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428XL

V5.0.22
User’s Manual
Vol. 1

Ref. No. 0311430 April 11, 2013

Ahead of the Curve SM


To contact Sercel
Europe Russia
Nantes, France Customer Support; Repair.
Sales; Customer Support; Moscow, Russia
Manufacturing & Repair. Tel: +7 495 644 08 05, Fax: +7 495 644 08 04
B.P. 30439, 16 rue de Bel Air E-mail: repair.cis@geo-mail.org
44474 Carquefou Cedex support.cis@geo-mail.org
Tel: +33 2 40 30 11 81, Fax: +33 2 40 30 19 48 Surgut, Russia
Hot-Line: Land: +33 2 40 30 58 88 Tel: +7 3462 28 92 50
Marine: +33 2 40 30 59 59 North America
Navigation: +33 2 40 30 69 87
Houston, Texas, USA
E-mail: sales.nantes@sercel.com
Sales; Customer Support;
customersupport.land@sercel.com Manufacturing & Repair;
customersupport.marine@sercel.com Tel: +1 281 492 66 88, Fax: +1 281 579 75 05
customersupport.navigation@sercel.com Hot-Line: +1 281 492 66 88
repair.france@sercel.com E-mail:
streamer.repair@sercel.com sales.houston@sercel.com
www.sercel.com HOU_Customer.Support@sercel.com
St Gaudens, France HOU_Training@sercel.com
Vibrator Customer Support; HOU_Customer.Repair@sercel.com
Vibrator Manufacturing & Repair; Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
Streamer Manufacturing & Repair.
Tel: +1 918 834 96 00, Fax: +1 918 838 88 46
Tel: +33 5 61 89 90 00, Fax: +33 5 61 89 90 33
E-mail:
Hot Line: +33 5 61 89 90 91
support@sercel-grc.com
E-mail: customersupport.vib@sercel.com
sales@sercel-grc.com
customersupport.vsp@sercel.com
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Les Ulis, France Sales; Customer Support; Manufacturing.
Sales; Customer Support Tel: +1 403 275 3544, Fax: +1 403 295 1805
Tel: +33 1 69 93 83 60, Fax: +33 1 69 81 78 09 E-mail:
E-mail: vspsupport@sercel.com Cal_Customer.Support@sercel.com
Hot Line: +33 6 15 54 13 96 Middle East
Brest, France Dubai, U. A. E.
Sales; Customer Support Sales, Customer Support, Repair.
Tel: +33 2 98 05 29 05; Fax: +33 2 98 05 52 41 Tel: +971 4 8832142, Fax: +971 4 8832143
E-mail: sales.nantes@sercel.com Hot Line: +971 50 6451752
Toulon, France E-mail: dubai@sercel.com
Sales; Customer Support repair.dubai@sercel.com
Tel: +33 4 94 21 69 92; Fax: +33 4 94 21 73 44 Far East
E-mail: SalesMSBU@sercel.com Beijing, P. R. of China
SupportMSBU@sercel.com R & D.
Toulouse, France Tel: +86 106 43 76 710, Fax: +86 106 43 76 367
Sales; Customer Support E-mail: support.china@geo-mail.com
Tel: +33 5 61 34 80 74; Fax:+33 5 61 34 80 66 repair.china@geo-mail.com
E-mail: support@metrolog.com Xian, P. R. of China
sales@metrolog.com, info@metrolog.com Manufacturing & Repair.
Alfreton, U. K. Tel / Fax: +86 29 8222 9504
Streamer Manufacturing & Repair; Xushui, P. R. of China
Customer Support. Manufacturing & Repair.
Tel: +44 1 773 605 078, Fax: +44 1 773 541 778
Tel:+86 312 8648355, Fax:+86 312 8648441
E-mail: streamer.repair@sercel.com
Singapore
Trondheim, Norway (Optoplan AS)
Streamer Manufacturing & Repair;
Tel: +47 73820500, Fax: +47 73820599
Customer Support.
Tel:+65 64 17 70 00, Fax:+65 6 545 1418
428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1

In no event shall SERCEL be liable for incidental or consequential damages or related expenses
resulting from the use of this product, or arising out of or related to this manual or the information
contained in it, even if SERCEL has been advised, or knew or should have known of the possibility of
such damages.
The information included in this documentation is believed to be accurate and reliable. However,
SERCEL reserves the right to make changes to its products or specifications at any time, without notice,
in order to improve design or performance and to supply the best possible product. This documentation
does not form in any way a contractual agreement of sales promise on the part of SERCEL.
Software mentioned in this documentation is sold under a precise licence agreement and as such the
documentation may cover technical areas for which the user may not have a final licence.
No part of this documentation, or any of the information included herein may be modified or copied in
any form or by any means without the prior written consent of SERCEL.

© 2005 Sercel. All Rights Reserved.


Printed in France.

Sercel, 428XL, 428XLS, AIB, DPG, DSD, DSU1, DSU3, DSU3-428, e-428, eSQC Pro, FDPA428, FDU,
FDU-428, HSU, LandPro Bin, LAUL, LAUL-428, LAULS, LAUX, LAUX-428, LAUXS, Link, LL428,
LLIU, LLX400, LRU, LSI, LSS, LT428, LX, MGA, MRU, MSI, QT428, SGA, TMS428, TMU428, VE432,
VE464, VQC88, WPSR are all trademarks of Sercel. All rights reserved.

DSUGPS: US Patent 7,117,094 B2.

UNIX is either a registered trademark or trademark of The Open Group in the United States and/or other
countries.Microsoft and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned
herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

Printed on 100% recycled paper


using vegetable-oil based ink

April 11, 2013 3


428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1

Warnings, Cautions, Important Notices, and Notes


Warnings, Cautions, and Important notices throughout this manual
guide you to avoid injury, prevent equipment damage, and determine
equipment use when varying components or configurations exist. Notes
provide tips or additional information.
SERCEL is not responsible for damages or injuries that result from
failure to observe the information provided.

Warnings and Cautions


WARNING
When a Warning or Caution appears with a lightning-bolt icon, as
shown in this example, this is to indicate a potential hazard that may
lead to bodily injury or even death.

CAUTION
When a Warning or Caution appears with an exclamation-point icon, as
shown in this example, this is to indicate possible equipment damage or
potential risk of misuse and incorrect operation.

Important Notices
IMPORTANT
Important notices appear in the manual to highlight information that
does not affect the risk of bodily injury, death, or equipment damage,
but is nevertheless important. These notices appear with a stop-sign
icon, as shown in this example.

Notes
Note Notes provide tips or peripheral facts and may guide you to
other sources of information.

4 April 11, 2013


428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1

Revision history

Chapters or
Date of
pages
revision Description of revision or reason for change
affected
Nov. 2005 V 1.0 release
Oct. 2006 p. 400, 401 Updated information on raw data.
Dec. 2006 V 2.0 release.
Mar. 2007 p. 678 VE432 Status code 11.
June 2007 p. 396 Updated description of correlation.
Dec. 2007 V 3.0
Chap. 6 - Simultaneous sources, Micro-seismic, Noise Editing
(Enhanced Diversity).
Chap. 9 - VE464.
Chap. 14 - Open Vibrator Controller.
Jan. 2008 p. 216 - Added Pulse test.
p. 394 - Updated “Enhanced Diversity” noise editing.
p. 557 - Reviewed VE464 “Update” function.
Feb. 2008 p. 261, 265 Misprints (correct keywords are correlWith and addPi-
lot).
Mar. 2008 p. 348, 361 Tutorial for “SQC Dump” mode.
June 2008 p. 97 - Reviewed Swath setup.
p. 110 - “Collapse survey gaps” option.
p. 573 - Exporting result log files via the Web server.
Aug. 2008 p. 316 Reviewed LSS operating instructions.
Sep. 2008 p. 242 Adjusting T0 shift (Line Download setup).
Feb. 2009 V4.0
Oct. 2009 p. 69 - Server Id.
p. 281, 326 - Dynamic fleet grouping.
p. 343 - Minimum distance between slip-sweep fleets.
p. 565 - DSD status 11.
Nov. 2009 p. 383 - “Ready” message format.
p. 539 - Fleet function in Auto mode.
Mar. 2010 p. 182 Updated FDU-to-FDU2S cabling.

April 11, 2013 5


428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1

Chapters or
Date of
pages
revision Description of revision or reason for change
affected
Dec. 2009 p. 97, 465 - Exporting multiple swaths to distinct directories on
NFS disks.
p. 147, 169, - DSUGPS.
175, 432,
586,
Jan. 2010 p. 282 - Autonomous mode (enabling).
p. 373 - Autonomous mode (description).
p. 564, 565 - DPG and DSD status code 25 (Overrun error).
May 2010 p. 169, 413 Projection type and DSUGPS.
Aug. 2010 p. 312 Reviewed LSS FO/TB delay calibration procedure.
Sep. 2010 p. 242 Adjusting the T0 shift.
Nov. 2010 Release5.0.
Feb. 2011 p. 67 - Unmanned option (patch03, patch06).
p. 151 - Disruption along Transverse requires Field Off/On.
June 27, 2011 p. 122 Right-click on selection button gets traceability for the
whole selection.
Sep. 6, 2011 p. 74 - NAS type option.
p. 175 - 177 - DSUGPS Instrument view and Numeric view.
Dec. 22, 2011 p. 69 - Licences codes.
p. 166 - Marking DSU3-428 line segments.
May 16, 2012 Patch14.
p. 74 - Max number of NFS servers.
p. 155, 180 - “cs” Sensor Type (skipped channel) not compatible
with FDU2S.
p. 285, 295, - Dynamic slip-sweep mode.
345
p. 487 - Virtual NAS.
June 26, 2012 p. 125 QC bar charts (bar straddling limit marker).
Aug. 7, 2012 p. 430 Go To Waypoint by drag&drop from jPositioning.
Aug. 7, 2012 p. 330 Priority criteria in dynamic fleet grouping.

6 April 11, 2013


428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1

Chapters or
Date of
pages
revision Description of revision or reason for change
affected
Nov. 27, 2012 Patch 17.
p. 71 - OVC licence.
p. 109 - Preferences setup in jLine.
p. 249 - Ready status management.
p. 288 - Reshoot dialogue option.
p. 407 - Enable/Disable TDMA tracking in jPositioning.
p. 467 - Files per Tape (max. 1000000).
p. 502 - Ti, Tj (ms).
Feb. 21, 2013 Patch 19.
p. 114 - LAUX-G with attached GPS receiver in Instrument
view.
Patch 21
p. 169 - Azimuth & Position Accuracy setup.
Mar. 21, 2013 p. 409 Datum Scale Factor stands for Scale Difference.
Apr. 11, 2013 Patch 22.
p. 164 - DSUGPS.

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428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1

8 April 11, 2013


Table
of
Contents

Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

1 Introduction
About the 428XL documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Terminology and conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Working with 428XL windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Dialog boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Bar charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

2 Getting started
Opening a user session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Application Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Server Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
The server Administration window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Registering a new user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Session manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Licence information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Starting/stopping the 428XL server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
The launcher bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Hands-on guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1 9
April 11, 2013
Table of Contents

System status archive tool (File Packager). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60


The crew’s Web site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
The Chat tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

3 Installation setup
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Seismic recording instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Export mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Mobile Receiver Unit (MRU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
428XL scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Master/Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Unmanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

4 Configuration
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Copyrights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Identity Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
The Setup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Crew setup window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
User Info setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
SEGD setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Disk Record setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Swath setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
On Line/Off Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

5 Line
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Topographic views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

10 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1


April 11, 2013
Table of Contents

About topographic views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107


Sensor view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Instrument view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Battery view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Seismonitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Working with graphic views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Numeric views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Histogram view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
The Survey setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Point Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Sensor type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
The Layout setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Auxiliary channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Detour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Mute channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
The Spread Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Absolute spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Generic spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
The Look setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
LAU Leakage setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Advanced layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Skipped channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Logical line mapped with several physical lines . . . . . . . . . . .157
Detour with skipped receiver points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Snaking layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160

428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1 11


April 11, 2013
Table of Contents

Working with DSU3-428 & DSUGPS links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162


DSU3-428 topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162
Acquisition using DSU3 channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
DSU3-428 in the Survey Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
DSU3-428 in the Layout Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
DSU3 in the Spread Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
DSU3 in the Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
DSUGPS Setup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
DSUGPS firmware upgrading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
DSU Form Line function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
DSU Sensor view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
DSU Instrument view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
DSU Numeric view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
DSU Seismonitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
DSU3 tilt correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Working with ULS field equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Survey setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
Marker setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Detour setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Auxiliary channel setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Checkline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Radio telemetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Radio telemetry equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Instrument Topographic view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
The Radio QC Limit setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
Frequency management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201

12 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1


April 11, 2013
Table of Contents

LRU parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208


LAUR parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Wakeup/Sleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Loop test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Test functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Instrument tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
Sensor tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Multiple tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Seismonitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225
The Form Line setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
Line Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
The Synthetic setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
The Download setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237

6 Operation
The Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
The Operation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
The Active Source view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
The Active Acquisition view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
The Operation Report view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
The Process Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
Auxiliary traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Impulsive type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
Impulsive Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
Correlation Before Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
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Correlation After Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270


Vibroseismic Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
How to Generate a Process Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274
The Source Point Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275
Source point parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275
To generate a Source Point setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
Seismic setup options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
Operating Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282
Slip-Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
Dynamic Fleet Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
Look option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
Reshot option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288
The Source Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
Explosive source parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
Vibroseismic source parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
The Delay setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
The Noise Editing setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
Noise editing parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
Noise editing thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
The Observer’s Comment Type Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
How to take shots or sweeps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
Blaster shots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
VE432 or VE464 sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
Navigation-driven shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Multiswath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
Shooting with an LSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311

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Flip-Flop sweeps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321


Simultaneous sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
Manual clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
Dynamic Fleet grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Slip-sweep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
Theory of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
How to implement slip-sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
Standard Slip-Sweep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
Allowable minimum distance between simultaneous sources .343
Dynamic Slip-Sweep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
SQC Dump mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
SQC Dump mode with VE464 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
SQC Dump mode with VE432 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361
Micro-seismic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Autonomous mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373
Vibrator Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
How to use the Vibrator Guidance option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
The Go To Waypoint command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
Multi-gun Shallow-water shooting mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Master/Slave operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384
More About Noise Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388
“Spike Editing” method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388
Diversity Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
Enhanced Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
More About Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396
Data Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398

7 Positioning
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404

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The Setup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408


The Datum Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408
The Projection Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
Quality Warning setup window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413
The Vehicle Identity setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416
The geographical view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
The layer manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
GeoZones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
Swath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430
Line devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
The Tracking view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Graphical tracking view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Numerical tracking view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
More about the estimated COG position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439
Supported vehicle tracking systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
Customizing tracked vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
Vehicle trackline and history file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
The Alert system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
GeoZone perimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
Global alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
Excess speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448

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Working with the GIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450


Object labelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
Attribute colour maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
Query builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
Coord converter tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
Basic Geodesy Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456

8 Export
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458
File export controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Export device indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Auto/Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
The Tape Setup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
The Functions menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
NFS disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
FTP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469
Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
Get Device Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472
Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472
Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .475
Reinit Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476
Recorder activity logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
Exporting to NAS disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481
Copying exported files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486
Exporting to a virtual NAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
Virtual NAS Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488
NFS mount function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
Virtual NAS status indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
Auto/Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491

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Working with tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492


Disk space monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493

9 VE464
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
The Vibrator Crew setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498
The Basic Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .503
dB/Hz Log, Tn and dB/Octave Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
Random . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
Custom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510
Dedicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512
Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513
Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .514
Compound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
The Deboost option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
The “Numeric Pilot” option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
Generating a Basic Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
The Acquisition Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518
The Radio Management setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .522
TDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .522
TracsTDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .523
Raveon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
Analog radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528
The QC Limit setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
The Sweep Management setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
The Pattern setup window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
Auto/Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536

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Vibrator Fleet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537


Set DSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
Get DSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
Set Servo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545
Update Custom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .548
Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
Local Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552
Set Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553
Set Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
Get Similarities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555
Update Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .557
Normal acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
Graphic view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
Numeric view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
DPG/DSD status codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .564
Statistics views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566

10 Log
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
Editing/saving/loading 428XL parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
The Shooting setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
SPS files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581
The SPS format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581
Importing an SPS file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
Exporting an SPS file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585
Operator reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
Observer Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
APS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589
APS Verbose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589

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Source COG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589


Receiver position history data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .590
Event log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591

11 Plotter
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594
The Banner setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597
Selecting the traces to plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
Plot parameters for production shots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .606
Processing setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .606
Rendering setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
Format setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
Test records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613

12 VE432
The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .616
The Vibrator Crew setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
The Basic Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621
Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
dB/Hz Log, Tn and dB/Octave Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .624
Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629
Random . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
Custom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
Compound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634
Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635
Deboost option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635
Generating a Basic Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636
The Acquisition Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
The Radio Management setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641
The QC Limit setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .644
20 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1
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Table of Contents

The QC Choice setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645


The T0 Time setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
The Pattern setup window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .652
Auto/Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .652
Look . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
Vibrator Fleet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655
Local Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657
Set DSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658
Get DSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
Radio functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .662
Set Servo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .667
PCMCIA Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669
Normal acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .672
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .672
Graphic view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .673
Numeric view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .676
DPG/DSD status codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .678
Statistics views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679

13 Other vibrator electronics


The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682
Working with other vibrator electronics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .684

14 Open Vibrator Controller


The main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .686
The Vibrator Crew setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
The Acquisition Type setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
The QC Limit setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .690
The Vibrator Fleet setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .691
Normal acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692

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Table of Contents

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692
Graphic view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692
Numeric view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .694
Statistics views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .696

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699

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Chapter

1 Introduction

This chapter includes the following sections:

• About the 428XL documentation (page 24)


• Terminology and conventions (page 26)
• Working with 428XL windows (page 30)

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1 Introduction
About the 428XL documentation >

About the 428XL documentation


The documentation coming with the 428XL system consists of the
following manuals:
• Installation Manual (0311428): contains an introduction to the
428XL system, installation information, a few instructions for the
operator to get started, and reference information that will help you
select a 428XL configuration tailored to your needs.
• User’s Manual Volume 1 (0311430): this manual, describing the
parameters displayed on the system’s Graphic User Interface (GUI)
and how to use each window.
• User’s Manual Volume 2 (0311431): contains information on logged
data and on interfaces (description of Input/Output formats, including
the SEGD format).
• User’s Manual Volume 3 (0311432): contains reference information
(filter charts, theory of tests, technical data, release notes,
specifications).
• Technical Manual (0311429): contains maintenance and repair
information, including operating instructions for using the system’s
testers.
Before using this manual, you need to install the system by following
the instructions given in the 428XL Installation Manual.
The User’s Manual is automatically loaded from the 428XL CDROM
to your computer’s disk as you load the 428XL software package. Then
it is just one click away at all times, using the Help button available in
every main window. With a PDF file reader (Adobe Acrobat Reader) on
a computer you can view this manual direct from the 428XL CDROM’s
DOC directory.
This manual assumes you are familiar with window-driven systems and
you know how to work with windows, including how to use a mouse
and standard menus and commands, and to open, move, resize, shrink,
restore and close a window.

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Introduction
About the 428XL documentation >

To start the server, if required, see Starting/stopping the 428XL server on


page 49 1
To launch the 428XL Graphic User Interface, see Opening a user
session (page 40).

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1 Introduction
Terminology and conventions >

Terminology and conventions


To use this manual, you need to be familiar with a number of terms that
are described below.

Text box
Index box
Scrollbar

List box

Pushbutton

Figure 1-1 Dialog box

Click
To press and release a mouse button quickly (left-hand button, unless
otherwise specified).

Command button
A pushbutton that carries out a command (Add, Change, Delete,
Reverse) with the parameters displayed in the text boxes.

Dialog box
A secondary window that provides or requests information within a
main window.

Double-click
To press and release the left-hand mouse button twice in rapid
succession without moving the mouse.

Drag
To move an item on the screen by holding down the mouse button while
moving the mouse. See Drag and Drop (page 37).
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Introduction
Terminology and conventions >

Icon
A small graphical image used to represent a window. Windows can be
1
turned into icons or minimized to save room or unclutter the workspace.

Index box
A text box (usually the first box from left to right) showing the
identification number of a row (or set of rows) to be generated in a list
box or selected from a list box.

List box
A box used to display a scrollable list of the rows edited under a text
box.

Mouse buttons
The left-hand button is used to click, double-click, and select an item.
The right-hand button causes a contextual menu to pop up, if any is
available.

Option button
A pushbutton used to post an option menu in which you can select an
option. An option button displays the label of the selected option and a
bar graphic to distinguish it from a command button.

Click to show
available options

Figure 1-2 Option button

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Terminology and conventions >

Point (to)
To move the mouse pointer on the screen until it rests on the item you
want to select.

Scale
A rectangular box, with a slider in it, used to set or display a value in a
range. A label indicates the current value. A value is selected by
dragging the slider and releasing the mouse button when the desired
value is displayed. Clicking on either side of the slider selects the next
higher or lower value.

Current setting
Scale

Slider

Figure 1-3

Scrollbar
A rectangular box, with a slider and direction arrow graphics in it, used
to scroll the visible area of a window pane or box (see Figure 1-1 on
page 26). The slider indicates the relative position and size of the visible
area. The position is adjusted by dragging the slider or clicking the
direction arrows.

Select
To point to an item in a menu, by dragging the mouse pointer until the
item is highlighted, and release the mouse button.

Text box
An entry box used to enter or display values and/or text for a parameter
within a dialog box (see Figure 1-1 on page 26).

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Introduction
Terminology and conventions >

Toggle button
A pushbutton composed of a label preceded by a graphic (circle or
1
square) with two distinctive states that indicate the set and unset states
of the button.
There are two special cases of toggle buttons.
• Radio button: used to select one option from a number of options.
Each option is represented by a radio button. Each button represents
a mutually exclusive selection (only one radio button can be set at a
time).

Radio buttons
Vib. 1
Vib. 2
Vib. 3

Figure 1-4

• Check button: used to set a number of options. Unlike a radio button,


any number of check buttons can be set at the same time.

Check buttons

Check buttons

Figure 1-5

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1 Introduction
Working with 428XL windows > Dialog boxes

Working with 428XL windows


Dialog boxes

Conventions used in this section


The following conventions are used in this section:
• m, n, o, p: stand for sequential numbers.
• i: stands for an increment (positive or negative); the + sign is optional.
• v: stands for any allowable value for a parameter.
All other symbols are part of the syntax.

General rules
• Clicking in a text box causes the text cursor (I-beam pointer) to
appear in it, allowing you to type the desired information. To make
corrections, use the BACKSPACE or DELETE key as applicable.
• The CARRIAGE RETURN key is only used to enter two or more text
lines into the same text box,
• In any dialog box, the allowable values for each text box will
automatically show up if you click Add (or Apply if there is no Add
button) whenever the text box is blank.
• Double-clicking in a text box causes its content to be highlighted.
Then, pressing any key erases the content and enters the
corresponding character.
• Clicking on any row in a list box selects the row (its number shows
up in the index box). See the example below.
• Double-clicking on any row in a list box selects the row and causes
the content of the row to show up in the associated text boxes. See the
example below.

Example: Assuming three rows in a list box, with the following content:

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Introduction
Working with 428XL windows > Dialog boxes

Text box 1 Text box 2 Content


1
Index box Text box 1 Text box 2
1 11
2 21 1 11 12
3 31
2 21 22
3 31 32

Figure 1-6

1. Double-clicking in the second row causes its content to appear in


the text boxes:

Text box 1 Text box 2


Double-click 2 21 22

1 11
2 21
3 31

Figure 1-7

2. Clicking in the third row selects it and causes the row number (3)
to appear in the index box:

Text box 1 Text box 2

3 21 22
Click
1 11
2 21
3 31

Figure 1-8

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1 Introduction
Working with 428XL windows > Dialog boxes

3. Clicking on the Change button updates the third row with the
content of the text boxes:

Click
Text box 1 Text box 2 Content
3 21 22
Index box Text box 1 Text box 2
1 11
2 21 1 11 12
3 21
2 21 22
3 21 22

Figure 1-9

In an index box
• m-n: selects all rows from row m to row n.
• m-: selects all rows from row m to the end of the list.
• -m: selects all rows from the beginning of the list to row m.
• -: selects the whole list.
• m-n/i: selects rows m, m+i, m+2i, m+3i...n
• n-m/-i: selects rows n, n-i, n-2i, m-3i...m

In a text box
• /: means the current value in the list box will not be changed.
• V: means the value V will be applied to the specified row or set of
rows.
• V/i or V/+i (or V/-i): means an incremental (or decremental) value
starting from V will be applied to the specified set of rows. (The +
sign is optional).
• /i or /+i (or /-i): means an increment (or decrement) will be applied to
the pre-existing values of the specified set of rows.

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Working with 428XL windows > Dialog boxes

Add button
Used to create a row or set of rows. You have to enter the new row
1
numbers in the index box, using the syntax shown in the examples
below (this will not work if the rows already exist in the list box).
• 1: creates row # 1 in the list box.
• 1-5: creates rows # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
• 1-8/2: creates rows # 1, 3, 5, 7.
• 7-2/-2: creates rows # 7, 5, 3.

Change button
Used to update a row or set of rows (already existing in the list box) with
the content of one or more text boxes. You have to enter the number of
the row (or the range of rows) to update in the index box, using the
syntax shown in the examples below:
• 1: updates row # 1.
• 1-5: updates rows # 1 through 5.
• 5-: updates all rows from # 5 to the end of the list.
• -5: updates all rows from the first sequential number in the list to # 5.
• -: updates the whole list.
Assuming the list box contains rows # 10, 20, 8, 11, 12, 15, 30 (starting
with 10 and ending with 30):
• -/2: updates rows # 10, 8, 12, 30.
• 10-15/2: updates rows # 10, 8, 12.
• 20-/2: updates rows # 20, 11, 15.
• -15/2: updates rows # 10, 8, 12.

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Working with 428XL windows > Dialog boxes

Delete button
Used to delete a row or set of rows from the list box. You have to enter
the number of the row (or the range of rows) to delete in the index box,
using the syntax shown in the examples below:
• 1: deletes row # 1.
• 1-5: deletes row # 1 through 5.
• 5-: deletes all rows from # 5 to the end of the list.
• -5: deletes all rows from the first sequential number in the list to # 5.
• -: deletes the whole list.

Reverse button
Used to reverse the order of a set of rows specified in the index box as
shown in the examples below:

List box List box


Index box before clicking Reverse after clicking Reverse
1-5 12345 54321
3- 12345 12543
-3 12345 32145
- 12345 54321

Apply button
Saves and/or activates the selections made in a main window or a dialog
box. If you wish to generate a file containing the parameters currently
displayed, use the Log main window.

Reset button
Restores the latest values that was saved in the list box when the Apply
button was last used.

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Introduction
Working with 428XL windows > Views

Views
1
Selecting text
You can copy content from a text box to another text box or to a text
editor. To select the text to copy, do the following:
1. With the mouse left button, click before the first character to select
(release the mouse button).
2. Using the scrollbar, scroll through the text until the last character
to select is visible.
3. Press the Shift key and hold it down.
4. With the mouse left button, click on the last character to select.
5. Release the Shift key. As a result, the selected text is highlighted.
Alternately, if all of the text to select is viewed, you can do as follows:
1. Move the mouse pointer to the first character to select.
2. Press the mouse left button and hold it down.
3. Move the mouse pointer to the last character to select.
4. Release the mouse button. As a result, the selected text is
highlighted.

Selecting table rows


You can copy content from a table in a numeric view to a text editor or
to a spreadsheet tool. To select the tables cells to copy, do the following:
1. Click in the first row to select.
2. Press the Shift key.
3. Click in the last row to select. As a result, the selected rows are
highlighted.

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Working with 428XL windows > Views

Selecting a graphical area


You can copy content from a graphic view to a setup window. To select
the objects to copy, do the following:
1. Move the mouse pointer to one (e. g. upper-left) corner of the area
to select.
2. Press the mouse centre button and hold it down.
3. Still holding down the mouse button, move the mouse pointer to
the opposite (e. g. lower-right) corner of the area to select.
4. Release the mouse button. As a result, the selected area is
highlighted.

Copy And Paste


The Copy and Paste function allows you to copy content from a dialog
box to another.
1. Select the text, or table cells, or objects to copy:
- To select content from a text box, see Selecting text (page 35);
- To select content from a table, see Selecting table rows (page 35);
- To select content from a graphic view, see Selecting a graphical
area (page 36).
2. Copy the selected content as follows:
- press both Ctrl and C on the keyboard (press Ctrl first).
- or choose Copy from the Edit menu if any.
3. Click in the destination text box, or setup window, or application.
4. Paste the selected content as follows:
- press both Ctrl and V on the keyboard (press Ctrl first).
- or choose Paste from the Edit menu if any.

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Introduction
Working with 428XL windows > Bar charts

Drag and Drop


In some windows, you can “drag and drop” graphical objects from a
1
panel to another, by doing the following:
1. Press the Ctrl key and hold it down;
2. Left-click on the object to select, and hold down the mouse
button;
3. Still holding down the Ctrl key and mouse button, move the
mouse pointer to the desired location;
4. Release the mouse button and Ctrl key.

Bar charts

Figure 1-10

On each chart the horizontal axis is the scale (divided into a number of
bins) for the values to display, and the vertical axis is for the number of
values in each bin. The following values are also shown:
You can zoom in by double-clicking on the bar chart, and zoom out by
double-clicking again on it.
With the mouse pointer resting anywhere on a bar chart, pressing the
mouse right button causes a menu to pop up with three commands.

Show curve
Used to show or hide the Gaussian curve.

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1 Introduction
Working with 428XL windows > Bar charts

Show grid
Used to show or hide the plot grid.

Properties
• Number of bars: This field is used to specify the number of bins you
want to generate in the bar chart.
• Bar labels: This option button is used to select the type of annotation
to be displayed above each bar:
- Percentage of values contained in the bin, with respect to the
whole set of values.
- Number of values contained in the bin.

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Chapter

2 Getting started

This chapter is intended for beginners. It describes how to


use the crew’s Server Administration window and Web site,
and briefly teaches a local or remote user how to get
started. This chapter includes the following sections:

• Opening a user session (page 40)


• Server Administration (page 44)
• The launcher bar (page 50)
• Hands-on guide (page 52)
• System status archive tool (File Packager) (page 60)
• The crew’s Web site (page 61)
• The Chat tool (page 64)

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2 Getting started
Opening a user session > Connection

Opening a user session


To open a user session:
- Double-click on the 428XL Client icon on your
desktop.
- Wait until the launcher bar appears.
All icons in the launcher bar (except the connection icon and the Help
button) are dimmed until you get connected.
Right-clicking on the “Connection” icon causes a menu
to pop up, prompting the following commands:
• Connection: used to log on to the server. See
Connection (page 40).
• Settings: see Application Settings (page 42).
Figure 2-1
• Packager: system status archive tool (see page 60). Launcher bar

• Exit: used to close the 428XL Client application.

Connection
This command is selected by default on a left-click on the connection
icon in the launcher bar. It opens a connection window:

Click here
to connect

Figure 2-2

Advanced Parameters
If your machine uses a Proxy server, click on the Advanced
Parameters tab to set the Proxy configuration.

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Getting started
Opening a user session > Connection

Choose “Enabled”, then enter the same configuration (Host name and
Port) as in your Web browser (see the Internet connection options in
your browser).

Remote Server
2
To connect to the server, click on the Remote Server tab, then do the
following:

428GUI

1
2 428GUI

3
observer
4
pwd

Figure 2-3

1. Choose the type of connection: “Local user” if you are opening a


user session on the server computer itself or your PC is attached to
the crew’s local network (172.27.128.x), “Remote user”
otherwise.
2. The Label field is used to enter a name for your connection
profile. Choose a name that will clearly identify your connection
profile (e. g. your name plus the product’s name).
3. In the URL field, type the desired crew address, for example:
- localhost if you are connecting as “Local user” on the server
computer itself, or 172.27.128.1 if you are connecting as an extra
“Local user”.
- http://nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn if you are connecting as an Intranet or
Internet “Remote user”, nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn being the IP address
of the nearest Seismic Gateway (depending on which Seismic
Gateway computer is visible to your computer). If you know the
machine name, you can use it in place of the IP address.
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2 Getting started
Opening a user session > Application Settings

4. In the Login and Password fields, type your Login name and
password respectively (supplied to you by the Senior Observer).
5. Click Connect. The 428XL launcher bar icons on your desktop
should not be dimmed anymore.

