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INTRODUCTION:-

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR:-

Consumer is basic foundation of every business. What consumer sees, thinks, prefers, and

buys is of great importance to marketers to fine tune their marketing offers and achieve high

level of consumer acceptance and satisfaction.

Consumer behaviour referred to as the study of when, why, how, where and what people do

or do not buy products. It blends element from psychology, sociology, anthropology, and

economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually

and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumer such as demographics and

behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people wants. It also tries to access

influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friend, reference, groups, and society

in general.

Consumer Behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the customer

playing the three distinct roles of user, payer, and buyer. Relationship marketing is an

influential asset for customer behaviour analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery

of the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the

customer or buyer. A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer

relationship management. Personalisation, customisation and one-to-one marketing. Social

functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions.

Belch and Belch(1998) define” consumer behaviour as the process and activities people

engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of

products and service so as to satisfy their needs and desires.”


James f Engel (1990) define”consumer behaviour refer to the actions and decision processes

of people who purchase good and service for personal consumption”

The understanding of rural consumer by most marketing and advertising people is thus based

on understanding of urban consumer and long need stereo types. Which ara no longer valid.

The challenge is to examine the rural market without the blinkers of the urban mind set.

A complex set of factor influence rural consumer behaviour. Social norms, tradition, castes,

and social customs have greater influence on the consumer behaviour in rural areas than in

urban areas. The seasonality of agricultural production influences the seasonality of rural

consumers demands given the fact that the landless labours and daily wages earners get their

income in instalments. Their purchasing is restricted to small quantities of product at a time,

mostly on a daily basis or once in two or three days.

Purchase decision processes and preference also show certain characteristics and implication

for the marketers. Exhibitions and road show s act as some of key triggers for information

search behaviour. Opinion leaders and people who are perceived to be knowledgeable play on

informations providers and advisors. Word of mouth has made significance in purchace

decision of rural consumers family members relatives and friends are consulted before

making purchase decision of higher value product. However as the exposure to mass media

and information technology is increasing rural consumer is becoming more informed about

products and services. And their dependence on traditional reference groups is gradually

waning. As a result of increasing role of self help groups and others government institutions

involved in development activity.

Professionals working for such agencies act as reference sources. They tend to exhibit greater

trust in products and endorsed by the government and its agencies. Rural consumer aiso tend

to be more loyal as brand switching has greater perceived risk.


It is said india lives an villages. Rural market with 70% of the totel population of country

offers opportunities and challenges for marketers. The opportunities and challenges for

marketers. The opportunities and challenges for marketers. The opportunities is to help vast

rural market with right kind of product, price, place, and promotion.

The challenge is that majority of villages are thinly populated compelling marketers to think

about innovatlive ways to reach rural consumers. Meals, haats, and self helf groups are one of

the ways to reach rural market cost effectively.

CHARACTERASICS OF RURAL CONSUMERS:-

1-A Scattered market

2-Socio economics position

3-Literacy level

4-Lifestyle

5-Culturally a diverse and hetrogeneous market

The change can be attributted to several factor such as:-

Growth in incom and change in incom distribution.

Growth in education.

Enlarged media reach (particularly television).

Growth interaction with urban communities.

Marketers efforts to reach out the rural market.


Literature Review :-

The researcher reviewed the following literature available on his topics:

 G.I. Heald (1970) “The relationship of intentions to buy consumer durabbles with the

levels of purchace”This paper states the traditional short-term econometric forecasting

models for durables and generally represents expenditure as a function disposable

incom.relative price an index of purchase control and as an estimation of totel stock

of durables.

 J. Pickering (1978) “The Durable Purchasing Behaviour of the individual

Household” He Points out that cross –sectional investigations perform reasonably

well in explaining individual household behaviour. Both in terms of level of outlay on

consumers durables and in identifying purchasers of particular commodities.

 Saikat Banerjee (2008) “Dimensions of Indian culture, core cultural, values and

marketing implications” He explained that the behaviour of a consumer largely

depends on interplay between inner self and outer stimuli. Consumption decision

made in the market cannot be viewed as an independent event. It is closely related

with values and social relationship and cultural allegiance.

 Chattopadhyay Tanmay and Shivani Shraddha (2009)”Do multiple time

consumers also observe imperfectly. The case of automobile consumers in India” He


explained the customers holistic perceptions of the extra value due to brand name.

The researcher also explained that any organization that makes a new product for

society always takes care of products, price, brand name, quality and perceptions of

the consumers. Generally consumer perceptions is that higher price is associated with

better quality of the product which may not be true.

 Prof. Shilpa. S.Kokatnur (2009) “Consumer perception brands. An Empirical

examinations”.in this study researcher observed that consumers on quality , money,

packaging, taste, price, and brand image of products. Therefore there is a need of

making brand image image in front of customer.

 J.Lilly. (2010) “Customer perception and Preference Towords Branded

Products. With Sepical Reference To Telivision sets”. He points out that to move

consumers from trial to preference, brands need to deliver on their value proposition,

as well as dislodge someone else from the customers existing preference sets.

