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# LEGV5151-02 - 27 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

## Medium Engine Fuel

Systems

SLIDE 1

• Start with review To start our study of Medium Engine Fuel Systems, we will briefly
review some performance concepts and terminology that were covered
in depth in the Small Engine Fuel Systems Course.

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FTS
ue
r FLS
we
rq
po
To

e
rs
Ho

BSFC

## 00 RPM Peak Governed High

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 2

• Instructor note With the slide displayed on the board, point out various items on the
tent curve and ask the students the following review questions. As you
needed, using the answers shown below.
• High idle question
How would you describe high idle. What tolerance is applied to it?

• High idle answer High idle is the maximum engine speed that can be achieved with no
load on the engine as it is installed. This will vary with different
parasitic loads. The high idle shown on the engine data tag is a bare
engine high idle before any extra devices such as alternators, power
steering pumps etc. have been installed. Normal tolerances for a heavy
duty high idle is +40/-80 rpm.
The high idle screw is a stop for maximum deflection of the governor
spring which, when multiplied by spring rate, would give a governor
spring force.

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• Droopquestion What do we call the portion of the curve that is available (with limited
power) in the rpm range between the governed point and high idle?

• Droopquestion How much droop is typical for a truck application? For a generator set?
For other applications?

• Droopanswer Truck engines typically have 7-10% droop. Power generation requires
0-3%, and other applications generally have 5-7%.

• FLS question
The governed rpm point in the tent curve is labelled “FLS”. What does
this stand for, and what does it mean?
FLS stands for Full Load Setting. FLS is the rack position required in
order to produce advertised governed horsepower for an engine rating.
This setting is displayed on the engine plate. FLS is the point at which
the full load screw is first in full contact with the stop or torque spring,
if so equipped.

• FTS question Describe the point on the curve that is labelled “FTS”. What does this
stand for, and what does it mean?
• FTS answer FTS stands for Full Torque Setting. As the engine is lugged below
governed speed, flyweight force lowers with a constant governer spring
force. This delta P of governor spring force would cause the rack
position to increase. Before movement can happen, the force must first
be great enough to bend the torque spring. When the force is greater
than the torque spring, the rack position increases until the torque screw
comes in contact with the solid stop. This rack position is Full Torque
Setting (FTS).

• Horsepower Why does the horsepower curve reach its maximum at the rpm where
question FTS occurs?
• Horsepower answer The horsepower curve (and the boost curve which is not shown here)
get their shape from the fuel rate curve. Since the largest injection
volume and the greatest number of injections per unit of time occur at
FTS, the maximum horsepower will also occur near the FTS rpm.

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• Horsepower Why does the horsepower decrease as the engine lugs below FTS?
question
• Horsepower answer As the engine lugs below FTS, the injection volume stays the same, but
there are fewer injections per unit of time. Since fuel rate decreases,
horsepower also decreases.
With some curves the power remains flat for a period and then falls off
(light torque spring, typically with smaller FTS). With some curves the
power falls off immediately when the engine goes below governed (no
torque spring). With each of these curve shapes, something within the
governor is different.

• Torque question
Why does the torque curve continue to increase as the horsepower curve
is decreasing?

The torque curve is the one that the customer really uses. It is the pound
feet of twisting force that propels whatever is being turned. The torque
curve does not follow the fuel rate curve. Instead it continues to rise
with lower rpm and fuel rate. This is caused by slower pistons speeds
giving the fuel more time to burn and by reduced parasitic loads on the
engine.

• BSFC question Please explain what “BSFC”stands for, and give a brief description
• BSFC answer The efficiency of the engine is recorded by the use of BSFC (Brake
Specific Fuel Consumption). This is the amount of fuel in pound per
horsepower hour or grams per kilowatt hour. The smaller the number,
the more efficient the engine. The engines are designed to provide the
best fuel efficiency at the recommended operating rpm. This number
changes with both rpm and power demand. The curve shown is a full

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## POWER CURVES REVIEW

Given Information:

FTS
ue

## e r FLS Governed 2100 RPM

ow
rq

p
To

e
rs 1400 lb ft @
Ho Peak Torque
1200 RPM
Torque at
1000 lb ft
Governed
Calculate:
Horsepower at Governed

## 00 RPM Peak Governed High

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 3

• Instructor note This slide provides some example numbers so that the students can
review the horsepower formula. Distribute the Engine Performance
Reference (LEXT1044) and have them refer to the formula page.
After they have done the calculation, show the next slide so that they
can check their method. Explain as necessary.

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## POWER CURVES REVIEW

Calculating Horsepower:

HP = T x RPM

## HP = (1000 x 2100) + 5252

HP = 400

SLIDE 4

• Instructor note After the students have done the calculation shown on the previous
slide, show this slide so that they can check their method. Explain as
necessary.