Application Settings

Figure 2-4

Browser settings
Allows you to choose which Web Browser to use. Only the default
option is prompted (e. g. Internet Explorer on a Windows host
computer, FireFox on a Linux host), unless you have installed another
browser.

Regional settings
Allows you to choose the Help language (English/Chinese/Russian/
Spanish).

Figure 2-5

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Getting started
Opening a user session > Application Settings

Desktop
As you close the 428XL application window by selecting “Exit” from
the connection icon in the launcher bar or clicking the usual close button
in the upper right corner), the system may or may not save the desktop 2
configuration, depending on which option is enabled in the “Desktop”
settings window.

Figure 2-6

• None: with this option enabled, the default window layout is used
each time you open the 428XL application.
• Last session: with this option enabled, the 428XL application opens
with the window layout you were using when you last closed the
launcher bar (with the same user account on the same computer).
• Snapshot: with this option enabled, clicking “Apply” saves the
current window layout on your computer. The windows that were
open at the moment you clicked “Apply” will automatically open,
with the same window layout, each time you next open the 428XL
application with the same user account on the same computer (until
you change your desktop preference option).

Look&Feel
Used to change the look of windows.

Figure 2-7

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2 Getting started
Server Administration > The server Administration window

Server Administration
In this section:
• The server Administration window (page 44)
• Registering a new user (page 45)
• Session manager (page 47)
• Licence information (page 48)
• Starting/stopping the 428XL server (page 49)

The server Administration window


Open a user session (see Connection on page 40) unless this is already
done, and click on the administration tool icon in the launcher bar to
open the Administration window.

Figure 2-8

If you log on with Observer privileges, the Administration window


allows you to start/stop the server, manage user sessions, load a patch
from a remote (client) computer. If you log on with Senior Observer
privileges, it also allows you to register users and manage user
passwords.
The Debug tab is only intended for SERCEL customer support
engineers and therefore not described in this manual.

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Getting started
Server Administration > Registering a new user

Registering a new user


A new user cannot log on to a crew’s server unless and until he is
registered on that server. Only a user with Senior Observer role
privileges is allowed to register a remote user. 2
To register a new user, do the following:
1. Click on the Users tab.

Appears only if you log on


with Senior Observer
privileges

Right-click

Figure 2-9 Administration window

1. Right-click in the list of profiles and select New from the menu
that pops up.
- In the “Name” and “Password”
fields, enter the login name and
password you wish to create for
the new user.
- Click OK. As a result, the new
user appears in the list of Figure 2-10
authorized users.
- Choose the desired Password Expiry Date option (either
choose Never or enter the desired expiry date). The Expiry Date
takes effect at 12 a.m. (server local time).

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Server Administration > Registering a new user

- From the Role button, choose the privileges you wish to grant to
that user (Guest, or Observer, or Senior Observer permissions).

Role Permissions

• Opening any client window and:


- Viewing the crew’s parameter settings
Guest (changes are of no effect),
- Viewing results, generating reports;
• Website access.

All “Guest” role privileges plus the following:


• Changing the crew’s parameter settings.
Observer
• Session administration.
• Changing the installation parameters.

All “Observer” role privileges plus the


Senior Observer following:
• User administration (registering new users).

- Click Apply.
2. Notify the user of the Login name and Password you have created.
Note: After a profile is created, you can change or delete it by right-
clicking on it in the list of profiles and using the menu that pops up.

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Getting started
Server Administration > Session manager

Session manager
Open the Administration window and then click on the Sessions tab.
This displays a session manager view with a navigation pane showing
all opened sessions. 2
Unless you are logged on to the crew’s server with Observer or Senior
Observer role privileges, you are not allowed to make any changes in
the session manager window.

Right-click

Click on session to
show details

Details

Figure 2-11 Session manager

Clicking on any session causes detailed information to be displayed


below the navigation pane.
Right-clicking on any session causes a contextual menu to pop up,
prompting the necessary commands for the management of sessions:
To close a session, right-click on it and select “Kill”.

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2 Getting started
Server Administration > Licence information

Licence information
Open the Administration window and then click on the Licences tab.
This displays information that is not displayed in the Install window
when you enter your licence code (Expiry date, allowed tokens, etc.).

Figure 2-12

Note A message will appear in the Terminal window of the server


computer 24 hours before your software licence expires, but it
is advisable to use the Administration window to check the
expiry date before that.

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Getting started
Server Administration > Starting/stopping the 428XL server

Starting/stopping the 428XL server


The 428XL server is started automatically when you power up the
server computer.
If you are logged on to the crew’s server with Observer or Senior
2
Observer privileges, you can stop and restart the server, or reboot or
shut down the computer, by using the buttons available from the Server
tab in the administration window.
• Restart: closes the server application, restarts it and restores your
connection.
• Reboot: reboots the computer and restarts the server application.
• Shutdown: closes the server application and turns off the power to
the computer.

Figure 2-13

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2 Getting started
The launcher bar >

The launcher bar


• The Installation icon is used to set
installation parameters for the server Connection

computer (licences, number of cards in the


Administration
Control Module, attached peripherals, source
controllers, etc.). See Installation setup Installation
(page 65).
Configuration
• The Configuration icon is used to set the
crew’s basic parameters, provide information Line

on the hardware and software configuration Operation


of the system, specify how your SEGD files
must be recorded, and enable/disable Positioning

communications with the Control Module. Export

See Configuration (page 83).


VE464
• The Line icon is used for the management of
VE432
the field electronics. See Line (page 103)
• The Operation icon is used for the Other Vib

management of shots. See Operation OVC


(page 243).
Log
• The Export icon is used for the management
of your recording media. See Export Plotter

(page 457).
Chat
• The Positioning icon is used for viewing
Help
source points, tracking vehicles, etc. See
Positioning (page 403). Website

• The VE432 or VE464 icon opens the


Graphical User Interface for the vibrator
controller. See VE464 (page 495) or VE432 Click to customize
launcher bar
(page 615).
Figure 2-14
• The Log icon is used to save/load setup Launcher bar
parameters, import/export processing support

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Getting started
The launcher bar >

(SPS) files, export operator reports, and for the management of all
reports. See Log (page 569).
• The Plotter icon is used for monitoring traces on a plotter. See Plotter
(page 593). 2
• The OVC icon opens the Graphical User Interface for the Open
Vibrator Controller. See Open Vibrator Controller (page 685).
• The Chat icon allows you to send messages to the users connected to
the server.
• The Website allows you to download or upload SPS files, report files,
etc.
• The Help icon displays help information (same as the Help menu in
each window).
• The Administration icon is intended for a user with Observer or
Senior Observer privileges to register users, manage passwords and
sessions, etc. See Server Administration (page 44).
The launcher bar can be customized:

Click to customize
Double-click
launcher bar

Figure 2-15

• You can have the launcher displayed vertically


or horizontally by double-clicking on its title
bar.
• Use the button at the foot of the launcher bar to
choose which icons you want to be visible.

Figure 2-16

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2 Getting started
Hands-on guide >

Hands-on guide
This hands-on guide teaches a beginner how to customize a main
window (also referred to as “client window”) in just a few clicks. The
first time you log on to a 428XL server, each main window in the
Graphical User Interface is configured with a default layout. Then, your
customized window layout is automatically saved on your computer as
you close the client window, and recovered when you next open it.
In most main windows, it is for you to decide how many views to show
and where to place them. The GUI may also let you decide which
information to view, and which type (numerical/graphical) of view you
want for this information. The intent of the procedure below is to give
you a glimpse of what you can do to customize each main window,
using the “Line” window as an example.

Customizing windows

1. Open the Line main window (click on the Line icon in


the 428XL launcher bar).
2. On the right-hand border of each toolbar is a down arrow
button. Clicking on that button causes a menu to pop up for you to
choose which buttons you would like to show or hide in the
toolbar. (All options are also available from the menu bar).

Menu bar
(2) Click to
customize toolbars

Undocked toolbar

(3) Move to dock


elsewhere or to undock
(4) More options
(click to choose)

Figure 2-17 Customizing toolbars

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Hands-on guide >

3. Clicking on the left-hand (shaded) border of the toolbar and


holding down the mouse button allows you to move and dock the
toolbar to whichever border you like inside the window. Moving it
outside the window will undock the toolbar (to dock it again,
simply close it by clicking on the button in the upper right corner
2
of the undocked toolbar).
4. A double-arrow button (>>) appears if more options are available
but the toolbar is too small for all buttons to fit in. Clicking on that
button causes the hidden options to pop up for you to choose
whichever you like.

(5) Expand/collapse
horizontally

(6) Drag border


to adjust width

(5) Expand/collapse (6) Drag border


vertically to adjust height

Figure 2-18 Window resizing

5. The arrow buttons in the corners of a display pane let you


expand or collapse the pane vertically or horizontally.
6. Adjust the width of each display pane by dragging the vertical
border to the left/right. Likewise, to adjust its height by dragging
the horizontal border upward/downward.
7. To show the different views available, use either the View menu
or toolbar buttons. When you choose to add a view, the new view
pane appears below the currently selected pane.

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2 Getting started
Hands-on guide >

Figure 2-19 Adding view panes

8. To hide any view pane, click on the close button associated with
its tab.
9. If the pane is not large enough for the whole view to fit in, you can
resize the main window and/or use the available scrollbars.

(8) Click to hide


view

(10) Double-click on tab (9) Vertical


to expand/collapse view scrollbar
Zoom out
View all
(11 Drag tab
to move view

(9) Horizontal
scrollbar

Figure 2-20 Customizing view panes

In graphical views, you can zoom in by pressing the left mouse


button, moving the mouse, then releasing the button. Use the
zoom control buttons to zoom out or go back to the whole view.
10. Double-clicking on the tab of any view pane either expands or
collapses the view.

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Hands-on guide >

11. You can customize the layout of the main window by placing the
different views where you like them: with the mouse pointer
resting on the tab of any view pane, press the left mouse button,
then move the mouse so as to drag the tab to where you would like
the view pane to appear.
2
Placing tabs side by side will cause the view panes to be cascaded.
Where views are cascaded, you bring any view to the front by
simply clicking on its tab.

Cascaded views

Figure 2-21 Moving view tabs

Also, view panes can be tiled vertically and/or horizontally. With


the example shown in Figure 2-21, dragging the tab to (A) will
split the window vertically and place the view into the left-hand
pane. Dragging the tab to (B) will split the window horizontally
and place the view into the bottom pane. Dragging the tab to (C)
will split the window vertically and place the view into the right-
hand pane (see Figure 2-22).

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2 Getting started
Hands-on guide >

Figure 2-22 Tiled views

12. Double-clicking on the button in the lower right corner or each


main window enables or disables the automatic updating of the
window. That button is green if automatic updating is enabled, red
otherwise. The automatic update option is also available from the
the Preferences Setup menu, which allows you to adjust the
refresh period of the different views. If you are using an Internet
datalink, you may want to decrease the required bandwidth, by
selecting on longer refresh period. If you are connected to the
local network, you can set the refresh period to the minimum.

(12) Enable/disable
Automatic Update

Figure 2-23 Auto Update Preference setup

13. The blinking of the heartbeat-like indicator at the foot of the


window is indicative of the window being refreshed.

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Getting started
Hands-on guide >

(14) Memory bar


(13) Heartbeat-like
indicator
2

Figure 2-24 Memory Preference setup

14. The Memory tab in the Preferences Setup is used to show or


hide the memory occupation bargraph at the foot of the window,
indicating the memory size occupied by Java views. If the
memory is running out, click on the dustbin icon near the bargraph
to scrap unnecessary data and recover memory space.
15. 428XL messages appear in the “Status Mail” pane at the foot of
the main window. Whether you choose to show or hide that pane,
the orientation of the Mail icon in the toolbar will tell you if any
message is present (the mail icon being raised is indicative of one
or more messages being present). To delete mail messages, right-
click in the Status Mail pane and select “Clear Status” from the
menu that pops up.

Customizing tables
16. Most tables in numeric views can be customized by right-clicking
on any column heading and selecting “Customize” from the menu
that pops up.
17. Any heading appearing in bold style in the Displayed columns
list means that you cannot remove that column (but you can move
it using the up or down arrow button).
18. Any heading appearing in bold style and underlined means you
can neither remove nor move the column (it is always entirely
visible and at the same position in the table). All other columns
can be moved or removed.

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2 Getting started
Hands-on guide >

(17) Bold means


it cannot be removed
(16) Right-click on
column heading (20) Use to
rearrange
(19) Click to hide
selected column

(18) Bold and underlined


(neither removed nor moved)

Figure 2-25 Customizing tables

19. Click in either list box to choose which column to show or hide,
then use the double-arrow buttons to move it to the other list box.
20. Use the up or down arrow button to place each column where you
would like it to appear in the table.
21. You can save that table configuration by clicking on Save and
entering a name for it in the dialog box that shows up.
Subsequently, you’ll simply have to select the desired type of
table from the “Select a Preset” option button and click Apply to
recover your preferred arrangement of columns at your
convenience.
22. You can also change the order of columns by clicking on a column
heading in the table, then dragging and dropping it where you
would like it to appear (unless you are not allowed to move that
column).

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Getting started
Hands-on guide >

(22) Drag and drop


column heading

2
(23) Drag border
to resize

Figure 2-26

23. To resize a column, simply drag its border to the desired width.
Some columns, however, have a minimum width that you are not
allowed to override.
24. Clicking on a column heading may cause an up or down arrow to
appear in that heading, allowing you to scroll through the table if
more rows can be viewed.

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2 Getting started
System status archive tool (File Packager) >

System status archive tool (File Packager)


In the event of a problem with your 428XL system, you may want to
archive some log files containing information on the system’s
behaviour, for example in order to send them to SERCEL’s customer
support centre.
To do that, you can use the Packager command
available by right-clicking on the connection icon in the
launcher bar. That archiving tool automatically finds
the files to archive, and compresses them into a single
file in ZIP format.
Figure 2-27
The File Packager uses the configuration instructions
contained in a text file, with .cfg as extension, located in the following
directory:
/export/home/user428/Sercel/e-428v ./eHCI/filePackager/filePackager
In the configuration file are three sections:
• baseDir: used to specify which directory to search, if a relative
search path is used;
• packFile: used to specify the name of the ZIP file to create. For
example, /export/home/e-428/logPack.zip will create the
“logPack.zip” archive file in the “/export/home/e-428” directory.
• fileList: used to specify which files to find, with an absolute or
relative search path.
You may want to place the archive file on the crew’s Web site (or copy
it to whatever location you like). To do that:
- Open the configuration file to see which path and file name is
specified in its packFile section.
- Go to the specified directory and move or copy the zip file to the
desired location. See The crew’s Web site (page 61).

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Getting started
The crew’s Web site >

The crew’s Web site


Click on the Website icon in the launcher bar. This opens the Web
browser with the crew’s Website home page open in it. 2

Website

Figure 2-28

Access to all menus except Help is securized. Because the Web site can
be accessed direct from any browser, an authentication box appears on
your first attempt to download or upload files, or see Identity
information.

Figure 2-29

Simply enter the same User Name and Password (which a “Senior
Observer” must have given to you) as you used to open your user
session.
• The Identity Card menu displays information on the server machine
(identification, memory size, sercel products hosted on that machine,
patches installed, etc.).

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The crew’s Web site >

• The Download menu prompts the list of files contained in the


server’s /export/home/e-428/webServer/base/sercel/publication/
out directory. This may be files from the Log window’s Publication
folder, or a screenshot or whatever other file the Observer may have
placed in that directory for users to download). Selecting a file (by
clicking on it) opens a dialog box asking you if you want to open the
file or save it to your computer’s disk.

Figure 2-30

• The Upload menu allows you to select a file on your computer’s disk
and load it to the server. The file is loaded to the following directory:
/export/home/e-428/webServer/base/sercel/publication/in

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Getting started
The crew’s Web site >

• The Server logs menu

Figure 2-31

• The Packager menu


• The Help menu displays help about the 428XL Graphic User
Interface (same as the Help button in the launcher bar).

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2 Getting started
The Chat tool >

The Chat tool


Click on the Chat icon in the launcher bar. This opens a window that
allows you to see who is connected to the 428XL server and send
messages to any of those users.

Chat
Type in your
Click to send
message

Figure 2-32 Chat window

Simply type your message in the text box at the foot of the window,
click in the list box to select the user you want to reach, and then click
on the button in the lower right corner to send the message. This causes
a window to pop up on the user’s computer with your message in it.
To select two or more users, press the Control key while clicking in the
list.

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Chapter

3 Installation setup

This chapter describes the Installation setup window. It


includes the following sections:

• Overview (page 66)


• Seismic recording instrumentation (page 67)
• Peripherals (page 72)
• Export mode (page 74)
• Mobile Receiver Unit (MRU) (page 76)
• 428XL scalability (page 77)
• Master/Slave (page 79)
• Unmanned (page 81)

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Overview >

Overview
Clicking on the “Install” icon in the 428XL launcher bar
opens a window to be used when you install the system or
whenever you install a new software version, or another type
or vibrator electronics, or if you change the number of LCI-428 units,
etc.
After making the desired selections in the “Install” window, click
“Apply”. This reboots the server computer.
WARNING
The new settings will not take effect until the server computer has
booted up.

In addition, after adding or changing an LCI unit, the system may ask
you to reload LCI software (see 428XL Installation manual).

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Installation setup
Seismic recording instrumentation >

Seismic recording instrumentation


.

Figure 3-1 Install window (“Main” tab)

e428 Lite
Choose this option if you are installing a 428Lite box rather than an
LCI-428. See 428XL Installation Manual for hardware installation.

Unmanned
Choose the Unmanned option if the system is configured to use a UPS
and CDU to protect it from power cuts, for example for the
Microseismic operation mode.
This option is not available if the e-428 Lite option is ticked.
If the Unmanned option is ticked, then the Unmanned tab is available.
Click on this tab to set the associated parameters. See Unmanned
(page 81).

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Seismic recording instrumentation >

Instruments On Field
These buttons allow the system to customize the graphic user interface,
depending on the instrumentation to be used. The specific parameters
and/or commands attached to a type of instrument are hidden and
disabled unless and until you choose that type of instrument in this
window.
See DSU3 tilt correction (page 179).

Disk Buffer
The system uses a file repository in which it temporarily stores your
SEGD files until the Export process can accept them.
• Local Disk: the file repository will use the “/var/dump” directory on
the local disk of the server computer.
The files can be arranged in different manners in the repository (see
Backup Settings on page 95).

LCI-428
Choose the number of LCI-428 units you want to use, and enter the
network address of each of them in the associated fields. You can
choose any address from 172.30.201.1 to 172.30.210.1. See Changing
the LCI-428 IP address (page 51) in 428XL Installation Manual.

Figure 3-2

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Seismic recording instrumentation >

Licences
These fields are used to enter the necessary passwords to enable the
software packages you wish to use. If you add or move or remove any
Ethernet interface card, then you may have to request a new licence
code from Sercel. Note that Sercel may deliver temporary licences.
Because you have to enter the e-428 licence code again whenever you 3
reinstall e428 software, be sure to save it (e. g. on a USB stick) and keep
it in a safe place.

Figure 3-3

• e-428 licence: the e-428 Password field is used to enter the licence
code supplied to you by Sercel for your system. Record the “Server
Id” code prompted. You will need that Server Id (or Dongle Id code
for a laptop PC) if, for any reason, you contact Sercel to get a new
licence for your system.
When you contact Sercel to get a password for your system, you have
to provide:
- The 428XL software version.

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Seismic recording instrumentation >

- The identification code of the server computer (the Server Id


code displayed with the Server Id option button);
- The number of additional client computers you want to use,
- The number of traces;
• Plotter licence: the Info... button allows you to see if any licence is
already installed.
When you contact Sercel to get a Plotter licence code for your system,
you have to provide the “lmhost” identification code associated with
the server after e-428 software is installed. To read that code, log in
as user428 on the server, open a Terminal window and type the
command:
lmhostid
The licence for plotters cannot be typed on the keyboard. It may be
supplied to you on a floppy disk, or CD-ROM, or USB stick or any
appropriate medium. You can also download the licence file and save
it to the server computer’s disk (e. g. to the /tmp directory).
To install a plotter licence:
- Insert the medium (CD-ROM, etc.) containing the licence file,
or copy the file to computer’s disk,
- Click on the Browse... button and select the licence file.
- Click on Install. A warning box may appear, asking you if you
wish to install a licence. If you choose to do that and a licence
already exists, you are going to overwrite that licence.
- Note: If the mention “1-jan-0” appears in the warning box, it
should not be understood as an expiry date. Instead, this means
the licence is unlimited.
- Click OK. This installs the plotter licence.
- Wait for a dialog box to appear to say if installation was
successful.
- Click Apply. This reboots the server computer.

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Seismic recording instrumentation >

• Guidance licence: the Guidance Password field is used to enter the


licence code for the VE464 guidance option. When you contact
Sercel to get a Guidance licence code for your system, you have to
provide:
- The identification code displayed in the DPG Host Id field;
- The number of vibrators (DSDs) you want to steer. 3
- The Guidance software version.
• OVC Navigation: for OVC users only, enables source navigation
functions (“Ready” indicator in jOperation window’s Active Source
view, fleet position in jPositioning).

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Peripherals >

Peripherals

Figure 3-4

Nb of DPG modules
For VE432 users only: this field is used to specify how many (up to 4)
vibrator controller modules (DPGs) are attached to the system. (For
example, each vibrator fleet you want to use in slip-sweep mode has its
own vibrator controller).

Vibrator type
Choose the type of vibrator electronics you want to use for vibroseismic
sources if any. The following options are available:
• VE464 (SERCEL).
• VE432 (SERCEL).
• OVC: for GEOSVIP, PELTON (VIBPRO) or Force One vibrator
electronics.
• Other: for any other type of vibrator electronics.
See the wiring of the Blaster connector in 428XL Installation Manual.

Blaster type
Choose the type of blaster used for impulsive sources if any:
• SHOT PRO (PELTON)
• BoomBox

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Peripherals >

• MACHA
• AWD (Accelerated Weight Drop).
• SGDS
• SGD-S Shooter-Driven (able to supply the shooter position).
• OTHER (any type). With this option, the data from the shooting
system is not processed.
3
Note If you select the “Connected with LSI” option:
- the indicator LED on FDUs, otherwise used as a test result
indicator, is used to tell the shooter whether he is allowed to
connect/disconnect an LSI between two links.
- you cannot launch a new shot until retrieval of the previous one
is complete, whatever the field equipment and the shooting
method used.
See the wiring of the Blaster connector in 428XL Installation Manual
and “Source Controllers” in User’s Manual Vol. 3.

Number of plotters
Choose the appropriate option (1 or 2) depending on the number of
plotters attached to the system.

Plotter type
Choose the appropriate option (12 inch or 24 inch plotter).
Enter a name for each plotter in the associated “Name” field. The name
will appear in the Plotter main window to identify each plotter.
MAC address: (Media Access Control address). This field is used to
enter the hardware address of the plotter card, in the case of a plotter
with an Ethernet port.

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Export mode >

Export mode
You can record your SEGD files to cartridges and/or export them to
remote disks attached to the local network.

Figure 3-5

Max number of SCSI drives


This option is used for traditional recording to one or up to four
cartridge drives. Use this button to specify how many cartridge drives
may be connected.

Max number of FTP servers


If you wish to export records to an FTP server, use this button to specify
how many FTP servers may be attached to the local network.

Max number of NFS servers


This option allows SEGD files to be exported in real time to one or more
disks simultaneously. Use this button to specify how many (up to 20)
NFS servers may be attached to the file hierarchy, and use the “Type of
NFS Server” button to choose the type of system:
• NAS4000: (TCP protocol) choose this option if you are using the
NAS4000 system (featuring removable disks) from Sercel.
• Other: (UDP) choose this option if you are using the early-design
(Intellique) NAS from Sercel (NAS800, NAS2000, etc.), or a NAS
system other than from Sercel.
Note that if the Unmanned option is selected in the Main tab, then the
maximum number of NFS servers is limited to 2.

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Installation setup
Export mode >

To attach a remote disk to the local network, see “Peripherals” in 428XL


Installation Manual.

Local network (172.27.128.x.)

Observer NFS
server
172.27.128.41
FTP user 3
428XL server
GUI FileZilla
172.27.128.1
172.27.128.2 172.27.128.99

Figure 3-6

To install a NAS disk or a file server, see 428XL Installation Manual.

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3 Installation setup
Mobile Receiver Unit (MRU) >

Mobile Receiver Unit (MRU)

Figure 3-7

If a tracking box is connected to the computer (i.e. if you wish to


implement the vehicle tracking function), activate the Use MRU
button. As a result you have to do the following:
• From the “GPS Port 1” button, select the serial port to use for the
vehicle tracking function. The “Base Port” button allows you to
choose a second serial port to be used for service messages from the
tracking box.
• From the “Driver Type” button, select the protocol used by the
tracking box.
• Enter the password for the vehicle tracking function into the
“Licence” field (or else communications with the tracking box will
not be allowed).

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Installation setup
428XL scalability >

428XL scalability
Your system’s capabilities depend on its resources (for example the
server computer’s RAM size) and on how many traces you want to
record, on the operating mode, on the sample rate, etc. The 428XL
Scalability tab allows you to change some default settings in order to
best suit your crew’s requirements.
3

Figure 3-8 Scaling parameters

• Maximum nb of traces: (4000 by default) Maximum number of


retrieved traces; depends on the server computer’s RAM size.

RAM size 428-Lite (4 GB) Less than 8 GB More than 8 GB


Max. number of
1000 4000 10000
traces

• Maximum open VP: (2 by default, 4 max.). Up to four Vibroseismic


sources can be used alternately (Flip-Flop mode). If you choose the
Work by Acq (page 293) option, the system can start shooting a Source
Point with multiple acquisitions to stack, but suspend it and let the
focus jump to another source and Source Point. In that case, use this
field to tell the system how many (up to 4) Source Points it can leave
suspended.

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• Maximum simult VP: (1 by default). This field is used to tell the


system how many Vibroseismic sources you want to use
simultaneously. The allowable number (up to 4) depends on the
server computer’s RAM size.

RAM size 428-Lite (4 GB) Less than 8 GB More than 8 GB


Max. number of
1 2 4
simultaneous VPs

Note: 428XL software version 2.0 does not allow the use of
simultaneous sources.
• Maximum nb of samples: (12001 by default). The maximum
allowable number of samples depends on the other three parameters.
It is determined by the system as you click on the Compute Samples
button. This allows you to determine the allowable record length (by
multiplying it by the sample rate you want to use).

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Installation setup
Master/Slave >

Master/Slave
Unless you want to use a Master/Slave configuration, choose the
Standalone (default) option.

Figure 3-9

The “Master/Slave” mode allows using up to four separate 428XL


systems synchronized to a “Master” 428XL, if an Ethernet bridge is
provided for the “Master” and “Slave” to communicate with each other.
The different 428XL servers should be set up as follows:
• On the 428XL server to be used as “Master”, choose the Master
option and tick the associated buttons, depending on which “Slave”
systems you want to use (Slave 1 Used, Slave 2 Used, etc.). As a
result, a Master Enable / Master Disable button will be available in
the jOperation window of the a Master system.
• On each “Slave” 428XL system, choose one of the four available
Slave server address options — you must choose a different IP
address on each “Slave” system. This will change the last figure in its
IP address to 2 (or 3, 4, 5) so that is can communicate with the

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Master/Slave >

“Master” server. As a result, a Slave Enable / Slave Disable button


will be available in the jOperation window of each Slave system.
See Master/Slave operation (page 384) for details.

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Installation setup
Unmanned >

Unmanned
The Unmanned tab is only available if the Unmanned option is
selected in the Main tab.
Use this option if the system is configured to use a UPS and CDU to
protect it from power cuts, for example for the Microseismic operation
mode: the system will periodically check whether SEG-D files keep
3
being generated and will automatically reboot the server and LCI in the
event of an interruption.
The Unmanned tab has the following parameters:

Figure 3-10

• To set the recurrence rate of the check for new SEG-D files, enter the
desired time in the SEGD files checked every field.
• In Microseismic mode, a “Line Error Recovery” option is available
that causes the system to automatically go to “Field Off,” then “Field
On” in order to reset the field electronics if an error arises.
- The Number of field off / field on sequences parameter allows
you to specify how many (1 to 10) Field Off/On operations are
allowed in order to recover the line in the event of line errors.
- The Line recovery timeout is used to specify the time (60 to
36000 s) between two successive Field Off/On operations.
Note that the maximum allowable time to recover the line
(“Number of field off / field on sequences” × “Line recovery timeout”)
must be less than or equal to the time specified in the SEGD files
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3 Installation setup
Unmanned >

checked every field, or else a warning will pop up (in that case, you
must increase the value in the “SEGD files checked every” field, or
change the other two parameters).
The status bar in the jOperation window indicates if the Unmanned
mode is off or on.

Figure 3-11

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Chapter

4 Configuration

This chapter includes the following sections:

• The main window (page 84)


• The Setup menu (page 88)
• On Line/Off Line (page 100)

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4 Configuration
The main window > Overview

The main window


In this section:
• Overview (page 84)
• Customer Support (page 85)
• Copyrights (page 85)
• Identity Card (page 86)

Overview
The jConfig window serves two main purposes:
• Firstly, it is used to set up some basic parameters at the beginning of
a survey, for instance the sample rate.
• Secondly, it is used to control and initiate communications with the
Line Controller Interface each time the system is switched on.
An additional task is to report on the current hardware and software
configuration of the system, via the Identity Card.

Click to shrink
or expand

Figure 4-1

Note You can shrink/expand the window by clicking in the Activity


area.

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Configuration
The main window > Customer Support

Customer Support

Clicking on this button in the 428XL main window opens a box


providing information on how to call the Customer Support
Department for help.
Please note SERCEL Customer Support Hot Line with our dedicated
phone number:
- Outside FRANCE +33 2 40 30 58 88
4
- In FRANCE 02 40 30 58 88
This allows you to get in touch with our SERCEL Customer Support
Department, at any time and seven days a week, to ask any question
related to the use of your SERCEL equipment.
One of our experienced, english speaking Customer Support Engineers
will make every effort to give you any technical support you need.
The Hot Line includes a vocal mail box for calls outside normal
business hours: just leave a spoken message and we will get back to you
first thing in the morning (including Saturdays and Sundays).
SERCEL is committed to offering you our closest support for the
success of your field operations.

Copyrights
Clicking on this button displays the list of copyrighted
software and libraries used in your 428XL Graphic User
Interface.

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The main window > Identity Card

Figure 4-2

Identity Card
Clicking on this button displays a description of the configuration
of your system (Software version, software patches installed,
passwords, computer configuration, plotter type, hardware
configuration of 428XL Line Controller Interface, etc.).

Figure 4-3

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Configuration
The main window > Identity Card

Of particular note is the following information:


- Host I.D.
- Software Version.
- Passwords (and LCI board numbers).
- Maximum number of client user sessions allowed.
- Module Type (428).
The Customer Support Department will solve your problem more 4
quickly if you provide them with a detailed description of the
configuration of your system, using the Identity Card command.

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The Setup menu > Crew setup window

The Setup menu


In this section:
• Crew setup window (page 88)
• User Info setup (page 92)
• SEGD setup (page 92)
• Disk Record setup (page 95)
• Swath setup (page 97)

Crew setup window


Note You are not allowed to change these parameters unless and until
the line is turned off.

Figure 4-4

Crew Name
(16 characters). The Crew Name you enter in this field is used along
with the Device Name created by the Export window to record the
Recording Entity Name field in the Tape Label block for Revision 2.1-
compliant SEGD files.

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Configuration
The Setup menu > Crew setup window

Sample rate
(1/4, 1/2, 1, 2 or 4 ms)
This option button allows you to specify the sampling interval to be
used on all traces.

Filter Type
(8N_Lin, 8N_Min).
Each 428XL channel has a built-in Digital Signal Processor that
4
performs high-cut filtering, depending on the option selected in this
setup window.
“N” stands for the Nyquist Frequency, i.e. half the sampling frequency.
The available filters have a -3 dB point at 0.8 times the Nyquist
Frequency, i.e. 0.4 times the sampling frequency:
- 100 Hz @ 4-ms.
- 200 Hz @ 2-ms.
- 400 Hz @ 1-ms.
- 800 Hz @ 0.5-ms.
- 1600 Hz @ 0.25-ms.
They feature a slope of about 370 dB/octave. The pulse response
ringing, however, decays slowly.
The attenuation is at least 120 dB for all frequencies above the Nyquist
Frequency, preventing any aliasing effect.
The 428XL allows the user to choose between:
- linear-phase type or
- minimum-phase type.
The amplitude spectrum does not depend much on the type of filter
(linear or minimum phase), unlike the phase spectrum.

