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12 vizualizări30 paginiCURVAS FLS FTS CAT

Oct 15, 2018

Meeting Guide Curvas FLS y FTS Formulas

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CURVAS FLS FTS CAT

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Meeting Guide Curvas FLS y FTS Formulas

CURVAS FLS FTS CAT

© All Rights Reserved

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10/02

Systems

SLIDE 1

• Start with review To start our study of Medium Engine Fuel Systems, we will briefly

review some performance concepts and terminology that were covered

in depth in the Small Engine Fuel Systems Course.

LEGV5151-02 - 28 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

FTS

ue

r FLS

we

rq

po

To

e

rs

Ho

BSFC

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 2

• Instructor note With the slide displayed on the board, point out various items on the

tent curve and ask the students the following review questions. As you

get their responses, correct them or make additional comments as

needed, using the answers shown below.

• High idle question

How would you describe high idle. What tolerance is applied to it?

• High idle answer High idle is the maximum engine speed that can be achieved with no

load on the engine as it is installed. This will vary with different

parasitic loads. The high idle shown on the engine data tag is a bare

engine high idle before any extra devices such as alternators, power

steering pumps etc. have been installed. Normal tolerances for a heavy

duty high idle is +40/-80 rpm.

The high idle screw is a stop for maximum deflection of the governor

spring which, when multiplied by spring rate, would give a governor

spring force.

LEGV5151-02 - 29 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

• Droopquestion What do we call the portion of the curve that is available (with limited

power) in the rpm range between the governed point and high idle?

• Droopanswer Droop or Overrun

• Droopquestion How much droop is typical for a truck application? For a generator set?

For other applications?

• Droopanswer Truck engines typically have 7-10% droop. Power generation requires

0-3%, and other applications generally have 5-7%.

• FLS question

The governed rpm point in the tent curve is labelled “FLS”. What does

this stand for, and what does it mean?

• FLS answer

FLS stands for Full Load Setting. FLS is the rack position required in

order to produce advertised governed horsepower for an engine rating.

This setting is displayed on the engine plate. FLS is the point at which

the full load screw is first in full contact with the stop or torque spring,

if so equipped.

• FTS question Describe the point on the curve that is labelled “FTS”. What does this

stand for, and what does it mean?

• FTS answer FTS stands for Full Torque Setting. As the engine is lugged below

governed speed, flyweight force lowers with a constant governer spring

force. This delta P of governor spring force would cause the rack

position to increase. Before movement can happen, the force must first

be great enough to bend the torque spring. When the force is greater

than the torque spring, the rack position increases until the torque screw

comes in contact with the solid stop. This rack position is Full Torque

Setting (FTS).

• Horsepower Why does the horsepower curve reach its maximum at the rpm where

question FTS occurs?

• Horsepower answer The horsepower curve (and the boost curve which is not shown here)

get their shape from the fuel rate curve. Since the largest injection

volume and the greatest number of injections per unit of time occur at

FTS, the maximum horsepower will also occur near the FTS rpm.

LEGV5151-02 - 30 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

• Horsepower Why does the horsepower decrease as the engine lugs below FTS?

question

• Horsepower answer As the engine lugs below FTS, the injection volume stays the same, but

there are fewer injections per unit of time. Since fuel rate decreases,

horsepower also decreases.

With some curves the power remains flat for a period and then falls off

(light torque spring, typically with smaller FTS). With some curves the

power falls off immediately when the engine goes below governed (no

torque spring). With each of these curve shapes, something within the

governor is different.

• Torque question

Why does the torque curve continue to increase as the horsepower curve

is decreasing?

• Torque answer

The torque curve is the one that the customer really uses. It is the pound

feet of twisting force that propels whatever is being turned. The torque

curve does not follow the fuel rate curve. Instead it continues to rise

with lower rpm and fuel rate. This is caused by slower pistons speeds

giving the fuel more time to burn and by reduced parasitic loads on the

engine.

• BSFC question Please explain what “BSFC”stands for, and give a brief description

• BSFC answer The efficiency of the engine is recorded by the use of BSFC (Brake

Specific Fuel Consumption). This is the amount of fuel in pound per

horsepower hour or grams per kilowatt hour. The smaller the number,

the more efficient the engine. The engines are designed to provide the

best fuel efficiency at the recommended operating rpm. This number

changes with both rpm and power demand. The curve shown is a full

load BSFC curve.

LEGV5151-02 - 31 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Given Information:

FTS

ue

ow

rq

p

To

e

rs 1400 lb ft @

Ho Peak Torque

1200 RPM

Torque at

1000 lb ft

Governed

Calculate:

Horsepower at Governed

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 3

• Instructor note This slide provides some example numbers so that the students can

review the horsepower formula. Distribute the Engine Performance

Reference (LEXT1044) and have them refer to the formula page.

