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CHAPTER 9: Database Management Systems Backup and recovery

Database usage reporting.


1. Five general duties of the database Administrator: Database access.
Database Planning
Design 6. Ex pla i n the re la ti ons hi p be twe e n the thr ee
Implementation le v e ls of the da ta de finiti on language. As a
Operation and Maintenance user, which level would you be most interested in?
Plan for change and growth
There are three levels of Data Definition Language,
2. Four primary elements of the database namely
environment:
Users :Internal View (Physical View) is the physical
Database Mgnt. System arrangement of records inthe database, the lowest level
Database Admin.
of representation.
Physical Database
C o n c e p t u a l V i e w ( L o g i c a l V i e w / S c h e m a )
3. Network and hierarchical models difference:
A network model is a database model that is designed as d e s c r i b e s t h e e n t i r e database. It represents the
a flexible approach to representing objects and their database logically and abstractly.
relationships. A hierarchical database is a design that
uses a one-to-many relationship for data elements. External View (User View/Subschema) defines the
user’s section of thedatabase, the portion that individual
4. Flat-file data management problems are solved as user is authorized to access.
a result of using the database concept
No data redundancy. As a user, I will be most interested in the
Single update conceptual view or schema because I want to view
Current values. the entire database as a whole.
Task-data independence.

5. Four ways in which DBMS provide a controlled 7. Primary key


environment to manage user access and the data A special relational database table column designated to
resources uniquely identify all table records.
Program development.
8. Foreign key (1:1), Describes a situation in which record in one
A column or group of column in a relational database entity is always associated with one record in
table that provides a link between data in two tables. associated with one entity. For example, a company
laptop computer is assigned to only one manager, and
every manager is assigned only one laptop.
9. Data dictionary and its purpose:
It describes every data element in the database. This (1:M), . A one-to-many means that for every occurrence
enables all users (and programmers) to share a common in record type in record type X, zero, one, or many
view of the data resource and greatly facilitates the occurrences exist of record type Y. Example is buyer
analysis of user needs. assigned seating at concerts.

10. Give an application for a partitioned database. (M:M). A many-to-many association is two-way
It splits the central database into segments or partitions relationship, for occurrence of record t y p e X a n d Y,
that are distributed to their primary users. zero, one or many occurrence exist or
r e c o r d t y p e Y a n d X , respectively. An example
11. Entity refers to anything about which the organization would be a student- professor relationship. Each
wishes to capture data. It may be physical, such as student has a multiple professors each semester, and
inventories, customers, or employees or conceptual such each professor has multiple students each semester.
as sales, A/R or A/P.
14. Distinguish between association and cardinality.
12. Give an application for a replicated database. An association defines a relationship between two entity
Refers to a technique through which an instance of a objects based on common attributes. While cardinality is
database is exactly copied to, transferred to or integrated the degree of association between two entities
with another location.
15.
13. Discuss and give example of the following types
of association: (1:0,1), (1:1), (1:M),and (M:M). 16. Four characteristics of properly designed
relational database tables
(1:0,1). A one-to-one means that for every occurrence in 1. The value of at least one attribute in each occurrence
record type X, either zero or one occurrence exist of (row) must be unique.
record type Y. Example for every employee, only one 2. All attribute values in any column must be of the same
social security exist. class.
3. Each column in a given table must be uniquely named.
4. Tables must conform to the rules of normalization. CHAPTER 11: Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

17. Relational features restrict, project, and join :


Restrict - extracts specified rows from a specified table.
Project - extracts specified attributes (columns) from a 1. ERP - systems are multiple module software packages
table to create a virtual table. that evolved primarily from traditional manufacturing
Join - builds a new physical table from two tables resource planning (MRP II) systems.
consisting of all concatenated pairs of rows, from each
table. 2. Closed database architecture - Under this approach,
a database management system is used to provide
18. minimal technological advantage over flat-file system.

19. 3. Core applications - are those applications that


operationally support the day-to-day activities of the
20. Data model is the blueprint for ultimately creating the business. Also called online transaction processing apps.
physical database.
(sales and distribution, business planning, production
21. planning)

22. User view - defines how a particular user sees the 4. Online analytical processing (OLAP) includes
portion of the database that he or she is authorized to decision support, modeling, information retrieval, ad hoc
access. reporting/analysis, and what-if analysis.

23. 5. Client-server model - is a distributed communication


framework of network processes among service
24. requestors, clients and service providers.

25. 6. Two-tier client-server model - the server handles


both application and database duties.

7. Three-tier client-server model – The database and


application functions are separated.
8. Bolt-on software - is software that can be easily 19.
attached to a client project, for example, a website.
20. Role - is a formal technique for grouping together
9. SCM software – is the management of set of activities users according to the system resources they need to
associated with moving goods from the raw materials perform their assigned tasks.
stage to the consumer.
21. Access control list - specifies the user-ID, the
10 Changed data capture - refers to software that resources available to the user, and the level of
records database data activity for tracking purposes from permission granted such as read only, edit, or create.
enterprise database transaction logs.
11. Data warehouse - is a relational or multidimensional 22.
database that may consume hundreds of gigabytes or
even terabytes of disk storage 23.
12. Data mining – is the process of analyzing hidden
patterns of data according to different perspectives for 24.
categorization into useful information.
25.
13. Data cleansing mean – involves filtering out or
repairing invalid data prior to being stored in the 26.
warehouse.
14. 27. Slicing and dicing - enables the user to examine
15. Drill-down approach – permits disaggregating data data from different viewpoints. It is often performed along
to reveal the underlying details that explain certain a time axis to depict trends and patterns.
phenomena.

16. Big bang approach – is a method that involves


getting rid of the existing system and transferring all
users to the new system simultaneously.

17. Scalability - is the system’s ability to grow smoothly


and economically as user requirements increase.

18.