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The Setup menu > Crew setup window

Linear Phase
This type of filter is ideal as far as phase considerations are concerned,
as all the frequencies are delayed by the same amount. That delay is set
to zero in the 428XL.
In return, this kind of filter has a pulse response with leading ringing
(“precursors”) as well as lagging ringing (actually, the pulse response is
symmetrical with respect to time 0).

Minimum Phase
The minimum phase type is causal, i.e. its pulse response, much like
analog filters, starts at time 0, peaks and then rings (no ringing prior to
the peak).
The delay, however, somewhat depends on the input frequency.

Default Line Data Rate


(8 or 16 Mbits/s) This option button sets the default data rate for all
acquisition lines. To determine which option to choose, you need to
know which type of field electronics is used.
- The FDU-428 field electronics supports both 8 and 16 Mbits/s
data rates. (Note that the DSU3GPS-428 only supports 16 Mb/s).
- The FDU408 field electronics supports only the 8 Mbits/s
option.
WARNING
If any FDU408 electronics is deployed and you choose “16 Mbits/s”, it
will not be seen by the system unless you use the The Form Line setup
(page 226) to change the data rate to 8 Mbits/s on those line segments.

Time Management
This option button allows you to choose which clock to use to determine
the time of shots:
• Internal Clock: shot time is synchronized on the server computer’s
clock. This option does not allow Slip-Sweep (page 284) operations.

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• Source Controller: shot time is synchronized on the source


controller (e. g. for explosive operations) connected to one of the
Blaster connectors on the LCI or 428-Lite box. You have to select the
appropriate Blaster connector from the “From Source Controller
Connection” option button.
• GPS: shot time is synchronized on the GPS time from a GPS receiver
attached to the LCI or 428-Lite box. From the “GPS Type” option
button, select which type of GPS receiver is used. The GPS time of
the acquisition TB is recorded in the Extended Header (bytes 877- 4
883). If you want to use DSU3GPS-428 links, select the “Novatel
Propak” GPS type (which allows locking the clock of the LCI-428 to
the OCXO oscillator from the GPS receiver).

Figure 4-5

Post Annotation Logging


If the actual source COG is not available at the moment the SEGD file
is generated, this option determines whether or not the system is
allowed to update this field when the data is available at a later date, that
is after all status messages have been received from all vibrators
(VE464 or VE432 DSDs). If auxiliary traces are used to record vibrator
motion signals, this option enables the position of each vibrator to be
recorded in the Trace Header of those auxiliary traces. See SQC Dump
mode (page 348) or SQC Dump mode with VE432 (page 361).

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The Setup menu > User Info setup

User Info setup


An External Header appears in every SEGD file generated by the
system. Selecting “User Info” from the “Setup” menu opens a window
that allows you to enter any extra information not supported by the
standard header (ASCII characters) that you wish to be recorded in the
External Header. It can be left blank if not required.

Figure 4-6

The size allocated to the External Header depends on which options you
choose in the SEGD setup menu.

SEGD setup
If you choose the “Advanced” rather than “Standard” option, you can
choose between the following SEGD format options:

Figure 4-7

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The Setup menu > SEGD setup

SEGD Level
Depending on which option you choose with this button, the system will
generate records complying with SEGD standard Rev. 1.0 or Rev. 2.1.
Revision 2.1 supports the latest industry techniques and practices,
especially the use of very-high-capacity recording media, and causes a
label (a 128-byte block) to be written at the beginning of each “tape” or
“storage unit”. The term “storage unit” is used indifferently for a
traditional “tape” or a tape-like volume of data on any recording
medium.
4
This option determines the format Revision of not only the SEGD files
but also of the SPS files the system generates. However, this is of no
effect on the SPS files you import: the system automatically interprets
imported SPS files in either format, regardless of the SEGD revision
option selected. See The SPS format (page 581).

Number of Record Channel Sets


You can choose between the following options for the number of
channel sets per record: 16 (Standard), 32 or 64.

External Header Size


You can choose between the following options for the maximum length
(kByte) of the External Header in the SEGD file: 1 or 64 (standard);
1 to 28 in 4-kByte steps (Advanced).
The following information is appended in the External Header header:
- Information from the shooting or navigation system,
- User information from the Config client window’s setup,
- Source comment from Operation client window.

API Producer code


Used (for SEGD Rev. 2.1 files) to specify the organization code of the
storage unit producer, to be recorded in the Tape Label block.
Organization codes are assigned by POSC, which maintains the current

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The Setup menu > SEGD setup

list of codes. See info@posc.org or Organization Codes (page 171) in


428XL User’s Manual Vol. 2.

Serial Number
(8 characters) This field is used along with the Current Tape Nb
(page 466) parameter to generate the “Serial Number” field (an ID used
to distinguish the storage unit from other storage units in your archive)
to be recorded in the Storage Unit Label (for SEGD Rev. 2.1 files).

Use External Tape Labels


You can choose this option if you want to enter a name (physical label)
for each tape. Unlike the tape number which is automatically assigned
by the system, External Tape Labels must be entered manually. If you
choose this option, then the system will ask you to enter a tape label
each time you load a tape on a tape drive. See the Export window’s Tape
setup: External Label (only for SEGD Rev. 2.1 files) on page 466.

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Configuration
The Setup menu > Disk Record setup

Disk Record setup


The system uses a file repository in which it temporarily stores your
SEGD files until the Export process can accept them (see Disk Buffer on
page 68). The Disk Record setup window lets you choose the way the
system will arrange the files in the SEGD repository.

Figure 4-8

Disk record mode


• The “Standard” mode will save your production files to
“/var/dump/normal” and your test files to “/var/dump/test”.
• The “Advanced” mode may create subdirectories, depending on
which “Backup Settings” option you select.

Backup Settings
The files can be arranged in three different manners:
• Flat: all files are saved to the same directory (/var/dump). Note that
if you are recording multiple swaths to tapes, you are likely to have
data from different swaths being recorded to the same tape, as the
Export process will not allow you to sort the data by swath.

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The Setup menu > Disk Record setup

WARNING
If you choose “Flat” and you are recording multiple swaths to tapes, be
sure the offset of the initial file number for each swath is large enough
in the Swath setup (page 97).

• Swath Name: the swath name (<swathname>) of each swath is used


to create a distinct subdirectory for each swath. Production files are
recorded to “/var/dump/<swathname>/”, e. g. “/var/dump/swath1”,
“/var/dump/swath2”, etc. Test files are recorded to “/var/dump/test”.
Use this option if you want to record to a tape and prevent different
swaths from being recorded on the same tape and therefore mixed.
Naturally, you will not be able to export multiple swaths
concurrently: in the Export window, you will select one “/var/dump/
<swathname>/” directory to export it to tapes, then select another
swath directory and export it to new tapes, etc.
The “Tape Set” parameter in the Swath setup (page 97) allows
concurrently exporting multiple swaths to distinct directories on NFS
disks.
• Swath Name and Julian Day: same as with the “Swath name”
option, but for each swath, a subdirectory is created for each julian
day. Production files are recorded to
“/var/dump/<swathname>/<julianday>/”,
e. g. “/var/dump/swath1/jdayXXX”, “/var/dump/swath2/jdayXXX”,
etc. Test files are recorded to “/var/dump/test”.

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Configuration
The Setup menu > Swath setup

Swath setup
You may have multiple sets of lines to shoot, each set being referred to
as a “swath”. This setup window allows you to create a Swath Type for
each set of lines to shoot.
To make changes to any row in the list box, double-click on it, fill in the
fields above the list, then click Add or Change or Delete, as required.
To save and enable your changes, click Apply. (To revert to the former
settings, click Reset instead). You cannot use Apply if Field On is 4
selected in the Line window.

swath2
swath1
swath2

Figure 4-9

Note that deleting a swath (by clicking Delete) deletes all the objects
(receiver points, source points, etc.) and setups relating to that swath in
the Line, Operation and Positioning windows, but this does not delete
the results in the Log window. You cannot use Delete if Field On is
selected in the Line or Positioning window.

Swath Number
Identification number to be assigned to the set of seismic lines to shoot,
described in The Source Point Setup (page 275) in the Operation
window. Typically, that is the set of receiver positions and source points
depicted in a set of SPS R-, S- and X-files you import via the Log
window. If you want to shoot two or more swaths, create a Swath
Number number for each swath, set it to Active, and see Multiswath
(page 310).

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Swath Name
Used to enter a user-friendly name for this swath.

File Nb
Identification number of the first seismic record SEGD file for this
swath. After the initial number is specified, the system automatically
increments the file number on each seismic record.
WARNING
The “File number&Swath number” pair is used as an identification key
for updating log files. Therefore, reusing any “File number&Swath
number”pair will erase the shot information previously recorded in log
files with the same identification key.

WARNING
If you are recording multiple swaths to the same directory (using the
same “Tape Set” with the “Flat” option in the Disk Record setup on
page 95), enter a different initial File Number with a large enough offset
for each swath.

Tape Set
The Tape Setup menu (page 465) in the Export window allows you to
create a distinct Tape Set (set of tape numbers) for each swath, so that
multiple swaths can be exported concurrently to distinct directories on
NFS disks. The Tape Set is only intended for exporting to NFS disks,
not tapes.
Use the “Tape Set” field in the Swath setup to select which Tape Set to
associate with which swath. As a result, a distinct set of tape numbers
will be used to record each swath when your SEGD files are exported
to NAS disks.
You are, however, allowed to use the same Tape Set for different swaths.

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You also have to select a Tape Set for test-type SEGD records. Test
records can use the same Tape Set as production records.

Active
Choosing Active from this option button causes a selection tab to be
created for this Swath Number number in the Line window’s Survey
and Spread setups, and in the Operation window. Also, this swath
number will be available in the Log window so that you can select it
when loading an SPS-X file to generate The Source Point Setup 4
(page 275) in the Operation window (since the SPS-X format does not
make provision for a Swath identification parameter). You can set
multiple swaths to Active. See Multiswath (page 310).

Comment
Used to enter any comment you like (for example a self-explanatory
description of the swath).

Test File Nb
Identification number of the first test-type SEGD file. After the initial
number is specified, the system automatically increments the file
number on each test record. Use the associated Tape Set dropdown list
button to select a set of tape numbers for test-type SEGD records.

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4 Configuration
On Line/Off Line >

On Line/Off Line
Clicking “Off Line” inhibits data acquisition and recording, and enables
local functions on the Graphic User Interface. You are then allowed to
make any changes to parameter settings in the “Setup” menu in each
main window.
Clicking “On Line” enables data acquisition and recording. This also
automatically performs a Look function, as well as an instrument test on
the auxiliary traces.

File being exported

Current file number


Number of shots being processed

Number of shots to retrieve


Acquisition length downcount or delay downcount

Figure 4-10

The “Activity” box shows the progress of the data flow, in the form of
traffic lights for each stage in the 428XL. When the process stage is idle,
all three lights are off. Otherwise, the colours should be interpreted as
follows:
• The green light means the data stream is being processed or dumped
to the next process stage.
• The orange light comes On if the processor is unable to dump the
data presently being processed to the next stage, for example because
“Manual” instead of “Auto” is activated in the “Export” or “DPG”
main window.
• The red light comes On if the processor is unable to process the
incoming data, or unable to dump the processed data to the next stage
(therefore unable to accept any more data).

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Configuration
On Line/Off Line >

The following indicators may appear:


• ACQ (Acquisition progress). At the foot of the ACQ light is a time
counter, preset to the acquisition length value (including any
programmed delay) at the start of each acquisition, that indicates the
time still to elapse before the present acquisition (or delay) is
complete.
- The green light means that acquisition is in progress.
- The orange light comes On during the programmed delay, if 4
any, between acquisitions, or if seismonitor in the Line main
window is running.
- The red light means no acquisition can be performed at the
present time (e. g. because there are too many shots to retrieve).
• RTV (Retrieving). The counter at the foot indicates the number of
shots still to be retrieved (max. 2).
- The green light means that the seismic data collected from the
FDUs, and stored in the LAUs, is being retrieved by the retrieval
process (PRM).
- The orange light means that acquisition is complete but it is not
entirely retrieved.
- The red light means retrieval is no longer possible.
• PROC (Processing). The counter at the foot indicates the number of
shots being processed.
- The green light means data is being transferred from the
retrieval process (PRM) to the processing queue, and/or Noise
Elimination and/or Correlation is in progress.
- The orange light means the processing is no longer performed
in real time.
- The red light means no processing can be performed at the
present time.

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On Line/Off Line >

• REC (Recording to SEGD repository disk). This indicator is


associated with the file repository in which the system temporarily
stores your SEGD files until the Export process can accept them. It is
red until the first file is recorded. Then it should go off and only turn
green when a file is being recorded to the SEGD repository. This
indicator going orange or red would mean that disk space is running
out. The number of the file being recorded to the SEGD repository
appears at the foot of the indicator.
• EXPORT (Exporting). The number of the file being exported
appears at the foot of the indicator.
- The green light means that a file is being copied from the SEGD
repository to the export target device.
- The orange light comes on if the processor is unable to write to
the export target device, for example if the system is waiting for
a tape device to be ready or a disk to be mounted.
- The red light comes on if the processor is unable to accept any
more data because “Manual” instead of “Auto” is activated. No
file is being exported.
• DPG (if a VE464 or VE432 DPG vibrator controller is installed).
- The green light means that a sweep is in progress.
- The orange light means that no sweep is being taken but the
DPG window is ready.
- The red light means that only local functions are enabled in the
DPG window (the“Manual” mode is selected).

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Chapter

5 Line

This chapter includes the following sections:

• The main window (page 104)


• Topographic views (page 107)
• Numeric views (page 123)
• Histogram view (page 125)
• The Survey setup (page 127)
• The Layout setup (page 134)
• The Spread Type setup (page 145)
• The Look setup (page 151)
• LAU Leakage setup (page 153)
• Advanced layouts (page 155)
• Working with DSU3-428 & DSUGPS links (page 162)
• Working with ULS field equipment (page 180)
• Radio telemetry (page 198)
• Test functions (page 215)
• The Form Line setup (page 226)
• The Synthetic setup (page 231)
• The Download setup (page 237)

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5 Line
The main window >

The main window


The Line client window provides access to all of the test and utility
functions necessary for management of seismic lines and spreads.
The main window gives a graphical or numeric representation of all
field equipment connected to the Line Controller Interface, together
with Sensor and Instrument test results. Selective colour coding is used
to highlight problems that may affect data quality.

Figure 5-1

The View menu allows you to customize the main window by choosing
one or more views to display. Then you can resize your display panes
by dragging the desired border.
For details on how you can arrange the views and toolbars as you would
like them, see the Hands-on guide (page 52).
Line and spread parameters are programmed through the Setup menu.
See The Survey setup (page 127) to describe the survey, and The Layout
setup (page 134) to generate markers.

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Line
The main window >

When you open the Line window, only the recording unit and the
LAUX-428s attached to it are visible in the default (Field Off) view.
When you go to Field On, all the field electronics connected becomes
alive and can be viewed in the main window. In topographic views, the
amount of graphic details depends on the zoom factor. If you zoom in,
the ends of each FDU or DSU Link are visible (the system uses the Link
properties recorded in each FDU or DSU). The number of channels in a
Link is user-customizable.
FDU/DSU channels can be in one of three states: acquisition
(seismonitor or recording), field update (the database is continually
updated with test results), or idle (no operation in field electronics). 5
You enable the “field update” mode in The Look setup (page 151), by
choosing the “Auto Look” option and selecting the tests you want to do
(Sensor Resistance, Tilt, Leakage). If you do that, all channels go to the
“field update” mode (unless no markers are defined) as soon as you go
to Field On. As a result, the selected tests are performed in real time
and can be viewed.
Whenever a new field unit is laid out, it does not appear in the
topographic view until the spread is formed again. If the spread remains
the same for consecutive shots (VPs) in continuous mode, no spread
forming is performed, so any new unit laid out will not be visible unless
you program an Auto Look between VPs in the Operation main
window’s Look option (page 287) setup. If any Sensor tests are selected,
they are performed too (but if the Resistance value exceeds the specified
limit, e. g. if nothing is connected on the channel input, Tilt and Leakage
tests are not performed, even if they are selected in the Look setup).

Note: simply setting a Delay between two shots or VPs will also
cause a Look to be executed.
While active channels are collecting the data during acquisition, all
passive ones are still in “field update” mode if Auto Look is selected
in the Operation window’s Look option (page 287) setup, and their states
are continually updated on the display if they are in lines that are not
involved in the acquisition. You can see right away if any extra units

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have been connected to those lines, or if any sensors or cables (called


paths) are at fault. Any faulty elements, including cables, are displayed
in red.
In case of a disruption along a Line, the Auto Look automatically
rewakes the spread and reroutes the data if necessary. In contrast, a
disruption along the Transverse is not recovered the same way: the Auto
Look will not reform the crashed spread and reroute the data (instead, a
Field Off/Field On is required).
Double-clicking on any error message in the status pane causes the
focus to jump to the unit involved in all other views.
Double-clicking on a unit in a graphic view, or its row in a numeric
view, causes the focus to jump to that unit in all other views.

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Topographic views > About topographic views

Topographic views
In this section:
• About topographic views (page 107)
• Sensor view (page 111)
• Instrument view (page 113)
• Battery view (page 115)
• Seismonitor (page 116)
• Working with graphic views (page 117) 5
About topographic views
Topographic views provide geographic displays of the results available
from field updates.
Use the View menu or toolbar buttons to choose the type of information
to display:

Figure 5-2

• Information on the survey (“Sensor” topo view).


• Information on field units (“Instrument” and “Battery” topo views).
• Sensor noise level (“Seismonitor” topo view).
Whatever the type of information displayed, the other results are just
one click away.

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(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

(9) (8) (7) (6)

Figure 5-3 Topographic views

(1) The left-hand pane displays the whole survey. See Zooming
(page 118).
(2) Click on these buttons to expand or collapse the left-hand pane.
Drag the vertical border to resize the two panes.
(3) The right-hand pane displays a magnified view of the area
encompassed in the red frame selected in the left-hand pane. See
Zooming (page 118).

(4) The legend shows the programmed limits for


QC results. With the mouse pointer resting
on any element in the graphic view (Sensors/Seismonitor/
Instrument/Batteries) a tip box appears that shows the
identification of the element and its QC result if any is available,
depending on the choice made with the test option button. The
relevant legend automatically appears as the tip box shows up.
In the graphic view, the tested elements are green if within the
limits, red or blue otherwise. The limits for the sensor tests are

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adjustable through the Survey Setup menu (using the Apply


Sensors button).
(5) Field On/Field Off button. Use this button
to turn on/off the power supply to the lines.
After you go to Field On, the field equipment connected to the
LCI is visible in the Instrument view (if it is supplied with
power and loaded with the appropriate software version).
(6) Location of the mouse pointer within the graphic pane.
(7) Zoom out button: restores the previous zoom factor.
5
(8) Reset button: removes zooming.
(9) Status pane: displays status and error messages.
Double-clicking on any error message in the status pane
causes the focus to jump to the unit involved, in all views.
The Preferences setup allows you to choose different view options for
Lines numbers and Receiver positions.

Figure 5-4 Preferences setup

The View Axes option shows or hides the line and stake numbers.
Lines can be displayed in Ascending or Descending Line Number
order or as described in the Survey (page 128) setup.
You can choose not to show survey gaps, if any, by ticking the Collapse
Survey Gap option, in order to save space in graphic views. This only
applies to gaps that are common to all lines.

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Figure 5-5 Collapsing survey gaps

The Background color tab allows you to change the background colour
of graphic views.

Figure 5-6

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Topographic views > Sensor view

Sensor view
This view shows the topographic stakes and the types of sensors in the
survey.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Figure 5-7 Sensor topographic view

(1) Use this button to show or hide the sensor type in the
graphic view. (The selected sensor type number appears
inside the icon).
(2) Use the Sensor QC Type button to select the
type of sensor whose test results you want to
display.
(3) This button looks for the units connected and launches
the Sensor tests selected in the The Look setup
(page 151). See also Sensor tests (page 221).

(4) This option button is used to choose which


type of sensor QC test to launch (with the Go
button) and display.
(5) The Go button provides a shortcut for the test functions
available from the Test Setup menu. (See also Test

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Topographic views > Sensor view

functions on page 215). It launches the selected QC test on the


selected units. (If no units are selected, then the test is performed
on the whole survey). This clears the test results, and the units
are shown in blue until the test is completed and new results are
available.
To select a set of units in the graphic view, see To select one or more
elements (page 117). After you launch a test function on any unit, a grey
background appears on that unit in the graphic view, meaning that the
unit is busy.
The colour of each sensor icon depends on the limits programmed for
the Sensor test selected using the option button (Resistance, Tilt, Noise,
Leakage). To change the Sensor test limits, see Sensor type (page 131)
in the description of The Survey setup.
Sensor icons in the graphic view are shown in:
• Green if within the Sensor test limits.
• Red if out of Sensor test limits.
• Light blue if not tested.
Any mute sensor appears as a blue cross (no sensor is detected).

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Instrument view
This view shows all the field equipment connected in the survey.
(1) (2) (3)

FDU
5

Figure 5-8 Instrument topographic view

(1) This button looks for the units connected.

(2) This option button is used to choose which


type (Distortion, CMRR, Gain error, Phase
error, Noise, Crosstalk) of instrument QC test to launch (with the
Go button) and display. You do not need to click on Go to get
the results from self-tests (Auto Test option).
(3) The Go button provides a shortcut for the instrument
test functions available from the Test Setup menu. See
also Test functions (page 215). It launches the selected QC test on
the selected units. (If no units are selected, then the test is
performed on the whole survey). This clears the test results, and
the units are shown in blue until the test is completed and new
results are available.

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To select a set of units in the graphic view, see To select one or more
elements (page 117). After you launch a test function on any unit, a grey
background appears on that unit in the graphic view, meaning that the
unit is busy.
The buttons in the upper-left corner allow you to highlight or dim some
of the elements for better legibility.

Stakes LSI

Cable path FDU 428XL LAUX

Figure 5-9

For an LCI-G, the icon is slightly different.

LCI-428 LCI-G

Figure 5-10

Right-clicking on any of these buttons brings up a popup menu that


allows you, for example, to get traceability information for the whole
selection.
By default, the Instrument graphic view displays the results from self-
tests. The colour code is as follows:
• Green: The unit is identified and its self-test is correct.
• Orange: The unit is identified but no self-test has been performed
(because of a transmission problem).
• Red: The unit cannot be used, or its self-test failed. See
Numeric views (page 123) for details.
• Grey: There is no Marker on the line segment.

LAUX-G
(GPS receiver sync OK)

Figure 5-11 LAUX-G with attached GPS receiver (sync OK)

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After connecting a GPS receiver to an LAUX-G and going to Field On,


a red LAUX-G icon is displayed, and the associated tip box reads “GPS
synchronization in progress”, until GPS synchronisation is complete.

Figure 5-12 LAUX-G with attached GPS receiver (sync in progress)

LAUX-G
(GPS receiver not synchronized)

Figure 5-13 LAUX-G with attached GPS receiver (sync failed)


5
Battery view
This view shows the battery-operated units deployed.

Legend Threshod adjust

Tip

Figure 5-14 Battery topographic view

With the mouse pointer resting on any battery-operated unit, a tip box
appears, showing the type of the unit, its serial number and its power
supply voltage. The legend at the top of the window shows the
programmed limit for the battery voltage, which is adjustable using the
Threshold slider button.
The icons in the Battery view are shown in green if the battery voltage
is above that threshold, red otherwise.

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Seismonitor
The Seismonitor topographic view allows you to view the sensors in
terms of input signal rather than sensor type.
It shows the active spread:
• Active sensors appear as green squares,
• Dead sensors appear as red squares,
• Mute sensors appear as dark blue squares,
• Stakes defined with no sensors appear as yellow crosses.
When the Seismonitor pushbutton is activated, this view also allows
real-time noise monitoring: the level on each receiver is represented
using eight 6-dB steps for both the height and colour (from green to red)
of each receiver icon, depending on the gain selected for Seismonitor.
The red colour step corresponds to the highest step in the level scale.

The scale adjusts itself


according to the gain Used to choose the
chosen seismonitor gain

Used to choose which Used to choose which


sensor types to show or sensor type gain to adjust
hide with the Gain slider button

Figure 5-15

The seismonitor gain is applied to both seismic and auxiliary traces.


The Gain slider button, in conjunction with the Sensor Type option
button, allows you to adjust the Seismonitor gain for each type of
sensor.

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Note: Naturally, the Sensor noise on radio-type channels is not


viewed in real time. The radio-type channels noise display is
only refreshed each time you use the Look function.

Working with graphic views

To select one or more elements


With the mouse pointer resting on the first unit to be selected, press the
centre button of the mouse. Hold it down while dragging the pointer to
the last unit to be selected, then release it. A red background appears on
the selected units.
5
Press
Release

Figure 5-16 Selecting elements in graphic views

You can copy the selected area using the Control+ C shortcut (the
message “Copy Ready” should appear at the foot of the window) and
paste it into the Absolute Spread Setup window to create a spread
setup.
If you launch a test with the buttons in the upper-right corner of the
graphic pane after selecting a set of units, the test is only performed on
the units selected. The selection is replicated (in the form of an absolute
spread description) in the Test Setup window accessed via the Functions
menu.
To select a single unit, use the same method with a sufficient zoom
factor.
To unselect, click anywhere in the graphic pane.

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Zooming
With the mouse pointer resting anywhere in the graphic pane, press the
left button of the mouse. Drag the mouse pointer slowly in any
direction. This causes an elastic frame to show up that enlarges until you
stop dragging the mouse pointer. Release the mouse button. As a result,
the spread area encompassed in the elastic frame occupies the entire
right-hand pane.

Press mouse left button

Release

Mouse location

Figure 5-17 Zooming

To view a channel’s QC data


With the mouse pointer resting on a receiver position, a tip box appears,
showing the type of the unit, its serial number and the QC result. The
relevant legend automatically appears at the top of the window, showing
the programmed limits for that test.

Only the QC
Legend
result chosen
with the option
button is shown.

Tip
LSI FDU

Figure 5-18 Viewing a channel’s QC data

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Still with the mouse pointer resting on a receiver position, pressing the
right-hand button of the mouse causes a menu to pop up. Selecting
Properties opens a window showing details on the receiver position.
The Properties of an FDU include its identification, status, and all
available QC results. Also in the Properties of an LAUX are its IP
address and Booster power supply voltage (48 V).

Figure 5-19 Viewing Instrument properties

Right-click shortcuts
With the mouse pointer resting on an element in the graphic Instruments
view, the menu that pops up when you press the right-hand button of the
mouse may prompt one or more contextual shortcuts that let you display
or change properties or parameters of the element.
For example, you can turn a receiver position mute without going
through the Setup menu: you simply have to right-click on the desired
position and select “Set Mute” from the menu that pops up. The
relevant setup (e. g. the Layout setup in this example) is automatically
updated.
Right-clicking on any of the selection buttons at the top also brings up
the popup menu. This allows you, for example, to get traceability
information for the whole selection.
See also Detour (page 141).

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Checkerboard view
With many units to be shown in the graphic view, the system may
decide to switch to the checkerboard view mode because there is no
room for all icons.

FDU LAUL LAUX

Transverse path

Figure 5-20 Checkerboard view

In the checkerboard view mode, icons are shrunk so that they can fit in
the graphic pane. Colours are still significant but control units (LAUX,
LAUL) and anomalies are emphasized so that you can spot them easily.
Then you can zoom in to see details.
All the FDUs making up a link are shrunk into a single rectangular icon
whose colour reflects the global QC of the link: faults (shown in red or
orange) take precedence over any other QC values, i. e. the link’s icon
turns red if any one status in the link is at fault.

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Paths
Links can be viewed using the Cable Path button in Instrument views.

Detour End of a link


(connector)

5
Figure 5-21

The following conventions are used for cable paths:


• Green: OK.
• Orange: Sensed, but a transmit error was encountered.
• Red: A problem was encountered at the end of the cable.
The graphical view of paths helps you isolate any transmission trouble:
if the system finds the transfer time from a unit to the next is
inconsistent, the suspect path is displayed in red and, if the path is
included in the active spread, an alert window pops up when you click
on Go to launch an acquisition.

Viewing details
Double-clicking on a Detour or an FDU (or DSU) opens a detailed view
that allows you to see how many units are included in the Detour or the
Link.

Detail Double-click

Figure 5-22

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Detail
Double-click

Figure 5-23

Field equipment traceability


Right-clicking on a field unit (FDU, DSU, LAUL, LAUX, LAUR, etc.)
and selecting Get Traceability from the shortcut menu that pops up
causes the system to look for history records in the EEPROM memory
of that unit (first, you must go to Field Off then Field On). Right-
clicking on any of the selection buttons at the top also brings up the
popup menu and allows you to get traceability information for the
whole selection.

Figure 5-24

To see the traceability information, select


Look Traceability from the popup menu
on the same unit. This causes a window to
pop up, providing information on
manufacturing and any changes made
afterwards (Printed circuit board release,
list of change notices, Manufacturing date, Figure 5-25

etc.). The traceability data is also available


in the jLog window (Results > Others > Line > SU traceability).

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Numeric views >

Numeric views
Use the View menu or toolbar buttons to choose which type of data to
display.
Numeric views display the available results in tables.

Drag border
to resize

Click to filter
Use scrollbar to view
hidden columns
5
errors

Figure 5-26 Sensor numeric view

• Those results which do not fall within the limits specified in the Setup
menu are shown with a red background. If you wish to view only
those results, tick the Error Only option.
• All columns are resizable. Adjust the width if any value fails to fit in.
(With the mouse pointer resting on the border of a column, left-click
and drag the border as required).
• You can show or hide columns by right-clicking in any column
heading and selecting Customize (see Figure 2-25).
• Left-clicking on the heading in any column causes the data in that
column to be sorted in ascending order. Clicking one more time
reverses the order, and so on.
• After you connect a new unit to a line, the unit is added at the top of
the table. The list is not sorted until you click on a column heading.
• The results are cleared each time a test function is launched.

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Figure 5-27 Sensor numeric view (continued)

Figure 5-28 Instrument numeric view

For an LAUL or LAUX, the “Booster Failure” column shows the status
of the +24 V and -24 V power supplies (a failure is reported if the
voltage is below 24 V) and the “Leakage error” column shows the result
from the leakage test (see LAU Leakage setup on page 153). For an LRU,
leakage cannot be measured.
For an LSI, two rows are displayed.

Figure 5-29 LSI channels

History numeric views allow you to view the Serial number, Line
number, Point number and geographical position of each unit, along
with the date and time when it was last seen (Last Access) and first seen
(Creation Date) in the survey.

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Histogram view >

Histogram view
Results from Sensor tests and Instrument tests can be displayed in the
form of histograms in Histogram views.

Lower end of
manual scale Upper end

Spec marker

Figure 5-30 Histogram view

Unless you choose the Manual range option, the horizontal scale is
automatically adjusted so that all samples can be shown. If you choose
Manual range, then the associated fields prompt the outermost values
of the horizontal scale, so that you can change them and adjust the scale
manually. (Click Apply to enable your settings).
If any bar straddles a specification limit marker in the bar chart, that part
of the bar which lies outside the specification range may be displayed
in blue (rather than red — because this does not necessarily mean that
there are any results at fault). See Figure 5-31 (page 126).

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Histogram view >

Spec marker

Figure 5-31

See also Bar charts (page 37).

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The Survey setup > General

The Survey setup


In this section:
• General (page 127)
• Survey (page 128)
• Point Code (page 130)
• Sensor type (page 131)

General
You open this window by selecting Survey from the Setup menu.
5

Input fields

List box

Figure 5-32

It is used to provide information about the prospect area where the crew
is working. You access three categories of information using the three
tabs described in detail below: Survey (page 128), Point Code (page 130)
and Sensor type (page 131).
To make changes to any row in the list box, double-click on it, fill in the
fields above the list, then click Add or Change or Delete, as required.
To save the current settings, click Apply All with the lines turned OFF
(Field Off). This activates the choices made with all three tabs. In
contrast, whether the Lines are on or off, you can click Apply Sensor
to activate only the test result limits settings made using the Sensor tab.

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To revert to the former settings, click Reset instead of Apply.