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## POWER CURVES REVIEW

Given Information:

FTS
ue

ow
rq

p
To

e
rs 1400 lb ft @
Ho Peak Torque
1200 RPM
Torque at
1000 lb ft
Governed
Calculate:
Torque rise

## 00 RPM Peak Governed High

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 5

• Instructor note Ask students to calculate the torque rise for this engine, using the given
information. After they have an answer, show the next slide so that they
can check their method.

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## TR = (400 + 1000) x 100%

TR = .4 x 100%

TR = 40%

SLIDE 6

• Instructor note After the students have done the calculation shown on the previous
slide, show this slide so that they can check their method. Explain as
necessary.

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## POWER CURVES REVIEW

Given Information:

FTS
ue

ow
rq

p
To

e
rs 1400 lb ft @
Ho Peak Torque
1200 RPM
Torque at
1000 lb ft
Governed
Calculate:
% Droop

## 00 RPM Peak Governed High

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 7

• Instructor note Ask students to calculate the % Droop for this engine, using the given
information. After they have an answer, show the next slide so that they
can check their method.

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## Droop = .077 x 100%

Droop = 7.7%

SLIDE 8

• Instructor note After the students have done the calculation shown on the previous
slide, show this slide so that they can check their method. Explain as
necessary.

• Droop question Based on the % Droop, what kind of engine must this be?
• Droop answer It is a truck application. As mentioned earlier, truck engines usually
have 7-10% droop.

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MANUFACTURING TEST
CONDITIONS

conditions

## – 35° API fuel density @ 60°F

– 85°F fuel temperature
– 110°F inlet manifold temperature - ATAAC
– 77 °F inlet air temperature - JWAC
– 29.61 inches of hg air pressure (test cell)
(30.50 inches of hg in field)

SLIDE 9

## • Review correction Now let’s quickly review horsepower correction factors.

factors
The engine is only guaranteed to make rated horsepower under
conditions stated in SAE specification J1995.
Any deviation from these standard conditions affects performance either
positively or negatively.
This slide shows the manufacturing test conditions at which our engines
are tested. It is not a Caterpillar specification; it is used by all major
engine manufacturers.

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MANUFACTURING TEST
CONDITIONS

## • What horsepower should be expected from a

3406C, rated 425 horsepower @ 2100 rpm,
under the following conditions?

## – 40° API fuel density at 90° F

– 135° F fuel temperature at filter base
– 105° F inlet manifold temperature
– 30.05 inches of hg air pressure

SLIDE 10

• Sample problem Here is a sample problem to review the process of calculating expected
horsepower from an engine that is operating under nonstandard
conditions.

• Instructor note Have the students refer to the Engine Performance Reference
(LEXT1044) to work through the problem. Assist them with the use of
the correction factor charts as necessary. The following slides build a
table that shows the answers one by one, so that the students can check
their work.

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Sample Problem

## Fuel density corrects to ??° API @ 60°F

Fuel density correction factor ????
Fuel temperature correction factor ????
Air temperature correction factor ????
Baro. pressure correction factor ????
Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 11

## • Fuel density @ 60°F First, correct the fuel density to 60°F.

The answer is 38° API at 60°F, as shown on the next slide. Since the
API number is greater than 35, the fuel is less dense than standard.
There will be a reduction of power. The fuel density correction factor
that we find in the table will be greater than 1.000.

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Sample Problem

## Fuel density corrects to 38° API @ 60°F

Fuel density correction factor ????
Fuel temperature correction factor ????
Air temperature correction factor ????
Baro. pressure correction factor ????
Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 12

## • Density correction Now find the fuel density correction factor.

factor
The factor is 1.012, as shown on the next slide. This correction factor
means that there will be a 1.2% loss of power due to less than standard
fuel density.
To find the % variation from standard, subtract the correction factor
from 1.000, and multiply the result by 100%. In this case:
1.000 - 1.012 = -.012
-.012 x 100% = -1.2%

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Sample Problem

## Fuel density corrects to 38° API @ 60°F

Fuel density correction factor 1.012
Fuel temperature correction factor ????
Air temperature correction factor ????
Baro. pressure correction factor ????
Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 13

## • Fuel temperature Now find the fuel temperature correction factor.

correction factor
The factor is 1.050, as shown on the next slide.

