Sunteți pe pagina 1din 26

MINING: Through Economy or Environment

A Research Paper

Submitted to the Department of

College of Engineering Architecture and Technology
Palawan State University
In Fulfilment of the Requirements in
Research Project for Chemistry 1


The Researchers of Civil Engineering-CE1B

Maulad, Mohammad Zirwan U.

Bernas, Rajid D.
Pajarito, Edbert
Silang, Andrew C.

October 2018

Mining industries provide most of the materials we rely on to build infrastructures and
instruments of daily use, to obtain large amounts of energy, and to supply agriculture with
fertilizers that enable most of foods produced. At the same time, mining is the human activity
that has been more disturbing to environment and is linked to large social impacts and
inequalities. Notwithstanding, our future is deeply depending on mining. Several mining sectors,
from phosphate to uranium, are reviewed and their current impacts and challenges are discussed.
The mining legacy and environmental remediation, the present mining and challenges, and the
future mining and society are discussed in relationship with environmental health and sustainable
development. It is concluded that current mining practices need to change and contribute to
community development with more equity, and to protect better natural resources and
ecosystems in order to be environmentally acceptable and compliant with sustainable
development objectives.

This study used secondary data and studies from previous researchers who conducted
similar topic and improve it accordingly.

This study summarizes how important have been past mining activities and how important
it can be in the future, at least for some types of mining, and discusses the effects of mining, the
trends in mining impacts on environment and society, and how they shall avoid compromising
sustainable development.

The researchers humbly dedicate this work to God Almighty, for always giving the strength and

faith and One who have made this endeavor fruitful. To their beloved Parents who has been their

source of hope, support and inspiration in making this research.


This research project was made possible through the support offered by;

Dr. Ramon M. Docto President of Palawan State University, for giving the researchers
the opportunity to avail the facilities of the college;

Engr. Elucila M. Sespeñe, Dean of the CEAT college of Palawan State University., for
her approval to conduct the study in their school;

Ms. Liezl Aquino Florendo Tangonan, the adviser, for her guidance and assistant in
writing the research paper;

The interviewee who responded to our call to get their ideas of the research project;

The teachers, parents, friends and classmates for giving the researchers encouragements
and inspirations to finish the paper;

Lastly, to God Almighty for always being there throughout the times, in hardship, stress,
joy, and learning's when the researchers made this research paper. To Him, the humblest and
greatest gratitude are given.

By the Researchers
Approval Sheet

To fulfill the requirements for Research in Chemistry I, the researcher of Block B

BSCE of Palawan State University SY 2018-2019 conducted a research entitled:“MINING:

Through Economy or Environment” This research was prepared and presented to their

subject teacher, Mrs. Liezl Florendo Tangonan.

All the data contained in this research was researched, sorted and prepared by the

researcher students of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering Block B of Palawan State

University SY 2018-2019.

This researched was accepted as one of our requirements or final examination in Final

Grading as mentioned in our subject by Mrs. Liezl Florendo Tangonan.

Mrs. Liezl Aquino Florendo Tangonan

Subject Teacher
Table of Contents


 List of Figures, Tables or Charts II

 Chapter I- Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Significance of Study 3
 Chapter II- Review of Related Studies/Literature 4
 Chapter III- Methodology 12
 Chapter IV- Results, Findings and Analysis 12
 Chapter V- Summary and Conclusion 14
5.1 Summary 25
5.2 Conclusion 25
 References 31
 Appendices 33
MINING: Through Economy or Environment



1. Background of the Study

This study aims to determined the roles of mining in Palawan, its effects, advantages and
disadvantages to the environment, and the Palaweño people. This study also seeks to inform its
audience what is mining all about and what it does to the economy and the environment,

Scientific Problem

From the dawn since mankind set foot in the Mother Earth, they have been practicing
mining for a long time now. We can trace back to the age of medieval era to the Roman empire,
how they extracted metals such as gold, silver, copper and bronze for tools, weapons, garments,
and treasures.