Survey
To determine the crew’s prospect area, you have to specify the start and
end points of the lines, for each swath, together with any gaps caused by
obstacles or whatever. To do that you’ll click on the Survey tab. Note
that a tab is available for each swath name you have created in the
Config window (Swath setup on page 97).

100-103p1,106-110p1,111-115p2,116-120p3
Receiver
points
Point
Code Gap Different Point Codes

Figure 5-33 Survey setup

Line
This index box is used to enter line numbers.
Tip: For example, entering 10-60/10 in the “Line” index box will
generate lines 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 in one click on Add.
Line numbers do not need to be arranged in any order. For instance you
may well wish to insert line 70 between lines 30 and 40: click line 30 in
the list box (its number appears in this index box), enter 70 in the index
box and click Add.
It is important, however, to understand that the graphic display in the
main window reflects the Survey setup. In other words, seismic lines
will be shown on the screen in the order in which they appear in this list
box, and not necessarily in the sequence they are laid out on the ground
or connected to the recording instruments. Go to the Preferences setup
(page 109) and select your preferred display option.

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Note: The traces recorded in the SEGD file will be in the same order
as in the Survey setup.
If line numbers are arranged in ascending or descending order, you can
easily reverse the order using the Reverse button as required.

Receiver Section
The Receiver Section field is used to assign a Point Code to each
Receiver Position in each line.
The syntax for the Point Code is p_ (example: p1). The Point Code
determines the type of sensor used. You define Point Codes in the 5
window accessed by clicking on the Point Code tab (see page 130).
On lines that do not use the same point code everywhere, you have to
split the description of the receiver section into as many series of
adjacent stakes with a common point code as necessary.
In the example provided in Figure 5-33 — page 128, stakes 100 to 110
have the same point code (p1) but the series of receiver positions is split
because a gap with no channels is planned between stakes 103 and 106.
,

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

5
10

20

30

40

50

60

This is the graphical display resulting from the above


example of survey description.

Figure 5-34

The stakes must be numbered in ascending order, usually with an


increment of 1 but you can use an increment other than 1.
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Tip: Example with an increment other than 1 for the receiver positions:
entering 100-150p1/10 as a receiver section will generate receiver
positions 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150 in one click on Add.
A receiver point may be used in multiple swaths, meaning that two or
more swaths may have a line portion in common. In that case the
description must be consistent in each swath. An example of
compatible receiver section descriptions would be
10:100-200p1 for Swath1
10:150-250p1 for Swath2

Point Code
Some applications require the use of different types of sensors within
the same spread. An example would be a transition zone survey, where
geophones are employed on land and hydrophones in water. See also
Working with DSU3-428 & DSUGPS links (page 162).
You assign a Point Code to a receiver section to specify which types of
sensors to use in that section (see Survey on page 128).
You define Point Codes in this window:

1 s1+s2

Figure 5-35 Point Code setup

Nb
Used to enter Point Code numbers. The system will automatically add
the letter “p”. You must define at least one Point Code.
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Label
Used to identify the Point Code in plain.

Sensor Type
Syntax: s_ (example: s1+s2).
Used to enter the sensor type or types associated with the point code.
Sensor types are defined in the window accessed by clicking on the
Sensor tab.
See also Advanced layouts (page 155).
5
Sensor type
When Sensor tests are to be performed, the electrical characteristics will
not necessarily be the same across the entire spread and therefore it may
be pointless to apply the same resistance, tilt (pulse response) and noise
test limits everywhere. Instead, the system allows several sets of limits
to be specified, each one appropriate to a particular sensor type. It is
then sufficient to define the zones in which each type of sensor can be
found, using Survey (page 128), and the system will automatically apply
the relevant limit for each measurement.
See also Working with DSU3-428 & DSUGPS links (page 162).
You can define different sensor types in this window.

Figure 5-36 Sensor setup

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Nb
Used to enter Sensor Types numbers. You must define at least one
Sensor Type.

Label
Used to identify the Sensor Type in plain.

Continuity
Upper and lower limit for the sensor impedance. Any channel with a
sensor impedance falling outside the range specified in the Min and
Max fields is reported at fault in sensor views (and shown in red in
graphic views).

Tilt
Maximum geophone tilt percentage. Alert threshold in the display of
Sensor Tilt test results.

Noise
Maximum RMS noise level. Alert threshold in the display of Sensor
Noise test results.

Leakage
Alert threshold in the display of Sensor Leakage test results. The
Leakage test measures the global leakage resistance between the
seismic channel and the earth ground.

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SEGD Code

Figure 5-37
5
Clicking the button associated with this field causes a list box to pop up
so that you can select the SEGD code of the type of sensor used. This
code has no effect on the performance of the system. It is only written
to tape (byte 21 in block 1 of the Trace Header Extension).

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The Layout setup


In this section:
• General (page 134)
• Markers (page 135)
• Auxiliary channels (page 139)
• Detour (page 141)
• Mute channels (page 144)

General

Input fields

List box
(empty)

Figure 5-38

Having defined the lines that will be used in the survey, using The
Survey setup (page 127), it is necessary to provide information for the
central unit to capture the actual layout of those lines, using the layout
setup window.
You open this window by selecting Layout from the Setup menu.
You don’t have to supply the location of each and every element in the
survey: you only have to create a marker (fully identified with its unit
type, serial number, topographic stake number) in each line segment.
This will enable the system to automatically see how your field
equipment is deployed. In this window, you also specify the location of

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auxiliary channels, detours, and inactive channels if any. You also have
to describe all radio telemetry units.

Note: The selection you make by clicking on any row in the list box is
reflected in the main window’s graphic view: the cursor
automatically moves to the selected unit.
To make changes to any row in the list box, double-click on it, fill in the
fields above the list, then click Add or Change or Delete, as required.
To save and enable your changes, click Apply. (To revert to the former
settings, click Reset instead).
5
Markers
After the links are deployed at the planned positions on the ground, you
need to know the exact location of at least one unit (FDU, LAUL,
LAUX or LRU) in each line segment actually connected, so that you
can create a marker for each line segment, by specifying the serial
number of that unit, the associated receiver position and other
parameters described below. After you create the appropriate markers
on each line, in this setup window, the system is able to collect the status
of all units connected, as soon as lines are turned on. Then it will
continually update the view in the main window.
.

At least one
marker on
each line

Figure 5-39 Marker setup

Tip: To enter a marker, you can drag and drop a unit from the main
window (Instrument graphic view) to the markers list box.

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Box Type
As its label suggests, this field is used to choose the type of unit (LCI-
428, LCI-G, LAUX-428, etc.). Select the type actually implemented at
the location chosen as a marker. Note that setting a marker on an
LAUX-428 used as repeater in a Transverse allows displaying it at the
appropriate location in the Line window.

S. N.
Serial number of the unit actually implemented at the location chosen
as a marker.

Line Name
Used to specify the number of the Line the marker is attached to.
IMPORTANT
Each line should have at least one marker. If the line is composed of
several segments, enter a marker on each segment.
Below are two examples:

Two line segments with a transverse cable used as a detour

Enter one marker for this Enter another marker for


line segment this line segment

LAUX LAUX

Transverse cable

Figure 5-40

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The Layout setup > Markers

End-to-end line segments with no wireline connection


Enter one marker for Enter another marker
this line segment for this line segment

No wireline
connection
r r
ke ke
ar ar
M M

Figure 5-41

Point Nb
Used to specify the Point Number (i. e. stake number) of the location
5
used as a marker.

Note: By convention, an LAUL or LAUX assumes the number of the


first topographic stake encountered on its Low side.
(Remember topographic stakes are defined in the Survey
Setup).

110 111 112 113

LAUX

To set a marker on this


LAUX, enter 111 as Point
Number

Figure 5-42

Channel Nb
Used to specify the channel number implemented at the location used
as a marker, in the case of a multi-channel unit.

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Marker Increment
Typically, the Marker Increment is set to 1, meaning that a receiver
channel is deployed at each stake number.

Line 109 110 111 112 113 114 115


10 LAUX
428 r
ke FDU
ar
M xxxx

FDU-428 xxxx 10 112 1


Figure 5-43

To implement a Receiver Position (i. e. a receiver channel) every “n”


stake numbers on a line segment, enter “n” into the Marker Increment
field. See Logical line mapped with several physical lines on page 157.

Reversed
Typically, the “Reversed” button should be left unticked.
This button is used to reverse the direction of the assignment of receiver
channels to receiver positions over a line segment. See Snaking layout
(page 160).

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The Layout setup > Auxiliary channels

Auxiliary channels

5
Figure 5-44 Auxiliary channel setup

The analog signals you want to record as auxiliary traces are fed to some
FDUs, which may be connected direct to the High or Low Line port of
the LCI-428 or LCI-G, or located anywhere in the spread. Use this
window to describe your auxiliary channels.
Tip: To enter an auxiliary channel, you can drag and drop a unit from
the main window (Instrument graphic view) to the list box.
In the topographic view of the spread, all auxiliary channels are
gathered at the record unit position.

Nb
Row number in the list box. This identification number is used in the
Instrument tests (page 218) setup to specify which auxiliary channels to
test.

Label
Used to assign a name to the Auxiliary channel (e. g. Pilot). That label
is used in the Operation window to describe the type of processing to
perform to generate an auxiliary trace. See Correl (correlation) With
(page 260).

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The Layout setup > Auxiliary channels

Box Type
Used to choose the type of unit used for this auxiliary channel
(FDU408, FDU-428, FDU2S, etc.). If an AXCUL box is used, choose
the FDU408 type. With a Default Line Data Rate (page 90) at 16 Mb/s,
any line segment including FDU408 channels will not be visible unless
you use The Form Line setup (page 226) to set the data rate to 8 Mb/s on
that segment.

S. N.
Used to enter the Serial Number of the unit used for this auxiliary
channel.

Channel Nb
Used to specify the channel number of this auxiliary channel, in the case
of a multi-channel unit.

Gain
Used to choose the preamplifier gain for this auxiliary channel. See the
gain code table on page 147.

Input from
• Spread: choose this option if the auxiliary signal is fed to an FDU
within a line in the spread or connected to the LCI. (With this option,
the “Device Nb” field is not used).
• DSD: choose this option if the auxiliary signal is a vibrator motion
signal from a DSD. The associated “Device Nb” field allows you to
specify which DSD enclosure this auxiliary channel is attached to.
You have to enter the “Vib” number from the Fleet function in the
VE464 window or from the Look function in the VE432 window. See
SQC Dump mode (page 348) or SQC Dump mode with VE432
(page 361).
• DPG: this option is used if two or more VE432 vibrator controllers
(DPGs) are attached to the system (for example if vibrator fleets are

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The Layout setup > Detour

used in Slip-Sweep mode). The associated “Device Nb” field allows


you to specify which DPG enclosure this auxiliary channel is
attached to. You have to enter the “DPG Module” number that is
prompted when you run the Look function in the VE432 window.
With VE432 DPGs working in Slip-Sweep mode, each type of
auxiliary signal supplied by the DPGs must be identified with the
same name for each DPG, in the Label field (e. g. “Pilot”).

Same
name
Two
DPGs
5
Same
name
Figure 5-45 Auxiliary channels from VE432 DPGs in Slip-Sweep mode

Comments
Used to enter any comment you think necessary, for example if the
Label is not self-explanatory.

Detour
Use this window to specify the location of detours, if any, between
receiver positions. All units within a detour will be inactive (unused).

Last active channel First active channel


on Low side on High side

Figure 5-46 Detour setup

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The Layout setup > Detour

Below is a typical example where a detour is set between two adjacent


receiver positions.

1068 1069

Last active unit on Low First active unit on


side (enter its Serial No. High side (enter its
Unused unit
into Low S. N. field) Serial No. into High
SN field)

Figure 5-47

To create that detour, you can use the Detour setup window or the
shortcuts available by right-clicking in the Instrument topographical
view.
(1) Right-click on last active unit on the Low side and choose “Set low
box of detour” from the popup menu. A flag should appear on that unit.
(2) Right-click on first active unit on the High side and choose “Set
high box of detour” from the popup menu.

(1) (2)

Denotes low end of


detour

Denotes a
detour

Figure 5-48

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This automatically creates the detour in the setup window (see the
description of each field below). Detours are also visible in the Detour
numeric view.

Low Box Type


Used to specify the Type of the adjacent active unit located ahead of
(on the Low side of) the detour.

Low S. N.
Used to specify the Serial Number of the adjacent active unit located
ahead of (on the Low side of) the detour, meaning that the unit on the
5
other side is the Low end of the detour.

Low Chann. Nb
In the case of a multi-channel unit, use this field to specify the adjacent
active channel ahead of (on the Low side of) the detour, meaning that
the channel on the other side is the Low end of the detour.

High Box Type


Used to specify the Type of the adjacent active unit located after (on
the High side of) the detour.

High S. N.
Used to specify the Serial Number of the adjacent active unit located
after (on the High side of) the detour, meaning that the unit on the other
side is the High end of the detour.

High Chann. Nb
In the case of a multi-channel unit, use this field to specify the adjacent
active channel after (on the High side of) the detour, meaning that the
channel on the other side is the High end of the detour.

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The Layout setup > Mute channels

Stop Marking
Typically, the Stop Marking button should be left unticked.
This button is only used where a change is required in the automatic
assignment of receiver channels to receiver positions. (See also
Advanced layouts (page 155)).

Mute channels

Figure 5-49 Mute setup

Use this window to specify the location of mute receiver points, if any.
The channel from a mute receiver point is acquired, but its data is
zeroed. In the case of multi-sensor receiver point, all channels are mute.
Tip: To enter a mute receiver point, you can drag and drop it from the
main window (Instrument graphic view) to the list box.

Line Name, Point Number


Used to specify the location of a mute unit.

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The Spread Type setup > General

The Spread Type setup


In this section:
• General (page 145)
• Absolute spreads (page 146)
• Generic spreads (page 148)

General
You have to specify the complete acquisition spread to be used for each
and every shot. The programming of these spreads can be done not only
5
automatically via SPS files in the Log window (see Importing an SPS file
on page 583) but also manually, using the editing tools provided by the
GUI.
Enter the description of
your spread here

Figure 5-50 Spread type setup

In either case, a shorthand method of defining all of the channels to be


used is available in the 428XL. The concept of a “Generic Spread”
(generic means “Standard”) is especially helpful for manual
programming. The alternative method uses “Absolute Spreads”, which
are more suitable for automated programming.
To define a new spread in the list box, fill in the description,
identification number and label fields, then click Add.

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To make changes to any row in the list box, double-click on it, fill in the
fields above the list, then click Add or Change or Delete, as required.
To save and enable your changes, click Apply. (To revert to the former
settings, click Reset instead).

Absolute spreads
An absolute spread is defined in terms of line and stake numbers, for
example: Line 10, from stake 101 to stake 103, then from stake 106 to
stake 115. (It therefore follows that you need to define a completely new
absolute spread every time the acquisition spread moves even by a
single receiver point). Note that a tab is available for each swath name
you have created in the Config window (Swath setup on page 97),
allowing you to enter the description of the spread in each swath.

Gain code

10:101-103g1,106-115g1
20:101-103g1,106-115g1
30:101-103g1,106-115g1

Figure 5-51 Absolute spread setup

Enter a colon (:) between the Line Number and the Receiver positions.
Enter a hyphen (-) to specify a series of Receiver positions.
Enter a comma (,) to specify a gap between two or more Receiver
positions (or to specify series of Receiver positions with different
channel gain codes (e. g. 106-110g1,11-115g2).
To describe another Line or set of Lines, press Return or type a slash
character (/).
The system automatically adds “as” (abbreviation for “Absolute
Spread”) ahead of the Identification Number in the list box. Note that
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The Spread Type setup > Absolute spreads

each Identification Number is unique, so you cannot reuse the same


spread number in multiple swaths.
Choose the gain code from the table below.
Table 5-1

Gain Code Input scale FDU DSU3-428 & DSU1-428

g1 1600 mV 0 dB 5 m/s²

g2 400 mV 12 dB

Tip: A simple way of creating an absolute spread type consists of


selecting the desired spread in the graphic view with the mouse, 5
copying the selected area and pasting it into the Spread Type setup
window. See Figure 5-16 — page 117.
You can benefit from the extra large acquisition capacity of the 428XL
to speed up shooting, by defining a “Superspread” in the Absolute
Spread setup and using it in the Operation window. The Superspread
itself is an absolute spread that encompasses several successive
absolute spreads. With a Superspread, you save time because after the
Superspread is formed, line forming is not required every time the
active spread moves (unless the Aux descriptor changes). See
Superspread (page 278).

Superspread

Figure 5-52 Superspread

Note: If you are using DSUGPS links, it is recommended to use a


Superspread so that the DSUGPS units located outside the
active spread can send their GPS data to the central unit.

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WARNING
When you are using a Superspread, the Gain code for any given trace
must be the same in all individual spreads making up the Superspread,
and in the Superspread itself (because the acquisition of a trace must be
done with the Gain code specified for that trace in the active individual
spread).

Generic spreads
A generic spread describes the pattern of the active channels. The
fundamental difference between an absolute and a generic spread is that
generic definitions are always relative. You may wish to define one
generic spread to be used throughout the life of a crew.
To take a textbook example, a symmetrical split spread could be defined
as a number of lines with 100 stakes, a gap of 2 and then another 100
stakes. There is nothing in the basic definition that says where the
spread should be implemented. If one or more receiver units fall outside
the boundaries or within a gap specified in the Survey Setup, those
channels, will not be implemented.

Generic Line
Generic spread

Generic Line

Generic Line
Generic Line

Figure 5-53

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The Spread Type setup > Generic spreads

Line

50g1+50g2

Figure 5-54
5
The description of generic spreads makes use of Generic Line Types
that you define in this window. When you describe a Generic Line Type
you assign a gain code to a set of channels. See the gain code table
above.

Note: If any receiver units are laid out between receiver points, they
must be described as “Skipped channels (page 155)” or
“detours” in the The Layout setup (page 134).

Note: To skip receiver points, enter rs in the description.


Use brackets to repeat sets of two or more gain codes, with a repetition
factor placed ahead of the leading bracket. Below are two examples:
• 10(g1+g2) will describe 10 pairs of channels where, in each pair, the
1st channel has a 0 dB gain and the 2nd channel a 12 dB gain.

• 10(g1+rs) will describe 10 pairs of channels where, in each pair, the


1st channel has a 0 dB gain and the 2nd channel is skipped.
The system automatically adds the letter "l" ahead of the Identification
Number in the list box.

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Spread

10l1+10l2

Figure 5-55

When you describe a Generic Spread type you assign a generic Line
Type to a set of lines. Line types are defined in the Generic Line
window.
To skip lines, enter ls in the description.
Use brackets to repeat sets of two or more lines, with a repetition factor
placed ahead of the leading bracket. For example 10(l1+ls) will
describe 10 pairs of lines where, in each pair, the 1st line is L1-type and
the 2nd is skipped.
The system automatically adds “sd” (abbreviation for “Spread
Descriptor”) ahead of the Identification Number in the list box.

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The Look setup >

The Look setup


You open this window by selecting “Look
Setup” from the Setup menu. The Look
function is used to see if any new units are
connected, so as to display them in the Line
main window.

Auto Look
Figure 5-56
• Disabled: Each LAU will only identify the
connected units when you go to “Field On”
5
or you click on the “Look” button.
If a disruption arises, only the units encountered on the connected line
segment are re-identified by the LAU.
In the event of a transmission sync error, a red path appears at the
output of the LAU controlling the line segment affected. You have to
launch a manual Look to re-identify the FDUs located between the
LAU and the disruption.
• Enabled (default): This enables the “field update” mode (each LAU
continually looks for any new units connected so as to identify them).

Note: In case of a disruption along a Line, the Auto Look


automatically rewakes the spread and, if necessary, reroutes the
data towards the portion of the line that is connected. In
contrast, a disruption along the Transverse is not recovered the
same way: the Auto Look will not reform the crashed spread
and reroute the data (instead, a Field Off/Field On is required).
On a line segment including an LSI, the automatic look is disabled:
to see new FDUs, you must use manual Look in that case.

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The Look setup >

With Tests
After each Look, whether automatic or manual, the Sensor tests you
choose with these buttons (Resistance, Tilt, Leakage) will be performed
on the FDUs identified.
The Resistance and Tilt tests are selected by default.
In “field update” mode, if the Resistance value exceeds the specified
limit (e. g. with nothing connected on the channel input), the Tilt and
Leakage tests are not performed, even if they are selected in this setup.

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LAU Leakage setup >

LAU Leakage setup


A leakage sensor circuitry in each LAU senses any leakage arising
between a conductor in the telemetry cable and ground.
The LAU Leakage command available from the Setup menu allows you
to set an alert level. If the leakage current exceeds that alert level, the
LAU reports a fault to the GUI. As a result, the LAU is shown in red in
the Instrument topographic view and a Leakage error appears in the
Instrument numeric view for that LAU.

5
Tells you which port
Available from is affected Leakage current
Setup menu displayed in red if
exceeding alert level.

Figure 5-57

The “Connections” column in the Instruments graphical view, and the


properties of an LAU (available on a right-click) tell you which port(s)
is (are) powered up, so you can see which port is affected by leakage. In
the case of an LAUX, you can use the Form Line function to enable/
disable its low or high port in order to discriminated between the two
ports.
In each LAU, a leakage measurement is taken every 5 seconds, using
the test circuitry shown on the simplified diagram below.

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LAU Leakage setup >

LAUL FDU
or
LAUX
Telemetry pair

+24 V FDU 6.3 V


Pwr
Sply 2.7 V
-24 V

Telemetry pair

Leakage
Leakage current
Rsense ADC

Housing
Leakage
current

Figure 5-58

Note: Leakage between the two telemetry pairs is not revealed by this
test circuitry, but transmission may be lost as a result of such leakage.

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Advanced layouts > Skipped channels

Advanced layouts
Some fields or options (like “Marker Increment”, “Stop Marking”,
“Reversed”) in the Setup windows make the deployment of 428XL
field electronics extremely flexible. Below are textbook examples of
advanced layouts that can easily be implemented:
• Skipped channels (page 155).
• Logical line mapped with several physical lines (page 157)
• Detour with skipped receiver points (page 159)
• Snaking layout (page 160) 5
Skipped channels
You may want to skip channels because, for example, you want to
increase the receiver spacing without changing the spacing of your
FDUs. In that case, the inactive units laid out between the active
receiver points must be specified as “Skipped Channels” in the Point
Code used, by adding the code “cs” in the Sensor Type field (in the
Survey setup window). Note that this does not work with FDU2S units.

Example with a Marker on an FDU


2 skipped 2 skipped
channels channels
109 110 111
LAUX
r
ke FDU
ar xxxx
M

1 2 skipped s1+cs+cs
FDU xxxx 10 110

Figure 5-59

Note: A distinction must be made between “skipping channels” and


“skipping receiver points”. To skip some receiver points, you

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Advanced layouts > Skipped channels

may use the Spread setup (see page 149) or the Detour setup
(see page 159).

Example with a Marker on an LAUX


The system uses the following rule in interpreting the Point Code:
if an LAUX is used as a Marker, the Sensor Type (e. g. “s1”) specified
in the Point Code is assigned to the first channel encountered on the
“Low” side of the LAUX (if none is found on the Low side, a virtual
channel is assumed).
In the example below, the Point Code will be interpreted by the system
as follows:
• On line 10, using “s1+cs+cs” as a Point Code assigns “s1” to the first
channel encountered on the “Low” side of the LAUX,
• On line 20, using “s1+cs+cs” as a Point Code assigns “s1” to the third
channel on the High side because none is found on the Low side.

2 skipped 2 skipped
channels channels
109 110 111
Line
LAUX
10 r
ke xxxx
ar
M

2 skipped 2 skipped
channels channels
109 110 111
Line LAUX
20 r
ke yyyy
ar
M

A virtual channel is assumed on the Low side

LAUX xxxx 10 109 1 2 skipped s1+cs+cs


LAUX yyyy 20 109

Figure 5-60

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Advanced layouts > Logical line mapped with several physical lines

In the example below, do not use the LAUX as a Marker. Use an FDU
instead.
2 skipped 2 skipped
channels channels
109 110 111
Line
LAUX
10 r
ke xxxx
ar
M

FDU xxxx 10 109


1 2 skipped s1+cs+cs
5
Figure 5-61

Logical line mapped with several physical lines

Line
109 110 111 112 113 114 115
10 LAUX
428 r
ke
Line ar FDU
M xxxx
10 LAUX
428 r
ke FDU
Line ar
M yyyy
10 LAUX
428 r
ke FDU FDU
ar
M zzzz nnnn
Line
20 LAUX
428
Line
20 LAUX
428
FDU-428 xxxx 10 109 3
FDU-428 yyyy 10 110 3
FDU-428 zzzz 10 111 3

Figure 5-62

The flexibility of channel assignment in the 428XL allows you to split


a line into several segments laid out side by side (or group several
segments laid out side by side into one logical line). For example, this

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Advanced layouts > Logical line mapped with several physical lines

lets you shorten the receiver spacing without changing the spacing of
your FDUs.
In the Marker setup window, set a marker assigning a known FDU to
a known receiver position on each segment to be grouped, with the same
Line number and the same Marker Increment (chosen to be equal to the
number of segments).
When you go to “Field On”, each split line will act as a single line.
Below is an example where three segments are grouped into one logical
line (or a line is split into three segments).

Note: The segments making up the split line don’t need to be attached
to the same LCI board.
Note: The Marker position can be chosen elsewhere within each line
segment, that is on any FDU belonging in the line segment. For
instance, if it is easier for you to know the position of FDU No.
nnnn, you may just as well set the marker on it rather than FDU
No. zzzz.
Note: If any detour is implemented in a split line, it must be described
in each segment making up the split line.

Line 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116


10
r r
ke xxxx ke nnnn
10 ar ar
M r M r
ke yyyy ke
ar ar uuuu
10 M M
er r
ke vvvv
a rk zzzz ar
M M

FDU-428 xxxx FDU-428 nnnn


FDU-428 yyyy FDU-428 uuuu
FDU-428 zzzz FDU-428 vvvv

Figure 5-63

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Advanced layouts > Detour with skipped receiver points

Detour with skipped receiver points

109 110 111 112 113 114 115


Line
10 r FDU r
ke ke FDU
ar xxxx ar yyyy
M M

5
FDU-428 xxxx 10 110 1
FDU-428 yyyy 10 114 1

FDU-428 xxxx FDU-428 yyyy

Figure 5-64

To implement this example:


• You have to set two markers (one on either side of the detour);
• In the Detour setup, you must choose the Stop Marking option. This
will actually assign FDU No. yyyy to Receiver Position 114.

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Advanced layouts > Snaking layout

Snaking layout

Line 109 110 111 112 113 114


10 LAUX
r FDU
ke xxxx uuuu
ar
M
(*)
FDU
Line yyyy
20 r
FDU ke FDU
ar
nnnn M vvvv
(*)
(*) Those FDUs
must be declared
Line with the “Stop
30 r Marking” option
ke FDU
ar zzzz ticked.
M

LAUX-428 xxxx 10 108 1


FDU-428 vvvv 20 113 1
FDU-428 zzzz 30 109 1

FDU-428 uuuu FDU-428 vvvv


FDU-428 yyyy FDU-428 zzzz

Figure 5-65

An example of “snaking” layout is shown above. In the Detour setup


window, create a detour on each change in the direction of the
assignment of receiver channels to stake positions, each time choosing
the Stop Marking option. In the Marker setup window, be sure there
is a marker on either side of each detour, using the “Reversed” option
where channels are assigned in decreasing order of stake positions.
The Marker position can be chosen elsewhere within each line segment,
that is on any FDU, LAUL or LAUX belonging in the line segment. For

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instance, if it is easier for you to know the position of FDU No. nnnn,
you may just as well set the marker on it rather than FDU No. vvvv.
The snaking topology cannot be used in place of any secondary
transverse.

LAUX LAUX LAUX


428 428 428
Secondary
NO YES Transverse
LAUX
428 LAUX LAUX
428 428
5
Figure 5-66

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Working with DSU3-428 & DSUGPS links > DSU3-428 topology

Working with DSU3-428 & DSUGPS links


In this section:
• DSU3-428 topology (page 162)
• Acquisition using DSU3 channels (page 163)
• DSU3-428 in the Survey Setup (page 164)
• DSU3-428 in the Layout Setup (page 166)
• DSU3 in the Spread Setup (page 167)
• DSU3 in the Test Setup (page 168)
• DSUGPS Setup menu (page 169)
• DSUGPS firmware upgrading (page 171)
• DSU Form Line function (page 174)
• DSU Sensor view (page 174)
• DSU Instrument view (page 175)
• DSU Numeric view (page 177)
• DSU Seismonitor (page 178)
• DSU3 tilt correction (page 179)

DSU3-428 topology
Arrow engraved
The channel assignment in the in DUS3 takeout

DSU3 is as follows:
ch1 ch2 ch3
• Channel 1 is assigned to the (V) (I) (C)
Vertical sensor,
• Channel 2 is assigned to the Figure 5-67 DSU3-428 topology
Inline horizontal sensor,
• Channel 3 is assigned to the Crossline horizontal sensor.
For 3C polarity conventions see 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 3.
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The arrow engraved in the cable takeout overmould points to the


positive direction of the Inline horizontal axis of the DSU3.

Acquisition using DSU3 channels

General features
To work with DSU3 lines, you must enable that option in the Install
window.
DSU3 links can be used jointly with analog-sensor units (FDU, etc.)
within a spread, but a DSU3 line segment (i. e. a portion of line that
includes DSU3 channels and is delimited by two LAUs) should include
5
only DSU3 channels. The DSU3 is compatible with all 428XL
components and with QC tools (eSQC Pro, eSGA).
DSU3 channels use the same Filter and Sample Rate as FDU channels.
While performing seismic acquisition, the LAU controlling the DSU3
corrects all inherent errors (attributable to the construction or geometry
of the DSU3). It does not correct Tilt errors attributable to planting, nor
does it remove the offset resulting from the tilt angle (that offset is
removed by the central unit).
In order to see if DSU3 units are properly planted, a Tilt test should be
done from time to time (this can be automated with the Auto Look
option; see The Look setup on page 151). The Tilt test will return the tilt
angle of the I- and C-channels, that is the angle between the direction
axis of the channel and the horizontal plane. For 3C polarity
conventions, see 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 3. The results from the Tilt
test are recorded in the Trace Header. This allows corrections to be
made at a later date. See DSU3 tilt correction (page 179).
The Descale Multiplier recorded in the Scan Type Header allows
recorded samples to be converted into mV. See User’s Manual Vol. 3
(Reference Information).
The sensor Sensitivity is recorded in the Trace Header (452 mV/m/s2, or
142 mV/m/s² for Tilt and Gravity tests). See User’s Manual Vol. 2
(SEGD format).

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DSUGPS specific features


• If you are using DSUGPS links, it is recommended to use a
Superspread (page 278) so that the DSUGPS units located outside the
active spread can send their GPS data to the central unit.
• Use the DSUGPS Setup menu (page 169) to enter the position of the
GPS reference station attached to the LCI-428, and set accuracy
parameters.
• 16-Mbps line data rate is supported with no restrictions.
• 8-Mbps line data rate is allowed with the following restrictions:
- either disabling Auto Look (page 151) mode if DSUGPS
connected after last LAUL.
- or keeping Autolook mode if LAUL connected after last
DSUGPS in the line.

DSU3-428 in the Survey Setup

Sensor
If the system is configured for operation with both FDU and DSU
channels (in the Install window), a distinct setup window is available
for each type of channel.
.

Figure 5-68

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You have to define three Sensor Types (s1, s2, s3), i. e. one for each
sensor in the DSU3, using the Sensor tab in the Survey Setup window.
The system assigns the Sensor Types as follows:
• s1 is automatically assigned to Channel 1 (Vertical);
• s2 is automatically assigned to Channel 2 (Horizontal, Inline);
• s3 is automatically assigned to Channel 3 (Horizontal, Crossline).
In the “Tilt” (Degrees) and “Noise” (µm/s2) fields, enter the desired
limits for the results of Sensor tests. Note that no Instrument test results
will be available for DSUs that return a Tilt error.
Choose the appropriate SEGD code for each axis. The SEGD code is
5
not used by the GUI. It is only written to tape (byte 21 in block 1 of the
Trace Header Extension).

Point Code

1 DSU3 channels s1+s2+s3

Figure 5-69

After defining three Sensor Types for a DSU3, define its Point Code as
s1+s2+s3.

