIO11/12-5: Students derive They will be required to describe the similarities and difference roles in groups. Tabulated job role document
trends, patterns and relationships in organelles and relate these with the functional requirements with names, roles and work
in data and information. of different cell types. carried out by respective
BIO11/12-7: Students select and They will complete the provided job role document before and group members.
use suitable forms of digital, after the completion of the task and submit it to the teacher. List of edible items to be
visual, written and/or oral forms Each group will present their research in the form of edible excluded to ensure student
of communication models of cells along with an interactive poster for peer safety.
assessment and teacher feedback. Exemplar of an interactive
poster.

Students: 7. Importance of studying the cell membrane


investigate a
variety of 7.1 Think-Pair & Share: Students will use their existing 7.1 Adjustment: Teacher 7.1 Tea bags and tea infusers;
prokaryotic and knowledge on cell organelles to discuss the functions and will use tea bags/ tea questions to guide student
eukaryotic cell significance of cell membranes. They will present their infusers to simulate a thinking
structures, findings as dot points for class discussion. cell membrane and use
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including but questions to guide
not limited to: student thinking.
- modelling the
structure and 7.2 Research & Share: Students to do an online search on the 7.2 PowerPoint with critical
function of the BIO11/12-4: select qualitative importance of studying cell membranes in medical sciences. thinking questions to guide
fluid mosaic and quantitative data and Teacher will use critical thinking questions to guide student student inquiry; Article for
model of the information and represent them inquiry (like, cell membrane diseases, synthetic cell reading
cell membrane using a range of formats, digital membranes). In pairs, students will create a google doc to http://nsbscience.weebly.com
(ACSBL045) technologies and appropriate report their findings with relevant references. Teacher will /uploads/8/8/2/9/8829707/cel
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, collate these docs for a class discussion. This activity sets the l_membrane_article.pdf
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) stage for a meaningful learning experience with structure and Video
functions of the cell membrane https://bit.ly/2GoCNBC

8. Structure & function of the cell membrane

8.1 Learning the fluid mosaic model:


8.1a. PowerPoint; Video on
a. Explicit teaching: Students will learn about the structure structure & fluidity of cell
of cell membrane, the components that form the membrane
membrane, the role of each component and the fluidity of https://bit.ly/2Gery2K3D
the membrane. In this explicit teaching lesson, the teacher molecular model of cell
will use 3D model of the membrane, diagrams and video membrane; Video on
to demonstrate and explain the structure and function to membrane transport
students. Students will take notes and draw a scientific https://www.youtube.com/wa
labelled diagram of the model. tch?v=BTfrKqfCrEo

b. Concept simulation: Teacher demonstrates the 8.1b. Petri-dish, oil and


hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of the membrane by vinegar
using oil and vinegar in a petri-dish.

c. Interactive activity: In pairs, students will undertake the 8.1c. Interactive resource
interactive resource to reinforce their learning on fluid with information on structure
mosaic model in a step-by step approach. of cell membrane
https://bit.ly/1r068bb

d. Multimodal quizlet: Students (individually) to self-assess 8.1d. Quizlet on cell


their understanding on structure and function of the cell membrane
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membrane and fluid mosaic model by using – learn, https://bit.ly/2DZY6rn
flashcards, write and match tools

9. Modelling the cell membrane

BIO11/12-3: Students employ 9.1 Model praparation: Students will construct the cross- 9.1 Adjustment: 9.1 Instruction sheet
and evaluate safe work practices section of the cell membrane based on fluid mosaic model and Scaffolded instruction describing task requirements,
and manage risks (ACSBL031) explain its function. In this two-part activity conducted in sheet specifying step by checklist of things that must
groups of 4-5 (depending on the class size), students will step approach to be demonstrated with the
BIO11/12-5: Students derive follow the provided instruction sheet to understand the task construct the model, model.
trends, patterns and relationships requirements. For part A, the groups will collect the including a checklist to Expectations and success
in data and information. information and images for the components of cell membrane assist with components criteria
BIO11/12-7: Students select and required to construct the model (in their own time). They will that need to be included Worksheet with questions to
use suitable forms of digital, use the provided materials in class to construct the model and in the membrane. demonstrate understanding
visual, written and/or oral forms label it. The group members will then demonstrate the model and room for student
of communication to the teacher for formative assessment. For Part B, each responses.
student will undertake a set of questions to outline the structure
and function of their model and specifying the limitations of
their constructed model.

10. Assessing learning:


10.1 Kahoot quiz with on
10.1 Kahoot Quiz (Multiple choice): Students will review and critical thinking
individually undertake a quiz based on review questions and questions on microscopy,
critical thinking questions to assess the formed learning related prokaryotic and eukaryotic
to the inquiry question. cell structure, cell organelles
and their functions and fluid
mosaic model. Model
questions
https://bit.ly/2E3nFaE;
https://bit.ly/2pOCIjz
10.2. What distinguishes one cell from another? (extended
response) 10.2. Adjustment: 10.2. Response sheets on
Students will reflect on their learning to write an extended Scaffold for key points google docs with key point to
response to the inquiry question. They will upload their to be covered. keep in mind for successful
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responses on google docs for teacher feedback. completion of the task.

Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
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Students: 11. Passive transport across the cell membrane


examine the way
in which 11.1 Diffusion:
materials can 11.1a. Bags of gobstoppers or
move into and a. Concept simulation: Students will simulate the process of M&M’s, agarose powder,
out of cells, diffusion using the gobstoppers/ M&M’s and agarose gel. water, glass flask, stirring
including but In groups of three, students will perform the activity using rod, petri-dishes. Instruction
not limited to: the provided instruction sheet and observe the diffusion of sheet for the task.
- conducting a colours from gobstoppers/ M&M’s into the agarose gel.
practical Students will discuss in groups to explain their
investigation observations and write a justification for the same.
modelling 11.1b. PowerPoint; Videos on
diffusion and b. Explicit teaching: Teacher will explain the concept of diffusion across cell
osmosis concentration gradient. Students will relate the previous membrane
(ACSBL046) activity with movement of particles across the gradient. https://www.youtube.com/wa
Description of passive transport through simple and tch?v=fN7b1aBunoM
facilitated diffusion across the cell membrane using
interactive videos and previously constructed student
models of cell membrane (in activity 9.1).

BIO11/12-3: Students employ 11.2 Modelling diffusion:


and evaluate safe work practices 11.2 Instruction sheet
and manage risks (ACSBL031) Practical investigation: Students to model diffusion through a describing the task and its
semi-permeable membrane using dialysis bag, starch solution requirements. Investigation
and iodine potassium iodide solution. In this activity, students report with room for title,
BIO11/12-4: Students
will work in pairs and follow the provided procedure to record aim, hypothesis, risk
select qualitative and
13
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
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quantitative data and their observations in control and experimental set ups. They assessment, materials used,
information and represent them will tabulate the correlation between components of this model outline of the methodology,
using a range of formats, digital and diffusion across the cell membrane. Each student will write diagrammatic representation
technologies and appropriate an extended response on how this model simulates the of the investigation set-up,
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, diffusion across the cell membrane using scientific language tables for recording
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) (selectively permeable, concentration gradient, control, test) observations and correlation
BIO11/12-5: Students for peer assessment and room for extended
derive trends, patterns and response.
relationships in data and
information
BIO11/12-7: Students
select and use suitable forms of
digital, visual, written and/or
oral forms of communication

11.3 Osmosis:
a. Concept simulation: Students will simulate the process of 11.3a. Raisins/sultanas,
osmosis using raisins/sultanas and water in a petri-dish. In water, petri-dishes.
pairs they will observe the movement of water and Instruction sheet for the task.
discuss in pairs to explain the movement from low to high
solute concentration (or high to low water concentration).
Teacher will use questions to guide student thinking.

b. Explicit teaching: Teacher will explain the concept of 11.3b Extension:


isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions, osmotic Students can undertake 11.3b. PowerPoint; Video on
pressure, water potential, osmosis across the cell the virtual lab activity to how osmosis works
membrane and role of aquaporins. Teacher will use compare and contrast https://www.youtube.com/wa
interactive videos and previously constructed student the isotonic, hypotonic tch?v=-g-VJymtAf4
models of cell membrane (in activity 9.1). and hypertonic solutions
https://bit.ly/1w6X1Ve
BIO11/12-3: Students employ
11.4 Modelling osmosis:
14
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

and evaluate safe work practices


and manage risks (ACSBL031) Practical investigation 11.4 Adjustment:
Students will model the process of osmosis using potato strips Teacher to provide pre- 11.4 Potatoes, cork-borer,
BIO11/12-4: Students in different salt concentration solutions. This activity also pared solutions of scalpels, rulers, glass
select qualitative and requires the students to reflect on their understanding on different salt beakers/test tubes, salt,
quantitative data and solutions and use that to prepare solutions of different concentrations. distilled water, weighing
information and represent them concentrations. In groups of three, students follow the given Scaffolded instruction balance, spatulas and
using a range of formats, digital procedures to record the qualitative and quantitative change in sheet with step-by-step measuring cylinders.
technologies and appropriate potato strips when placed inside the solutions of different approach for Instruction sheet with
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, concentrations (both in control and test set-up). Students to undertaking the procedure for students to
process their results graphically and analyse them to drive investigation. prepare solutions with
ACSBL064, ACSBL101)
relationship between salt concentration, type of solution Demonstration using different salt concentrations,
BIO11/12-5: Students
(hypo-, iso- or hypertonic) and movement of water in and out video potato strips, record the
derive trends, patterns and
of the potato strips. Each student will write an extended https://bit.ly/2GjxMuE initial and final lengths.
relationships in data and
response on how this model simulates the osmosis across the Scaffolded investigation
information
cell membrane using scientific vocabulary (selectively report with room for title,
BIO11/12-7: Students
permeable, concentration gradient, control, test, isotonic, aim, hypothesis, risk
select and use suitable forms of
hypertonic, hypotonic). assessment, materials used,
digital, visual, written and/or
outline of the methodology,
oral forms of communication diagrammatic representation
of the investigation set-up,
tables for recording
observations, graphical
representation and room for
extended response.