Mining industries in the modern world, provide many of the raw materials for equipment
we use daily, from aluminum cans up to electronic chips of cell phones and computers. To arrive
here, metal mining steadily increased over the centuries, with occasional “ rushes” for several
minerals (silver, gold, radium, etc.) which occurred in connection with booms in demand. The
common mining practice until very recently could be summarized in a few steps: from obtaining
a license, dig the ore, sell the metal, and, once the deposit was exhausted, walk‐away and start
another mine elsewhere (Jain et al. 2016; EB 2017). Not surprisingly, mining is among the
human activities with widest environmental and social impacts.

Herein, several mining sectors are revisited to highlight mining procedures, their effects,
and current challenges. Mining for base metals (e.g. Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni) and energy fuels (oil,
gas, coal, and uranium) requires large investments, and it is capital intensive, being carried out
mostly by major corporate companies. However, precious metals (e.g. Au, Ag, and Ta) in many
regions are often targeted by artisanal mining also. All have deep environmental impacts. The
legacy of radium and uranium mines in Europe is used to illustrate old mining practices, their
environmental and social impacts, and remediation costs. New mining projects are expected
today to incorporate lessons from past mining activities and meet societal and development
needs in a more efficient and less damaging way to the environment.


"Mining: Through Economy or Environment"

This statement of the problem focuses on the Palawan's future as the Last frontrier in the
Philippines-- as mining companies continuously increased in numbers to extract its rich natural
What can you do about this? Let the mine companies take it all for the sake of progress, or
would you chose to protect and preserve the environment?

The questions below follow the scientific problem.

1. Who are the Major stockholders of mining in Palawan?

2.What are advantages and disadvantages of mining in terms of:

a. Economy
b. Nature (water, air, soil etc. )
c. Wild life
d. People
e. Livelihood

3. What are the factors that led the society to choose mining through economy over

4. Is there significant relationship between economy and environment when it comes to mining?
Significance of the study

The study will benefit the following:

The student. This study will help the students to understand and learn some of the ideas
regarding mining. Its advantages and disadvantages to society and environment. It will also help
them to gain awareness even if it’ s just a glimpse of what mining looks like.
The professional individual. This study will not only help the students but other
professional individual as well, it will serve as a different point of view and stand point coming
from youth or young researchers.
The community. This study will help a lot to the community if given the chance to
improve and studied for more verification of the facts and sources cited in the study. As to it
pertains to a very interesting topic of the timely issue in our environment. To the palaweños, they
would be aware of what really is happening with the mining being done in palawan.also, they
can be enlightened whether the impacts brought by mining is good or bad. And also to know the
possible damages on both physical and mental state of humans. Also, for them to know how to
wary of the risks mining can give, especially the irresponsible ones. Also, to know how mining
improves the quality of life of Palaweños
The mining operators, companies and such. This study will help them to know the
possible ways to avoid or at least reduce the bad effect of mining in Palawan biodiversity. This
study also aims to become the starting point for them to acknowledge the do's and don'ts to
become responsible mining corporation,operators. And also it aims to start building relationship
with the local communities especially for those people who are prone to the possible hazards of
The government. This study will also help the government by giving them some ideas
and concern of the people like the researchers does. So that they would be aware what should
the government do to make mining more environmentally friendly. And also, help them to be
aware that the government should set a standard to regulates every mining corporation in order
to accept the responsible one and reject the irresponsible one.
The future researchers. This study will serve as one of the best source for related studies
of the same kind. It is worth of a further and more thorough research and as for future
researchers, they can improve and fill the deficiency of this research.


Research suggests that moral concerns about mining's environmental impact have less
sway when money is on the line.

by Nathan Collins, aug 13, 2015

For many of us, protecting the environment is a moral imperative, one that we wouldn't
compromise for any amount of money. At least, that's what we like to think. According to a new
study, moral convictions may go out the window more easily than we'd like to admit when
money's on the line.