Preference is ascale, and brand moves up, down and even off that scale with and

without a vigilant brand management strategy. Pricing, promotional deals and

products avilability. Aristotle professed,Attaining and sustaining preference is an

important step on the road to gain brand loyalty. This will help to generate more

revenue, gain greater market share and beat off the competition.
 Sumangale and Uppar (2009)‟Purchasing Pratices of consumer durables Among

Farm Familities of gadaj District”He pointed out that selected 5% of villages of

gadaj district for a primary survey. They used purposive sampling for the survey to

require practices of consumer durables. The household purchased food items on a

weekly basis from nearby town.”daily wear “ of women and men and kids were

purchased once in six months. But used credit and instalment system for purchasing

motorcycle and tractors.friends were their sources of information for purchased.

 Mishra Hari Govind and Chetan Mahajan (2008) “Determination of Potential

for customer Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction in mobile hand set using Komo

model”He found in their studies competition growing in market and changing

consumer choice so their should be necessary to continuous change in product

promotion and take care about the customer reqirements to identify the customer need

and accordingly design the product.

 Sararanan.s.(2010) “A study on consumer behaviour of women with special

reference to durable goods in coimbatore city Tamilnadu” explained this paper

purchase is to be made on the basis of the quality, incom and accordingly to the

budget. Women must know the standard shops which sell products at reasonable price

with excellent service. They should give important to the package date manufacturing

date, IS.I. marks expiry dates, brand etc. While purchasing they should bargain and

clearfy their doubts regarding the products they buy. Women should be aware about

the new products introduced in the market and of their special feature, price, quality

etc.they should be capable of identifying duplicate products and should avoid


purchasing unnecssary items.max number of women consumers are not aware of the

consumerism and consumer rights hence the government can conduct some consumer

awareness programe for the women consumer and it can help to improve purchasing

behaviour among the consumers and it can save consumer from falling into traps of

the deceiving sellers.

 Makkar Urvashi and Dhyani Vijendra (2010) “Consumer perception towords

different media options.-An empirical study of rural and urban perspective”

explained in this paper helps the marketers to focus attention on the diverse media

vehicles in general and media specifically. Which are the key buying guides for the

customers in urban markets. Provide insight in the formulation of further media

strategy by the marketers enabling them to focus on right media choie and media mix

once thing that is sure is that the media is having a dramatic impact on the

consumption patterns of the consumers irrespective of their affiliation to certain

geographical location rural and urban and their gender.even in this new business

environment where electronic transaction are becoming the norms. He use of other

media option to document business transation is equally important. Specifically for

the rural customers indeed as per the current research.

 Mallikarjuna.V.and G.Krishna Mohan (2010) “Customer switching Behaviour-

An evaluation of factor affecting mobile users” explained in this paper customer

switching behaviour affects the market share and profitability of the firm most of the

mobile users in india are engaged in desiging strategy to attract how consumer

through “welcome offers” which contain attraction call traiffs. Freebies and low
service charges. The existing customer often feel that they are ignored. Marketers

should know that retaining, existing, customers is crucial than acqiring new customers

(Berry 1980) it is found that tinuing customer increase their spending at an increasing

rate and help the company achive increasing rate and help the company achive

increasing operating efficiences.loyal customer spread positive word of mouth across

and adding to the company brand buildind exercise. More ever acqiring a new

customer is five times costilier than retaining an old customer (peter 1980) hence

losing the existing customer will result in loss form higher margin sector of the firm

and also damage the brand value which is highly undesirable

 Mandar Naresh Dhumal and Avishkar Tayade (2008) “Rural marketing-

Understanding the consumer behaviour and decision process” explained in this

paper rural population account for 70% of the indian population and it is increasing at

the high rate in comparision to urban population. The buyer of rural and urban area

different in their characteristics while buying any product. The reason behind its

differentiation are many like;-

Age and life style.

Occupation.

Economic situation

Life style.

Personality and self concept.

Psychological factors like perception cognition and motivation.


Buying decision of the consumer of different age occupation differ from rural area to

urban area the rural area is move bounded by the tradition , custom, and value which

bring a gigantic change in the life style and persnality of the customers of the rural

area in comprasion to urban area. Where people are more attached towords the welter

cultural now per capita incom of the consumers in the rural area restrict them for low

consumption pattern as compared to urban population. Where the consumers are

brand conscious and are ready to pay high.

 Pandey Mrinalini (2008) “Impact of celebrities multiple product

endorsement on buyer attitude and purchase intention” explained in this

paper that consumer are generally influence by spoke persons if product are

inexpensive low involving and few different are percived among avilable

brands that consistency between the endorsers image and desire product image

may be more crucial such as a time, space, language, religion, relationship,

power masculinity and femininity. The endrosement as many four product

negatively influence the celebraty spoke persions credibility.

 Gurav Kunal (2008) “Impact of relationship marketing strategy in

customer loyality” explained in this paper that their need to be developed

customer loyality and pay the much more concentration on marketing strategy

and relationship between promotional schemes, customer trust, and customer

face to face commucation.