Students: 12. Active transport across the cell membrane


examine the way
in which 12.1 Movement against the concentration gradient:
materials can 12.1a. PowerPoint; Videos
move into and a. Analogy: Teacher will describe the process of active comparing passive and active
out of cells, transport and compare that with passive transport by transport
including but using analogies of cycling up the hill, kayaking against https://bit.ly/2GBU0e0
15
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

not limited to: the water current, electric pump to pump water against the https://bit.ly/2GCbt67
- examining the gradient etc. This analogy demonstrates the transport of
roles of active water/particles in a cell against the concentration gradient
transport, by using energy. Teacher will use videos to describe the
endocytosis process and relate to working of heart in humans.
and exocytosis BIO11/12-7: Students
(ACSBL046) select and use suitable forms of b. Diagrammatic representation: Individual students will 12.1b Adjustment: 12.1b. Worksheet with
digital, visual, written and/or diagrammatically represent the comparison between Students will be instructions and purpose of
oral forms of communication passive (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis) provided with a diagram the task, labelling criteria and
and active transport across the cell membrane. They will of cell membrane and its checklist for the labels that
scientifically label the diagram and in brief write a components, they will must be included - parts of
comparison passive and active transport. have to label the cell membrane (phospholipid
diagram to demonstrate bilayer, channel proteins,
their understanding on carrier proteins, cytoplasm),
cell transport. extracellular space and
direction of concentration
gradient.
12.2 Endocytosis and Exocytosis:

a. Inquiry activity: Students will simulate the transport of 12.2a. Formation of student
large molecules across cell membrane. This activity groups
requires the class to be divided into 4 groups - 2 large and
2 small. Each large group will form a circle by holding
hands to represent the structure of a cell membrane. Each
small group represents the large molecules that cannot
diffuse across the membrane. The task is to allow the
small groups to enter the large groups without opening the
groups. The students will think of options to perform the
task. The teacher can guide student inquiry by explaining
the concept of invagination and evagination.
12.2b. Adjustment: 12.2b. PowerPoint and
b. Teacher-led lesson: Teacher describes the process of Students will self-study animation on endocytosis and
endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis) and endocytosis and exocytosis in
exocytosis using examples of transport across Golgi exocytosis through https://bit.ly/1FIX24R
16
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

bodies and Endoplasmic reticulum. provided textbook


BIO11/12-7: Students chapters, PowerPoint
select and use suitable forms of slides and videos to
digital, visual, written and/or make notes and then
oral forms of communication perform the activity
12.2c in class.
c. Hands-on activity: Students will prepare a stop-motion 12.2c. Task instruction sheet,
animation demonstrating their understanding on Playdough, coloured threads,
endocytosis and exocytosis. In groups of 3-4, students coloured beads, toothpicks
will use the provided materials to demonstrate the process and paper strips to create
and use their smart devices to prepare a stop-motion sub-titles. Student
animation with sub-titles. phones/camera and software
like moviemaker, i-movie,
Trickfilmcam or MonkeyJam

Students: 13. Factors affecting transport across the cell membrane


examine the way
in which 13.1 Brainstorm: In groups of 3-4, students think and discuss 13.1 Adjustment: 13.1 Pictures of cells varying
materials can the factors affecting transport across the cell membrane and Teacher will provide in shapes and sizes;
move into and present their views in the form of a concept map on goggle pictures of different cell supporting questions to guide
out of cells, docs. Teacher will use supporting questions to guide their shapes and sizes to student inquiry.
including but inquiry towards size of molecules and concentration gradient guide their inquiry.
not limited to: discussed previously. The task will be followed by class
- relating the discussion.
exchange of
materials BIO11/12-5: Students 13.2 Inquiry activity: Students will simulate cell diffusion 13.2 Adjustment: 13.2 Pre-prepared
across derive trends, patterns and using different sizes of gelatin/agar cubes and vinegar. In this Students can prepare agar/gelatin cubes infused
membranes to relationships in data and activity, students will work in groups of 3-4, use the provided their own gelatin/agar with cabbage indicator,
the surface information. instruction sheet and materials to record the differences in rates cubes in cabbage vinegar, petri-dishes, glass
area to volume of diffusion in the different cube sizes. They will formulate a indicator through beakers. Instruction sheet and
ratio, hypothesis and then develop an argument based on their provided methodology. investigation report with
concentration observations. Extension: The room for hypothesis,
gradients and concentration of vinegar observation, arguments and
17
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

characteristics can be varied to observe evaluation of responses (to


of the the effect of be used in next activity).
materials concentration on rate of
being diffusion.
exchanged
(ACSBL047)
13.3 Explicit teaching: Teacher will relate the previous 13.3 Adjustment: 13.3 PowerPoint slides,
activity to the concept of surface-area to volume (SA: V) ratio. Students will be Worksheet with worked and
BIO11/12-6: Students use provided with worked try it yourself problems.
scientific evidence and critical - Students will be provided with try it yourself problems to examples on SA: V
thinking skills to solve problems calculate SA: V ratio in different shapes of cells. Access to smart devices/
- Students will analyse the previous activity and evaluate computers.
their responses in view of the information on SA: V. They
will revise their arguments and write an extended
response explaining the impact of cell’s SA: V on cellular
transport. They will back their response with a reliable
secondary source and reference it.
- Teacher will give examples for extensions of cell
membranes to increase SA: V for increased absorption.