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DSU3-428 in the Layout Setup

Marker
You must set a marker on one of the DSU3-428s in each DSU3-428 line
segment.
In the case of a logical line made up of N physical split lines, the
Increment should be set to 1 + 3(N – 1). For example:
• 2 physical split lines forming a single line: set the Increment to 4;
• 3 physical split lines forming a single line: set the Increment to 7;
• etc.

Line
109 110 111 112 113 114 115
10 LAUX
428 r
ke
Line ar
M DSU3 #xxxx
10 LAUX
428 r
ke
Line ar DSU3 #yyyy
M
10 LAUX
428 r
ke
ar DSU3 #zzzz DSU3 #nnnn
M
Line
20 LAUX
428
Line
20 LAUX
428
DSU3-428 xxxx 10 109 7
DSU3-428 yyyy 10 110 7
DSU3-428 zzzz 10 111 7

Figure 5-70

Aux
You cannot use any DSU3 for auxiliary channels. FDUs must be used
for auxiliary channels, even if all seismic channels are DSU channels.

Detour
If any DSU3 is included in a detour, all three channels are part of the
detour.
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Snaking layouts are allowed. In the example below, you must set a
Detour with DSU3 No. 4149963 (point No. 1216) as the last active
channel at the Low end of the detour, and DSU3 No. 4151751 (point
No. 1216) as the first active channel at the High end of the detour. Also
you must activate the “Stop Marking” option.

No. 4149963

5
No. 4151751

Figure 5-71

Note: In the Marker setup, you have to set a marker on Line 160 (for
example assign point No. 1216 to DSU3 No. 4151751), and activate the
“Reversed” option for that marker. See also Snaking layout on page 160.

Mute
If a DSU3 is planted at a muted receiver point, all three channels are
mute. The maximum allowable number of mute receiver points is 1024.

DSU3 in the Spread Setup


Use the same syntax as with FDU channels to describe receiver
positions.
DSU3-428 channels have a single input scale (gain code G1).
If you are using DSUGPS links, it is recommended to use a Superspread
(page 278) so that the DSUGPS units located outside the active spread
can send their GPS data to the central unit.

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DSU3 in the Test Setup


Naturally, the channel electronics and the accelerometers in a DSU3 are
tested as a whole assembly, never as separate functions. Therefore, the
distinction between “Instrument” and “Sensor” tests is not significant
for a DSU. However, because DSU links can be used jointly with FDU
links in a spread, some DSU tests are regarded as Instrument tests and
others as Sensor tests.
The following tests are available for the DSU:
- Sensor tests: Tilt (degrees), Noise (µm/s2).
- Instrument tests: Distortion, Gain/Phase, Crosstalk, Gravity.
DSU3-428 channels have a single input scale (gain code G1).
If the spread you specify in the Test Setup includes both FDU and DSU3
channels, the system only applies the test to the channels that support
that test, with the relevant test limits. For the syntax to be correct in the
Absolute Spread Setup, you have to specify a gain code (e. g.
10:100-150g1) but the system actually uses the gain selected with the
Gain option button.
The limits for DSU3 Instrument test results are contained in files (one
for each allowable sample rate) the format of which is described in
428XL User’s Manual Vol. 2. The Instrument test limits for the DSU3
are distinct from those for the FDU. For the factory-settings of
Instrument test limits, see Specifications in User’s Manual Vol. 3.
The limits for Sensor tests are user-selected in the Survey Setup (see
Sensor on page 164).

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DSUGPS Setup menu

Figure 5-72 Base Position tab

The Base Position fields are used to enter the position Easting, 5
Northing and Elevation (metres) of the antenna of the GPS reference
station attached to the LCI-428 and used to lock its clock to the GPS
time.
WARNING
After choosing the projection in The Projection Type setup (page 411) in
the jPositioning window, go to Off Line in the jConfig window. In the
jLine window, click on Apply in the DSUGPS setup (Figure 5-72) to set
the GPS reference station position (Base Position). Then go to On Line
in jConfig.

Figure 5-73 Accuracy tab

The Accuracy tab allows you to set the maximum allowable Azimuth
(adjustable from 3 to 5°) and Position (1 to 2 m) deviations for
convergence criteria calculations. As a result, the antenna icon of a
DSUGPS will show in yellow in the instrument view if its Azimuth
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Standard Deviation or Position Standard Deviation exceeds the limit


calculated from your Accuracy settings, otherwise green. See also DSU
Numeric view (page 177).
Use the charts below to determine the appropriate setpoints, depending
on how long you can keep your DSUGPS sensors stationary.
For example, if you set the Azimuth accuracy to 3.5° and the Position
accuracy to 1.5 m, then at least 95% of DSUGPS sensors will achieve
convergence after remaining stationary for 7 hours.

Figure 5-74 Max convergence time vs Azimuth Accuracy setting


(95% of DSUGPS, 7 satellites)

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5
Figure 5-75 Max convergence time vs Position Accuracy setting
(95% of DSUGPS, 7 satellites)

DSUGPS firmware upgrading


A “Download” contextual menu is available from the show/hide button
for the DSUGPS links in the instrument view. That menu opens a
“Download DSUGPS” window that allows loading a new firmware
version to all DSUGPS-428 units present in the spread.
Note that prior to using the procedure below you must go to Field Off,
open the jConfig window, go to Off Line, open the Crew Setup and set
the Time Management (page 90) mode to “Internal Clock”, then go to
On line, and then Field On.
To load a new firmware version:
1. In the “Download DSUGPS” dialogue box, click on Select
Download Files.

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Right-click on
show/hide
button

Figure 5-76

2. Select the “SEPASApp_1001.mem” file.

Figure 5-77

3. Click on Update DSU3-GPS.


4. In the confirmation box that shows up, click Yes.

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Figure 5-78 5
5. In the confirmation box that shows up, click OK. Wait until
downloading is complete (the message “End of DSU3-GPS
download function” should appear in the message box).

Figure 5-79

6. Close the window.


7. Go to Field Off. In the jConfig window, go to Off Line, open the
Crew Setup and set the Time Management (page 90) mode to
“GPS” (“Novatel Propak”), then go to On line. Go to Field On in
the jLine window.

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DSU Form Line function


As usual, the Form Line function is applied to the number of channels
you specify in the “Channels to Form” field. This must be a multiple
of 3 if you apply Form Line to a DSU line segment.

DSU Sensor view

Figure 5-80

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DSU Instrument view

DSU3-428

DSU3-428

5
Figure 5-81 DSU3-428

DSUGPS

Popup menu used


to turn on/off GPS
and load firmware
to DSUGPS
Red until
DSUGPS LCI clock is
locked to GPS

Figure 5-82 DSUGPS

When using DSUGPS links, a reference GPS (Novatel Propak) receiver


is attached to the LCI. The 10-MHz oscillator signal from that GPS
receiver is used to lock the clock of the LCI to the GPS time. After
power-on, the recording truck (LCI) is displayed in red until the LCI
clock is locked to the GPS clock (this should take less than a quarter of
an hour).

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Once the DSUGPS units are visible, they are displayed in yellow for at
least 20 seconds, then in green if they achieve the required positioning
accuracy (i. e. convergence is complete, which normally takes less than
24 hours). The colour of the antenna in the DSUGPS icon may be:
• Grey: if GPS is Off and the position is not determined.
• Blue (briefly): on a request for turning GPS on, or if waiting for a
reply.
• Red: if GPS is on, but the first convergence calculation is not done or
the process is in one of the following situations:
- tracking too few satellites (less than two) after the first
calculation;
- or Carrier/Noise ratio (CNo) < 20 dB;
- or second GPS antenna not working (“Bad antenna” status is
“true” in the Numeric view).
• Yellow: if GPS is On, and the position observations are transmitted to
the server so that it can perform the convergence calculation (at least
every 30 minutes). The following three conditions must be met:
- Tracking two or more satellites,
- CNo > 20 dB;
- Both GPS antennas OK.
• Green: if the position is determined with the required accuracy, and
GPS is off (position observations are no longer recorded).
The values or statuses of the data used to control the colour attribute are
visible in the DSU Numeric view (page 177). Naturally, whenever a
DSUGPS is moved to another place in the spread, the new position
needs to be determined. The colour of the icon is updated accordingly,
if located in the active spread, or if a Superspread is used.
Note that the DSUGPS receiver point positions are recorded in SPS files
available from the Log window. See DSUGPS receiver point positions
(page 586).

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DSU Numeric view

Figure 5-83

The numeric view has the following specific columns for a DSUGPS:
• Ch Nb: channel number 1 (V) or 2 (I) or 3 (C).
• Receiver Serial Nb: serial number of the GPS card. 5
• Easting, Northing, Elevation, Azimuth: these four columns show
the recorded position, or 0 if the GPS antenna is red (convergence not
achieved, or too few satellites, or CNo < 20 dB; or second GPS
antenna not working).
• EastingStDev, NorthingStDev, ElevationStDev, AzimuthStDev:
standard deviations of observations, used in convergence
calculations. Convergence is achieved if both of the following
conditions are met:
- the position standard deviation is less than 0.75 m, calculated as
the square root of (EastingStDev² + NorthingStDev²)
- and Azimuth Standard Deviation is below the threshold
calculated from the Azimuth Accuracy setting in the DSUGPS
Setup menu (page 169).
• Avg Number Visible Sats: average number of visible satellites.
• Avg Lock Time: The locktime count will max out at 255 seconds for
the SEPAS observation record. If the average it too low (<30) further
investigation might be required to determine the cause for the
continuous loss of lock.
• Avg CNo Antenna 1, Avg CNo Antenna 2: Average Carrier/Noise
ratio of each antenna.
• Start of Recording, End of Recording: start time and end time of
observation recording.
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• Number of Records: number of recorded observations.


• Gps state: colour of the DSUGPS icon’s antenna in the Instrument
view. See DSU Instrument view (page 175) for a description of the
colour code.
• Gps On: “true” if the GPS card’s power supply is on, otherwise
“false”.
• Bad Antenna: status of the second GPS antenna (“false” if the
antenna is OK, otherwise “true”).
• Coordinates StdDev: square root of
(EastingStDev² + NorthingStDev²).
• SPS Record Duration: length of recording in SPS file.
• GPS Recording Duration.

DSU Seismonitor
By default, only the vertical channel is shown.
The Gain slider button, in conjunction with the Sensor Type option
button, allows you to adjust the Seismonitor gain for each type of sensor
(i. e. each channel).

Used to choose which channel


to adjust with the Gain slider
button

Figure 5-84

You can open a separate view to monitor each Sensor Type. Any
change to the seismonitor gain for a Sensor Type in a window is
replicated in the other windows.

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DSU3 tilt correction


In the Install window, you can choose to enable or disable correction of
DSU3 traces with the tilt angle recorded during tilt tests. See
Instruments On Field (page 68).
If you choose to enable tilt correction, the correction to each trace is
done using the formula given in User’s Manual Vol. 3 (Reference
Information).
If tilt correction is enabled and a DSU3 does not have any tilt test result
available, then the correction is not done on its channels and a warning
message is displayed. 5
If any square root cannot be calculated because the value involved is
negative, the correction is not done and a message is displayed.

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Working with ULS field equipment


In this section:
• Overview (page 180)
• Deployment (page 181)
• Survey setup (page 183)
• Marker setup (page 184)
• Detour setup (page 189)
• Auxiliary channel setup (page 197)
• Test setup (page 197)
• Checkline (page 197)

Overview
To work with submersible field electronics (FDU2S), you must enable
that option in the Install window.
ULS line units (FDU2S and LAULS) are reversible, meaning that their
line connectors are used indiscriminately as Low or High ports. ULS
cables, whether with mono-sensor or dual-sensor takeouts, are
reversible too.
FDU2S channels are tantamount to FDU channels, except for Sensor
tests (a Sensor Distortion test is available for FDU2S channels).

Note: Unused channels at standard/ULS junctions are automatically


skipped by the system (they do not need to be entered into the
Detour setup). They are not tested in Instrument tests.
Note: The FDU2S does not support a Point Code with “cs” (skipped
channel) as Sensor Type.

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Deployment
You can insert a submersible segment anywhere in a standard 428XL
telemetry line, using a ULS Adapter (P/N 1P41081653) at either end,
but the following two rules apply at all times:
1. If a line ends with a ULS segment, it must end with an FDU2S
unit so that the outermost receiver point (103 in the example
below) can be acquired.

Unused channel
101 102 103

FDU2S
End
FDU2S of Line
5
(cap P/N 512210065)

Unused channel
101 102 103

FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S End


of Line
(cap P/N 512210065)

Unused channel 103 104

End FDU2S
FDU2S
of Line
(cap P/N 512210065)

Figure 5-85

With mono-sensor takeouts, the last channel must be muted if it is


unused, or else errors will appear in the Sensor view. In the
example below, by default the system creates a dummy channel
104 that must be muted.

This channel must Both channels


102 103 are unused
be muted
End
FDU2S FDU2S
of Line
(cap P/N 512210065)

Figure 5-86

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2. Any FDU2S channel that is connected to a standard 428XL unit


(FDU, LAUX, LAUL) is skipped (not used, not tested in
Instrument tests).

This channel is
not used
159 160 161 162

FDU2S FDU2S FDU FDU


No. 4204531

55-m jumper (512500210)


or
3-m jumper + ULS adapter
(512500211 + 1P41081653)

Figure 5-87

LAUX
This channel is This channel is
not used not used
104 105

FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S


No. 4205121

Figure 5-88

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Survey setup
To implement mono-sensor takeouts, define a specific Sensor Type for
FDU2S channels if you need one, then do as usual to define a Point
Code and receiver points. As usual, the traces recorded on tape will be
in the same order as in the Survey setup.
To implement dual-sensor takeouts:
- Define a Sensor Type for each type of sensor (for example “s1”
for geophones, “s2” for hydrophones). It is important to specify
a distinct resistance range for each sensor type, in the
“Continuity Min” and “Max” fields, so that the system can
identify the type of sensor connected on each channel by
5
measuring the resistance across each takeout.
- Define a Point Code using both Sensor Types and the +
operator. For example, you can define p1 as s1+s2. You don’t
need to care about the Low/High orientation of the takeouts: the
system will automatically assign the appropriate sensor type to
each channel, depending on the input resistance measured at
power-on. (A Resistance test is automatically launched when
you go to Field On).

p1 = s1+s2
Low High
(or High) (or Low)
s1
FDU2S FDU2S
s2

Figure 5-89

- Define the Survey (for example …101-150p1, ...). With a


Pi=Sj+Sk point code, the trace which assumes the Sj type is
recorded first, regardless of the Low/High orientation of the
FDU2S units or the takeouts.

Note: If the system is unable to discriminate between the two takeouts


(because they both fall into the same resistance range), then it
still assigns one sensor type to one channel and the other type to
the other channel, but a Resistance test error appears in the

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Sensor view. If the default assignment is not acceptable, you


can change it by making the appropriate changes in the Survey
setup.
Note: Because the channel assignment is done when you go to Field
On, any sensors connected subsequently will not have any
channel assigned unless and until you go to Field Off then
Field On again.

Marker setup
You cannot use an LAULS as a Marker, but you can use an FDU2S.
To use an FDU2S as a Marker, you must specify its Serial No. and Line
No. in the Marker setup, as usual, and the receiver Point No. of the
adjacent topographic stake on the LOW or HIGH side of it. You must
also specify which one of its channels is assigned to that topographic
stake, with the following convention:
- The FDU2S port to be used as “Low” port is regarded as channel
No. 1.
- The FDU2S port to be used as “High” port is regarded as channel
No. 2.

FDU2S LAULS

LAULS FDU2S

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

Figure 5-90

The position of the LAULS is automatically computed by the system:


this will be 101 in the example below (that is the first receiver point
encountered on its Low side, even though the adjacent FDU2S channel
on its low port is assigned to point 102).

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Mono-sensor takeouts

101 102 103 104


ch 1 2 ch 1 2
Low FDU2S LAULS FDU2S High
s1 s1 s1 s1
No. xxxx M
ar
ke
r

Figure 5-91 (p1 = s1)

Assuming in the example shown in Figure 5-91 you wish to use FDU2S
No. xxxx as a Marker, you must assign Point No. 101 to its channel 1
(or 102 to its channel 2) in the Marker Setup. 5
101 102 103 104
ch 1 2 ch 1 2
Low FDU2S LAUXS FDU2S High
s1 s1 s1 s1
No. xxxx M
ar
ke
r

Figure 5-92 (p1 = s1)

Assuming you wish to use the LAUXS in Figure 5-92 as a Marker, you
must assign Point No. 101 to it (you must specify the receiver Point No.
of the low-side channel encountered on its Low port).

101 102 103


Low High
FDU2S LAUX FDU2S FDU2S
s1 s1 s1
No. xxxx M No. yyyy No. zzzz
ar
ke
r

Figure 5-93 (p1 = s1)

Assuming you wish to use the LAUX in Figure 5-93 as a Marker, you
must assign Point No. 101 to it in the Marker Setup (as usual, you must
specify the adjacent receiver Point No. encountered on the Low side of
the LAUX).

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As a result in the Instrument view:


- The Low channel of FDU2S No. xxxx is assigned to the sensor
at Point No. 101. Its High channel is skipped because it is
connected to an LAUX
- The Low channel of FDU2S No. yyyy is skipped. Its High
channel is assigned to the sensor at Point No. 102.
- The Low channel of FDU2S No. zzzz is assigned to 103, its
High channel to 104, etc.

Dual-sensor takeouts

101 102 103


ch 1 2
s1 s1 s1
Low FDU2S LAULS FDU2S
s2 s2 s2 High
No. xxxx M No. yyyy
ar
ke
r

Figure 5-94 (p1 = s1 + s2 or p1 = s2 + s1)

Assuming you wish to use FDU2S No. xxxx in Figure 5-94 as a Marker,
you must assign Point No. 102 to its channel 2 in the Marker Setup
(you cannot choose point 101 and assign it to channel 1).
As a result in the Instrument view:
- The Low channel of FDU2S No. xxxx is assigned to a sensor at
Point No. 101. Its High channel is assigned to a sensor at Point
No. 102.
- The Low channel of FDU2S No. yyyy is assigned to the other
sensor at Point No. 102. Its High channel is assigned to a sensor
at Point No. 103, etc.

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101 102 103

s1 s1 s1
Low FDU2S LAUX FDU2S FDU2S High
s2 s2 s2
No. xxxx M No. yyyy No. zzzz
ar
ke
r

Figure 5-95 (p1 = s1 + s2 or p1 = s2 + s1)

Assuming you wish to use the LAUX in Figure 5-95 as a Marker, you
must assign Point No. 101 to it in the Marker Setup (as usual, you must
specify the receiver Point No. of the adjacent channel encountered on
the Low side of the LAUX).
As result in the Instrument view:
5
- The Low channel of FDU2S No. xxxx is assigned to a sensor at
Point No. 101. Its High channel is not used.
- The Low channel of FDU2S No. yyyy is not used. Its High
channel is assigned to a sensor at Point No. 102.
- The Low channel of FDU2S No. zzzz is assigned to the other
sensor at Point No. 102. Its High channel is assigned to a sensor
at Point No. 103, etc.

101 102 103

s1 s1 s1
Low FDU2S LAUXS FDU2S High
s2 s2 s2
No. xxxx M
ar
ke
r

Figure 5-96 (p1 = s1 + s2 or p1 = s2 + s1)

Assuming you wish to use the LAUXS in Figure 5-96 as a Marker, you
must assign Point No. 101 to it in the Marker Setup (you must specify
the receiver Point No. of the low-side channel encountered on its Low
port).

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Mono/dual sensor transition

p1 = s1 p2 = s1 + s2

101 102 103 104 105

s1 s1 s1 s1 s1
Low FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S High
s2 s2

101-103p1,104-105p2

Figure 5-97

No marking problem will arise in the example shown in Figure 5-97.

p1 = s1 p2 = s1 + s2
This channel
should be skipped
101 102 103 104
ch 1 2
s1 s1 s1 s1
Low FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S High
s2 s2
No. yyyy No. xxxx

101-102p1,103-104p2

Figure 5-98

In the example shown in Figure 5-98, the system will interrupt the
marking sequence because it can’t assign the “s1” sensor of receiver
point 103. An error message will appear: “Impossible to assign rcv pt
103 to FDU2S xxxx channel: detour needed”.
You have to use the Detour setup to skip the Low channel in FDU2S
No. xxxx, by creating a detour with FDU2S No. yyyy channel 2 as Low
Limit and FDU2S No. xxxx channel 2 as High Limit. See Detour setup
on page 189.

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Detour setup
As usual, to describe a detour you must specify the type and serial
Number of the last active unit on the Low side of the detour and first
active unit on the High side in the Detour Setup window. In addition,
with FDU2S units, you have to use the “Chan Nb” (Channel Number)
field to specify which channel is the last active on the Low side and
which is the first active on the High side. In some cases, the other
channel may be unused.

Last active channel


on Low side
First active channel
on High side
5
FDU2S FDU2S

Figure 5-99

The Channel number to specify in the “Chan Nb” field is not the
hardware channel number (stored in the memory of the FDU2S).
Instead, use the following convention:
- The FDU2S port on the Low side is regarded as channel No. 1.
- The FDU2S port on the High side is regarded as channel No. 2.
See the examples below.

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Detours with Mono-sensor takeout cables

Last active channel First active channel


on Low side on High side

FDU2S 4204621 1 FDU2S 4204461 2

Unused
channel

Unused
765 766 channel 767 768

Low ch 1 2 ch 1 2 High
FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204621 No. 4204461

Detour

FDU2S

Figure 5-100

In the example shown in Figure 5-100:


- The Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204621 is used as the
last active channel at the Low end of the detour. It is assigned to
the sensor located at Point No. 766. The High channel of this unit
is not used.
- The High channel (No. 2) of FDU2S No. 4204461 is used as the
first active channel at the High end of the detour. It is assigned
to the sensor located at Point No. 767. The Low channel of this
unit is not used.

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Last active channel First active channel


on Low side on High side

FDU2S 4204621 2 FDU2S 4204461 2

Unused
channel

Both channels
767 are unused 768 769

Low ch 1 2 ch 1 2 High
FDU2S
No. 4204621
FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204461
FDU2S
5
Detour

FDU2S

Figure 5-101

In the example shown in Figure 5-101:


- The High channel (No. 2) of FDU2S No. 4204621, assigned to
the sensor located at Point No. 767, is used as the last active
channel at the Low end of the detour.
- The High channel (No. 2) of FDU2S No. 4204461, assigned to
the sensor located at Point No. 768, is used as the first active
channel at the High end of the detour. The Low channel of this
unit is not used.

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Last active channel First active channel


on Low side on High side

FDU2S 4204621 2 FDU2S 4204461 1

Both channels Both channels


103 are unused are unused 104

Low ch 1 2 ch 1 2 High
FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204621 No. 4204461

Detour

FDU2S

Figure 5-102

In the example shown in Figure 5-102:


- The High channel (No. 2) of FDU2S No. 4204621, assigned to the
sensor located at Point No. 103, is used the last active channel at the
Low end of the detour.
- The Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204461, assigned to the
sensor located at Point No. 104, is used as the first active channel at the
High end of the detour.

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Detours with dual-sensor takeout cables

Last active channel First active channel


on Low side on High side

FDU2S 4205191 1 FDU2S 4204395 2

Unused
channel

Unused

5
764 765 channel 766
ch 1 2 ch 1 2
Low High
FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4205191 No. 4204395

Detour

FDU2S

Figure 5-103

In the example shown in Figure 5-103:


- The Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4205191, assigned to one of
the sensors located at Point No. 765, is used as the last active channel at
the Low end of the detour. The High channel is not used.
- The High channel (No. 2) of FDU2S No. 4204395, assigned to one of
the sensors located at Point No. 766, is used as the first active channel
at the High end of the detour. The Low channel of this unit is not used.

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Snaking layout
Snaking layouts are allowed. In the example shown in Figure 5-104 with
mono-sensor takeouts, you must set a Detour with the Low channel
(No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204395 (point No. 788) as the last active
channel at the Low end of the detour, and the High channel (No. 2) of
FDU2S No. 4204431 (point No. 788) as the first active channel at the
High end of the detour. Also you must activate the “Stop Marking”
option.
In the Marker setup, you have to set a marker on Line 70, for example
assign point No. 786 to the Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S
No. 4204478, and activate the “Reversed” option for that marker. (Do
not set the marker on the unit used as detour limit).

Last active channel First active channel


on Low side on High side

FDU2S 4204431 1 FDU2S 4204395 2

High channel
785 786 787 788 unused

ch 1 2
60 FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204431
Low High

ch 2 1 ch 1 2
70 FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204478 No. 4204395

FDU2S 4204478 70 786 1 1

Figure 5-104

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In the example shown in Figure 5-105 with mono-sensor takeouts, you


must set a Detour with the Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204431
(point No. 788) as the last active channel at the Low end of the detour,
and the Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204395 (point No. 788) as
the first active channel at the High end of the detour. Also you must
activate the “Stop Marking” option.
In the Marker setup, you have to set a marker on Line 70, for example
assign the Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204395 to point
No. 788, and activate the “Reversed” option for that marker.

Last active channel


on Low side
First active channel
on High side
5
FDU2S 4204431 1 FDU2S 4204395 1

High channel
785 786 787 788 unused

ch 1 2
60 FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204431
Low High

ch 1 2
70 FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204395
High channel
unused

FDU2S 4204395 70 788 1 1

Figure 5-105

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In the example shown in Figure 5-106 with dual-sensor takeouts, you


must set a Detour with the Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204461
(point No. 761) as the last active channel at the Low end of the detour,
and the Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4205191 (point No. 761) as
as the first active channel at the High end of the detour. Also you must
activate the “Stop Marking” option.
In the Marker setup, you have to set a marker on Line 70, for example
assign the Low channel (No. 1) of FDU2S No. 4204881 to point No.
761, and activate the “Reversed” option for that marker.

Last active channel First active channel


on Low side on High side

FDU2S 4204461 1 FDU2S 4205191 1

High channel
760 761 unused

ch 1 2
60 FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204461
Low High

ch 2 1 ch 1 2
70 FDU2S FDU2S FDU2S
No. 4204881 No. 4205191
High channel
unused

FDU2S 4204881 70 761 1 1

Figure 5-106

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Auxiliary channel setup


FDU2S channels cannot be used as auxiliary channels.

Test setup
Selecting the FDU2S option in the Install window causes a Sensor
Distortion test to be available in addition to usual tests. It is only
applicable to FDU2S channels.
Unused (skipped) channels at the end of a line or at the standard/ULS
transition are not tested in Instrument tests.
5
Checkline
The Checkline function is unable to separate the channels of an FDU2S.

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Radio telemetry
In this section:
• Radio telemetry equipment (page 198)
• Instrument Topographic view (page 199)
• The Radio QC Limit setup (page 200)
• Frequency management (page 201)
• LRU parameters (page 208)
• LAUR parameters (page 213)
• Wakeup/Sleep (page 213)
• Loop test (page 214)

Radio telemetry equipment


The 428XL radio telemetry equipment includes a data acquisition unit
(LAUR-428) and a transceiver unit (LRU).
The LRU (Line Remote Unit) is used as a long range point-to-point
radio relay, or as master transceiver in a radio cell. It can be inserted
anywhere in a spread as an element of the 428XL network to relay the
data transmission on a Line. It connects to any type of 428XL field
electronics (LAUX, LAUL, FDU Link, etc.), except for 100 MHz
Ethernet ports. Built in the LRU is a full performance LAUX.

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Instrument Topographic view


LAUR

LRU
(Master)
LRU
Show/hide
radio path LAUR
(Slave)

Figure 5-107 Radio instrument view


5
Any message that is affected by RF communications problems is
transmitted again until it is received properly. The colour of each radio
path (green/orange/red) is determined by the LRU, depending on the
rate of retries for messages from the LAUR, so that you can instantly
see if any radio link is in trouble.
In addition, you can zoom in on an LAUR until its antenna is visible.
The antenna is displayed in green, or orange or red, depending on the
RF power margin of the LAUR and on your alert settings, adjustable
using The Radio QC Limit setup (page 200). See Figure 5-109 (page 200).
You can view detailed information on each LRU, LAUR or radio path
by right-clicking on it and choosing Properties from the contextual
menu that pops up.

Right-click on
radio path

Right-click on
LRU

Figure 5-108 Popup menu

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The contextual popup menu also prompts the available shortcuts, like
Set Wireless (see LRU parameters on page 208) or Enable/Disable
Radio (see Wakeup/Sleep on page 213).

The Radio QC Limit setup


Choose Radio QC Limit from the Setup menu. This opens a setup
window with two scale boxes that allow you to set two alert thresholds
for monitoring the RF power margin in all the LAUR’s deployed.
The RF power margin (typically at least 27 dB in 428XL radio links) is
calculated as the amount of RF power above the minimum required to
maintain a safe link. It is affected by the link length, terrain
characteristics, atmospheric conditions, local jammers (electric motors,
etc.).

Red alert setting


LAUR antenna colour
tells you if radio link is
safe

Orange alert
setting

Figure 5-109 Radio QC limit setup

The antenna of each LAUR is displayed in:


• green so long as its RF power margin remains higher than your
Orange alert setting;
• orange if its RF power margin lies between your Orange and Red
alert settings;
• red if its RF power margin drops below your Red alert setting.

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Frequency management

Half-duplex protocol
In the LRU transmission protocol (Half-duplex), time is shared between
transmission of Master-to-Slave messages and transmission of Slave-
to-Master messages.
Master-to-Slave messages are called Network Control Sequences
(NCS), used for synchronization, zero-time transmission and control.
Slave-to-Master messages are called Data Transfer Sequences (DTS),
used for data retrieval, seismonitor and collecting test results. 5
Radio frame
(50 ms) (50 ms)

NCS DTS NCS DTS


time

Figure 5-110

Typically, NCS messages are transmitted every 50 ms. In reply to an


NCS message, the LAUR transmits a DTS message (1.5 to 40 ms long).
The LAUR does not transmit its DTS until and unless its clock is locked
onto that of the LRU.

NCS
DTS
(Master) (Slave)
Line or
Transverse to
recording
LRU LRU
Line or
truck Transverse

Figure 5-111 Radio Relay

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(Slave)
NCS
LAUR
Line or DTS
Transverse to (Master)
recording
truck LRU
(Slave)

LAUR
Line Line
(30 channels max.) (30 channels max.)

Figure 5-112 Radio Line segment cell

Different setups can be implemented, depending on the required data


rate and on the expected transmission range. See 428XL Installation
Manual for details.

Frequency channels
The RF transceiver in the LRU or LAUR uses a single 2-MHz band for
both transmission and reception. That band is selected between 216
MHz and 249 MHz using the “Center Frequency” parameter.
Within the 2-MHz bandwidth, you can choose which channel(s) to use
for NCS and DTS messages, by specifying:
• a Control Channel Frequency for NCS messages,
• one or more Data Channel Frequencies for DTS messages (one for
a radio relay, up to eight for a radio cell).
The necessary bandwidth (0.2 to 0.8 MHz) for a Data Channel depends
on the expected Data Rate (256, 512, 1024 or 2048 kbps). See Figure 5-
113 (page 204).

Note: Because the LRU or LAUR uses a half-duplex protocol, you


can choose the same frequency for the Control Channel and
the Data Channel.

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The LAUR must have the same frequency and data rate settings as the
associated master LRU.
IMPORTANT
The two LRU units making up a radio relay should have the same
frequency and data rate settings, and the same Cell Number. Each
LAUR should have the same Cell Number and Center Frequency as
its master LRU.

Note: The available frequency band depends on the regional settings


chosen by the user when installing software on the 428XL GUI
and on the FDPA428 terminal. For compliance with Canadian 5
and US communications regulations, the frequency band is
limited to respectively:
• Canada: 217 to 218 MHz and 219 to 220 MHz.
• USA: 217 to 220 MHz (and 216 to 217 MHz by licence prior to
January 01, 2002).

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Center Default channel


Freq. Available channels
Control Freq.

NCS

- 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8


Center F. 0.2 MHz Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

Data Channel Freq. # 1

DTS
256 k

Center F. - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

Data Channel Freq. # 1 Data Channel Freq. # 2

DTS
512 k

Center F. - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

Data Channel Freq. # 1

DTS
1024 k

Center F. - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

Data Channel Freq. # 1 Data Channel Freq. # 2

DTS
2048 k

Center F. - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

Figure 5-113 LRU Relay data channels

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Center Default channel


Freq. Available channels
Control Freq.
NCS

- 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8


Center F. 0.2 MHz Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

DTS Data Channel Freq. # 1


256 k (QPSK)
5
Center F. - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

Data Channel Freq. # 1

DTS
1024 k (DQPSK)

Center F. - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 Center F.
-1 MHz +1 MHz

Figure 5-114 LAUR data channels

Desensitization
Note that the maximum covered range may be shorter on desensitized
channels (i. e. channels on which the strength of the received signal is
normally decreased by the presence of spurious signals from the 8-MHz
and 33-MHz master oscillators in the LRU). In the table below are the
channels that may be affected by desentization, depending on the
selected Data Rate.