After they have done the calculation, show the next slide so that they

can check their method. Explain as necessary.

LEGV5151-02 - 32 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Calculating Horsepower:

HP = T x RPM

HP = 400

SLIDE 4

• Instructor note After the students have done the calculation shown on the previous

slide, show this slide so that they can check their method. Explain as

necessary.

LEGV5151-02 - 33 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Given Information:

FTS

ue

ow

rq

p

To

e

rs 1400 lb ft @

Ho Peak Torque

1200 RPM

Torque at

1000 lb ft

Governed

Calculate:

Torque rise

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 5

• Instructor note Ask students to calculate the torque rise for this engine, using the given

information. After they have an answer, show the next slide so that they

can check their method.

LEGV5151-02 - 34 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

TR = .4 x 100%

TR = 40%

SLIDE 6

• Instructor note After the students have done the calculation shown on the previous

slide, show this slide so that they can check their method. Explain as

necessary.

LEGV5151-02 - 35 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Given Information:

FTS

ue

ow

rq

p

To

e

rs 1400 lb ft @

Ho Peak Torque

1200 RPM

Torque at

1000 lb ft

Governed

Calculate:

% Droop

Torque Point Idle

SLIDE 7

• Instructor note Ask students to calculate the % Droop for this engine, using the given

information. After they have an answer, show the next slide so that they

can check their method.

LEGV5151-02 - 36 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Droop = 7.7%

SLIDE 8

• Instructor note After the students have done the calculation shown on the previous

slide, show this slide so that they can check their method. Explain as

necessary.

• Droop question Based on the % Droop, what kind of engine must this be?

• Droop answer It is a truck application. As mentioned earlier, truck engines usually

have 7-10% droop.

LEGV5151-02 - 37 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

MANUFACTURING TEST

CONDITIONS

conditions

– 85°F fuel temperature

– 110°F inlet manifold temperature - ATAAC

– 77 °F inlet air temperature - JWAC

– 29.61 inches of hg air pressure (test cell)

(30.50 inches of hg in field)

SLIDE 9

factors

The engine is only guaranteed to make rated horsepower under

conditions stated in SAE specification J1995.

Any deviation from these standard conditions affects performance either

positively or negatively.

This slide shows the manufacturing test conditions at which our engines

are tested. It is not a Caterpillar specification; it is used by all major

engine manufacturers.

LEGV5151-02 - 38 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

MANUFACTURING TEST

CONDITIONS

3406C, rated 425 horsepower @ 2100 rpm,

under the following conditions?

– 135° F fuel temperature at filter base

– 105° F inlet manifold temperature

– 30.05 inches of hg air pressure

SLIDE 10

• Sample problem Here is a sample problem to review the process of calculating expected

horsepower from an engine that is operating under nonstandard

conditions.

• Instructor note Have the students refer to the Engine Performance Reference

(LEXT1044) to work through the problem. Assist them with the use of

the correction factor charts as necessary. The following slides build a

table that shows the answers one by one, so that the students can check

their work.

LEGV5151-02 - 39 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

Fuel density correction factor ????

Fuel temperature correction factor ????

Air temperature correction factor ????

Baro. pressure correction factor ????

Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 11

The answer is 38° API at 60°F, as shown on the next slide. Since the

API number is greater than 35, the fuel is less dense than standard.

There will be a reduction of power. The fuel density correction factor

that we find in the table will be greater than 1.000.

LEGV5151-02 - 40 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

Fuel density correction factor ????

Fuel temperature correction factor ????

Air temperature correction factor ????

Baro. pressure correction factor ????

Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 12

factor

The factor is 1.012, as shown on the next slide. This correction factor

means that there will be a 1.2% loss of power due to less than standard

fuel density.

To find the % variation from standard, subtract the correction factor

from 1.000, and multiply the result by 100%. In this case:

1.000 - 1.012 = -.012

-.012 x 100% = -1.2%

LEGV5151-02 - 41 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

Fuel density correction factor 1.012

Fuel temperature correction factor ????

Air temperature correction factor ????

Baro. pressure correction factor ????

Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 13

correction factor

The factor is 1.050, as shown on the next slide.

LEGV5151-02 - 42 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

Fuel density correction factor 1.012

Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050

Air temperature correction factor ????

Baro. pressure correction factor ????

Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 14

temperature

correction factor The factor is .997, as shown on the next slide.

This correction factor is very close to 1.000, because the air inlet

temperature in this example (105°F) is very close to standard (110°F).

Although the effect will be slight, the factor is less than 1.000 so there

will be a positive effect on power.