Students:
investigate cell 14. Cell requirements
requirements,
including but 14.1 Reinforce prior learning:
not limited to:
a. Mind map: Students to recall their stage 5 learning of 14.1a. Mind map template on
- suitable forms google docs
LW1b and work in pairs and prepare a mind map on the
of energy,
nutrient and energy requirements of the cell and their
including light
corresponding uses in the cell’s functioning. Students will
energy and
upload their mind maps on google docs to form a
chemical
collective mind map for the class and teacher feedback.
energy in
complex
b. Flipped classroom:
molecules 14.1b. PowerPoint slides,
- Outside the classroom: Students will undertake self-
18
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

(ACSBL044) study on organic (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids- videos and textbooks.
- matter, DNA, RNA) and inorganic (water, mineral salts, gases - Checklist of topics for
including CO2 and O2) sources of energy required for the cell students to cover.
gases, simple functioning. They will be required to prepare their own Quizlet to assess student
nutrients and notes from the provided PowerPoint slides, Videos and understanding on organic and
ions textbook chapters. inorganic substances, their
- In class: Students will undertake a Quizlet to self-assess types and uses in cellular
- removal of
their learning and reflect on their understanding. activities.
wastes
(ACSBL044)
14.2 Summarise the cellular requirements:

BIO11/12-3: Students select and Poster presentation: In pairs, students will prepare an 14.2 Adjustment: 14.2 Instruction sheet
extract information from a wide engaging poster to summarise their understanding on cell’s Students will be highlighting the purpose of
range of reliable secondary energy requirements. This activity requires the students to provided with an the activity, checklist of
sources and acknowledge them assess secondary sources to collect data and present the exemplar of a poster points to cover, success
using an accepted referencing information that reflects their understanding. Students will be presentation. criteria and poster
style provided with an instruction sheet for the task. They will dimensions. Criteria for peer
BIO11/12-7: Students prepare the poster on PowerPoint slide and later print it on A2 assessment – points to be
select and use suitable forms of paper. They will have to demonstrate their understanding by given for visual appeal,
digital, visual, written and/or explaining their poster for peer assessment. included information,
evidence of research and
oral forms of communication
evidence of team work.
; construct evidence-based
arguments and engage in peer
feedback to evaluate an
argument or conclusion
(ACSBL034, ACSBL036)

Students: 15. Biochemical processes in cells


investigate the
15.1 Photosynthesis
biochemical
processes of
19
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

photosynthesis, a. Class discussion: Students will recall their learning on 15.1a. Extension: 15.1a. PowerPoint slides and
cell respiration photosynthesis to discuss the process of energy Teacher-led lesson on video on biochemical process
and the removal production in plants. They will write the word equation of light and dark reactions of photosynthesis
of cellular photosynthesis highlighting the reactants and the products in photosynthesis.
products and BIO11/12-3: Students of the reaction.
wastes in select and extract information
eukaryotic cells from a wide range of reliable b. Hands-on investigation: This task requires students to 15.1b. Extension: 15.1b. Task instruction sheet
(ACSBL049, secondary sources and work in groups of 3-4 to plan and conduct an experiment Guided investigation on scaffolded into two parts with
ACSBL050, acknowledge them using an and confirm photosynthesis. The task will be divided into confirming light clear headings and
ACSBL052, accepted referencing style ; two parts and allow students to reflect on their skills of reaction by using DCPIP requirements for successful
ACSBL053) employ and evaluate safe work designing a confirmatory experiment. (2,6-dichlorophenol- completion of each part.
practices and manage risks indophenol). Students Materials to be used. Access
- Research investigation: In Part A (research task), will be provided with to smart devices/computers
(ACSBL031)
BIO11/12-4: Students students will research the experiments they can step-by step instructions for research task
conduct to confirm photosynthesis (like tests to and methodology to
select qualitative and
quantitative data and confirm the consumption of CO2, production of undertake the task in Test for confirming
glucose/starch, use of sunlight in plants). They will groups of four. production of glucose can be
information and represent them
using a range of formats, digital formulate a hypothesis and get their design adapted from
approved by the teacher to work on part B. Adjustment: Provision https://bit.ly/2GgkGle; Test
technologies and appropriate
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, of investigation report to confirm consumption of
- Practical investigation: Students will gather the scaffolded with clear CO2 adapted from
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) material to set up the experiment, write a risk headings and tables for https://bit.ly/2GlTYDS; Test
BIO11/12-7: Students assessment, conduct the experiment, collect and students to record their for confirming light reaction
select and use suitable forms of represent data, analyse their results and evaluate responses and can be adapted from
digital, visual, written and/or their results to write an evidence-based conclusion. observations. https://bit.ly/Y0IM8w
oral forms of communication They will have to prepare the investigation report
; construct evidence-based for their science logbooks for teacher feedback.
arguments and engage in peer
feedback to evaluate an
argument or conclusion
(ACSBL034, ACSBL036)