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Table 5-2
Centre Freq. Data Rate Desensitization
(MHz) (kb/s) affects on channels
256 & 512 NCS & DTS 221.2
221.0
1024 & 2048 DTS 221.1
221.184 221.2
221.3
221.4
256 & 512 NCS & DTS 229.4
229.2
1024 & 2048 DTS 229.3
229.376 229.4
229.5
229.6
256 & 512 NCS & DTS 233.3
233.1
1024 & 2048 DTS 233.2
233.309 233.3
233.4
233.5
256 & 512 NCS & DTS 237.6
237.4
1024 & 2048 DTS 237.5
237.568 237.6
237.7
237.8
256 & 512 NCS & DTS 245.7
245.8
245.6
245.760 1024 & 2048 DTS 245.7
245.8
245.9
246.0

TDM (Time Division Multiplex)


The Time Division Multiplex technique allows several LRU relay cells
to use the same bandwidth without any conflict, by assigning distinct
“Subframes” (i. e. time slots) to adjacent cells transmitting in that
bandwidth.

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The TDM technique is especially helpful in situations where


neighbouring relay cells are likely to impinge on one another, as is the
case:
• where two series-connected relay cells use the same antenna mast,
• where too few frequency channels are available.
Where the TDM technique is implemented, each relay cell uses a
dedicated “Subframe” (i. e. one radio frame out of two or four) instead
of using every radio frame.

5
LRU LRU
LRU LRU

Relay cell 1 Relay cell 2


(transmits on Subframe No. 1) (transmits on Subframe No. 2)

Number of subframes = 2

Subframe No. 1 Subframe No. 2 Subframe No. 1 Subframe No. 2


(50 ms) (50 ms) (50 ms) (50 ms)

1 NCS DTS NCS DTS

2 NCS DTS NCS DTS

Figure 5-115

As a result the “Data rate” is divided by the “Number of subframes”.

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LRU parameters
LRU parameters are available by choosing Set Wireless from the menu
that pops up when you right-click on an LRU in an Instrument view.
An LRU can be set up to be in either Relay mode or Cell mode (Figure 5-
116). In Relay mode, the LRU is either a Master unit communicating to
an LRU Slave unit, or a Slave unit communicating to an LRU Master
unit. No other radio units are allowed. In Cell mode, the LRU is a
Master unit communicating to a cell of LAURs.

Figure 5-116 LRU standard parameters

In either Relay or Cell mode, the User option in the Advanced


Parameters tab allows the user to modify additional parameters. The
Default option displays these parameters, but does not allow the user
to change them (see Figure 5-117).
Click Go (or Apply) to permanently save the RF parameters into non-
volatile memory (flash). This also saves the RF parameters in all
LAURs currently linked in this radio cell.
See the description of each parameter below. See also Radio telemetry
equipment (page 198).

Cell Number
(Allowable range 1 to 31). You must enter a distinct Cell Number for
each LRU radio relay or cell in the 428XL network so that it can be
identified by the 428XL GUI. That is, the two LRUs (Master and Slave)
in a radio relay must have the same Cell Number that is different from
any other Cell Number used in the 428XL network. Likewise, all radio

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units in a radio cell (LRU Master and LAURs) must have the same Cell
Number, but that Cell Number must be different from any other Cell
Number used in the 428XL network.

Center Frequency
(Allowable range 216.0 to 249.0 MHz, in 0.1-MHz steps). Center
frequency of the 2-MHz band within which to choose the transmission
channels for the radio relay or cell, depending on the frequencies used
by other radio relays or cells and on the desired data rate. See Figure 5-
113 — page 204.
5
Data Rate
(Available options: 256, 512, 1024, 2048 kbps for Radio Relay, 256
kbps for Radio Cell).
• For a radio relay, the 512 and 2048 options require two data
transmission channels. See Figure 5-113 — page 204.
• For a radio cell, the 256 kbps option requires up to 8 data
transmission channels. See Figure 5-114 — page 205.

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Figure 5-117 Cell Mode Frequency Display

Transmit Power
(Available options: Standard, Low; defaults to Standard).
• Low: Transmit power is 1 mW (0 dBm) for all radio units in this cell.
This option is helpful for tests over a short range.
• Standard: Transmit power is 6 W (38 dBm) for all radio units in this
cell. For standard RF transmission conditions.

Number of Subframes
Available options: 1 or 2. See TDM (Time Division Multiplex) (page 206).

Subframe Number
Available options: 1 to the value specified for the “Number of
Subframes”. See TDM (Time Division Multiplex) (page 206).

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CAUTION
Where two or more LRU cells are deployed, changing the “Number of
Radio Subframes” and “Subframe Number” parameters in the Line
main window is likely to result in conflicting situations in the relay
cells. Use the FDPA428 instead.

Control Channel (Relay Mode Only)


(Adjustable from Center Freq –0.8 to Center Freq +0.8 MHz in 0.2-
MHz steps; defaults to Center Freq). Center frequency of the 0.2-MHz
channel is used to transmit network control messages (NCS).
5
Example: if Center Freq = 218 MHz, the list of available Control
frequencies are 217.2, 217.4, 217.6, 217.8, 218.0, 218.2, 218.4, 218.6,
218.8 MHz. See Figure 5-113 — page 204.

Data Channel #1 Frequency (Relay Mode Only)


Center frequency of the 0.2-MHz channel is used to transmit data
retrieval messages (DTS) (Table 5-3). See Figure 5-113 — page 204.
Table 5-3 Data Channel #1 Frequency
Data Rate 256 512 1024 2048
Data From From From From
Channel #1 Center Freq 0.8 Center Freq 0.8 Center Freq 0.5 Center Freq 0.5
Freq to Center Freq +0.8 to Center Freq +0.8 to Center Freq +0.5 to Center Freq +0.5
in 0.2 MHz steps in 0.2 MHz steps in 0.2 MHz steps in 0.2 MHz steps
Default Center Freq Center Freq Center Freq Center Freq
+ 0.1 MHz –0.3 MHz

Data Channel #2 Frequency (Relay Mode only)


Center frequency of the second 0.2-MHz channel is used to transmit
data retrieval messages (DTS), depending on the selected data rate
(Table 5-4). See Figure 5-113 — page 204.

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Table 5-4 Data Channel #2 Frequency

Data Rate 256 512 1024 2048


Data Not required From Center Freq 0.8 Not required From Center Freq 0.5
Channel #2 to Center Freq +0.8 in to Center Freq +0.5 in
Freq 0.2 MHz steps 0.2 MHz steps
Default Center Freq +0.2 MHz Center Freq +0.3 MHz

Where Data Channel #2 Freq is required, the system checks that the
difference between Data Channel #1 Freq and Data Channel #2 Freq is
at least 0.2 MHz at 512 kbits/s and 0.8 MHz at 2048 kbits/s.

Note: The available frequency band depends on the regional settings


chosen by the user when installing software on the 428XL GUI
and on the FDPA428 terminal. For compliance with Canadian
and U.S. communications regulations, the frequency band is
limited to
• Canada: 217 to 218 MHz and 219 to 220 MHz
• USA: 217 to 220 MHz (and 216 to 217 MHz by licence prior to
January 01, 2002).

Control Channel (Cell Mode Only)


Selection that specifies which one frequency is to be used as the control
frequency (NCS). This frequency is used to send messages from the
LRU to the LAURs. See Figure 5-114 — page 205.

Data Channel (Cell Mode Only)


Selection(s) that specify which frequencies (maximum of eight) are to
be used to transmit data retrieval messages (DTS) from LAURs back to
the LRU.

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Radio telemetry > LAUR parameters

LAUR parameters
LAUR parameters (Figure 5-118) are available by choosing Set
Wireless from the menu that pops up when you right-click on an LAUR
in an Instrument view.
See LRU parameters on page 208 for details on these parameters.

Note: An LAUR is a slave of a master LRU that is configured in Cell


mode. The Cell Number and Center Frequency must be the
same as the master LRU.
5

Figure 5-118 LAUR Parameters menu

Click Go (or Apply) to permanently save the RF parameters into non-


volatile memory (flash). Thus, if the LAUR is powered off and on
again, the latest modifications are recalled.

Wakeup/Sleep
Choosing Disable Radio from the contextual menu that pops up when
you right-click on an LRU, and then going to Field Off, causes the LRU
to go to a power-saving mode called Sleep mode. This allows you to put
a whole radio cell to sleep and then wake it back up again. Note that
when you next go to Field On, a slave LRU will not respond until it has
scanned for new control messages (and there is only one scan cycle per
minute in Sleep mode).
The LRU automatically goes to the Sleep mode if it is left idle for
30 minutes.
The “Sleep” status is not saved to the LRU’s non-volatile memory.

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To wake up the radio cell, right-click on the master LRU and choose
Enable Radio from the popup menu.
Right-clicking on an LAUR and choosing Disable Radio from the
popup menu allows you to put this one LAUR to sleep. Likewise, you
can wake it up individually by right-clicking on it and choosing Enable
Radio from the popup menu.

Loop test

LRU Loop test


Right-clicking on an LRU and choosing Start Loop from the popup
menu allows you to check RF communications between that LRU and
any distant LRU (in Relay mode) or LAURs (in Cell mode). So long as
the LRU is busy with the Loop test, it is displayed in red in the
Instrument Topographic view.

LAUR Loop test


Right-clicking on an LAUR and choosing Start Loop from the popup
menu allows you to check RF communications between that LAUR and
the master LRU.

Results
If communications are established with a distant radio unit, the Loop
test returns the attenuation of the signal (in dB) and rate of retries. This
updates those fields in the Numeric view.
IMPORTANT
The Loop test is not possible on a distant radio unit that is in Sleep
mode. To wake up the radio unit see Wakeup/Sleep on page 213.

You cannot launch a Loop test if the radio unit is busy (e. g. during
acquisition, seismonitor, etc.).

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Test functions > Overview

Test functions
In this section:
• Overview (page 215)
• Instrument tests (page 218)
• Sensor tests (page 221)
• Seismonitor (page 225)

Overview
You open this window by selecting Test Setup from the Setup menu. It
5
allows you to create a list of tests to do, choose whether or not to record
the results, and specify which channels to test. For Instrument tests, you
also have to choose the channel gain and record length.

Click and then choose


from pull-down menu that
pops up

List of tests to be
done in sequence

Figure 5-119

Select the desired test (from the Test Type pull-down menu) and
options. Click Add to enter the test into the list box. Click Apply to
activate your changes, then click Go to launch the test.
The results appear in the Numeric and/or Graphic view, whichever is
selected. To interpret the results of a particular test, see the legend at the
foot of the main window (with the appropriate test selected in the
graphic view).

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The settings in the Test Setup window are also used for every test you
launch with the Go button in the graphic view.
Table 5-5 List of tests
Test
Instrument Sensor Sample Rate Gain Filter Type

Noise
Distortion
Gain&Phase
CMRR User-selected User-selected User-selected
Crosstalk
Pulse
Gravity
Tilt See Vol. 3
Resistance See Vol. 3
Noise
See Vol. 3
Leakage User-selected
Impulse User-selected
Distortion

Note: For a description of the principle of each test, see 428XL


User’s Manual Vol. 3.

Test Type
Click in this field and choose the desired type of test from the option
button that pops up.

Recorded
Choose this option if you wish to record the acquisition to a test file.
Size of the record: 4 bytes per sample. (Data is not compressed).

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Absolute Spread
The Absolute Spread list box is used to specify the lines and receiver
positions to be tested (e. g. 10: 101-105g1),
IMPORTANT
You have to specify a gain in the Absolute Spread description or else
the syntax would not be correct, but in Instrument tests the gain
actually used (for seismic and auxiliary channels) is the one selected
with the Gain option button in the Test Setup.

5
Note: With a rectangular spread, there is an easier way of specifying
the lines and receiver positions to be tested: select the desired
units in the graphic view, then choose and start the desired test
with the buttons available in the main window. See To select
one or more elements (page 117).

Note: In Sensor tests, auxiliary channels are not tested (regardless of


whether or not they are included in the spread). In Instrument
tests, auxiliary channels can be tested (you have to specify a list
of aux channels to be tested).
Note: After doing an Instrument test, use the Look function.
Note: If an overscaling arises during the acquisition of the test signal
(in an Instrument or Sensor test), no result is available (N/A)
for that test.

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Instrument tests

a1-a3,a5-a6,a3 11:113-127g1

Figure 5-120 Instrument test setup

Note: For a description of the principle of each test, see 428XL


User’s Manual Vol. 3.
Note: After doing an Instrument test, use the Look function.

Auxiliary Descriptor
The Aux Descr text box is used to specify which auxiliary channels to
test (with the same gain as seismic channels). Use the identification
number assigned to each channel in the Auxiliary channels (page 139)
setup, prefixed with the letter “a”, with a comma as a separator.
Example of description: a1,a2, etc.
The + operator is not allowed. Use a hyphen to specify more quickly a
range of auxiliary channel numbers (e.g. a1-a4 rather than a1,a2,a3,a4).

Gain
This option button allows you to choose the preamplifier gain to be used
for the Instrument tests.
See the gain code table (Table 5-1 on page 147).

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Record Length
Duration of the acquisition.
Table 5-6

Sample rate Record length


(ms) Minimum (sec.) Maximum
0.25 1
0.5 2
See 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 3
1 3 (Specifications).
2 3
4 3

Note: For an Instrument Crosstalk test, the minimum length required


5
is 5 s @ 2 ms SR for FDUs, 8 s for DSU3s.
Note: To calculate the number of samples per trace, see Trace Data
block (page 32) in 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 2.

Instrument Noise
(Microvolts) During this test, the channel input is shorted via an internal
resistor. Geophones are not connected. The gain, filter type and sample
rate parameters are user-selected.

Instrument Distortion
(dB) During this test, geophones are not connected. The built-in
generator of the FDU is used as input to the channel under test. The
gain, filter type and sample rate parameters are user-selected.

Instrument Crosstalk
(dB) The test includes two sequences: during the first sequence, the test
generator applies a sine wave to the test network in each even FDU. The
ADC converter in each odd FDU measures the resulting voltage across
its own test network. (The test generator in odd FDUs is disabled).

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Conversely, during the second test sequence, the test sine wave is fed to
each odd FDU and the resulting voltage is measured across the test
network in each even FDU.

Note: On the plotter, the test sine wave may appear on adjacent
channels (on either side of an LAU). See User’s Manual Vol. 3.
A minimum test length is required (5 s @ 2 ms SR for FDUs, 8 s for
DSU3s).
The gain, filter type and sample rate parameters are user-selected.

Instrument Gain/Phase error


(%) This test returns the maximum error in amplitude and phase.
Geophones are not connected. The built-in generator of the FDU is used
as input to the channel under test. The gain, filter type and sample rate
parameters are user-selected.

Common Mode Rejection


(dB) During this test, geophones are not connected. The built-in
generator of the FDU is used as input to the channel under test. The
gain, filter type and sample rate parameters are user-selected.

Instrument Pulse
This test is used to record the response of the instrument channel to a
pulse (one sample long). Not applicable to a DSU.

Gravity
(For DSU3 channels only). This test makes it possible to qualify the
complete performance of digital sensor units, by measuring the gravity
acceleration (“g”).

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Sensor tests

5
Figure 5-121

The Test Setup window lets you manually launch a Sensor test on the
receivers that you specify in the Absolute Spread list box.
The fault threshold is adjustable by selecting Survey from the Setup
menu, then choosing Sensor (see page 131).

Note: Sensor tests are run automatically when FDUs have no


acquisition to perform. Whenever Sensor tests are launched
automatically, i. e. whenever you turn on the line power, or
when you click on the Look button, or when neither acquisition
nor seismonitor is underway (field update mode or Auto Look
option), the Sample Rate defaults to 2 ms for Resistance and
Leakage tests.
Note: For a description of the principle of each test, see 428XL
User’s Manual Vol. 3.

Resistance
(ohms) This test allows you to see if geophones are connected. The
Sample Rate is user-selected.

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Sensor Leakage
(Mohms) This test displays the global leakage resistance between the
input conductors of the receiver link and the earth. The Sample Rate is
user-selected.

Note: If the channel Input is left unconnected (or if the resistance


connected exceeds 9999 ohm), the Sensor Leakage test is
irrelevant. In “field update” mode, if the Resistance value
exceeds the specified limit, the Leakage test is not performed,
even if it is selected in the Look Properties setup.

Sensor Noise
(microvolts) In this test the noise picked by the geophones is measured
by performing data acquisition with no Firing Order. The Sample Rate
is user-selected.

Tilt
(%) The Tilt test is sensitive to a number of faults relating to the sensors.
The test results will be affected by anomalies on cutoff frequencies,
damping, sensitivity, distortion (sticking, friction, etc.) and tilt
(geophone not properly planted).

Note: In “field update” mode, if the Resistance value exceeds the


specified limit, the Tilt test is not performed, even if it is
selected in the Look Properties setup.

Tilt Model
The Tilt Model function is used to store a model of the response to a
pulse on geophones, from a number of geophone arrays known to be in
good repair. The model will be used subsequently in Tilt tests. Because
the samples stored are average values, the higher the number of tested
channels, the closer the model to the theoretical impulse response.

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If several sensor types are associated with the channels selected for the
Tilt Model test, a model is computed for each sensor type to be used in
further Tilt tests.
In Dual telemetry, separate models are computed for wireline telemetry
and radio telemetry.
For any sensor type that is not associated with the channels selected for
the Tilt Model test, the corresponding saved model is not modified.
Clicking Go connects the channel input to both the built-in generator
and geophones. Then, acquisition is performed and the model is
computed by averaging the responses of all the geophones tested. 5
Sensor Pulse
This test is used to record the response of the seismic channel to a pulse
(one sample long).

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Multiple tests
Rather than launching tests individually, you may want to do a number
of tests in sequence with a single click on Go. You can do that by
creating batches in this setup window.

Figure 5-122

You can create up to 10 test batches, automatically labelled Test 1 to


Test 10 by the system. When you start from scratch, all test batches are
blank. To create a test batch, do the following:
1. Choose a batch name from the Test Setup option button;
2. Choose the first test to do from the Test Type pull-down menu,
choose the desired gain (for an Instrument test), and specify which
channels to test in the Absolute Spread field. Click Add;
3. Likewise, choose the second test to do in sequence, and click
Add, and so on and so forth.
4. If you want to insert a pause between tests, enter the desired
interval (milliseconds) into the Delay Between Tests field;

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5. Enter the duration (milliseconds) of the acquisition into the


Record Length field. The record length is the same for each test
in the batch.
6. If you want to record the results from each test, tick the Record
Results option.
Click Apply to save and activate your settings.
If you want to repeat a group of consecutive tests a number of times:
1. Click on the last test in the group to repeat;
2.
3.
Choose Control Loop from the Test Type pull-down menu;
In the Loop Line Nb field, enter the index number of the first test
5
to repeat;
4. In the Nb of Loops field, enter the desired number of cycles;
5. Click Add.
The test batches you create in this setup window are not available from
the test option button associated with the Go button in the main window.

Seismonitor
This window allows you to monitor the input signal on the channels you
specify in the Absolute Spread box.

10: 100-500g1
20: 100-500g1
30: 100-500g1
40: 100-500g1

Figure 5-123

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The Form Line setup > General

The Form Line setup


In this section:
• General (page 226)
• Line Troubleshooting (page 227)
• Network Management (page 229)

General
You open this window by selecting Form Line from the Setup menu.

List of manual power on/


power off commands

Figure 5-124

This window is mainly used for:


• Troubleshooting the line, by going step-by-step with line forming;
• Managing the network in case of multi-path layout.
The typical way of using Form Line is as follows: create a specific
power on/off command by selecting the desired options as explained
below (see Line Troubleshooting on page 227) and clicking on Add. You
can save it by clicking on Apply. Then select a command in the list box
by clicking on it, and launch it by clicking on Go.

Note: After a set of LAUs is powered on/off and channels are


identified by Form Line, all functions can be performed,
including Sensor and Instrument tests, seismonitor and
acquisition.

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Also note that field update is not done automatically on a segment


powered up by Form Line: click on Look (in the Sensors view) to
collect the field update data.
WARNING
All the information stored in the Form Line menu is used at line power-
up. This may prevent some LAU ports from being powered up.

Typically, clear Form Line menu entries after you are finished with
troubleshooting.
5
Note: If the Form Line menu is not empty as lines are powered up, the
spread is formed step by step. The propagation of power from
LAU to LAU is slower than in the normal mode even if
referenced LAUs are not connected in the spread (due to the
fact that power-up propagation is controlled by software rather
than hardware). An “M” appears on the readout of the LCI-428
or LCI-G line controller (standing for “Manual mode”).

Line Troubleshooting
To investigate a problem on a line segment, you can power down one of
the ports of an adjacent LAUL or LAUX, or power up that port and form
a number of channels (or all) attached to it. Also, you can gradually
power up/down a Transverse. To do that:
1. Use the Serial Number field, and the option button that pops up
as you click in the Box Type field, to specify which unit is
targeted.
2. From the Orientation option button, choose the port you want to
power up or power off.
3. If you want to power up the port, tick the “Enable” option. If you
want to form all the channels attached to that port, tick the “All”
option, otherwise specify how many channels you want to form in
the Channels to Form field.

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4. Choose the appropriate Speed, depending on which type of


channel is attached to that segment: FDU-428 channels support
both 8 and 16 Mbits/s data rates; FDU408 channels support only
the 8 Mbits/s option (see Default Line Data Rate on page 90).
5. Click Add, then Go.

Forming all channels


With the “All” option in the Channels to Form field, the Form Line
function applies the line power to the selected port. All the channels
attached to that port are identified and displayed graphically.
If an LAU is connected at the end of that series of channels, it is
powered up, identified and displayed graphically too. The line power is
not propagated automatically by this LAU; this must be done using the
Form Line function.
This allows you to go step-by-step with line power up.

Forming a number of channels


If you choose to form only a number of channels, then the Form Line
function applies the line power to the line and the requested channels
are identified and displayed graphically.
If an LAU is connected at the end of the series of channels, it is powered
up, but is neither identified nor displayed. In this mode, you cannot
power up LAUs beyond the selected LAU.

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Network Management
In case of multi-path layout, it may be interesting to enable/disable
some paths to control the data path and make it optimum.
To that end, you can use the Form Line menu as described below to
prevent the line or transverse power from being set by some LAUs.
Assuming the configuration below:

5
Rig
ht
R ig
ht
Tra
n sv LAUX #22
ers
e Ri g
ht

LAUX #12

Ri
gh
t

LAUX-428 #21
Ri
gh
t
LAUX-428 #11

Figure 5-125

If the network is powered up without any control in the Form Line


setup, the data path may be that of Figure 5-126 or Figure 5-127
(page 230), depending on how hardware line power is relayed.

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LAUX-428 #22

LAUX-428 #12

LAUX-428 #21
LAUX-428 #11

Figure 5-126 Data Path 1

LAUX-428 #22

LAUX-428 #12

LAUX-428 #21
LAUX-428 #11

Figure 5-127 Data Path 2

In order to enforce the second situation (Data path 2), optimum for data
retrieval, enter a command in the Form Line menu to power off the
Right port of LAUX22 (as a result the LAUX#12 to LAUX#22
secondary transverse is displayed but not used for data transfer).

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The Synthetic setup >

The Synthetic setup


This setup window allows you to create a virtual spread and use a
synthetic signal as seismic source energy to take virtual shots. For
example, you can take virtual shots on a virtual spread to see if your
setup parameters are consistent.
This window also allows you to do Acceptance tests (in that case, you
must tick the Acceptance Test mode option). See Acceptance tests
(page 263) in 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 3.

2 Selecting an
object to add
5

1 Navigating

Focus point

3 Adding objects

For acceptance
tests only

Figure 5-128

Creating a virtual spread


1. Use the navigation keys to move the focus point to the left/right or
upward/downward, depending on where you would like to insert
an element into your virtual spread.
2. Click on the desired icon at the top to choose which object to add.

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3. Click on the appropriate add button, depending on which port you


wish to connect to. The two buttons that add elements on the Low/
High sides also allow you to choose how many elements you want
to add to the element that has the focus. This is an easy way of
replicating line segments.

Transverse (Left)
Add one or more Click to
elements on Low choose how
side many to add

Add on Right
side

Add on Left side Line (Low) (High)


Add one or more

(Right)
elements on High
side

Figure 5-129

4. Clicking on any element in your virtual spread causes its


description to appear in the upper right corner.

Figure 5-130

The example in Figure 5-131 shows how to connect a Right


Transverse with four FDU links in just a few clicks.

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The Synthetic setup >

Move
focus to
Right Connect an Connect an
Trans- LAUX FDU link
verse Add an FDU link Add two FDU links

Figure 5-131 Example


5
Synthetic file
In order to simulate shots, you have to load a file containing the
necessary samples to generate the test signal. Use the Browse button to
do that.
The synthetic signal file should contain the description of the signals fed
to Seismic and Auxiliary channels. Three cases may arise:
• A single synthetic signal is described: the same signal is fed both to
Seismic and Auxiliary Channels.
• Two synthetic signals are described: the first one is fed to Seismic
channels and the second is fed to Auxiliary channels (used to simulate
single-source correlation operations).
• Three synthetic signals are described: the first one is fed to Seismic
channels, the second to the first Auxiliary channel, and the third to the
other Auxiliary channels (used to simulate dual-source correlation
operations).
See also 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 2.

File Syntax
• Blank lines and lines beginning with # in the first column are ignored.
• Acquisitions are identified with a text line starting with the character
@ (in the first column) followed by a space character and an

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acquisition number. If there is no @, the signals described are


common to all acquisitions.
• Each synthetic signal described begins with an asterisk (*) in the first
column.
• The signal is made up of a succession of samples and described with
5 sample values per line, each line starting with the sequential
number of the first value in the line (0, 5, 10, 15 etc.), for the sake of
better legibility.
• Each sample is described in the form of a signed integer between -
8388608 and 8388607. The maximum number of samples is 32000,
allowing descriptions of signals with a maximum length of 32000
times the Sample Rate. If the Acquisition Length exceeds the length
of the described synthetic signal, then, after the last sample, the signal
starts again with the first sample (sequential number 0).

Example With Signals Common To All Acquisitions


# Example of file with 3 signals
* Seismic signal with 20 samples
0 0 1 2 3 4
5 5 6 7 8 9
10 10 11 12 13 14
15 15 16 17 18 19
* AUX1 signal with 20 samples
0 0 1 2 3 4
5 5 6 7 8 9
10 10 11 12 13 14
15 15 16 17 18 19
* AUX2 to AUXN signal with 20 samples (N depending on the spread).
0 0 1 2 3 4

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5 5 6 7 8 9
10 10 11 12 13 14
15 15 16 17 18 19

Example With Different Signals In Two Or More Acquisitions


# Example of synthetic file with different signal in two acquisitions.
@1
* Seismic signal with 20 samples
0 0 1 2 3 4 5
5 5 6 7 8 9
10 10 11 12 13 14
15 15 16 17 18 19
* AUX signal with 20 samples
0 0 1 2 3 4
5 5 6 7 8 9
10 10 11 12 13 14
15 15 16 17 18 19
@2
* Seismic signal with 20 samples
0 50 51 52 53 54
5 55 56 57 58 59
10 60 61 62 63 64
15 65 66 67 68 69
* AUX signal with 20 samples
0 50 51 52 53 54
5 55 56 57 58 59

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10 60 61 62 63 64
15 65 66 67 68 69

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The Download setup


Typically, you need to use the Download setup after installing a new
release of 428XL software (and patches if any), to update firmware in
LCI-428 boards —or LCI-G— and in the remote field electronics
deployed. You also have to use this setup window if you connect any
unit that does not have the required software version and/or patches.

Figure 5-132

Typical Download procedure


Typically, this setup window should be used as follows:
1. Be sure the 428XL LCI controller (LCI-428 or LCI-G) is powered
up and all remote line interfacing units (LAUX-428, LAUL-428,
etc.) to be upgraded are connected to it. (FDUs and DSUs may be
present but they are not involved).
2. Go to On Line in the Config main window and Field Off in the
Line main window.
3. Click on the Show Reference Release button. This opens a result
window showing the latest software release loaded on the server.

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The name of the file containing the latest release and patches
appears after each type of unit in the result window.

LAUX428 428.5.x dwnfile.hci428.V5x

LAUL428 428.5.x dwnfile.hci428.V5x

LAUR 428.5.x dwnfile.hci428.V5x

Name of the
428.5.x file to load

Product Patch No.


Version No.

Figure 5-133

4. Click on the Show Units Version button to view the current


version of all line interfacing units deployed (i. e. LCI, and field
electronics other than FDUs and DSUs). Check to see if all units
have the required software version, revision and patches.

LAUX428 #---, version 428.5.x

LAUR #---, version 428.5.x

Serial number
Current software version
& patch No.

Figure 5-134

5. If all LCI boards have the required software release and patches
but you still wish to update them, choose the Force LCI
Download option in the Download setup window.

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6. If all field electronics units have the required software release and
patches but you still wish to update them, choose the Force
Download option in the Download setup window.
7. If any LCI or field electronics unit does not have the required
release and/or patches, or you wish to download the release again
anyway, click on the Select Download Files button. This opens a
file selection dialog box that automatically takes you to the
appropriate directory (lcCommon/work). Choose the
dwnfile.hci428.V5x file that was prompted by the Show
Reference Release button at step 3 above.
5

Figure 5-135

8. Click OK. This causes the name of the selected release file to
appear in the Download setup window. As a result, the Update
LCI and Update Spread buttons are enabled.

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Software release
file to download

Figure 5-136

9. To update LCI boards, click on the Update LCI button.


10. To update field electronics, do the following:
- From the Box Type option button, choose which type of unit you
want to update, or choose All.
- Either choose the All Boxes option or use the S/N field to specify
the Serial Number of a particular unit you want to update.
- Click on the Update Spread button.
WARNING
Update commands will be rejected if the power supply of the targeted
remote units is below 10.5 V. The power supply must stay above 10 V
until downloading is complete.

After updating LCI firmware, you have to go to Off Line / On Line in


the Config main window to restart operations.
If you do not update LCI firmware, you only have to go to Field On to
resume operations.
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Note 1: It is alright if you directly download a patched software version,


rather than downloading the original release first, then downloading the
necessary patches separately.
Note 2: If, instead of the message “Download completed”, you have the
message:
Erroneous download ...
WARNING: turning units off now may make them unusable if not
properly downloaded.

Do you want to retry another download before units are turned off
(y / n)? 5
- If you choose “y”, then the download procedure is restarted, and
software is downloaded again to those units that are not properly
upgraded. If the above error message (Erroneous download ...)
appears again, then choose “n” rather than retrying, and click on
the Update LCI button again.
- If you choose “n”, then the download procedure is aborted.
Check all connections. Go to Off Line then On Line in the
Config main window. Click on the Update LCI button again.
Note 3: A “Battery failure” error message is generated (logged into the
“dwnreport.hci428” report file) if the update process is aborted, that is:
- if the power supply of any targeted unit lies below 10.5 V before
downloading begins,
- or if the power supply of any targeted unit drops below 10 V
during the download process.
Note 4: See also Field electronics (page 156) in 428XL Installation
Manual.

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The Download setup >

Adjusting the T0 shift


You can adjust the T0 shift by changing the value of
sgmDELAY_TO_ADVANCE_T0_TIME (default is 50 ms) in the
startupLciT0Delay.txt file contained in the following directory:
/export/home/e-428/lcCommon/work
Then, use the Download Setup to enable the new value in two steps:
1. Select the dwnfile.hci428.V5xx file and update the line as
follows:
- Untick the “Force download” option;
- Click Update Spread.
2. Reset the LCI (by clicking Off Line then On Line in the jConfig
window).
3. Select the dwnfile.hci428.V5xxStartup file (instead of
dwnfile.hci428.V5xx) and update the LCI as follows:
- Tick the “Force LCI download” option;
- Click Update LCI.

