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J. Env. Bio-Sci., 2014: Vol.

28 (2): 155-158 ISSN 0973-6913 (Print), ISSN 0976-3384 (On Line)

EFFECT OF HERBICIDES (ALONE OR IN COMBINATION) ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC


PIGMENTS AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENTS ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
Nitasha Thakur, Neelam Sharma, Esha Sharma and Suresh Kumar
Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland management.CSK HPKV, Palampur-176062
email: sharma_neelam29@rediffmail.com

Received: 12-07-2014 Accepted: 12-09-2014


An experiment was conducted with wheat variety HPW-155 to study the effect of different herbicides viz. metsulfuron methyl,
clodinafop propargyl, metsulfuron methyl+ clodinafop propargyl, isoproturon + 2,4 -D at different doses along with control on
chlorophyll and carbohydrate content in wheat at different growth stages. Plant samples collected at different intervals after
herbicide application were subjected to biochemical analysis. Weed control treatments increased significantly the concentration
of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carbohydrate content in comparison to control. Application of isoproturon + 2,4-
D (1000g/ha + 500g/ha) at all the observation stages, significantly influenced the photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrate
content and resulted in higher value for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carbohydrate content. The correlation studies between
total chlorophyll and total carbohydrate revealed positive correlation and per cent level of significance worked out at 1 per cent and
5 per cent showed that all herbicide treatments at zero 15, 45, 75 and 90 days after herbicides spray were significant at 5 per cent
whereas at 30 Days after spray was significant at 1 per cent.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important to take place. While herbicide molecule alters the metabolism
cereal crops and the entire world depends upon the wheat of the plant, the latter degrades the structure and activity of
production as a major source of food. The crop has multipurpose herbicide molecules by various biochemical processes.
utility owing to its richness in carbohydrates, proteins, starch Depending upon the altered nature of herbicide metabolites in
and vitamins and wheat grain represent an important source the plant, the growth and development of crop plant is affected.
of food and energy. Weed control plays an important role in Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate
influencing wheat production and quality. The acute problem the effect of individual and in combination of herbicides on
of grassy weeds along with broad leaf weeds is also not photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate content of wheat.
uncommon in many parts of country and often results in huge
MATERIALS AND METHODS
yield losses and makes the weed management issue more
complex1-2. Weeds caused 55.7% reduction in wheat grain A field experiment on wheat crop with nine weed control
yield3. Combination of Isoproturon+ 2, 4 -D was successful treatments viz. metsulfuron methyl @ 2, 4 and 8 g/ ha;
against complex weed flora and has been recommended to clodinafop propargyl @ 30, 60 and 120 g/ha; clodinafop
the growers. However, sole use of isoproturon and 2, 4-D propargyl 60g/ha+ metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha; isoproturon 1000
continuously for a longer period, lead to development of g/ha+ 2, 4-D 500 g/ha and control was conducted in
resistance. Hence, there is a need to find out some suitable randomized block design with three replications during the
alternative herbicide mixture to tackle the problem of mixed rabi season at the Research Farm of Department of Agronomy,
weed flora. Therefore, now a days metsulfuron methyl and Forages and Grassland Management, Himachal Pradesh
clodinafop propargyl are being recommended for efficient weed Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur. The soil of the experimental
control in wheat. field was silty clay loam in texture and acidic in reaction (pH
5.6). The fresh plants were collected at different intervals of
Herbicides drastically influence all aspects of primary and
time i.e. 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 after herbicide spray and were
secondary metabolism in crops when applied to control
used for biochemical anaysis. Chlorophyll content in fresh
undesirable weeds. Once a herbicide molecule finds its place
wheat plant was estimated by method outlined4 and total
in living tissue of plant, a number of biochemical changes begin
carbohydrates were estimated as per the method5.
Effect of Herbicides (Alone or In Combination) on Photosynthetic (156)

Table-1. Effect of different treatments on total chlorophyll content (mg/g fresh weight) in wheat plant

Table-2. Effect of different treatments on chlorophyll a content (mg/g fresh weight) in wheat plant

Table-3. Effect of different treatments on chlorophyll b content (mg/g fresh weight) in wheat plant
(157) Thakur, Sharma, Sharma and Kumar

Table-4. Effect of different treatments on total carbohydrate content (mg/g dry weight) in wheat plant

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION content of carbohydrate. However, this treatment remained


statistically similar with all treatments except control at 15
Data on effect of different herbicides (alone or in combination)
days after spray; clodinafop propargyl 60g/ha + metsulfuron
at different doses on total content in wheat plant at different
methyl 4g/ha at 30 days after spray; metsulfuron methyl 4g/
time intervals are presented in Table-1. Data revealed that
ha, metsulfuron methyl 8g/ha and clodinafop propargyl 60 g/
different treatments did not influence the total chlorophyll
ha+ metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha at 45 days after spray; clodinafop
content significantly on the day of herbicide application i.e.
propargyl 60 g/ha + metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha at 60 days after
zero day. Among different weed control treatments, significantly
spray and metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha at 90 days after spray in
higher total chlorophyll content was recorded in isoproturon
this regard. Significantly lowest content was recorded in
1000g/ha+2,4-D 500 g/ha at all stages of sampling followed
control.
by metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha. However, isoproturon 1000g/
ha+2,4-D 500 g/ha and metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha treatments The correlations were worked out between total chlorophyll
remained statistically similar with metsulfuron methyl 2g/ha, content and total carbohydrate content at different stages of
clodinafop propargyl 60g/ha and clodinafop propargyl 60g/ha+ sampling. A positive correlation between total chlorophyll and
metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha at 15 days after spray ; clodinafop total carbohydrate content was observed at all the stages of
propargyl 60g/ha and clodinafop propargyl 60 g/ha+ metsulfuron observations i.e. at 0( 2hrs), 15, 30, 45 , 60, 75 and 90 days
methyl 4g/ha at 30 days after spray ; clodinafop propargyl after spray with regression coefficients 0.692, 0.684,
60g/ha + metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha at 75days after spray ; 0.817,0.637, 0.293, 0.658 and 0.746 respectively. The per cent
clodinafop propargyl 60g/ha and clodinafop propargyl 60g/ha+ level of significance worked out at 1 percent and 5 percent
metsulfuron methyl 4g/ha at 90 days after spray. Significantly showed that correlation between total chlorophyll content and
lower content was recorded in control. Almost similar trend total carbohydrate content among all herbicidal treatment at
was observed in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b showing 30 days after spray was significant at 1 per cent whereas, at
significantly higher value for chlorophyll a by treatments 0 (2 hrs), 15, 45, 75 and 90 days after herbicide application
isoproturon 1000g/ha +2,4 -D 500g/ha and metsulfuron methyl were significant at 5 per cent. However, at 60 day after herbicide
4g/ha (Table-2) and significantly higher value for chlorophyll b application correlation was not significant at both levels of
by treatment isoproturon 1000g/ha +2,4 -D 500g/ha (Table-3 ). significance i.e. 1 per cent or 5 per cent.
At zero day after spray, there was no effect on carbohydrate Chlorophyll content is of particular significance in crop
content in wheat plant (Table-4). Among different weed control physiology as an indicator of photosynthetic activity. The lowest
treatments, application of isoproturon1000g/ha +2,4-D 500g/ value of photosynthetic concentrations of chlorophyll a,
ha at all stages of sampling resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll (mg/g fresh weight) of wheat
Effect of Herbicides (Alone or In Combination) on Photosynthetic (158)

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