20
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

BIO11/12-3: Students employ


and evaluate safe work practices 15.2 Cellular respiration:
and manage risks (ACSBL031)
a. Class discussion: Students will recall their learning on 15.2a. Extension: 15.2a. PowerPoint slides on
BIO11/12-4: Students cellular respiration to discuss the process of Teacher-led lesson on aerobic and anaerobic
select qualitative and breakdown of glucose to release energy. They will aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
quantitative data and write the word equation for cellular respiration respiration (lactic acid
information and represent them highlighting the reactants and the products of the and alcohol
using a range of formats, digital reaction. fermentation in brief)
technologies and appropriate
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007,
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) b. Practical investigation: ‘Burping Yeast’ 15.2b. Adjustment: 15.2b. Task instruction sheet
BIO11/12-7: Students In groups of 3-4, students will undertake an Provision of scaffolded into two parts with
select and use suitable forms of investigation to observe the release of CO2 in yeast investigation report clear headings and
digital, visual, written and/or solution to confirm respiration. Students will follow scaffolded with clear requirements. Lyophilised
oral forms of communication the provided protocol and instruction sheet to headings and tables for yeast, chemicals, glassware
; construct evidence-based formulate the hypothesis, write a risk assessment, students to record their and equipment required for
arguments and engage in peer perform the experiment, collect and represent data, responses and conducting the investigation.
feedback to evaluate an analyse their results to write an evidence-based observations. Test for confirming
argument or conclusion conclusion. They will prepare a video dairy and an respiration can be adapted
investigation report for their records. from https://bit.ly/2E7Cdq8
(ACSBL034, ACSBL036)

Students: 16. Catalytic reactions in cells - Enzymes


 conduct a
16.1 Inquiry activity – ‘Genie in a bottle’ 16.1 Hydrogen peroxide and
practical
Teacher demonstrates the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide MnO2, 2L Plastic bottles
investigation
to give rise to water vapours and oxygen in the presence (test)
to model the
and absence of manganese dioxide (control) as catalyst.
action of
Teacher will allow students to formulate an argument using
21
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

enzymes in questions to support their inquiry.


cells
(ACSBL050) 16.2 Explicit teaching on enzymes: Teacher will build upon 16.2 Extension: Students 16.2 PowerPoint slides
students’ prior knowledge on catalysts and responses from demonstrate their 16.2 Extension: Instruction
previous activity to introduce enzymes as biocatalysts. Using understanding on ‘lock sheet explaining the task
examples (rennin, papain, catalase, invertase etc.), teacher will and key’ and ‘induced- requirements. Legos,
describe their chemical nature, introduce activation energy, fit’ models of enzyme playdough, beads, camera,
‘lock and key’ and ‘induced-fit’ models of enzyme functioning. functioning by using software to create stop-
Legos and playdough. motion animations.
This activity requires
them to work in groups
of 3-4 and create a stop-
motion animation video
and submit it on
BIO11/12-3: Students employ Edmodo with subtitles
and evaluate safe work practices explaining the
and manage risks (ACSBL031) functioning of enzymes.

BIO11/12-4: Students 16.4 Modelling the action of enzymes:


select qualitative and
Practical investigation: Students to observe the enzymatic
quantitative data and 16.4 Adjustment: 16.4 Task instruction sheet
action of enzymes (proteases) from pineapple (bromelain) and
information and represent them Provision of with clear headings and
papaya (papain) on setting of gelatin. Using the given material
using a range of formats, digital investigation report requirements for successful
and procedures, students will work in groups of 4 to perform
technologies and appropriate scaffolded with clear completion. Materials to be
this investigation. They will formulate a hypothesis, perform
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, headings and tables for used. Investigation report
the risk assessment and outline the methodology to observe the
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) students to record their template
effect of bromelain and papain on solidification of gelatin.
BIO11/12-7: Students responses and
They will set up controls and trials to validate their results and
select and use suitable forms of observations.
confirm the accuracy of their data. They will prepare a video
digital, visual, written and/or dairy and an investigation report for their records and teacher
(Annexure -2)
oral forms of communication feedback.

22
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

Students: 17. Factors affecting enzyme activity


 investigate the
17.1 Brainstorm & Research: 17.1a Adjustment: 17.1a PowerPoint slide with
effects of the
a. Discussion: Students will work in groups of four to create Students will evaluate guiding questions.
environment
a concept map for factors affecting enzyme activity in a the video dairy and
on enzyme
biochemical reaction. Students will be provided with investigation report
activity
guiding questions to support their thinking. from activity 16.4 to
through the
look for factors that may
collection of
have affected the
primary or
reactions.
secondary
BIO11/12-3: Students use
data
appropriate technologies to b. Research: Students will use research secondary sources to 17.1b. Adjustment: 17.1b. Instruction sheet for
(ACSBL050,
ensure and evaluate accuracy. evaluate their concept map and select factors that affect Scaffold for research the task. Referencing format.
ACSBL051)
; select and extract the enzyme activity based on research evidence. They will investigation specifying
information from a wide range create an investigation report to highlight the purpose of step by step instructions
of reliable secondary sources their task, hypothesis (as per their group discussion in for the task, explicit
and acknowledge them using an 17.1a), tabulate the selected secondary sources with headings and tables.
accepted referencing style appropriate references (reference format provided) and
enlist their selected factors with reason for their choice
and submit it on google docs for teacher feedback.