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Sample Problem

## Fuel density corrects to 38° API @ 60°F

Fuel density correction factor 1.012
Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050
Air temperature correction factor ????
Baro. pressure correction factor ????
Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 14

## • Inlet air Now find the air temperature correction factor.

temperature
correction factor The factor is .997, as shown on the next slide.
This correction factor is very close to 1.000, because the air inlet
temperature in this example (105°F) is very close to standard (110°F).
Although the effect will be slight, the factor is less than 1.000 so there
will be a positive effect on power.
• To find % deviation To find the % variation from standard, subtract the correction factor
from standard from 1.000, and multiply the result by 100%. In this case:
1.000 - .997 = .003
-.003 x 100% = +.3%

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Sample Problem

## Fuel density corrects to 38° API @ 60°F

Fuel density correction factor 1.012
Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050
Air temperature correction factor 0.997
Baro. pressure correction factor ????
Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 15

## • Barometric pressure Now find the barometric pressure correction factor.

correction factor
The factor is 1.003, as shown on the next slide.

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Sample Problem

## Fuel density corrects to 38° API @ 60°F

Fuel density correction factor 1.012
Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050
Air temperature correction factor 0.997
Baro. pressure correction factor 1.003
Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 16

• Total correction With all the correction factors calculated, the next step is to multiply
factor them times each other to arrive at the total correction factor:
1.012 x 1.050 x .997 x 1.003 = 1.063

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Sample Problem

## Fuel density corrects to 38° API @ 60°F

Fuel density correction factor 1.012
Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050
Air temperature correction factor 0.997
Baro. pressure correction factor 1.003
Total correction factor 1.063

SLIDE 17

• High fuel The total correction factor shows that performance will be reduced by
temperature is main 6.3%. The main reason is the high fuel temperature. The expected
reason for low
power in this
horsepower under these operating conditions can be calculated by
example dividing the rated horsepower by the total correction factor (see next
slide).

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Sample Problem

## So . . . what horsepower should be

expected from our example
3406C rated 425 hp @ 2100?

## 425 + 1.063 = 400 horsepower

SLIDE 18

• 15 or more HP is As seen, the exected horsepower is 400. This would more than likely
noticeable cause a performance complaint. Generally, a loss of 15 horsepower or
more can be noticed by the operator.
• If measured, Note: If the engine horsepower had been an actual measured value, we
multiply
would multiply the measured value by the TCF to get a corrected
horsepower value. This corrected value should then be within +/- 3% of
rated power.

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POWER CURVES
Set Point

FTS

FLS
Set Point –
Governed speed +
Set point: The point at which 20 rpm
the rack screw is in contact
with the torque spring 10% to
45% of the time

## 00 RPM Governed speed 2100 High Idle - 2262

SLIDE 19

• Set point definition Set Point is the rpm at which the full load screw is in contact with the
torque spring between 10% and 45% of the time. If we then load the
engine down 20 more rpm below set point, the full load screw will be
first in contact with the torque spring 100 percent of the time, which is
the FLS or governed point. Therefore, governed is always 20 rpm
below where we find set point. We set governed speed by use of set
point, since we can not exactly determine the first point of 100 percent
contact.
Set point is a critical engine adjustment, because it affects the rpm
where governed point, FLS, FTS, and rated horsepower will occur.

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POWER CURVES
Raise High Idle

Horsepower

FTS
FLS

## 00 RPM Governed speed 2100 High Idle - 2262

SLIDE 20

• Effect of raising Now, let’s consider the effect of adjusting high idle to a higher rpm.
High Idle (set point, When high idle is raised, the rpm at which we achieve FLS goes up.
FLS, FTS also
increase)
Since FLS rpm is higher, set point is higher. The reason for this is that
spring rate does not change, so the intersection point of FLS and the
droop curve occurs at a higher rpm.

• Fuel rate is higher Since we get FLS at a higher rpm, fuel rate at the new governed speed is
higher. This happens because we get the same injection volume as we
had before at FLS, but there are more injections per unit of time. The
same is true of FTS setting and fuel rate. The new fuel rate and
horsepower curves are represented by the yellow curve in this slide.
• Peak torque rpm not As high idle rpm is increased, set point goes up on almost a one-to-one
affected
ratio. The governed point, FLS, and FTS go up a like amount, but peak
torque rpm does not change. Peak torque rpm is a function of engine
characteristics, such as turbocharger size and design. Therefore it is not
affected by changine the high idle adjustment.
• Larger operating
range Since peak torque rpm doesn’t change, the engine has an increased

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## operating range (from peak torque to governed point). If high idle is

increased enough to cause set point to be out of tolerance (too high) the
engine could be operated outside its emissions certification rpm range.
If the engine is operated at the new (higher) governed point, horsepower
will be slightly increased. Of course, nothing is free. The increased
horsepower is due to an increase in fuel consumption.