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Chapter

6 Operation

This chapter includes the following sections:

• The Main Window (page 244)


• The Process Type setup (page 256)
• The Source Point Setup (page 275)
• Seismic setup options (page 281)
• The Source Type setup (page 289)
• The Delay setup (page 295)
• The Noise Editing setup (page 297)
• The Observer’s Comment Type Setup (page 304)
• How to take shots or sweeps (page 305)
• Flip-Flop sweeps (page 321)
• Simultaneous sources (page 326)
• Slip-sweep (page 334)
• SQC Dump mode (page 348)
• Micro-seismic (page 371)
• Autonomous mode (page 373)
• Vibrator Guidance (page 378)
• Multi-gun Shallow-water shooting mode (page 381)
• Master/Slave operation (page 384)
• More About Noise Elimination (page 388)
• More About Correlation (page 396)

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The Main Window


In this section:
• General (page 244)
• The Operation Table (page 246)
• The Active Source view (page 248)
• The Active Acquisition view (page 254)
• The Operation Report view (page 255)

General

Operation table
(planned shots)

Click to add view

Stacked acquisitions
Shot controls within the selected VP

Resize by
dragging border
Click to close
view

Figure 6-1 OPERATION client window

The Operation client window takes care of the list of shots, providing
details on those planned, the one in progress, the next to do, and those
done if any. It also provides access to shot controls, lets you view the

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status of the acquisition, and provides information about the progress of


it, i. e. ITB, Transmit Error.
Right-clicking in the empty portion of the shortcut bar and ticking/
unticking the available options allows you to show/hide shortcut
buttons.

- Tick to show shortcuts


- Untick to hide shortcuts

Figure 6-2

This button allows you to get different views of a table, referred


to as The Operation Table (page 246), which contains the main 6
information for the acquisition of the data, and also allows you to select
which Source Point to shoot, if necessary.
The Setup menu allows you to generate the Operation table. Each
source point in the operation table is associated with a “Process Type”
that determines how the Impulsive or Vibroseismic signal is processed.
In the case of Vibroseismic operations, the Process Type is itself
associated with an “Acquisition Type” that determines which sweep
signal to generate. If stacking is requested, the stacking fold is visible in
the “Active Acquisition” view.
In this manual, the abbreviation “VP” (standing for Vibrator Point) is
understood as a source point, completely defined with the SEGD
parameters appearing in the Operation table (Shot Number, Source
Point Index, Source Point Line, Source Point Nb). It is used
indifferently for Vibroseismic or Impulsive shooting.
For details on how you can arrange the views and toolbars as you would
like them, see the Hands-on guide (page 52).
You can show or hide columns in tables by right-clicking in any column
heading and selecting Customize (see Figure 2-25).
For details on the buttons (Go, Stop, etc.), see The Active Source view
(page 248).

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The Operation Table

Available views
Operation Table

Done

Right-click to
Ready choose source

To do

Figure 6-3 Operation table

The Operation Table contains the main information for the acquisition
of the data and allows you to select which Source Point (VP) to shoot.
Different views of that operation table are available (showing all VPs,
or only those to do, or only those done).
Resize the main window, if required, so that all the desired columns can
be viewed, or use the “Customize” menu (popping up if you right-click
on any column heading) to remove unnecessary columns.
The source operation table is created using the The Source Point Setup
(page 275). The Source Point Setup itself may be created by importing
an SPS-X file with the Log window and then manually making changes
if required. For a description of the parameters appearing in the
operation table (except the Source Point Index), see The Source Point
Setup (page 275).
The Source Point Index allows you to do a VP several times if
required: the original value is 1 and that value is automatically
incremented by 1 every time the VP is done again.
Right-clicking on a VP to do in the Operation Table causes a menu to
pop up that allows you to choose which source to use to do that shot.

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Then the system uses your settings in The Source Type setup (page 289)
to automatically determine which next VPs to assign to that source.
The indicators ahead of shot numbers should be interpreted as follows:

Indicator Meaning

Shots to do (planned Source Points).


This Source Point has the focus. A Source is assigned to it. The
system is ready to send the Firing Order.
This Source Point has the focus, and acquisition is in progress.
Shot suspended (a number of acquisitions remain to do but the focus
has gone to another Source Point).
Shot done. The data from this Source Point has been logged.
6
If all necessary parameters have been set in all main windows, then
clicking any row in the table causes the following functions to be
performed automatically in succession:
1- Look function.
2- Spread configuration (Line Forming).
3- Seismonitor function.

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The Active Source view


The available sources created with The Source Type setup (page 289)
appear in this view telling you which Source Point is currently assigned
to each source, and allowing you to manually assign another one if
required.

“Ready” status received, VP currently associated with


blocked until you click to accept the source
it.

VP to be associated with
blocked “Ready” status.

Figure 6-4

The indicators in the leftmost column should be interpreted as follows:

Indicator Meaning

Next shot to do with this source.


Shot to do with this Source. The system is ready to send the Firing
Order.
This Source has the focus, and acquisition is in progress.
Source unused until you manually assign a VP to it (with the popup
menu available by right-clicking on the source or in the list of shots to
do).

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Ready status management


In the “Rdy” (Ready) column is a pushbutton for each source that lets
you choose how to handle the “Ready” status from the blaster controller
or vibrator leader:
• With the pushbutton released, an “R” appears in it when the “Ready”
status is received. The system does not accept it until you click on the
button.
• With the pushbutton depressed, the system automatically accepts the
“Ready” status as soon as it is received.
The “Rdy VP” column tells you which VP (Source Point) will be
associated with the blocked “Ready” status when you click on the
pushbutton, whereas the “Shot #” column tells you which VP is
currently associated with the source.
6
Right-clicking in the empty portion of the shortcut bar and ticking the
“Ready Mgmt” option shows two shortcut buttons: Freeze all Readys
and Unfreeze all Readys.

Figure 6-5

• Clicking Freeze all Readys releases all pushbuttons (blocks all


sources).
• Clicking Unfreeze all Readys depresses all pushbuttons (accepts all
sources).

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Right-click popup menu


Right-clicking in any row causes a menu to pop up with the following
commands allowing you to manually enable/disable the source:
• Associate VP: opens a dialog box that allows you to specify which
VP (by entering its Shot Number) you want to assign to the source.
This does much the same as the “Start Seismonitor with Vib
Source” command available by right-clicking in the operation table.
After you manually assign a VP to the source, with either of these
commands, the system uses the Increment or Step parameter from
the Sources setup to automatically determine which next VPs to
assign to the source. The Set Increment command available by right-
clicking in the Step column allows changing the Source Point
Increment or Step directly from this view.

Popup menu available by


right-clicking in row

Figure 6-6

• Associate SPL & SPN: does much the same as the Associate VP
command, but rather than entering the Shot Number of the VP you
want to assign to the source, you have to enter its SPL (Source Point
Line) and SPN (Source Point Number). Note that this can also be
done by dragging and dropping a fleet’s icon to a source point in the
jPositioning window.
• Disassociate VP: use this command if, for any reason, you no longer
want to use the source, or you want to put it to standby or to manually
assign another VP to it. For example if you are working in Slip-
Sweep mode and one of the sources has a problem, you can use
Disassociate VP to momentarily stop using that source but continue
with the others. As a result, the remaining VPs that were formerly

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assigned to the unused source will be omitted (unless you decrease


the Step parameter in the Sources setup).
• Clean Ready: used to discard the “Ready” status blocked and
recorded in the pushbutton, for example if you do not want to do the
VP associated with it (displayed in the “Rdy VP” column). As a
result, you will have to ask the shooter or vibrator leader to send the
“Ready” status again.
• Set Increment: used to change the Source Point increment step
directly from the Active Source view (the Source Type setup is
updated automatically).

Go pushbutton
Clicking this pushbutton sends the Firing Order. Unless you are using 6
an Impulsive process type, the selected Automation option (Continuous/
Discontinuous/Manual) determines the way of launching the first or
next acquisition for the Source Point selected in the operation table, (see
page 282).

Stop pushbutton
By clicking on Stop, you stop the progress of the acquisition sequence.
You finish the current operation (acquisition or dump). At this point, in
Impulsive mode, you may dump the data to the record process. In other
modes, you can choose either to continue the sequence or do again the
acquisition or end the sequence, using the three pushbuttons (Go,
Cancel, End respectively) prompted:
• by clicking on Go you continue the sequence, i.e. you start over at the
acquisition number highlighted in the acquisition table;
• by clicking on Cancel you skip the remaining acquisitions: the data
from the incomplete Source Point is discarded but the shot number
remains highlighted (i.e. selected) in the table. You only need to click
Go to do it again.

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• by clicking on End you record the incomplete Source Point without


the remaining acquisitions. Then clicking Go will start the next
Source Point.

Abort pushbutton
Clicking this pushbutton interrupts the current Source Point after the
current acquisition is complete. This stops the sequence and opens a
dialog box that lets you record the data or cancel the Source Point:
• If you click OK, the current acquisition is recorded to the SEGD file.
Then clicking Go will cause the sequence to continue.
• If you click Cancel, the current acquisition is NOT recorded. The Go,
Cancel, End buttons are prompted and have the same effect as after
clicking Stop.
The Abort pushbutton is legal while waiting for the Time Break.

T. E. indicator
(Transmit Errors) That indicator may appear in the Active Source view
in the event of transmission incidents on the Lines. Those errors are
automatically recovered by the system (the data is successfully
transmitted again) and the seismic data is no way affected. This is
simply indicative of difficult transmission conditions.

ITB indicator

Figure 6-7 Internal Time Break

(Internal Time Break) This indicator appears if the 428XL fails to


receive the Time Break within the TB Window. An ITB is generated

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after the “Time Break Window” following the Firing Order has expired,
with an accuracy of +/- 5 ms. See TB Window (page 258).
With a Vibroseismic source, ITB is an abortive error. With an impulsive
source, at the end of the acquisition the GUI asks you if you want to
record the data (click OK) or discard it (click Cancel).

Blaster indicator
In the case of an impulsive-type source with a SHOTPRO, or SGS, or
Boombox, or Macha blaster controller, the Active Source view also
includes a “Blaster” indicator along with Uphole and TB fields. During
acquisition an ASCII message is received from the blaster box (via the
XDEV adapter on the Auxiliary line) containing the Uphole Time and
Time Break values. 6
• Uphole Time: The time the pulse from the blast is detected uphole,
determined by analysis of the Uphole Geophone signal.
• TB: Confirmed Time Break, amount of time that current flow to the
blasting cap was greater than 4 amps. The start of current flow is set
up to start at Time Break in the Shot Pro Encoder.
The Blaster indicator may be:
• red: “No Fire” status code received,
• green: “All OK” status code received,
• orange: No Confirmed Time Break or Uphole Time, or any of the
following Warnings:
- Confirmed Time Break received but no Uphole Time.
- Low battery.
- Uphole Geophone resistance not measured or out of tolerance.
- Cap resistance not measured or out of tolerance.
If the message includes position data ($GPGGA message), the Source
Point position is viewed in the POSITIONING client window.

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The Active Acquisition view


The acquisitions to stack, defined with The Process Type setup
(page 256), appear in this view.

Figure 6-8

The indicator ahead of shot number should be interpreted as follows:

Indicator Meaning

Acquisition to do.
Acquisition in progress.
Acquisition done.

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Operation
The Main Window > The Operation Report view

The Operation Report view


The table in the Operation Report view has a row for each shot done.
You can customize the table by right-clicking in any column heading,
selecting Customize and then showing/hiding the desired columns (see
page 57).

Type your
comment here

Figure 6-9 Operation Report view

Selecting a row (shot) in the table and then right-clicking opens a popup
6
menu that allows you to add, or change, or delete a comment in the
selected row, using the following commands:
• Edit: opens a window (Obs Report comment) with a text box
allowing you to type whatever comment you like (any ASCII
character is allowed except double quotation marks). Clicking Apply
enters the comment into the Comment column on the shot selected
in the table.
• From Setup: prompts the comments created in The Observer’s
Comment Type Setup (page 304). Selecting one of them imports it into
the row selected in the table.
• Edit From Setup: prompts the comments created in The Observer’s
Comment Type Setup (page 304). Selecting one of them opens a
window with a text box allowing you to make whatever changes you
like (this does not change anything in the Setup window). Clicking
Apply enters the comment into the Comment column on the shot
selected in the table.
If you want to change (or delete) a comment, select it and use the Edit
command again to enter the new comment (or blank text). If this is a
preset comment (from the Comment Setup), use Edit From Setup
instead.

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The Process Type setup


In this section:
• General (page 256)
• Auxiliary traces (page 263)
• Impulsive type (page 266)
• Impulsive Stack (page 267)
• Correlation Before Stack (page 268)
• Correlation After Stack (page 270)
• Vibroseismic Stack (page 272)
• How to Generate a Process Type (page 274)

General

Figure 6-10

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The “Process Type” associated with each shot determines which type of
seismic signal to generate (depending on the associated “Acquisition
Type”) and which type of processing to perform prior to recording the
seismic data acquired.

Standard/Advanced
In each process type setup window, the “Advanced” option prompts an
extra parameter: Refraction Delay (for Impulsive modes) or Listening
Time (for Vibroseismic modes).
Most of the parameters available for the different Process Types you can
create are described below but only the first three are always required.
Refer to the description of each Process Type to see which parameters
you need to set up. See also Auxiliary traces (page 263) and How to 6
Generate a Process Type (page 274).

Firing Order
For the 428XL to transmit the Firing Order and receive the Time Break,
you can choose to attach the source controller to an LCI interface or to
an LAUX-428 unit. Use the “Box Type” option to choose which way to
use.
In the Serial Nb field, enter the Serial Number of the LCI or LAU-428
to use.
If you choose the LCI option, use the Plug option button to choose
which “Blaster” port to use on the LCI.

Record Length
The time (ms) that the data is recorded. In Impulsive modes, this
duration determines the acquisition length (i. e. the length of time that
the seismic data is recorded into LAU acquisition units).
See also Specifications in 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 3.
To calculate the number of samples per trace, see Trace Data block
(page 32) in 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 2.

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Listening Time
The time (ms) that the data is recorded (i. e. Record Length), in
Vibroseismic modes. The acquisition length in Vibroseismic modes is
equal to the sweep length plus the Listening Time. (The acquisition
length is the length of time that the seismic data is recorded into LAU
acquisition units).
To calculate the number of samples per trace, see Trace Data block
(page 32) in 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 2.

TB Window
The TB Window is a time interval that starts when the 428XL sends a
Firing Order (FO). During the TB Window the 428XL is waiting for
the TB from the shooting system. If the TB occurs within that interval
then the acquisition starts. If it doesn’t, then the 428XL generates an
Internal TB (ITB) and the acquisition starts. In Vibroseismic operations,
ITB is an abortive error. In impulsive mode, at the end of acquisition the
GUI will ask you if you want to dump the data to the record process.

Note In Radio or Dual telemetry, the TB Window field is used to


adjust the delay between the FO and TB in Dynamite
operations, or the delay between Early TB and TB.
Note If you are using an LSI, the delay between the Firing Order and
the predicted Time Break must be entered in the TB Window
field.

Refraction Delay
(Allowable range: 0 to 64000 ms, precision 500 ms). This parameter is
only available if you choose the “Advanced” option.
The Refraction Delay allows you to insert a delay between the Time
Break received by the 428XL and the beginning of the acquisition.
Using the Refraction Delay, you can shorten the acquisition length, but
this assumes that you know how long it will take for the signal to travel
from the shot point to your spread, or else you may lose data.

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Acquisition Index
Sequential number of each individual acquisition in process types
where Stacking is requested.

Acquisition Type
This field is used to associate the Process Type description with one of
the types of acquisition (Acquisition Type number 1 to 32) created for
the VE464 in The Acquisition Type setup (page 518) or for the VE432 in
The Acquisition Type setup (page 637). The Acquisition Type
determines the following:
- the type of (Basic) sweep to be generated by each vibrator in the
fleet or fleets to use;
- the pilot signals to be supplied by the vibrator controller;
6
- automatic Lift and High-Line pickup options for the vibrators.

Note for VE432 or VE464 users: A noise elimination Threshold


Type (modulo 16) is automatically associated with each
Acquisition Type:
Threshold Type 1  Acq Type 1
Threshold Type 2  Acq Type 2
... ...
Threshold Type 16  Acq Type 16
Threshold Type 1  Acq Type 17
... ...
Threshold Type 16  Acq Type 32

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Output option
The Output button allows you to select different operations on the
processed data. It is used, associated with the Add, Change and Delete
buttons, to build the acquisition table.
• None. You have to select it when you don't want to do any operation
on the processed data.
• Dump: This allows you to dump the data to the record process and
the plotter after processing the acquisition. The memory is cleared
afterwards. You need at least one Dump at the end of the table.
• Xdump: You can use this option if you want to request an extra dump
to the record process and the plotter after processing the acquisition,
although that is not the last acquisition. With this option, the
correlation memory is not cleared. Because it increases memory
usage, Extra Dump should only be used with consideration of the
impact on memory resources.

Correl (correlation) With


This field is used to specify which auxiliary channel is the reference
(Pilot) signal for the correlation of seismic channels (a “Pilot” is
synchronous with the Time Break signal, and usually very similar to the
fleet's sweep signal). The VE432 generates analog pilots (up to 4). The
VE464 generates digital pilots (each “Basic” type of sweep can be used
as digital “Pilot”), and also two analog pilots only intended for other
recording systems than the 428XL.
For example, assuming you are using a VE432 and you have created an
auxiliary channel with “Pilot” as label in the Line window, enter “Pilot”
into the Correl With field. This will tell the system where the analog
reference signal is physically connected, for correlating the seismic
channels with that signal. See Label (page 139).
If you are using a VE464 with two or more simultaneous sources (e. g.
in Slip-Sweep mode), do not use any analog pilot.

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Using an Aux channel


created in the Line
window
as Reference for
correlation of seismic
1 Pilot FDU channels Pilot

Figure 6-11 Correlation of seismic channels with Analog pilot

For VE464 users only:


- For correlation with a digital pilot, enter the Label name of the
Basic sweep type you want to use as reference signal, created in
The Basic Type setup (page 501).
Basic sweep type
(VE464)
6
basicLinear1
1 basicLinear1
Figure 6-12 Correlation with “Numeric” pilot

- If you want to use two sources simultaneously, entering the


generic keyword correlWith or addPilot into the “Correl with”
field will cause the system to use The Acquisition Type setup
(page 518) to determine which Basic sweep type to use as
“Numeric Pilot” for each fleet.
The system will
automatically select the
Basic sweep type
number associated with
each fleet, specified in
this field. correlWith
1 1 1 2
2 3 3 4 Generic keyword

Figure 6-13 Two simultaneous sources

Note You cannot use the “Numeric Pilot” option with a 0.25-ms
Sample Rate.

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Auto Correlation Peak Time


Used to shift the autocorrelation peak (recorded on two auxiliary
traces). Unless a value other than 1 is entered for the “Auto Correlation
Peak Time” shift, only one half of the correlation wavelet will be
recorded on each of the two auxiliary traces (negative time side of the
peak on one trace and positive time side on the other). Theoretically, the
autocorrelation wavelet is symmetrical with respect to the correlation
peak standing for zero time offset between the correlated signals.
This time shift is applied to the results of cross-correlation and to
similarity tests.

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Auxiliary traces
The Auxiliaries pane allows you to describe the auxiliary traces you
want to record.
The Processing field is used to enter the name of the Auxiliary channel
to record and, if you want it to be correlated with another signal, this
field also allows you to describe the correlation operation to do.
For analog auxiliary channels, enter the Label name created in the Line
window. For signals from the VE464, see Example for VE464 “Numeric”
pilots (page 265).

1 Pilot FDU
6
1 Pilot FDU Auxiliary channels
Auxiliary Trace
2 Aux2 FDU and processing
Number

2 Aux2*Pilot-
1st Aux Trace in SEGD file ta1 Pilot
2nd Aux Trace in SEGD file ta2 Aux2*Pilot-
3rd Aux Trace in SEGD file ta3 Aux2*Pilot+

Figure 6-14 Analog Auxiliary channels

For an auxiliary channel to be correlated with another, use the * operator


(e. g. Aux2*Pilot). The system will automatically use the second
operand as the reference signal for the correlation operation.
Autocorrelation or cross-correlation will cause two auxiliary traces to
be generated (one trace for the positive time side of the correlation peak,
and another trace for the negative time side). To specify which auxiliary
trace is used to record the positive (negative) time side, append a Plus
(Minus) sign to the description of the trace.
The order in the Auxiliaries list box determines how the auxiliary traces
will appear in the SEGD file and on your plotter output. (See Figure 6-
14 above).

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With the example shown in Figure 6-14 on page 263, the 1st auxiliary
trace in the SEGD file will record the uncorrelated pilot, the 2nd
auxiliary trace (Aux2*Pilot-) will record the negative time side of the
correlation peak, whereas the 3rd auxiliary trace (Aux2*Pilot+) will
record the positive time side.

Example for a VE432 similarity test


Assuming:
- the reference sweep signal is fed to your 1st auxiliary channel
and labelled “Pilot”,
- the ground force signal is fed to your 2nd auxiliary channel and
labelled “ReturnSweep”,
- the sweep signal shifted by radio delays is fed to your 3rd
auxiliary channel and labelled “ReturnPilot”.
Also assuming you want the following signals on your plotter output
and in your SEGD file:
- positive time side of the Autocorrelation wavelet on the 1st
auxiliary trace,
- uncorrelated pilot on the 2nd auxiliary trace,
- positive time side of the cross-correlation of ReturnSweep with
ReturnPilot on the 3rd auxiliary trace.
Then, you have to use the following description in the Auxiliaries pane:

Autocorrelation wavelet
on Aux Trace 1
Uncorrelated pilot ta3 ReturnSweep*ReturnPilot+
on Aux Trace 2 Cross-correlation of
ta1 Pilot*Pilot+ ReturnSweep with
ta2 Pilot ReturnPilot on Aux Trace 3
ta3 ReturnSweep*ReturnPilot+

Figure 6-15 VE432 similarity test Auxiliary traces

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Example for VE464 “Numeric” pilots


To record a “Numeric Pilot” on an auxiliary trace, enter the Label name
of the Basic sweep type you want to record, created in The Basic Type
setup (page 501).

Basic sweep type


(VE464)

1 basicLinear1

3 Aux2*basicLinear1+
basicLinear1 to be recorded on 1st Aux Trace ta1 basicLinear1
Correlation of Aux2 with basicLinear1 on 2nd
and 3rd Aux traces
ta2 Aux2*basicLinear1-
ta3 Aux2*basicLinear1+ 6
Figure 6-16 Recording a “Numeric” pilot on an auxiliary trace

You may want to record the “Numeric Pilot” which is specified in The
Acquisition Type setup (page 518), for each fleet. To do that, use the
generic keyword correlWith (or addPilot). As a result, the system will
automatically select the signal whose Basic Type number appears in the
“Correl with” (or “Add Pilot”) field.

Generic
keyword

1 1 1 2
2 3 3 4
2 addPilot*correlWith-
For Fleet 1:
- basicLinear1 to be recorded on 1st Aux Trace ta1 correlWith
- Correlation of basicLinear2 with basicLinear1 ta2 addPilot*correlWith-
- basicLinear2 to be recorded on 3rd Aux Trace ta3 addPilot
For Fleet 2:
- basicLinear3 to be recorded on 1st Aux Trace
- Correlation of basicLinear4 with basicLinear3
- basicLinear4 to be recorded on 3rd Aux Trace

Figure 6-17 Recording the “Numeric” pilot associated with each fleet

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The Process Type setup > Impulsive type

Impulsive type
This type of process is intended for traditional impulsive-source
operations (e. g. explosive).

Figure 6-18

See also:
• Standard/Advanced (page 257)
• Firing Order (page 257)
• Record Length (page 257)
• TB Window (page 258)
• Refraction Delay (page 258)
• Auxiliary traces (page 263)
• How to Generate a Process Type (page 274)

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Operation
The Process Type setup > Impulsive Stack

Impulsive Stack

Figure 6-19

This type of process is used to stack impulsive data (from any kind of
impulsive low energy source, e. g. weight drop) before recording it.
The Acquisition pane allows you to create a list of acquisitions to stack.
On each acquisition in your list, use the Output option to choose
whether to record the stacked data (Dump option) or not (None option).
You have to choose at least one Dump on the last acquisition.
If you choose the Raw option, then you record the data unprocessed at
the end of each acquisition (with no stacking). So at the end of the
sequence you will have one record for each individual acquisition and
another one for the result from the stacking process.

Note Because they increase memory usage, the Raw and Xdump
options should only be used with consideration of the impact on
memory resources.
See also:
• Standard/Advanced (page 257)
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6 Operation
The Process Type setup > Correlation Before Stack

• Firing Order (page 257)


• Record Length (page 257)
• TB Window (page 258)
• Refraction Delay (page 258)
• Acquisition Index (page 259)
• Output option (page 260)
• Auxiliary traces (page 263)
• How to Generate a Process Type (page 274)

Correlation Before Stack

Figure 6-20

You use this type of process in Vibroseismic operations. As the wording


of the option suggests, correlation will be performed before stacking.

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The Raw option is used when you want to record each individual
acquisition too. In your SEGD file, you get the stacked correlated data
and also the raw uncorrelated acquisition data.
You need at least one Dump of data for each correlation source at the
end of your table.”D” can be combined with the two sources, for
example D1 to dump the stacked result of the acquisition correlated
with source 1.
The possible single-source or dual-source combinations are: d1, d2,
d1d2.

Note Because they increase memory usage, the Raw and Xdump
options should only be used with consideration of the impact on
memory resources. 6
See also:
• Standard/Advanced (page 257)
• Firing Order (page 257)
• Record Length (page 257)
• TB Window (page 258)
• Auto Correlation Peak Time (page 262)
• Listening Time (page 258)
• Acquisition Index (page 259)
• Acquisition Type (page 259)
• Output option (page 260)
• Correl (correlation) With (page 260)
• Auxiliary traces (page 263)
• SQC Dump mode (page 348)
• SQC Dump mode with VE432 (page 361)
• How to Generate a Process Type (page 274)

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The Process Type setup > Correlation After Stack

Correlation After Stack

Figure 6-21

This is another way to work with a vibrator. The first operation consists
of stacking the data and, at the end of it, performing a correlation on the
stacked data and recording the result.
All parameters are the same as with the Correlation Before Stack option.
You just have one more column in the description table, to specify the
sign to apply to the acquired data. The sign will be applied to the data
and the Pilot.

Note Because they increase memory usage, the Raw and Xdump
options should only be used with consideration of the impact on
memory resources.
See also:
• Standard/Advanced (page 257)
• Firing Order (page 257)
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The Process Type setup > Correlation After Stack

• Record Length (page 257)


• TB Window (page 258)
• Auto Correlation Peak Time (page 262)
• Listening Time (page 258)
• Acquisition Index (page 259)
• Acquisition Type (page 259)
• Output option (page 260)
• Correl (correlation) With (page 260)
• Auxiliary traces (page 263)
• SQC Dump mode (page 348) 6
• SQC Dump mode with VE432 (page 361)
• How to Generate a Process Type (page 274)

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6 Operation
The Process Type setup > Vibroseismic Stack

Vibroseismic Stack

Figure 6-22

With this mode of operation you just do a stack of the acquisitions. As


a result you will record uncorrelated data in your SEGD file.
The Acquisition Type is defined, as is the case for all Vibroseismic
operation modes, in the Vibrator main window.
The Stack Sign is used to specify the sign to apply to the acquired data.
If you choose the Raw option, then you record the data unprocessed at
the end of each acquisition (with no stacking). So at the end of the
sequence you will have one record for each individual acquisition and
another one for the result from the stacking process.
Like for all Vibroseismic modes you must request a Dump at the end of
the acquisition sequence.

Note Because they increase memory usage, the Raw and Xdump
options should only be used with consideration of the impact on
memory resources.

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See also:
• Standard/Advanced (page 257)
• Firing Order (page 257)
• Record Length (page 257)
• TB Window (page 258)
• Listening Time (page 258)
• Acquisition Index (page 259)
• Acquisition Type (page 259)
• Output option (page 260)
• Auxiliary traces (page 263) 6
• How to Generate a Process Type (page 274)

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The Process Type setup > How to Generate a Process Type

How to Generate a Process Type


Select Process Type from the Setup menu.
Use the option button at the top of the Process Type Setup window to
choose the desired type of processing. As a result the relevant
parameters are prompted in the upper pane.
For a process type with multiple acquisitions, build the acquisition table
as follows:
• Click in the Acquisition index box and enter the necessary range of
rows for your acquisition table. For example, to create 8 rows in one
click, enter “1-8” into the index box;
• Select “None” from the “Output” option button,

1-8

Figure 6-23

• Click Add,
• For each acquisition in the list box, select the desired “Output” option
(Double-click on the desired acquisition number, select the output
option, then click Change).
After entering all the parameters to define your Process Type, you only
need to enter a process type number and label in the list box at the foot
of the window, and click Add then Apply to save the process type.
To view the parameters of any process type, double-click on it in the list
box. Then you can make any changes needed and click Change, or
Add, or Delete, as required. To save your changes, click Apply.

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Operation
The Source Point Setup > Source point parameters

The Source Point Setup


In this section:
• Source point parameters (page 275)
• To generate a Source Point setup (page 280)

Source point parameters


To open this setup window, select Operation from the Setup menu.
Creating a source point setup consists of generating an “operation table”
containing the characteristics of the successive Shot Points planned.
You can generate this table automatically by loading SPS files to the
database in the Log main window (see Importing an SPS file — 6
page 583). The window below shows an example of operation table.
You can use the Log main window to save the table to a file.

Figure 6-24

A tab is available for each swath which is “Active” in the Config


window’s Swath setup (page 97). The fields in each tab are
automatically populated as you click on Apply in the Log window when
loading SPS-R, -S, -X files. See Multiswath (page 310).

Shot Id.
Shot Point or Vibrator Point sequential number.

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Break Point
If you enter “Yes” in the “Break Point” column, for any Shot/VP, then
the spread will not be configured automatically for this source point (so
that you can skip it if required).

Source Line
Source Point Line Number, adjustable in steps of 0.1 between Lines L
and L+1. Used jointly with the Source Receiver field to define the
source location, and displayed as “Source Point Line” in the operation
table.

Source Receiver
Source Point receiver position Number, adjustable in steps of 0.1
between receiver positions RP and RP+1. Used jointly with the Source
Line field to define the source location, and displayed as “Source Point
Nb” in the operation table.
Source Receiver

L
RP RP+1 RP+2
Source Line

L+1

Figure 6-25

Spread Type
Choose one of the Spread Types defined through the “Absolute” or
“Generic” Spread Setup menu, in the “Line” main window.
• With an “Absolute” spread, you have to specify the complete
acquisition spread to be used for each and every shot. When you are
loading SPS files to the database in the Log main window, you
automatically generate an operation table with the Absolute spread.

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• A “Generic” spread describes the pattern of active channels. That is


helpful if the programming of the spread is done manually and you
do not want to change the description every time the spread moves.

SFL
Spread First Line: first Line Number in the spread, i. e. the Line Number
of the leftmost line in the spread when looking toward the highest
receiver positions; used along with “SFN” to specify the origin of the
spread. Note that the lines are arranged as in the list box in the Line
window’s Survey setup.
• For a generic spread, SFL is entered by the operator.
• For an absolute spread, SFL is automatically computed by the
system. 6
SFN
Spread First receiver position Number: lowest Receiver Position in the
spread; used along with “SFL” to specify the origin of the spread.
• For a generic spread, SFN is entered by the operator.
• For an absolute spread, SFN is automatically computed by the
system.

Process Type
Choose one of the Process Types defined through the The Process Type
setup (page 256) menu in the Operation main window. The “Process
Type” you choose will tell the system which type of seismic signal to
generate and which type of processing to perform prior to recording the
seismic data acquired.

Pattern Nb
This field does not appear unless you choose the Guidance option in the
Operating Mode (page 281) setup window. Different types of vibrator
pattern can be defined in the VE432 or VE464 window, each identified
by a “Pattern Number”. This field allows you to specify which type of
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6 Operation
The Source Point Setup > Source point parameters

vibrator pattern to use for each VP. (For example, you may wish to use
an in-line pattern for some VPs because there is not enough room for a
square pattern). See The Pattern setup window (page 532).

Comments
May be used to enter a comment for each VP. Such comments are
displayed in the Operation table and recorded in the User Header in the
SEGD file. If the “User Header” is entered into the list of parameters for
an Observer Report or an SPS text file (using the LOG main window),
then the comments will also be included in the Observer Report or SPS
text file.
Any ASCII character is allowed except double quotation marks (“).

Superspread
If you want to use a Superspread (an absolute spread that encompasses
several successive spreads), enter its identification number into this
field. You must have created it in the Line main window (see Absolute
spreads — page 146).

