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Philosophy of Man Beings of Reason: Existing

Philosophy of you Matter: Occupies space and mass in a specific

Who are You?
Philosophy: wants to learn everything
You don’t know who you are
Why is there something instead of nothing?
- Know what you are
Tool of Philosophy: Natural light of Human
Life is an unfinished work reason alone
What is your purpose in life? - Theology: Faith + Reason
Philiosophia: Philos (To Love) and Sophia Development of Western Philosophy:
- Ancients: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Pythagoreas: A^2 + B^2 =C^2 o Theme: Humanistic
- Agora: Marketplace/ Plaza – Discuss - Medieval: St. Augustine, Albertus
things Magnus, Thomas Aquinas
- Lover of Wisdom o Theme: Theocentrism (GOD is
- Love is a force that forces us to/be an the center)
object of your love; Constant desire to - Renaissance (Rebirth): Michelangelo,
possess Leonardo, etc
- Wisdom: Undefined (cannot define o Theme: Humanistic
something which you don’t understand) o We need a Man and God
but it is the highest unknown - Modern Era: Newton, Paschal, Halley
knowledge o Theme: Science
o Objectivity
Philosophy: “Science of all beings of their - Post-Modern: Now
ultimate causes and their principles known o Theme: Meaning of Everything
through the natural light of human reason o Nightmare: Industrial
alone” – St. Thomas Aquinas Revolution
o Capitalism became too much
- Science is a way that possess truths
o Where are we now?
- Philosophy is the queen of sciences
o Looking for Answers
- Study of all BEING: a being is something
that exists Theories of Human Nature

Material Representation: convincing statement, - Rationalism (Rationalistic View)

information or explanation made to a person to o Plato: Constant battle between
induce that person to enter into a contract or to Self vs Others
take a decision, which s/he would not have  Evil is too much of one
done without persuasion side
 One cannot give when changing environment and
one does not have natural selection.
o Aristotle: Psyche [mind (Mens) o Most precious power is to think
+ soul (anima)] approach and reason is no longer solely
 Living vs Dying for humans
 Vegetative Soul: o Becoming better by each
Growth, Reproduction, Generation ( Adapting)
Mobility/Motion - - Essentialism: Essence dictates the
Plants existence
 Sentient Soul: Growth, o Predefined man
Reproduction, o Man is a being
Mobility/Motion, o Present progressive
Knowledge – Animal - Existentialism: How you live defines
 Rational Soul: Growth, who you are
Reproduction, o Burdened by choice
Mobility/Motion, o Future tense (Becoming)
Knowledge, Intellect, o Who you are can only be
Understanding, Freewill answered when you die
- Human o “There was a time I was not,
- Judeo - Christian – Islamic: now that I am, Soon I will not
o God  World  Human (Image be –Renee Descartes
and Likeness of God) o How will you live knowing you
 Image: Soul; Ensouled will die?
by God o Trapped by what other people
 Likeness: Share powers define you
of God (Creation and o Live as you are alive
Freewill) o Living a long time is curse
 Return to God o Immortality is unfathomable for
 We exist to Serve God the mind of a man
because we are created o Traditional view is death
by God negative but existentialism sees
- Evolutionism death as finding real meaning of
o Martin Luther opposing the life
Catholic Church o Searching for your own
o Church no longer has the sole personal piece of heaven
monopoly of education - Feminist
o Science develops; Start of o Women viewed as lower than
Positivism(?) men before
o Charles Darwin: Theory of o Women closer to emotions
Evolution- Humans evolved o Men should get in touch more
from the Primate (monkeys). with his emotions more
Change thru adaptation to a
o Care, compassion, emotions  You can’t
and understanding are as separate body
important as cognitive from soul
functions  Aristotle: “Can
a blind man
Mind-Body Problem: Is a human being a body, a
born blind
soul or both?
know what
- How much of your choice is actually color is? No”
yours? - Identity Theory:
- How can you say that there is a soul? o Is the mind and the brain the
- Is the soul more important than the same or Opposite?
body? Or vice-versa? o Psyche according to the greeks:
- Monism: 1 reality only Soul (Anima), Mind (Mens),
o Mon = 1 Spirit (Spiritus) but the main
o 2 types: focus is the mind
 Materialist: Body is the o What makes something
real human human?
 Immaterialists: Soul is - Behavior Theory: Being Human has
the real human functions such as reason, growth,
 Life is a proof mobility, social, reproduction
that there is o Defense for euthanasia
Enduring Self: What happens after death?
 Soul makes a
thing what it is - Soul as an enduring self:
- Dualism: Body and Soul - Memory as an enduring self: Your past
o 2 types: in not entirely you now
 Accidental: Soul in a - No Self: Self is only an illusion
Ethics Criteria
 Possibility for
other choices to - God or a supreme being imposes
occur judgement
 Ghost in the - Life After death: injustices must be
Shell addressed in the after life
 We can think - Reward and Punishment
outside of the You as a Demi-God
body (ex.
- Don’t be content of which you are right
 Renee Decartes
- Your story is still being written by you
 Substantial: Body + Soul
- the memory of you for others
Treaty of Tordesillas: Dividing the world into 2
(Spain and Portugal) by order of God

- Monopoly on God is dangerous