Take a look around, and it's not hard to see that both morals and money contribute to our
decisions, including environmental ones. Though organized religion's relationship with the
environment is complicated to say the least, religious figures throughout history have felt a moral
calling to protect the natural world. More recently, Pope Francis cast environmental issues in a
social—and therefore moral—light. Yet money is a strong pull, too, and we might not always feel
like we have a choice between taking care of our planet and simply getting by. But when does
one trump the other?



Searching for an answer, Brock Bastian, a psychologist at the University of New South
Wales, and Airong Zhang and Kieran Moffit, researchers at Australia's Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, turned their attention to mining, a textbook case
where environmental concerns come head to head with economic benefits.

The researchers contacted 7,463 people in mining and non-mining regions in Australia,
Chile, and China, and inquired about their feelings on mining. To measure moral convictions,
survey participants stated how strongly, on a scale of one to seven, they agreed with statements
such as "Mining threatens values that are important to me," or "My attitude toward mining is a
matter of principle." The researchers measured participants' beliefs about economic benefits
similarly, using questions about personal benefits from mining as well as mining's contributions
to the national economy. Finally, they asked participants to rate the degree to which they
accepted mining in their countries, along with demographic information such as age, sex, and so

As one would probably expect, both moral conviction and perceived economic benefits
"had a direct effect on acceptance of mining," the team writes in the journal PLoS One. That is,
such people who had stronger moral convictions or perceived fewer economic benefits were less
likely to support mining. But, more importantly, the authors explain, moral convictions had
about a third less impact on acceptance of mining when people perceived greater economic
benefits from mining. In other words, it wasn't just a matter of weighing morals against
economics—moral qualms about mining simply didn't matter as much to people when there was
money on the line.

"This suggests that although people are motivated to act in accordance with their moral
convictions, the salience of economic rewards can motivate them to consider their own and
others resources needs," Bastian, Zhang, and Moffit write, "thereby, reducing the influence of
their moral convictions in resource decision making."


Mining activities are not new and indeed may have started in Neolithic (Chalcolithic)
times to obtain the first metals for tool fabrication (Reardon 2011). In the Classic Greece and in
the Roman Empire, many mines were exploited for production of iron, lead, copper, gold, and
other metals. Many of those old mines are still known, and some have been operated over several
centuries or were rediscovered (Fernandez‐Lozano et al. 2015). With time, mining have
expanded and increasing amounts of fossil fuels (e.g. coal) and metals (e.g. iron) were extracted
in quantities generally commensurate with man power available and thus with human population
over the centuries. With technological developments, especially with explosives and machinery,
mining could expand further on the 19th century and sky rocketed during the 20th century (EB,
2017). In the last quarter of the 20th century, new and harsh environments, such as ice‐covered
regions and the deep-sea floor, started to be mined for oil, natural gas, and metals. This trend will
continue and new frontiers might be trespassed soon.

The comparative importance of mining and contribution to the world Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) during the last century shows an increase by a factor of 27 in ores and minerals
production, and by a factor of 8 in total materials extraction, while GDP raised 23‐fold (Fig. 1).
A clear first role of mining in the global average economic growth is highlighted in this
assessment (UNEP, 2011).

Global material extraction in billion tons and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth, in
the period 1900‐2005 (Reproduced from UNEP, 2011).

Mining activities are very diverse and may have different ecological footprints. Past
mining activities left such imprints in the environment, but two issues in particular are of major
and worldwide importance: mine tailings and acid mine drainage. Tailings in general are
voluminous and contain toxic elements that may be released and introduced in the biogeosphere
(Nordstrom 2011; Jain et al. 2016). Acid mine drainage often results from exposure of rock
minerals and ore deposits to water and oxygen facilitating the mobilization of chemical elements
and increasing their concentrations in waters and food chains, with detrimental effects on
ecosystems’ health and human health (Carvalho et al. 2007, 2016 a, b; Hudson‐Edwards et al.
2011; Nordstrom 2011). This mining legacy was accumulated over centuries but only in the last
quarter of the 20th century its environmental and human health impacts were finally recognized.
Since then, there has been a significant development of legislation for environmental and
sanitary protection, and some actions were started to deal with industrial legacy through clean
up, remediation, and rehabilitation projects. These remediation actions started in USA with the
Superfund project in 1980 and so far have been implemented mainly in North America and West
Europe (Mudroch et al. 2002; EPA, 2017).