BIO11/12-4: Students 17.2 Practical Investigation


select qualitative and
quantitative data and Summative assessment
information and represent them “Effects of environment on enzymatic reactions” 17.2 Adjustment: 17.2 Required materials and
using a range of formats, digital In groups of 4, students will evaluate their hypothesis (17.1b) Guided investigation equipment depending upon
technologies and appropriate to visualise the effects of different environmental factors (like with provision of student choices (on approval
media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, pH, temperature and substrate concentration, depending upon scaffold for performing by teacher). Rennin tablets.
ACSBL064, ACSBL101) their research in activity 17.1b.) on the activity of rennin with the task and scaffold for Access to computers and
BIO11/12-5: Students milk. They will select 2-3 factors for practical investigation investigation report smart devices for researching
derive trends, patterns and and discuss with teacher for feedback. They will be provided including clear heading in part a and spreadsheets in
with a background of the reaction between milk and rennin and and tables for recording part b.
23
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

relationships in data and its commercial importance in cheese production. information.


information. Students will be provided
BIO11/12-7: Students a. They will search to prepare the experimental set up with the assessment criteria,
select and use suitable forms of (apparatus/ controls/variables), methodology, list of linked outcomes and
digital, visual, written and/or required materials and risk assessment for teacher expectations. They will be
oral forms of communication approval. assessed for their team work,
; construct evidence-based b. Once approved, they will conduct the investigation for the ability to design the
arguments and engage in peer selected factors, tabulate their results and run trials to investigation safely, methods
feedback to evaluate an confirm the accuracy of the data. They will process the to confirm accuracy of data,
argument or conclusion collected data and represent it graphically (using representation of data in
(ACSBL034, ACSBL036) spreadsheets) to analyse the results and evaluate their effective formats and
hypothesis in presence of scientific evidence. Students effective communication by
will prepare a video dairy and an investigation report for ticking all the boxes required
their records and teacher feedback. in an investigation report.

17.3 Teacher-led discussion: Teacher will discuss the results 17.3. PowerPoint slides and
and observations for activity 17.1 and 17.2 as a class and group results and arguments
explain the effects of pH, temperature and substrate from previous experiment.
concentration. Teacher will use activation energy graphs to
demonstrate the impact of these factors on an enzymatic
chemical reaction. This activity allows students to evaluate
their research and practical data and re-construct their
arguments on effects of the environment on enzyme activity.

18. How do cells coordinate activities within their internal 18. Adjustment: 18. Response sheets on
environment and the external environment? Scaffold for key points google docs with key point to
Extended response: to be covered. keep in mind for successful
Students will reflect on their learning to write an extended completion of the task.
response to the inquiry question. They will upload their
responses on google docs for teacher feedback.
24
Inquiry How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment?
question:
K& U Content WS Outcome Descriptor Teaching and learning strategies Extension or Resources
Descriptor Adjustment

SCIENTIFIC Aim, Hypothesis, Observations, Inference, Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic, Organelles, Magnification, Resolution, Light microscopy, Electron microscopy,
VOCABULARY TEM, SEM, Fluorescence microscopy, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Cell membrane, Mitochondria, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum, Lysosomes,
(Teacher will Vacuoles, Chloroplast, Ribosomes, Cell wall, Flagella, Cilia, Microvilli, Micrometer, Nanometers, Picometer, Phospholipid, Intracellular, Extracellular,
emphasise the use in Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Aquaporins, Channel proteins, Active transport, Passive Transport, Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Concentration gradient,
relevant lessons) Osmotic pressure, Isotonic, Hypotonic, Hypertonic, Endocytosis, Exocytosis, Substrate concentration, Light reaction, Dark reaction, Aerobic cellular
respiration, Anaerobic cellular respiration, Enzymes, Activation energy

Evaluation (Questions you would ask yourself / students in order to assess your unit of work)

25
ANNEXURE - 1

Activity 1.3: Kahoot Quiz: Determining of prior-learning

“How well do you know your CELLS”

Playable Weblink: https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/80aaea5e-6457-4c67-b7b6-f4ade6c9f51a

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
ANNEXURE - 2

Activity 16.4: Practical


Investigation

Modelling the action of enzymes

INSTRUCTION SHEET

Duration: 2 x 60-minute periods

Module 1: Cells as the basis of life Content: Cell function

Inquiry question: How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external
environment?

Outcomes addressed:
BIO11/12-3: Students employ and evaluate safe work practices and manage risks (ACSBL031)
BIO11/12-4: Students select qualitative and quantitative data and information and represent them using a range
of formats, digital technologies and appropriate media (ACSBL004, ACSBL007, ACSBL064, ACSBL101)

BIO11/12-7: Students select and use suitable forms of digital, visual, written and/or oral forms of
communication
……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Task: In groups of four, students will conduct an investigation to observe the enzymatic
action of enzymes from pineapple (bromelain) and paw paw (papain) on setting of gelatin.