• To find % deviation To find the % variation from standard, subtract the correction factor

from standard from 1.000, and multiply the result by 100%. In this case:

1.000 - .997 = .003

-.003 x 100% = +.3%

LEGV5151-02 - 43 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

Fuel density correction factor 1.012

Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050

Air temperature correction factor 0.997

Baro. pressure correction factor ????

Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 15

correction factor

The factor is 1.003, as shown on the next slide.

LEGV5151-02 - 44 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

Fuel density correction factor 1.012

Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050

Air temperature correction factor 0.997

Baro. pressure correction factor 1.003

Total correction factor ????

SLIDE 16

• Total correction With all the correction factors calculated, the next step is to multiply

factor them times each other to arrive at the total correction factor:

1.012 x 1.050 x .997 x 1.003 = 1.063

LEGV5151-02 - 45 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

Fuel density correction factor 1.012

Fuel temperature correction factor 1.050

Air temperature correction factor 0.997

Baro. pressure correction factor 1.003

Total correction factor 1.063

SLIDE 17

• High fuel The total correction factor shows that performance will be reduced by

temperature is main 6.3%. The main reason is the high fuel temperature. The expected

reason for low

power in this

horsepower under these operating conditions can be calculated by

example dividing the rated horsepower by the total correction factor (see next

slide).

LEGV5151-02 - 46 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Sample Problem

expected from our example

3406C rated 425 hp @ 2100?

SLIDE 18

• 15 or more HP is As seen, the exected horsepower is 400. This would more than likely

noticeable cause a performance complaint. Generally, a loss of 15 horsepower or

more can be noticed by the operator.

• If measured, Note: If the engine horsepower had been an actual measured value, we

multiply

would multiply the measured value by the TCF to get a corrected

horsepower value. This corrected value should then be within +/- 3% of

rated power.

LEGV5151-02 - 47 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

POWER CURVES

Set Point

FTS

FLS

Set Point –

Governed speed +

Set point: The point at which 20 rpm

the rack screw is in contact

with the torque spring 10% to

45% of the time

SLIDE 19

• Set point definition Set Point is the rpm at which the full load screw is in contact with the

torque spring between 10% and 45% of the time. If we then load the

engine down 20 more rpm below set point, the full load screw will be

first in contact with the torque spring 100 percent of the time, which is

the FLS or governed point. Therefore, governed is always 20 rpm

below where we find set point. We set governed speed by use of set

point, since we can not exactly determine the first point of 100 percent

contact.

Set point is a critical engine adjustment, because it affects the rpm

• Critical adjustment

where governed point, FLS, FTS, and rated horsepower will occur.

LEGV5151-02 - 48 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

POWER CURVES

Raise High Idle

Horsepower

FTS

FLS

SLIDE 20

• Effect of raising Now, let’s consider the effect of adjusting high idle to a higher rpm.

High Idle (set point, When high idle is raised, the rpm at which we achieve FLS goes up.

FLS, FTS also

increase)

Since FLS rpm is higher, set point is higher. The reason for this is that

spring rate does not change, so the intersection point of FLS and the

droop curve occurs at a higher rpm.

• Fuel rate is higher Since we get FLS at a higher rpm, fuel rate at the new governed speed is

higher. This happens because we get the same injection volume as we

had before at FLS, but there are more injections per unit of time. The

same is true of FTS setting and fuel rate. The new fuel rate and

horsepower curves are represented by the yellow curve in this slide.

• Peak torque rpm not As high idle rpm is increased, set point goes up on almost a one-to-one

affected

ratio. The governed point, FLS, and FTS go up a like amount, but peak

torque rpm does not change. Peak torque rpm is a function of engine

characteristics, such as turbocharger size and design. Therefore it is not

affected by changine the high idle adjustment.

• Larger operating

range Since peak torque rpm doesn’t change, the engine has an increased

LEGV5151-02 - 49 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

increased enough to cause set point to be out of tolerance (too high) the

engine could be operated outside its emissions certification rpm range.

If the engine is operated at the new (higher) governed point, horsepower

will be slightly increased. Of course, nothing is free. The increased

horsepower is due to an increase in fuel consumption.

LEGV5151-02 - 50 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

POWER CURVES

Lower High Idle

Horsepower

FTS FLS

SLIDE 21

• Effect of lowering If high idle is lowered, the rpm at which we achieve set point will go

High Idle (set point, down. Since set point rpm is lower, FLS rpm will be lower. Again, the

FLS, FTS also

decrease)

reason for this is that spring rate does not change. The intersection point

of FLS and the droop curve occurs at a lower rpm.