As a side effect of environmental legislation development and increased costs of waste

management, mining moved from developed countries to other regions. Today, international
companies often mine for oil, coal, gas, uranium, rare earth elements, and fine metals in regions
far from the big consumer markets and final users. Mining regions are now often located in
remote areas of north of Canada and Australia, and in developing countries in South America,
Asia, and Africa, often with less stringent mining laws and weaker environmental regulations
(Miranda et al. 1998; World Bank, 2002, 2017a). Mining impacts, including waste streams and
social impacts, were, therefore, generally transferred from developed and densely inhabited
regions to other regions.



- We are confident that our mining practice indeed followed environmental rules and

regulations thus, not violating any of the environmental laws present. Let’s us look on the

positive side and opportunities that our company gives to the Filipino people.


- Palawan is indeed a bulk of natural resource. Everything in its perimeter is fruitful and

full of grace. Our mining project promises numerous benefits and advantages that lead to more

opportunities for Filipino people in the long run.


- Philippines is indeed rich in mineral resources that needed to be engaged into. Our

international mining corporation strictly follows the nation’s environmental laws and regulations

so as not to adversely affect our mining practice.


- Truly, mining is indeed a great investment, and Palawan is the land wherein mining

projects have a great future. Every corporation that showed their interest in putting up their
mining projects in Palawan had been tested and well-oriented about the rules, regulations, and

laws they need to prioritize. Regards to this, we assure the people in Palawan that these mining

corporations and projects doesn’t pose threats and risks to our fellow people and to Palawan

itself, and if there are any of the violations proved by any of the mining corporations, we promise

that these will be dealt with by law.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mining

Benefits of mining include supply of raw materials needed for construction of roads and

hospitals or manufacturing of products, such as automobiles; employment creation; source of

income; and foreign exchange for the mining country. Mined substances are used to build houses

and make computers and satellites. Electricity is also generated from mined materials.Well-

structured mining engages with the locals and provides them with jobs, raising the living

standards of the community. Revenues generated from mining activities help in developing

facilities, such as schools, hospitals and other social amenities. These activities promote business

enterprise in the mining regions. For instance, they promote growth in rental houses to provide

accommodation for miners. Growth in businesses, such as hotels, is expected to cater to worker

needs. Mining resources are important foreign exchange earners and contribute significantly to

gross domestic product.

Mining is a source of mineral resources important for maintaining and upgrading living

standards. It is the extraction of valuable and non-renewable minerals or other geological

substances from the earth. Materials acquired through mining include metals, limestone, rock

salt, gemstone, coal, oil, gravel, gold and clay. Mining is intended to obtain resources that cannot

be produced through agricultural activities or manufactured artificially in a laboratory or factory.


Better legislation and regulations - Standard legislation concerning the efficiency of

mining is a long way off from being the most productive and most strict government mandates

that exists today. Obviously these regulations differ between nations, with some countries more

advanced in terms of their legislation than others, however the need for improvement is always

there in this industry, which inevitably causes some environmental damage.

Improving environmental performance - Mining impacts the environment in unnatural

ways, which not only disrupts its natural decaying process, but also does more damage long-term

than natural erosion processes. With exorbitant numbers of materials excavated and used daily, it

is important to see that this destruction is actually going towards productive use.

Case studies from mines around the world have provided numerous success stories of

corporations and private mines alike being able to build new construction and infrastructure from

the reusable materials that a mine site presents. For example, aluminum can be substituted as a

recyclable material rather than using bauxite ore, which is a rarer and less reusable item.

Closing and reclaiming sites of shut-down mines - The main objective in the reclaiming

process is to return the sire and the land which surrounds it back to reusable standards, ensuring

that any landforms and structures are stable, and why watercourses need to be evaluated in order

to regain water quality within the affected area.