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POWER CURVES
Lower High Idle

Horsepower

FTS FLS

## 00 RPM Governed speed 2100 High Idle - 2262

SLIDE 21

• Effect of lowering If high idle is lowered, the rpm at which we achieve set point will go
High Idle (set point, down. Since set point rpm is lower, FLS rpm will be lower. Again, the
FLS, FTS also
decrease)
reason for this is that spring rate does not change. The intersection point
of FLS and the droop curve occurs at a lower rpm.

## • Fuel rate is lower

Since we get FLS at a lower rpm, fuel rate at the new governed speed
will be less. We will get the same injection volume as before the
adjustment, but we will have fewer injections per unit of time. The same
is true of FTS setting and fuel rate. With the lowered fuel rate,
• Peak torque rpm not horsepower will be slightly less. With peak torque rpm remaining
affected
unchanged, the engine’s operating range will be reduced. The new fuel
• Smaller operating rate and horsepower curves are represented by the yellow curve in this
range slide.

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POWER CURVES
Raise Rack

## 00 RPM Governed speed 2100 High Idle - 2262

SLIDE 22

The rack setting (FLS and FTS adjustment) also affects set point rpm.
• Increased rack
setting gives lower As the rack setting is increased, set point goes down. This happens
set point because the rack can now travel farther before the FLS screw hits the
torque spring. The engine must be loaded to a lower rpm than before, in
order to reach set point. The change in set point is not as dramatic with
a rack setting change as it is with a high idle change.

• Increased rack
Horsepower will be increased in proportion to the amount of rack
setting gives higher change. Fuel consumption will also increase if the extra horsepower is
horsepower used. At times, increased horsepower can actually improve fuel
economy. An example would be a truck engine where the extra
horsepower is only used to prevent the need for downshifting to a lower
gear on a hill.

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POWER CURVES
Lower Rack

## 00 RPM Governed speed 2100 High Idle - 2262

SLIDE 23

• Lowered rack If the rack setting is decreased, set point rpm will increase. Again, the
setting gives higher change in set point is not as dramatic as it is with an adjustment to high
set point
idle. Horsepower will decrease in proportion to the amount of rack
change. Fuel consumption will decrease in most cases. However, if the
lost horsepower causes premature gear changes (downshifts) in a truck
application, fuel consumption could actually be increased.
• Lowered rack The new fuel rate and horsepower curves are represented by the yellow
setting gives lower curve in this slide.
horsepower

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Tolerances

## • High Idle = + 40 rpm / -80 rpm

• Set Point:
– Checking tolerance = +/- 25 rpm
– Setting tolerance = +/- 10 rpm

SLIDE 24

• Set point regulated Since set point is such a critical adjustment, it has a fairly restrictive
by adjusting high adjustment tolerance. High idle has a much wider allowable rpm range.
idle
We regulate set point by adjusting high idle.
The high idle rpm shown on the engine plate is for the bare engine,
• Installed engine high
idle is less than bare
since there are no external parasitic loads on the engine at the factory
engine high idle test cell. High idle will normally be at a lower rpm when the engine is
installed in its final application. If proper set point cannot be achieved
by adjusting high idle within its tolerance (+40 / -80 rpm from the bare
engine high idle setting), look for the following:
• Parasitic loads • Excessive parasitic load on the engine will cause high idle to be too
low, when set point is correct.
• Weak governor • A weak governor spring will cause high idle to be too high when set
spring point is correct.

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Lab Assignment

## • Check set point on the lab engine

SLIDE 25

Introduce the Set Point lab as described in the next lesson plan.

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## Medium Engine Fuel Systems

Lesson Plan 3 - Set Point Lab

Objectives:
• Working as a group, the students will check set point on a running engine, and make
any necessary adjustments to bring it into the specified tolerance.

Literature Needed:
Using the 6V2100 Multitach SEHS7807
Using the 6V4060 Set Point Indicator Group SEHS7931
Using the 9U7400 Multitach II Group NEHS0605
Using the 4C6821 Injection Line Pickup Group SEHS9363

Hardware Needed:
Loadable engine that has set point
Hand Tools
6V2100 Multitach
6V4060 Set Point Indicator
4C6821 Injection Line Pickup
9U7400 Multitach II Group

Time Required:
1.00 Hour

## Tasks Required by Instructor to Meet Objectives:

1. Distribute and discuss handouts for set point tooling:
A. Using the 6V2100 Multitach (SEHS7807)
B. Using the 6V4060 Set Point Indicator Group (SEHS7931)
C. Using the 4C6821 Injection Line Pickup Group (SEHS9363)
D. Using the 9U7400 Multitach II Group (NEHS0605)
2. Take the students to the lab to check set point on a loadable engine.
A. Have them follow the Special Instruction literature to connect and program the
6V2100 Multitach and the 6V4060 Set Point Indicator Group to the engine.
B. Have them check the engine oil and coolant levels.

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