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1 .

Demonstration (Test for reducing sugar)

Objectives

By the end of the demonstration students should be able to:

- describe the color change that occurs when Benedict’s solution is added to sugar
solution.

-describe negative results for the Benedict’s test

Materials

 Sugar solution
 Benedicts solution
 Water bath
 Bunsen burner
 Tripod
 Two test tubes

Procedure of Benedict’s Test

1. Approximately 1 ml of sample is placed into a clean test tube.

-control in test tube A

-sugar solution in test tube B

2. 2 ml (10 drops) of Benedict’s reagent (CuSO4) is placed in the test tube.

3. The solution is then heated in a boiling water bath for 3-5 minutes.

4. Observe for color change in the solution of test tubes or precipitate formation.

Instruction to

a) Teacher:
 Teacher gives instructions on what students have to do during the demonstration
 Carry out the demonstration as mentioned in the procedure

b) Student:
 Observe while the teacher demonstrates the experiment
 Record the color change of both the test tubes
 Identify the test tube containing the sugar solution
Safety

 Heating the mixture should be a gentle procedure. Don’t try to be quick. Just
keep it plain and gentle.

 While adding the benedicts solution, just make sure that you adding only a
few drops of it. Adding the solution in more quantity could ruin the whole
process.

 During the heating of the solution, make sure that it is not facing any human.
Because on boiling the droplets could escape the test tube and burn the skin
of any person who gets in contact.

Debrief

Discuss about the color change observed

Observation

Solution turns from clear blue, to cloudy green, to yellow and finally forms an
orange –red precipitate.

In general, blue to blue-green or yellow-green is slightly positive, yellowish to bright


yellow is a moderate positive, and bright orange is a very strong positive

Justification

For this experiment a demonstration is chosen due to limitation of time. However,


this practical can be given for students in a real classroom with different
concentration of glucose. So that they will be able to identify various color changes.
Science process skills

Basic skills Observation 


Communication 
Classification 
Measurement 
Inference
Prediction 
Integrated Experimenting
skills Interpreting data
Identifying and controlling variables
Defining operationally
Formulating and testing hypothesis
Manipulative Using and handling science apparatus
skills Maintaining science apparatus correctly and
safely
Cleaning science apparatus correctly
Handling specimen correctly and carefully
Sketch specimen and science apparatus

Student Task

Write down the color change observed in both test tubes.

Test tube A

Test tube B

Which test tube showed a positive result for benedicts test?


2. Whole class doing same activity (Structure and function of a flower)

Objectives

By the end of the practical work students will be able to:

1. Identify, the sepals, petals, stamens and carpels from a flower.


2. State the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers and carpels.

Materials

 Flowers
 2 Cello tape
 2 Scissors
 2 A4 white paper
 2 Scalpel
 4 Markers
 2 weighing boats

Instructions for the students and the teacher

1. Divide the class into 2 groups (2 students in each group)


2. Provide instructions as
3. Using the given flowers to choose a flower to identify the above mentioned
parts.
4. Remove the parts from the flower and paste them on the paper using the tape.
5. Label the parts and write the functions.

Safety

 Be careful while using the scalpel and scissors


 Pollen grain may cause allergies

Debriefing
Discuss the correct answers

Stalk

Part Function
Petal Often large and colored to attract insects
Sepal Protect flower while in bud
The part where the parts of the flower are
Receptacle
attached
Support the flower to make it easily seen by
Stalk
insects and to be able to withstand wind.
Male reproductive part of flower made up of
Stamen
anther and filament
Contain pollen sacs in which pollen grains are
Anther
formed.
Filament Support the anther
Female reproductive part of flower made up of
Carpel
stigma, style and ovary
Stigma Sticky surface which receives pollen grain
Link stigma to ovary through which pollen tube
Style
grows
Contains ovules which develop into seeds when
Ovary
fertilized
Justification
 Provide students with chances to explore
 More hands-on tasks would improve retention of information
 Students would be engaged in the task.