Since we get FLS at a lower rpm, fuel rate at the new governed speed

will be less. We will get the same injection volume as before the

adjustment, but we will have fewer injections per unit of time. The same

is true of FTS setting and fuel rate. With the lowered fuel rate,

• Peak torque rpm not horsepower will be slightly less. With peak torque rpm remaining

affected

unchanged, the engine’s operating range will be reduced. The new fuel

• Smaller operating rate and horsepower curves are represented by the yellow curve in this

range slide.

LEGV5151-02 - 51 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

POWER CURVES

Raise Rack

SLIDE 22

The rack setting (FLS and FTS adjustment) also affects set point rpm.

• Increased rack

setting gives lower As the rack setting is increased, set point goes down. This happens

set point because the rack can now travel farther before the FLS screw hits the

torque spring. The engine must be loaded to a lower rpm than before, in

order to reach set point. The change in set point is not as dramatic with

a rack setting change as it is with a high idle change.

• Increased rack

Horsepower will be increased in proportion to the amount of rack

setting gives higher change. Fuel consumption will also increase if the extra horsepower is

horsepower used. At times, increased horsepower can actually improve fuel

economy. An example would be a truck engine where the extra

horsepower is only used to prevent the need for downshifting to a lower

gear on a hill.

LEGV5151-02 - 52 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

POWER CURVES

Lower Rack

SLIDE 23

• Lowered rack If the rack setting is decreased, set point rpm will increase. Again, the

setting gives higher change in set point is not as dramatic as it is with an adjustment to high

set point

idle. Horsepower will decrease in proportion to the amount of rack

change. Fuel consumption will decrease in most cases. However, if the

lost horsepower causes premature gear changes (downshifts) in a truck

application, fuel consumption could actually be increased.

• Lowered rack The new fuel rate and horsepower curves are represented by the yellow

setting gives lower curve in this slide.

horsepower

LEGV5151-02 - 53 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Tolerances

• Set Point:

– Checking tolerance = +/- 25 rpm

– Setting tolerance = +/- 10 rpm

SLIDE 24

• Set point regulated Since set point is such a critical adjustment, it has a fairly restrictive

by adjusting high adjustment tolerance. High idle has a much wider allowable rpm range.

idle

We regulate set point by adjusting high idle.

The high idle rpm shown on the engine plate is for the bare engine,

• Installed engine high

idle is less than bare

since there are no external parasitic loads on the engine at the factory

engine high idle test cell. High idle will normally be at a lower rpm when the engine is

installed in its final application. If proper set point cannot be achieved

by adjusting high idle within its tolerance (+40 / -80 rpm from the bare

engine high idle setting), look for the following:

• Parasitic loads • Excessive parasitic load on the engine will cause high idle to be too

low, when set point is correct.

• Weak governor • A weak governor spring will cause high idle to be too high when set

spring point is correct.

LEGV5151-02 - 54 - Lesson Plan 2: Slide/Text Reference

10/02

Lab Assignment

• Adjust as needed

SLIDE 25

Introduce the Set Point lab as described in the next lesson plan.

LEGV5151-02 - 55 - Lesson Plan 3

10/02

Lesson Plan 3 - Set Point Lab

Objectives:

• Working as a group, the students will check set point on a running engine, and make

any necessary adjustments to bring it into the specified tolerance.

Literature Needed:

Using the 6V2100 Multitach SEHS7807

Using the 6V4060 Set Point Indicator Group SEHS7931

Using the 9U7400 Multitach II Group NEHS0605

Using the 4C6821 Injection Line Pickup Group SEHS9363

Hardware Needed:

Loadable engine that has set point

Hand Tools

6V2100 Multitach

6V4060 Set Point Indicator

4C6821 Injection Line Pickup

9U7400 Multitach II Group

Time Required:

1.00 Hour

1. Distribute and discuss handouts for set point tooling:

A. Using the 6V2100 Multitach (SEHS7807)

B. Using the 6V4060 Set Point Indicator Group (SEHS7931)

C. Using the 4C6821 Injection Line Pickup Group (SEHS9363)

D. Using the 9U7400 Multitach II Group (NEHS0605)

2. Take the students to the lab to check set point on a loadable engine.

A. Have them follow the Special Instruction literature to connect and program the

6V2100 Multitach and the 6V4060 Set Point Indicator Group to the engine.

B. Have them check the engine oil and coolant levels.

LEGV5151-02 - 56 - Lesson Plan 3

10/02

B. Demonstrate loading the engine to measure set point.

C. Have each student load the engine to measure set point and record their numbers.

D. Have students calculate the average of the last five readings taken. (These

readings may vary somewhat from initial readings, due to the engine oil

temperature increase during the lab.)

E. If necessary, have them adjust high idle to achieve the correct set point, and

repeat the test.

F. Demonstrate the use of the 9U7400 Multitach II Group, pointing out its

advantages:

1. Display can show data for two engines simultaneously.

2. Display can hold set point value in memory.

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