Investing in research and development of Green Mining Technology - The mining industry is

one that is always in need of proper research and development in order to make sure the industry
to ever-changing with today’s commitment to sustainability and turning the world into a more

“green friendly’ place. Through either state of federal agencies, collecting funding and allowing

that funding to be dispersed into ROD funds for Green Mining can be one way to positively

impact the environment before and after mining projects. By pushing the envelope and never

letting the future slip too far from reach, staying ahead can prevent unnecessary waste in the

sense of less reusable materials, better efficiency and a better understood industry.

Replenishing the environment - A seemingly simple but rarely prioritized activity,

replenishing mine sites and mine environments is one of the key factors to not only earning the

respect and cooperation of those living near the mine, but will ultimately protect the mine’s

impact on the environment. Simple solutions like replenishing native soils and grasses, cleaning

excess waste, proper waste removal, site inspections and replanting trees and natural forestry can

rejuvenate a long-term ecosystem repair and sustain the environment for years beyond when the

mine is no longer operating. The entire reclamation process should include: removing hazardous

materials, reshaping land, restoring topsoil, and planting native grasses, trees or ground cover

natural to the site.

Improving the efficiency of manufacturing processes - By targeting the goal of closely

monitoring the standard mining supply chain, mining industry giants will be forced to confront

the ways in which a company can improve its efficiency by seeing exactly where the

organization is lacking in terms of sustainability and green mining initiatives. This supervision of

the manufacturing process is essential in order to develop new ways of thinking, new metrics,

and new management.

The PCSD was created by SEP Law. Section Law states:

"SEC. 16 Palawan Council for Sustainable Development. -The governance, implementation and

policy direction of the Strategic Environmental Plan shall be exercised by the herein created

Palawan Council FOR Sustainable Development (PCSD), hereinafter referred to as the Council,

which shalbe under the Office of the President. It shall be composed of the Members of the

House of the Representatives representing the province of Palawan, the Deputy Director

Genereal of the National Economic and Development Authoritt, the Undersecretary of

Environment and Natural Resources, the Undersecretary fo Special Concerns of the Department

of Agriculture, the Governor of Palawan, the Mayor of Puerto Princesa City, th President of

Mayor's League of Palawan, the President of the Provincial Chapter of the Liga ng mga

barangay, the Executive Director of the Palawan council for Sustainable Development Staff as

provided in Section 20 of this act, and such other members from the public or private sectors as

the majority of the council mqy deem neccessary"



The following method or strategy was used by the researchers to address the scientific


Using the secondary research procedure, the researchers use the secondary data from

several online resources for data gathering. The researchers base their findings from previous

studies and reanalyzed it. They also collects the data from credible case study and websites that

conducted similar concern of the topic regarding the mining, the economy and the environment.

Results, Findings and Analysis

1. Who are the major stockholders of mining in Palawan

According to the Chemical Engineering Department of Batangas State University research

paper, the major stockholders of mining in Palawan are: Macro Asia, Rio Tuba Nickel Mining

Corporation, London-based Toledo Mining Corporation and the government.

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mining through economy or


Some of the advantage of mining is through economy, as the source of raw materials for
building and construction, and manufactured goods such as metals for tools and equipment for
industrial used. It also helps increase the GDP in a country, increased job opportunity, and
standard living of the community involved. As what Collins studies found, "the comparative
importance of mining and contribution to the world Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during the
last century shows an increase by a factor of 27 in ores and minerals production, and by a factor
of 8 in total materials extraction, while GDP raised 23‐fold (Fig. 1). A clear first role of mining
in the global average economic growth is highlighted in this assessment (UNEP, 2011)."

Global material extraction in billion tons and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth, in
the period 1900‐2005 (Reproduced from UNEP, 2011).