33
Background:
Enzymes are protein molecules that control the metabolic reactions in living cells. Proteases are enzymes that
have different functions in plants and animals. In animals, they digest the protein-rich food into its smaller
breakdown products, which can be absorbed with ease by the body. In plants, proteases function as anti-
microbial agents. Bromelain is a protease produced by pineapple and Papain is a protease produced by paw
paw. In this experiment two proteases, bromelain and papain will be used to model the action of enzymes in
cells.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Safety guidelines:
Students will use the RiskAssess https://www.riskassess.com.au/ to determine risks involved and safety
guidelines linked with the investigation.

Procedure:
Part A: Enzymatic action of bromelain on gelatin solution
This method will require you to prepare gelatin solution by adding gelatin powder in distilled water and gently
heating it. Upon cooling, the solution will be equally divided into beakers. Pineapple chunks will be added to
the beakers and the beakers will be placed in iced water for 10 minutes. The results will then be recorded and
analysed for subjective rate of reaction.

Part B: Enzymatic action of papain on gelatin solution


This method will require you to prepare gelatin solution by adding gelatin powder in distilled water and gently
heating it. Upon cooling, the solution will be equally divided into test tubes. Papain solution will be prepared
in distilled water and will be added to the gelatin solution. The test tubes will be placed in iced water for 10
minutes. The results will then be recorded and analysed for subjective rate of reaction.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Materials to be used:
(use the materials below to tabulate the chemicals and equipment in part A and part B of the investigation
respectively)
Personal protection gear – safety glasses, lab coat, disposable gloves, closed shoes
Test tubes x 6, Test tube stand, 10ml measuring cylinder, 20 ml measuring cylinder, 100 ml measuring
cylinder, 500 ml beaker of iced water x 2, 50 ml beakers x 4, stirring rods, 150 ml glass beaker x 2, Gelatin,
distilled water, hotplate, meat tenderiser with papain, fresh pineapple chunks and boiled pineapple chunks, lass
marking pens.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Expectations:
- Students will follow the given investigation plan to conduct this investigation.
- Each group to select their own members and provide the list to the teacher along with the allocated roles
for each member (like, material collector, data collector, data analyser, etc.)
34
- Each group member will follow the safety guidelines while performing the investigation
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Success criteria:
The students use the provided investigation report to
- Write the purpose of investigation and formulate a hypothesis
- Research and write the risk assessment, including the risks involved and safety guidelines
- Incorporate controls and replications to ensure validity and accuracy
- Use the provided information to outline a step-by-step methodology to perform the experiment.
- Collect the data from the first-hand investigation and represent it in scientific format (tables)
- Analyse results to draw a relationship between enzyme activity on solidification of gelatin
- Evaluate the hypothesis in view of evidence and draw an evidence-based conclusion
- Write an extended response on role of enzymes in a biochemical reaction

Name: Date:

INVESTIGATION REPORT
Modelling the action of enzymes

Aim: To investigate

Hypothesis:
If proteases, bromelain (from fresh pineapple) and papain (from papaya) are added to gelatin, they will

Materials:
Chemicals & Equipment for part A Chemicals & Equipment for part B

35
Risk assessment: RiskAssess https://www.riskassess.com.au/

Material Hazard Control

Methodology: (write in steps following a sequential order)

Part A: Enzymatic action of bromelain on gelatin solution

Part B: Enzymatic action of papain on gelatin solution

36
Experimental set-up:
(draw labelled scientific diagram of the experimental set-up for both the reactions, showing test, control and
the replicates)

Part A: Enzymatic action of bromelain on gelatin solution

Test Control

Part B: Enzymatic action of papain on gelatin solution

Test Control

37
Observations & Results:
Key:

Subjective rate of reaction Degree of reaction Appearance


0 no reaction solid gel
1 some reaction viscous
2 strong reaction watery

Table 1: Effect of protease bromelain on gelatin

Test tube 1 Test tube 2 Average (n=2)


With bromelain (test
– fresh pineapple)
With bromelain (test
– boiled pineapple)
Without bromelain
(control)

Table 2: Effect of protease papain on gelatin

Test tube 1 Test tube 2 Average (n=2)


With papain
(test)
Without papain
(control)

38
Analysis: (describe what is happening in the reactions as per the obtained results)

Part A: Enzymatic action of bromelain on gelatin solution

Part B: Enzymatic action of papain on gelatin solution

Comment on the validity & accuracy of experimental set-up:

Describe the role of enzymes in biochemical reactions:

39
ANNEXURE – 3

PowerPoint
Transport across the cell membrane

40
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DISCUSSION

The biological world as we know it, stands on the core foundations of cellular architecture. In-depth

knowledge of the diverse yet unique structures and physiological functions of cells is essential for

understanding the cellular interactions occurring within and around us (Veselinovskaa, Gudevab, & Djokic,

2011). Pedagogical strategies employed to impart this knowledge have a direct correlation with the

development of critical understanding in students (Tulbure, 2012). Constructivist pedagogical approaches like,

Inquiry-based learning (IBL), promote active learning by allowing learners to develop a deeper understanding

and construct a meaningful knowledge base (Unver & Arabacıoğlu, 2014). Taking into account the syllabus

rationale, this unit of work on ‘Cells as the basis of life’ has been designed around the principle of inquiry with

a backward design model (BD). With a consistent focus on development of an appreciation of biological

concepts, the unit provides a range of opportunities for students to acquire and polish their scientific working

skills in a collaborative atmosphere.