Process skills

Basic skills Observation 


Communication 
Classification
Measurement
Inference
Prediction
Integrated Experimenting
skills Interpreting data
Identifying and controlling variables
Defining operationally
Formulating and testing hypothesis
Manipulative Using and handling science apparatus 
skills Maintaining science apparatus correctly and 
safely
Cleaning science apparatus correctly 
Handling specimen correctly and carefully
Sketch specimen and science apparatus

Whole class in groups doing different activity


Objectives
By the end of the topic students should be able to:

Group A

Identify the seeds and fruit dispersed by the wind from the real specimens
provided to the students at least three objects accurately

 Describe the external features of one named example of wind dispersed fruit or
seed from the given specimen

Group B

Identify the seeds and fruits dispersed by animal from the real specimens
provided to the students at least three objects accurately

Describe the external features of one named example of animal dispersed fruit or
seed from the given specimen

Materials
 Indian tulip tree seed (thespesia populnea)
 Ipil ipil seeds (Leucaena leucocephala)
 Kinbi kaashi – morgosa tree seed (Barringtonia asiatica)
 Fithuroanu -Beef wood fruit (Casuarina litoralis)
 Funa seed ( calophyllum inophyllum)
 Shaggy soldier ( Galinsoga quandriadiata)
 Aamanaka seed – Castor (Ricinus communis)
 Crow foot grass (Dactyloctenium aegyptium)
 Sheet

Instructions
 Divide the class into two groups (group A and B), two student in each group
 All the groups are provided with same examples and non-examples with a sheet
 Group A members are asked to identify wind dispersed fruits or seeds from the
given objects and describe external feature of one named example of wind
dispersed fruit or seed on the given sheet
 Group B members are asked to identify animal dispersed fruit or seed from the
given objects and describe external feature of one named example of animal
dispersed seed or fruit on the given sheet
 Each group is asked to present their work with their reasons for selecting an
object as an example of wind dispersed or animal dispersed fruit or seed

Safety
 Take care while touching some of the specimen as spines are present in some of
the specimens

Debriefing
 What are the common features shared by animal dispersed fruit or seed?
 What are the common features shared by wind dispersed fruit or seed?
 Wind dispersed fruits: ipil ipil seed, fithuroanu, shaggy soldier, crow foot grass
 Animal dispersed fruits: indian tulip seed, kinbi kaashi, funa, aamanaka seed

Justification
 This activity develops social skills
 Develops thinking skills by observing real specimens
 Students feel more confident to tell answers as they are discussed it in groups
Process skills

Basic skills Observation 


Communication 
Classification 
Measurement
Inference
Prediction
Integrated skills Experimenting
Interpreting data 
Identifying and controlling variables
Defining operationally
Formulating and testing hypothesis
Manipulative skills Using and handling science apparatus
Maintaining science apparatus correctly and safely
Cleaning science apparatus correctly
Handling specimen correctly and carefully 
Sketch specimen and science apparatus

Circus of activity /rotating practical activity.

Objectives:

Describe test for starch, fats and protein.


Materials:

Test for starch:

 2 Weighing boats
 Iodine solution
 Bread
 Oil
 Egg albumin

Test for fats

 Ethanol
 2 Test tubes
 2 dropping pipette
 Bread
 Oil
 Egg albumin

Test for proteins

 Biurets reagent
 Bread
 Oil
 Egg albumin

Instructions:

 Divide the class into 2 groups, 2 per group


 There will be three stations, for three different food tests.
 Students will move from one station to the other, once they finish one.
 For each test there will be an instruction sheet provided to them.

Debriefing

Starch test (Station 1)

 Take a piece of bread and keep it in the weighing boat.


 Add two drops of iodine in to the bread.
 Observe and write down your observation

Test for fats (Station 2)

 Add 5cm3 of ethanol into a test tube.


 Then add 2 drops of oil into the test tube containing ethanol.
 Shake till it dissolves.
 Add few cm3 of water in the test tube.
 Write down your observation.

Test for protein (Station 3)

 Add 3cm3 of egg albumen into a test tube.


 Add 3cm3 of biuret reagent.
 Shake gently.

Safety:

 Do not use a burner, ethanol is flammable.


 Use gloves while using iodine solution as it stains.

Debriefing:

 In starch test, a dark blue colouration is formed if starch is present. Brown


colour indicates absence of starch.
 A cloudy emulsion is formed when fats is present.
 Violet colouration is formed when protein is present, and blue colour
indicates absence of protein.

Justification:

a. There are different food tests to be done in the topic “animal nutrition”. So
doing all the tests in one station will be difficult as there will be different
solutions and material for each test. So we planned to conduct it as circus
of activity, where there will be a station for each test.

b. Process skills

Basic skills Observation 


Communication 
Classification
Measurement 
Inference 
Prediction 
Integrated skills Experimenting 
Interpreting data 
Identifying and controlling variables
Defining operationally
Formulating and testing hypothesis
Manipulative Using and handling science apparatus 
skills Maintaining science apparatus correctly and 
safely
Cleaning science apparatus correctly 
Handling specimen correctly and carefully
Sketch specimen and science apparatus