3. What are the factors that led the society to choose mining through economy over

According to the findings in study of Nathan Collins although people are motivated to act
in accordance with their moral convictions, the salience of economic rewards can motivate them
to consider their own and others resources needs. Life is very hard for many palaweños, when it
comes to money, they would accept it blindly despiye knowing mining would damage the

4. Is there significant relationship between economy and environment when it comes to


In the said studies, they conducted a research, took a surveys, analyzing each data and came into
conclusions that "Moral qualms about minning simply didn't matter as much to people when
there was money on the line." Both morals and money contribute to the people's decisions,
including environmental ones.

5. Conclusion and Recommendations


1. There are four major stockholders of mining in Palawan, and they are the Macro Asia,

Riotuba Nickel Mining Corporations, London-based Toledo Mining Corporation and the


2. There are advantages and disadvantages in mining when it comes to the people, the

environment and economy. Mining can be good for economy since it provides raw materials for

construction, manufacturers, and production of labor. It increases the GDP of the country,

increases job rates, as well as the standard living of the people. But it can also be negative for

the environment as well as the health of the people in the vicinity of mining operation. Mining

can destroy the environment like soil, air, and bodies of water such as rivers and ocean when

waste management are not done properly.

3. There are different factors that lead the people to keep choosing mining over environment

especially when there's money involved. Life is hard for many Palaweños, and money is one of
the greatest factors that led to execution of even illegal mining especially to places that has less

regulated environment legislation.

4. There is significant relationship between the economy and environment when it comes to

mining. In the studies found of Nathan Collins, it arrived to conclusions that "Moral qualms

about minning simply didn't matter as much to people when there was money on the line." In

other word the economy. Both morals and money contribute to the people's decisions, including

environmental ones. Despite the progress, people can't just disregard the environment, beacuse

in the end, what you do in your environment will be given back to you.


1. To the Mining Operators and such;

 should take a more proactive approach to identifying and controlling hazards.

 The mining program should increase interaction with other NIOSH programs, including

the Respiratory Disease Program, and individual programs within the Division of Safety

Research and the Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies.

Ideally, research personnel with medical, epidemiological, engineering, geological, and

industrial hygiene experience should work together as a research team to help address

workplace issues including work organization research.

 The mining program should stay aware of pertinent current and emerging research,

including international research, and be prepared to act on potential health and safety


 The Mining Program should be prepared to provide recommendations to safeguard health

and safety as best strategies for mining deep resources aredeveloped.


A. Online resources

 Environmental Risks of Mining. (n.d.). Retrieved from

 Survival International. (n.d.). Palawan: Mining threat. Retrieved from

 Mining not biggest environmental issue anymore in Palawan – PNNI's Exec. (2017,
February 06). Retrieved from

 I. (n.d.). Bishop: Palawan mining big blow to environmental protection. Retrieved

October 7, 2018, from

 Blanco, N., & K. (2011, April 14). Krusada: Mining in Palawan. Retrieved from

 Mining and its Effects on the Environment. (2011, March 22). Retrieved from

 Rio Tuba Nickel Mining Corporation. (n.d.). Retrieved from

 Responsible Mining Made Real. (n.d.). Retrieved from

 Nieves, R. V. (n.d.). GOVPH. Retrieved from

Curriculum Vitae

Name: Edbert A. Pajarito

Address: Brgy. Sta. Monica, PPC,Palawan

Contact No.: 09664355972

Email Address:

Birthdate: May 30, 1999

Age: 19

Gender: Male

Course: BSCE

Name: Zirwan Muhammad Maulad

Address: Puerto Princesa City, Palawan

Contact No.: 09260875539

Email Address:

Birthdate: October 16, 1997

Age: 20

Gender: Male

Course: BSCE
Name: Andrew Silang

Address: Brgy. Sta. Monica, PPC,Palawan

Contact No.: 09171234533

Email Address:

Birthdate: January 21, 2000

Age: 18

Gender: Male

Course: BSCE

Name: Rajid Bernas

Address: Puerto Princesa City, Palawan

Contact No.: 09468150932

Email Address:

Birthdate: September 10, 1999

Age: 17

Gender: Male

Course: BSCE