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The factual nature of the biological concepts and their communication to students in a traditional

behaviourist approach, solely based on teacher lecturing, inhibits the formation of meaningful connections

(Cimer, 2012). The use of BD to plan the unit around strategies that combine explicit teaching with IBL, allows

the establishment of these connections by enabling students to integrate the new concepts with their existing

knowledge base (Dikmenli, 2010; Wiggins & McTighe, 2011). Incorporation of IBL is demonstrated in the unit

by including activities that focus on 5E’s of the model to build strong conceptual understanding and scientific

working skills (Bybee, 1997). Activities like, think, pair & share (2.1, 7.1), brainstorming (13.1), concept/ mind

mapping (17.1, 14.1), jig-saw puzzles (5.1), Venn diagrams (2.2), concept simulations (4.3, 8.1), hands-on

inquiry (12.2) and demonstrations (3.1), allow students to build connections and effectively engage with the

subject matter (Louisa, Cliff & Karen, 2014). Research and practical investigations (2.3, 5.2, 7.2, 11.2 etc.),

virtual lab based and other interactive activities (4.2, 8.1) which follow the initial student engagement

throughout the unit plan, enable students to explore the subject and explain their observations (Unver &

Arabacıoğlu, 2014). By identifying and building upon learner’s preconceptions, such activities, make the need

for learning visible to the students (Tanner & Allen, 2005).

In addition to connecting the students with their learning, IBL allows elaboration and evaluation of

learning (Abdi, 2014). This is justified in the unit through the incorporation of discussions (2.4), poster

presentations (3.2), investigation report preparations (5.2, 7.2 etc.), video dairies (15.2), stop-motion animations

(12.2), diagrammatic representations (5.2), quizzes (1.3, 5.3, 10.1 etc.) and extended response activities (10.2,

11.2, 18). These activities enable the students to communicate their understanding and assess their own learning

(Dragos & Mih, 2015). By providing opportunities to experience autonomy in their learning, IBL promotes

students’ intrinsic motivation (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). This is reflected in activities 17.1 and 17.2 (guided-

inquiry), where students create a concept map around factors affecting enzyme activity, choose the factors

based on their research, and design and conduct an investigation to evaluate their hypothesis (Banchi & Bell,

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2008). By encouraging students to explore possibilities to construct evidence-based knowledge, this unit of

work enables acquisition of scientific skills and deeper understanding (Bybee, 1997).

Deeper understanding is said to be demonstrated through an ability to think independently and critically

(Hattie & Donoghue, 2016). Flipped learning model, provides opportunities to students to spend quality time on

developing their critical thinking skills and drive their own learning to grow into independent learners

(Paristiowatia, Fitriani & Aldi, 2017). This unit plan demonstrates the incorporation of flipped learning as, it

encourages students to indulge in self-study and thus, provides them opportunities to participate in collaborative

investigative tasks in class for acquiring the scientific working skills (AlJaser, 2017). For instance, in section

5.3, students are provided with several resources [PowerPoint presentations, video links, teacher-led lecture

video, notes and quizlet] to study the cell organelles and their functions in their own time. This is followed by

section 6.1 in which they apply their understanding to carry out a research-based investigation and build edible

models/ interactive posters of cells for peer assessment and evaluation of their learning (AlJaser, 2017). A

similar approach is followed in section 3.1, which allows students to reflect on their prior-knowledge on

microscopes, watch a demonstration in class and then, educate themselves on technicalities around field of

view, resolution and magnification through provided resources (Paristiowatia et al, 2017). In accordance with

the social-cognitive and self-determination theories of learning, such strategies motivate senior students to

focus on high-order cognitive skills of application and analysis by processing the needs of self-efficacy and

competence (Little, 2015; Riley, 2016).

Besides self-efficacy, motivation for learning is also strengthened by peer support and social

belongingness (Deemer, Marks & Miller, 2015). Collaborative learning provides a platform for students to

develop critical thinking and scientific investigative skills by promoting social interactions and individual

ownership (Laal & Ghodsi, 2012). Minds-on activities (in pairs/groups/ as a class) such as discussions,

brainstorming, creating mind maps/concept maps, formulating hypothesis and designing investigations, that

provide opportunities for collaboration are evident in the unit plan (Rutherford, 2014). In accordance with

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Vygotsky’s theory of social learning, such activities enhance learning within the zone of proximal development

(Hartland, 2003). Collaborative research and practical investigations incorporated throughout the unit provide

opportunities to acquire deeper understanding by working scientifically (Laal & Ghodsi, 2012). Such strategies

not only allow the construction of cohesive knowledge base through active learning but also foster an

appreciation of others (Cimer, 2012).

To conclude, pedagogical strategies that allow in-depth understanding of the biological interactions are

imperative for acquisition of scientific investigative skills. These skills are not only significant for finding better

solutions for human health but, are also essential to address issues of global sustainability (Sahlberg & Oldroyd,

2010). Amalgamation of IBL with strategies to promote self-directed learning in a collaborative classroom

setting encourages the development of critically thinking, problem solvers and future focussed learners

(Brandenburg & Wilson, 2013).

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