 Rani .S. Sakthivel (2010) “Consumer behaviour in rural market A-B-C-D

paradigm and its application” explained in this paper the most important

difference between the rural and urban is in degree of sophistication of the

consumer. Urban consumer are generally familier with such products home

their address and value related to purchase and consumption will be different.

The conversion of rural consumers to purchase sophistication products is great

challenge for the markets. But this kind ensure a good demand for

sophistication product in the future here in the marketer may have to work

harder to sell their goods in rural areas because of diversity of value and

attitude present in three region. Use term such as “new and improved” since

these may be effective in rural areas. Exmine the obstacles in the path of

consumers access to information and illiteracy and diverse methods to

overcome these kind of obstacles note the cultural similarities in consumer

behaviour which might allow standardization of marketing strategies across

countries however it must be noted that it is possible to capitalize on the

similarties among the rural markets. Several researcher have suggested to

possibilities of clustering area which allow the standardization of marketing

strategies across these region.

 Atur Rahman (2010)”A study of relationship between consumer credit

and life style demographic of consumer of bangladesh” explained in this

paper it is proved that there is a strong relationship between consumer credit

and lifestyle demographics of people. People borrow consumer credit to

purchase household goods that are aligned with their reqirement and are

compatible with their age, incom, education, occupation, and family life
cycle . in a consumption environment a person choose a product or brand

which seems to possess a max possibility of the definition. Or elaboration of

his life style industry. Alternatively a person makes a choice in a consumption

environment in order to define or actualize his life style. Identify it through

the products or brands choosen the study establishes the relevence of influence

on demographic factor on consumer credit consumption behaviour this implies

that focusing their attention on the demographic factor of consumers which

are related to use household good borrowed by consumers.

REFERENCES:-

G.I. Heald (1970) “ The relationship of intentions to buy consumer durables with

levels of purchase”( European journal of marketing, Volume; 4, Page : 87-97).

J. Pickering, (1978) “ The durables purchasing behaviour of the individual household”

(European journal of marketing, Volume: 12, Page: 178-193).


Saikat Banerjee (2008) “Dimention of indian cultural, core cultral values and

marketing implication” ( Cross cultural management An international journal,

Volume: 15 Page: 367-378).

Chattopadhyay Tanmay, Shivani Shaaddha and Krishnan Mahesh (2009); “Do

multiple time consumers aiso observe imperfectly. The case of automobile consumers

in india” ( Indian journal of marketing, june -2009, Volume –xxxix, No-6, Page

number 40-47).

Prof. Shilpa s. Kokatnur (2009); “Consumer perception of private brands. An

empirical examination”(Indian journal of marketing, january-2009, volume-39 (1),

page 38-43).

J.Lilly. (2010) “Consumer perception and preference towords branded products (with

special reference to television sets)” (Indian journal of marketing, February-2010,

Volume-40, Number-2, Page 49-55).

Sumangale and Uppar (2009): “Purchasing pratices of food, clothing, and consumer

durables among farm familities of gadaj district” (Indian journal of marketing,

December-2009,Volume-xxxix,Number-12, Page 49-61).


Mishra Hari Govind and Chetan Mahajan (2008): “Determination of potential for

customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in model handset using kono model” (Indian

journal of marketing, march-2008,Volume-38(11), Page 08-13).

Sararanan.S. (2008):”A study on consumer behaviour of women with special

reference to durable goods in coimbatore Tamilnadu” (Indian journal of marketing,

May-2010, Volume-40,Number-5, Page 36-42).

Makkar Urvashi and Dhyani Vijendra (2008): “Consumer perception towords

different media option. An empirical study of rural and urban perspective”(Indian

journal of marketing, May-2010, Volume-40, Number-5, Page 43-51).

Millikarjuna.V. And G.Mohan Krishna (2008): “Customer switching behaviour –An

evaluation of factor affecting mobile users” (Indian journal of marketing, March-

2010,Volume-40, Number-3, page 42-49).

Rani. S. Sakthivel (2010) : “Consumer behaviour in rural market A-B-C-D paradigm

and its application” (Indian journal of marketing, Janurary-2010, Volume-xxxx,

Number-1, page 38-48).

Mandar Naresh Dhumal (2008): “Rural Marketing-understanding the consumer

behaviour and decision process” (Marketing to rural consumer, June-2008, Page

number 183-195).
Pandey Mrinalini (2008): “Impact of celebrities multiple product endorsement on

buyer attitude and purchase intention” (Indian journal of marketing, March-2010,

Volume-40, Number-3, Page 03-12).

Gurav Kunal (2008): “Impact of relationship marketing strategy in customer loyality”

(The icfai journal of marketing, June-2008, Volume-7(11), Page 7-21).

Atur Rahman (2010): “A study of the relationship consumer credit and life style

demographic of consumer of bangladesh” (Indian journal of marketing, July-2010,

Volume-40, Number-7, Page 39-46).

Rani.S.Sakthivel (2010):”Consumer behaviour in rural market A-B-C-D paradigm

and its application”(Indian journal of marketing, Janurary-2010, Volume-xxxx,

Number-1, Page 38-48).