Superspread

Figure 6-26

If you do not want to use a Superspread, leave this field empty.


If you generate your Source Point setup by importing an SPS Relation
file, then, because the SPS format does not have any Superspread field,
the Superspread number defaults to the Spread number (the Spread
number contained in the SPS file is automatically copied to the
Superspread field).

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The Source Point Setup > Source point parameters

The advantage of using a Superspread lies in that you save time because
after the Superspread is formed, lines don’t need to be formed every
time the active spread moves (unless the Aux descriptor changes).
WARNING
When you are using a Superspread, the Gain code for any given trace
must be the same in all individual spreads making up the Superspread,
and in the Superspread itself (because the acquisition of a trace must be
done with the Gain code specified for that trace in the active individual
spread).

Note If you are using different Process Types for the shots associated
with a superspread, be sure the Aux descriptor is the same in all
6
of them, or else the spread will need to be formed again every
time a change appears in the Aux descriptor, which takes time.
Note When you are using a Superspread, all the channels included in
the superspread are acquired. The system automatically sorts
them and only records the traces belonging in the active spread,
i. e. that which is actually selected in the Operation table (and
described in the input SPS X file if you are using such a file).
Note If any line is disconnected in the Superspread, an acquisition
error will appear even if the disruption is outside the spread
actually selected.
Note Only the channels from the active spread are viewed by the
Seismonitor function.
Note Channels in the Superspread that do not belong in the active
spread are viewed in brown.
Note If you are using DSUGPS links, it is recommended to use a
Superspread so that the DSUGPS units located outside the
active spread can send their GPS data to the central unit.

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The Source Point Setup > To generate a Source Point setup

To generate a Source Point setup


Select Operation from the Setup menu.
Use “-” and “/” and comma as shortcuts, in combination with the
command buttons (Add, Change, Delete, Reverse), to generate your
table in a minimum number of steps (see Working with 428XL windows
— page 30).

Shortcut with Add button


In Shot/V.P. Id column:
Inserted between two numbers, those become the limits of the modification, i.
-
e. 1-6 from 1 to 6.
No change in cells, or step operator, e. g. 1-6/2 (from 1 to 6 every two, only
/
cells referring to 1, 3 and 5 will be affected.
Only named cells are affected e. g. 1,3,5,7 (cells 1, 3, 5 and 7 will be
,
affected).

In all other columns except Comment.


- , will give you a syntax error.
no change if alone; allows values to be incremented or decremented if it
/ follows a number, e. g. 10.00/-0.05 (on each change of row you will do the
subtraction -0.05).

Any changes you make will not take effect until you click the Apply
button.
The Reset button works like an undo command. It restores the table as
it was before you last clicked on Apply.

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Operation
Seismic setup options > Operating Mode

Seismic setup options


In this section:
• Operating Mode (page 281)
• Automation (page 282)
• Slip-Sweep (page 284)
• Dynamic Fleet Grouping (page 286)
• Look option (page 287)
• Reshot option (page 288)

Operating Mode 6

Figure 6-27

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Seismic setup options > Automation

To open this setup window, select Options from the Setup menu. Click
on the Operating tab. To enable and save your changes, click Apply.

Mode
• Standard: choose this option to work with an Explosive-type source
(dynamite, air gun or any other kind of impulsive energy), or with a
standard Vibroseismic source (single source or flip-flop dual source).
• SQC Dump: if you choose this option, the correlated data is not
recorded; it is only sent to the QC processing tool for monitoring.
Only uncorrelated (Raw) data is recorded (but not sent to the QC
processing tool). To record vibrator motion signals on auxiliary
traces, see SQC Dump mode (page 348) or SQC Dump mode with
VE432 (page 361).
• Micro-seismic: intended for permanent acquisition from a fixed
spread. See Micro-seismic (page 371) for details.
• Shallow: intended for shallow-water operations. See Multi-gun
Shallow-water shooting mode (page 381) for details.
• Autonomous: allows simultaneous-source shooting with sweeps
being launched independently (by pressing the Ready button on the
DSD of each fleet leader). See Autonomous mode (page 373) for
details.

Automation

Figure 6-28

To open this setup window, select Options from the Setup menu.Click
on the Operating tab. To enable and save your changes, click Apply.

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Seismic setup options > Automation

With a Vibroseismic source or Stacked Impulsive source, the progress


of the acquisitions depends on which Automation option you choose.
(With an Impulsive source, the automation option is of no effect).

Continuous
You are in automatic mode. That means, if you don't have any problem
during acquisitions, you click Go and you are able to shoot
consecutively the SPs or VPs defined in the Operation Table,
respecting the operator-selected delay between acquisitions and SP/
VPs, without any further action until the next Break Point (if any) is
encountered.
You can click Stop to stop the sequence on completion of the current
operation (acquisition or dump) and click Go to resume the sequence. 6
Note Whenever a new field unit is laid out, it does not appear in the
Line main window’s topographic view until the spread is
formed again. If the spread remains the same for consecutive
shots (VPs) in continuous mode, no spread forming is
performed, so any new unit laid out will not be visible unless
you program a Look between VPs (see Look option on
page 287). If any Sensor tests are selected in the Look setup
menu, they are performed too.

Discontinuous
You will do the entire shot point or VP sequence with the specified
delays between acquisitions, and you have to click Go for the next shot
point or VP.
The delay between VPs is not used.
You can click Stop to stop the sequence on completion of the current
operation (acquisition or dump) and click Go to resume the sequence.

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Seismic setup options > Slip-Sweep

Manual
Each acquisition within each shot point must be started manually, by
clicking the Go pushbutton. The Delays Between Acquisitions and
Between VPs are not used.

Slip-Sweep

Figure 6-29

Disable
The Delay setup (page 295) lets you set the required minimum time
between any two successive acquisitions to stack and the delay between
successive VPs.

Figure 6-30

Note that Slip-Sweep is automatically disabled if the Dynamic Fleet


Grouping mode is enabled. Also note that Slip-Sweep is not allowed if
the Time Management (page 90) option in jConfig is set at ‘Internal
Clock”.

Standard Mode
This option enables Slip-Sweep operations (for VE432 or VE464 users
only). After a vibrator fleet has started shaking, the Firing Order for the
next sweep is generated as soon as a vibrator fleet is ready and the Slip
Time specified in The Delay setup (page 295) has expired.

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Seismic setup options > Slip-Sweep

Figure 6-31 Slip-sweep standard mode

Check Min Distance


In Standard Slip-Sweep mode, you may want to let the system check
that, after a fleet has started shaking, no fleet is eligible to shake unless
it is far enough from the fleet currently shaking. The “Check Min
Distance” option makes it possible to specify how far two fleets should
be apart for them to be allowed to shake simultaneously.
6
Dynamic Mode
If you choose the Dynamic Slip-Sweep mode, The Delay setup
(page 295) window lets you enter different Slip Time setpoints for
different values of the distance between fleets.

Figure 6-32 Slip-sweep Dynamic mode

After a fleet has started shaking, in order to determine which fleet is


next eligible to shake, the system interpolates between your Slip
Time setpoints and calculates the suitable Slip Time for the distance
between each fleet ready to shake and the fleet currently shaking. The
system automatically selects the fleet associated with the shortest
Slip Time as the one eligible to shake after this Slip Time has expired.
For details, see Slip-sweep (page 334).

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6 Operation
Seismic setup options > Dynamic Fleet Grouping

Dynamic Fleet Grouping

Figure 6-33

Choose this option for seismic recording techniques where you want the
system to built a fleet group dynamically with those fleets which are
ready to shake and far enough apart (see Dynamic Fleet grouping —
page 329). You have to specify:
- Fleet Min Distance: how far apart fleets must be for the system
to allow them to shake simultaneously;
- Min number of Fleets: how many fleets at least should be
included in the group;
- Max number of Fleets: how many fleets at most should be
included in the group.

Guidance

Figure 6-34

This option (for VE432 or VE464 users only) causes a Latitude


Reference field to appear, used to specify the approximate latitude of
the centre of the spread (e. g. 475035.000 for 47° 50 min 35 s). The
“Latitude Reference” is used to compensate for projection errors, for
locating the seismic crew more precisely. The closer the VPs to this
reference, the higher the guidance accuracy. Within 50 km of this
latitude reference, the effect of projection errors on the guidance
accuracy is negligible. See Vibrator Guidance (page 378).

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Operation
Seismic setup options > Look option

Note After enabling or disabling the Guidance option, you have to


go to Manual in the DPG window and run again the Set DSD
and Vib Fleet functions.

Look option

Recurrence
every n VPs

6
Figure 6-35

To open this setup window, select Options from the Setup menu. Click
on the Look tab. To enable and save your changes, click Apply.
This Seismic Setup is used for automation of Look and Sensor tests
between shot points.
• The AutoLook option is used to enable or disable automatic
performance of a Look function between shot points. Tick this option
to select the Automatic mode, untick it for the Manual mode
(meaning that you will have to click on the Look button in the Line
main window). The status bar at the foot of the window has a field
that indicates if Autolook is enabled.
• Every: This field is used to specify the recurrence rate of the Look
function if AutoLook is enabled. The selected tests will
automatically be launched after completing the number of shot points
specified in this field.
• With Tests: These buttons allow you to choose one or more Sensor
tests to be performed by the Look function, in Automatic or Manual
mode.
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Seismic setup options > Reshot option

The Resistance and Tilt tests are done jointly: running either of them
also runs the other but, unless its button is activated the results from the
other test are not used.

Note If AutoLook is used, the acquisition cycle time is lengthened


by 0.5 second, plus the time that each test requested takes to
execute, that is:
- plus 1.5 s. if you select the Resistance and/or Tilt test;
- plus 1.5 s. if you select a Leakage test.
Note On a line segment including an LSI, the AutoLook function is
disabled: to see new FDUs, you must use manual Look in that
case.
Note The tests selected in the Look setup use the Gain code selected
in the Line main window’s Test setup. If DSUs are used, it is
important to see if the Gain selected in the Test setup is the
same as that used in the production spread (because switching
the gain is time-consuming and also because it is preferable to
do the Tilt test with the gain used for production). See
Instrument tests (page 218).

Reshot option

Figure 6-36

By default, a warning dialogue box appears whenever you try to do


again any shot that has already been done. Ticking the Disable reshot
question option relieves you of the need to confirm whenever you want
to reshoot (the dialogue box will not be prompted); however, reshooting
gives rise to a notification in the status mail box.

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Operation
The Source Type setup > Sources

The Source Type setup


In this section:
• Sources (page 289)
• Explosive source parameters (page 290)
• Vibroseismic source parameters (page 291)

Sources
Select Sources from the Setup menu. This setup window is used to
assign a name to each available seismic source and determine how the
system will select the next shot to do with that source from the operation
table. 6
The Explo option is for all types of impulsive energy (dynamite, air
gun, etc.). The Vibro option is for vibroseismic sweeps. For Explosive
shooting with a blaster controller within a line, see Shooting with an LSS
(page 311).

Figure 6-37

After entering all the parameters to define a type of seismic source, you
only need to enter a source type number in the Nb field, and click Add
then Apply to save the source type.
To view the parameters of any source type, double-click on it in the list
box (at the foot of the Setup window). Then you can make any changes
needed and click Change, or Add, or Delete, as required. To save your
changes, click Apply.

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The Source Type setup > Explosive source parameters

Explosive source parameters

Figure 6-38

To open this setup window, select Sources from the Setup menu, click
on the Explo tab.

Label
Use this field to enter a self-explanatory name that will identify the
source in plain (e. g. a shooter’s name).

Shooter Nb
Use this field to enter the identification number of the source controller.

Comment
Use this field to enter a description of the impulsive source in plain if
required.

Increment Nb
This field is used to specify the increment step to use after a shot is done,
to automatically determine which shot should next get the focus in the
list of shots to do. Typically the increment step is 1. An increment step
other than 1 is especially helpful in multishooter operations.
• With 0 as Increment step, the Shot Number is not incremented after
a shot is done, and no new spread is formed.
• With a Increment step other than 0 (a positive or negative integer),
the number of the next shot to do is computed accordingly, the focus
jumps to that shot, and the new spread is formed.

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The Source Type setup > Vibroseismic source parameters

Vibroseismic source parameters


To open this setup window, select Sources from the Setup menu and
click on the Vibro tab.

Figure 6-39

Label 6
Use this field to enter a self-explanatory name that will identify the
source in plain (e. g. a vibrator leader’s name).

Fleet Nb
Use this field to enter the identification number of the group of vibrators
to use as the source. To determine which vibrators are included in each
fleet, use the VE464 Vibrator Fleet (page 537) or VE432 Vibrator Fleet
(page 655) function.

Moving: Sequentially
Choose the Sequential option if you wish to take VPs as scheduled in
the operation table.
After a VP is done, with this option, the system will use the increment
step specified in the“Step” field to determine which VP to do with this
source and select it automatically from the list of VPs to do.
If this source is for VPs with multiple acquisitions to stack, you may or
may not have to choose the “Work by Acq” option, depending on
whether or not you want to shift the fleet’s vibrators after each sweep.

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The Source Type setup > Vibroseismic source parameters

If a “Ready” message is received from a source, with no position


supplied, it only abridges the delay between shots but this does not
indicate the next shot to do.
The “Type of Moving” field is not available if “Dynamic Fleet
Grouping” is enabled in the Seismic setup options (page 281).

Moving: Randomly
Choose the Randomly option if you want to allow the Source Points to
get the focus in any order (e. g. if you are using a “DSD network”) rather
than follow the order determined in the list of shots to do. See
Navigation-driven shooting (page 309).
If this source is for VPs with multiple acquisitions to stack, you may or
may not have to choose the “Work by Acq” option, depending on
whether or not you want to shift the fleet’s vibrators after each sweep.
The “Type of Moving” field is not available if “Dynamic Fleet
Grouping” is enabled in the Seismic setup options (page 281).

Step
This field is used to specify the increment step to use after a VP is done,
if you choose Sequential as Moving option, to automatically determine
which VP should next get the focus in the list of VPs to do. Typically
the step is 1. An increment step other than 1 is especially helpful for
Flip-flop Vibroseismic operations (see Flip-Flop sweeps on page 321).
• With 0 as step value, the Shot Number is not incremented after a VP
is done, and no new spread is formed.
• With a step other than 0 (a positive or negative integer), the number
of the next VP to do is computed accordingly, the focus jumps to that
VP, and the new spread is formed. For an example with a negative
step, see Figure 6-63 on page 324.
The “Step” field is not available if “Dynamic Fleet Grouping” is
enabled in the Seismic setup options (page 281).

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The Source Type setup > Vibroseismic source parameters

Work by Acq
If this source is for VPs with multiple acquisitions to stack, you may or
may not have to choose the “Work by Acq” option, depending on
whether or not you want to shift the fleet’s vibrators after each sweep.
• Untick “Work by Acq” if the multiple acquisitions are to be stacked
without shifting any vibrator. As a result:
- In the standard mode (no Slip-Sweep), the multiple acquisitions
to stack are done in succession, using the operator-selected delay
between acquisitions (see The Delay setup — page 295), without
interleaving with other VPs.
- If Slip-Sweep is enabled and the acquisitions to stack are taken
without moving any vibrator, the vibrator fleet is implicitly
Ready at the end of each sweep (unless this is the last sweep
6
within the VP); therefore, it can shake as soon as the Slip Time
has expired. As a result, a VP’s acquisitions will interleave with
those of other VPs.
• Choose the “Work by Acq” option if the multiple acquisitions to
stack require the vibrator fleet to shift after each sweep. As a result:
- In the standard mode (no Slip-Sweep), after a sweep is done, the
focus will pass to the next VP determined with the increment
“Step” value (that may be a suspended VP with still a number of
acquisitions to do). As a result, a VP’s acquisitions will
interleave with those of other VPs.
- With Slip-Sweep enabled, the focus may pass to whichever
vibrator fleet is ready to shake, if it falls inside the VP grabbing
circle, after the Slip Time has expired. As a result, acquisitions
can interleave with those of other VPs. For details on the “VP
Grabbing Radius”, see page 414.

Note To enable the system to open and suspend two or more VPs, see
428XL scalability (page 77).

The very first time any vibrator fleet is reported ready to shake at a
location that falls within the VP grabbing circle around a planned source
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The Source Type setup > Vibroseismic source parameters

COG position, that fleet is assigned to the first acquisition for that VP.
If the fleet’s position falls within more than one VP grabbing circles, a
dialog box pops up so the operator can choose between the eligible VPs.
The subsequent acquisitions to stack will be done by the same vibrator
fleet when it is next ready to shake within the same circle.

Cluster
If you want two (or more) VE464 sources to shake simultaneously,
those sources must have the same Cluster number, to be specified in
this field. See SQC Dump mode (page 348).
See also Manual clustering (page 327).
The “Cluster” field is not available if “Dynamic Fleet Grouping” is
enabled in the Seismic setup options (page 281).
Using two simultaneous sources is not allowed with the VE432.
Therefore, you must assign a different Cluster number to each VE432
source.

Comment
Use this field to enter a description of the vibroseismic source in plain,
if required.

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The Delay setup >

The Delay setup


To open this setup window, select Delay from the Setup menu.

Figure 6-40

• “At end of Acq”: use this slider to set the required minimum time
between any two successive acquisitions to stack. This delay is not 6
used if the Manual automation option is selected (see Automation —
page 282).
• “At end of VP” use this slider to set the required minimum time
between any two successive VPs. This delay is only used if the
Continuous option is selected and no Break Point is set on the
selected VP.
Unless the Slip-Sweep mode is enabled, each delay is selectable from
0.0 to 99.0 seconds in 0.5-second steps. If any delay is set to the
maximum (99 seconds), then the system will keep waiting until an
External Go signal is received on the Blaster connector of the LCI.
If the Slip-Sweep (page 284) Standard Mode option is enabled, the
Delay setup window is used to adjust the Slip Time instead, which is
selectable from 1.0 to 99.0 seconds in 0.1-second steps.

Figure 6-41 Slip-sweep standard mode

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The Delay setup >

The Slip Time is used as follows: after a sweep is started, the Firing
Order for the next sweep will not be generated until a vibrator fleet is
ready to shake and the Slip Time delay has expired.
Note that the Slip Time delay should not be shorter than the desired
listening time.
If the Dynamic Slip-Sweep mode is enabled, the Delay setup allows you
to specify different Slip Times depending on the distance between fleets
(the farther apart the fleets, the shorter the required Slip Time). In the
Delay setup table:
• The Distance in the first row must be 0;
• The Slip Time in the last row must be 0.

Figure 6-42 Slip-sweep Dynamic mode

See Dynamic Mode (page 285) and Slip-sweep (page 334) for details.

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The Noise Editing setup > Noise editing parameters

The Noise Editing setup


In this section:
• Noise editing parameters (page 297)
• Noise editing thresholds (page 302)

Noise editing parameters


To open this setup window, select “Noise Editing” from the Setup
menu. To enable and save your changes, click Apply.

Figure 6-43

Prior to any processing, an offset correction operation is performed on


each sample:
n

 A( k , i )
k 1 For details about “n”, see Reference
A( k , i )  A ( k , i )  Information in 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 3
n

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The stack formula is given below as a reminder:


s
A( k , i )   A( k , i , p)
p 1
A(k) = kth sample
n = number of samples in the acquisition
i = trace index
p = stack index
s = current stack fold

Noise Editing
(see also More About Noise Elimination — page 388).

Historical
If you choose this option, then the noise editing function is enabled.
Then you must define the set of parameters which are necessary to
remove impulsive noise using an historical type of editing.

Diversity Stack
If you choose this option, then the Diversity Stack noise elimination
function is enabled. For this type of noise elimination, you are not
required to enter any parameter, apart from the Low Trace Percentage,
Low Trace Value and Nb of Windows.
The energy (E) from each trace is calculated by averaging the squares
of the samples (before correlation). Then each sample is multiplied by
the inverse of the energy previously computed.
At the end of s sweeps (when the VP is complete) each sample stacked
(before correlation) is multiplied by the inverse of the sum of the
inverses of the energies previously computed.
There's no peak editing function for that type of noise elimination.

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Enhanced Diversity

Figure 6-44
6
This also enables the Diversity Stack noise elimination function, but
with this option a different calculation method is used. Rather than
specifying the required number of time windows, you specify the
required Window Length (which lets the system determine the number
of windows). Also, you may want windows to overlap by a certain
amount, which is adjustable with the Overlap Percent parameter.
The energy (E) from each trace is calculated by averaging the squares
of the samples (before correlation). Then each sample is multiplied by
the inverse of the energy previously computed.
At the end of s sweeps (when the VP is complete) each sample stacked
(before correlation) is multiplied by the sum of the inverses of the
energies previously computed.
There's no peak editing function for that type of noise elimination.

Off
If you choose this option, then the noise editing function is disabled, and
no parameters need to be defined.

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Editing Type
Zeroing
If you choose this option, then any sample equal to or greater than the
editing threshold will trigger the process which zeroes the samples over
a window length that is selected by the “Zeroing Length” parameter.
Linear-variation taper, over a window selected by the “Zeroing Taper
Length” parameter, is programmed before and after the zeroed portion
in order to prevent discontinuity.

Clipping
If you choose this option, then every sample equal to or greater than the
threshold will be clipped to the editing threshold value by the noise
editing process.

Nb of Windows
(Allowable range: 1 to 64). Number of noise editing windows.
With the noise elimination function activated, the acquisition length
may be divided into one or more windows (1 to 64).
With “Diversity Stack” noise elimination and the “Correlation Before
Stack” processing option, a single window is used.

Zeroing Taper Length


2n (allowable range for n: 0 to 8). This parameter represents the number
of samples corresponding to the linear-variation taper length before and
after a zeroed window, when the “Zeroing” option is selected for the
“Editing type” parameter.

Zeroing Length
(Allowable range: 1 to 500 milliseconds). Zeroing window length when
a sample exceeds the editing threshold, when the “Zeroing” option is
selected for the “Editing type” parameter.

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Threshold Init Value


(Selectable from 0 to -132 in 6-dB steps). Initialization value for all
noise editing thresholds and threshold types in all windows of every
channel, for “Historical” noise elimination.

Low Trace %
(Selectable from 0 to 100%). Criterion for deciding whether a channel
is “Low”. If the number (in percent) of samples which are below the
value specified in the “Low Trace Value” field exceeds the value
specified in the “Low Trace %” field, then the trace is reported as
“Low”.
If a trace is “Low”, threshold update is not performed at the end of the
sweep.
6
Low Trace Value
(Selectable from 0 to -132 in 6-dB steps). Upper limit for “Low”
channel detection. If any channel sample is less than or equal to this
limit, then the “low channel detection” process is triggered for the
corresponding channel.

Noisy Trace %
(Selectable from 0 to 100). Criterion for deciding whether a channel is
“noisy”. If the number (in percent, computed with respect to the
acquisition length) of zeroed or clipped samples exceeds the value
specified in the “Noisy Trace %” field, then the trace is considered as
noisy.
The corresponding trace number is simply reported in the observer's
log. No further action is taken (i.e. normal threshold updating takes
place).

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Noise editing thresholds


Clicking “Manual” isolates the Noise Editing process from the
preceding process stage and enables local functions for the management
of noise editing thresholds. As a result, data acquisition will be
suspended until you click “Auto”.
Clicking “Auto” connects the Noise Editing process to the preceding
process stage and allows data acquisition and processing to be
performed.

Figure 6-45

Hold/Var.
This button is used to enable or disable automatic updating of noise
editing thresholds in the “Historical” noise elimination process.
Choosing “Var.” enables thresholds to be automatically updated.
Choosing “Hold” causes thresholds to remain fixed at the latest value
updated before the “Hold” function was selected.

Init.
Clicking “Init.” presets all thresholds (64 windows) on all channels on
all threshold types (up to 16) to the initialization value entered for the
“Historical” noise elimination process.

Load
Clicking “Load” restores the latest noise editing thresholds saved, so
that they can be used as initialization values in the next “Historical”
noise elimination process.

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Save
Clicking “Save” saves all current noise editing thresholds so that they
can be used at a later date in “Historical” noise elimination.
This command should be used prior to turning the power off or prior to
taking a shot with a different geometry which could affect noise editing.
The “Save” command saves:
• the threshold types used after power-on, or after clicking “Init.” or
“Load”, until “Save” is next used,
• the traces used in each threshold type,
• and the 64 windows on each trace (unused windows are initialized at
the threshold initialization value).
6

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The Observer’s Comment Type Setup >

The Observer’s Comment Type Setup


Selecting Comments from the Setup menu opens this window that
allows you to incorporate favourite comments of your own. Using this
function, you can easily and faster insert comments into your Obs Log.
These comments are not copied to the SEGD file.

Figure 6-46

Any ASCII character is allowed except double quotation marks (“).


Once you have entered a comment in the upper pane, enter a Number
and Label in the respective text boxes in the lower pane, and click
“Add” (or “Change”, as required) to add the new comment type into
the list box.
The comments you create in this setup are available from the right-click
popup menu in The Operation Report view (page 255) so that you can
choose one and insert it into the report’s “Comment” field.
Click Apply to save your changes.

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How to take shots or sweeps > Blaster shots

How to take shots or sweeps


In this section:
• Blaster shots (page 305)
• VE432 or VE464 sweeps (page 307)
• Navigation-driven shooting (page 309)
• Multiswath (page 310)
• Shooting with an LSS (page 311)

Blaster shots

Shooting system not supplying the Shooter position


6
If the shooting system does not supply the position of the blaster, an
audio radio channel is required for the shooter to tell you when he is
ready to shoot and which Source Point to shoot. If this is the first shot
to do with this shooter, you have to right-click on the Source Point in
the Operation table and select the shooter from the pop-up menu. As a
result, the focus passes to that shooter and Source Point in the Active
Source view. Clicking “Go” will send a message to the blaster and
launch the acquisition.
After a shot is done, the system uses the operation table and the
increment “Step” associated with the Source to determine which shot
should next get the focus (appearing in the Active Source view). Then
you only need to click “Go” when the shooter says he is ready, unless
you want to choose another shot (by clicking) and shooter (by right-
clicking) in the operation table.

Shooting system supplying the Shooter position


All available shooters (sources) are displayed without any Shot Point
number being associated to them until the GUI receives a “Ready”
status (together with a GPS position) from the shooting system (SGD-S
or AWD).

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After a “Ready” status is received from a shooter, the system


automatically selects the Shot Point that matches the GPS location, and
the focus goes to the corresponding Source in the Active Source view.
If the “Rdy” pushbutton for that Source name is released, an “R”
appears in it and the “Ready” notification is blocked until you accept it
(by clicking on the pushbutton). Then you just have to click “Go” to
send the firing order to the blaster and launch the acquisition.
If two or more shooters are ready, the system selects the Shot Point
corresponding to the latest “Ready” notification. All available sources
are allowed, so you can choose whichever you like.
If no GPS position is received along with the “Ready” status (e. g.
because of radio interference), then the corresponding source is selected
in the Active Source view but no Shot Point is selected. In that case, you
know which shooter is ready but you have to specify which SP to shoot
(using the right-click popup menu to associate a Source Point with the
shooter). After choosing the Shot Point, click Go to send the firing order
to the blaster and launch the acquisition.
In the case of an “Accelerated Weight Drop” (AWD) source, the stack
number is notified to the shooter, which allows the driver to determine
whether all the acquisitions are completed in a shot point, and whether
he should move to another source point.

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How to take shots or sweeps > VE432 or VE464 sweeps

VE432 or VE464 sweeps


The Process Type associated with each Source Point in the operation
table is itself associated with an “Acquisition Type” that determines
which sweep signal to generate. The “Active Acquisition” view lets you
see which acquisition is in progress.
In Vibroseismic operations, the way the focus passes from a VP to
another depends on the options you choose in Seismic setup options
(page 281) and The Source Type setup (page 289):
• In the standard mode (no Slip-Sweep, actual vibrator positions not
available), the system relies on the Operation Table and on the
parameters associated with the source (increment “Step”, “Moving”
and “Work by Acq” options) to determine which VP should next get
the focus after an acquisition is done. Up to four sources can be used
6
alternately (see Flip-Flop sweeps on page 321). With the VE464, up to
four sources can be used simultaneously (see Cluster on page 294).
• If Slip-Sweep is enabled but actual vibrator positions are not
supplied, the system relies on the Operation Table to determine which
VP should next have the focus after an acquisition is done. Stacking
is not allowed. See Slip-sweep (page 334).
• If actual vibrator positions are supplied, VPs are not necessarily done
as scheduled in the Operation Table. When a fleet is ready to shake
and its COG lies in the vicinity of a planned source point to be done
with that fleet, the system automatically selects and highlights the
matching VP in the operation table, regardless of which VP is next
scheduled. See Navigation-driven shooting (page 309).
Below is a reminder of the available methods of starting sweeps
automatically when a fleet is “Ready” at a planned source position. A
vibrator is not “Ready”, and pressing the Ready button on the DSD has
no effect, unless and until its pressure sensor says the pad is down — if
a pressure sensor is used. In the case of a WIFI-networked fleet, the fleet
is not “Ready” until the Leader DSD is notified by WIFI of all the other
DSDs in the fleet having their pads down, and its own pad is down.

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Source “Moving” option (Source Type setup menu)


Sequentially Randomly
(VE432 or VE464 DSD network)
Standard Slip-Sweep Navigation Navigation & Slip-
(VE432 or VE464) Sweep
- Vib. Fleet Ready. Slip Time expired. - Vib. Fleet Ready - Vib. Fleet Ready
Sweep start Or And And
conditions - Delay between - Source COG - Source COG
Acquisitions or VPs matching planned matching planned VP
expired. VP. And
(See Note 1) (See Note 2) - Slip Time expired.
(See Note 2)

Note (1) In that case, the arrival of the “Ready” status overrides the
operator-selected delay.
Note (2) The VE432 or VE464 “DSD Network” option (see
page 500) allows each vibrator to supply its GPS position.
When a vibrator fleet is ready (pads down) the leader sends a
message containing both the Ready status and the resulting
Centre Of Gravity of the source, calculated from the GPS
position of each vibrator. This enables the system to
automatically select the matching source point in the Operation
Table. This way of shooting is referred to as the source
Navigation-driven shooting (page 309) mode (or more simply
Navigation mode). If the COG falls outside the programmed
circle, then a warning dialog box shows up: click OK if you
choose to accept the source position as it is, Cancel otherwise
(in that case the system will wait for the next fleet to be ready).
Note (3) In the VE432 or VE464 main window, a button is associated
with each fleet, enabling the Fleet Ready status to be relayed
automatically to the Operation window, or blocked until you
choose to let it go.
Note (4) If for any reason you need to redo a sweep, you do not need
to cycle the vibrator pad Up/Down: simply press the Ready
button on the DSD (on the Leader DSD in the case of a WIFI-
networked fleet).

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Navigation-driven shooting
(for VE432 or VE464 users only).
If you enable sources to move randomly rather than sequentially (see
Moving: Randomly — page 292) and a GPS receiver is attached to each
DSD, then you can use the “Navigation-driven shooting” (or more
simply “Navigation”) mode.
The “Navigation” mode relies on the “VE432 or VE464 DSD Network”
option that allows the geographical location of a vibrator fleet
(computed by the fleet’s leader and referred to as source COG) to be
relayed to the 428XL system as soon as all the vibrators in the fleet are
ready, with their pads down. Then the 428XL can select the matching
VP (shot point) from its operation table and shoot it automatically. As a
result, VPs can be shot in any order by any fleet.
6
Note The COG displayed in the Positioning main window is
computed from the status messages sent by the DSDs to the
DPG after sweeping.
The requirements for the Navigation-driven shooting mode are the
following:
- Cable telemetry configuration.
- Single fleet for each VP.
- With the VE432, a single source for each VP.
- Continuous mode activated.
- Planned source geographical positions (from SPS files)
imported into the Positioning window.
- VE432 or VE464 DSD Network option implemented (see
VE432 or VE464 Manual).
See also VE432 or VE464 sweeps (page 307).

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How to take shots or sweeps > Multiswath

Multiswath
If you have two or more swaths to shoot:
1. Go to Field Off in the Line or Positioning window.
2. Set each swath to use to Active in the Config window’s Swath
setup (page 97).
3. In the Log window, load all the SPS files to use. For each SPS file,
select the appropriate swath number from the drop-down list in
the toolbar and click on Apply. See Importing an SPS file
(page 583).
4. In the Operation window, open your preferred type of view (All
VPs, or VPs to do, etc.) for each swath to shoot.

Figure 6-47

5. In the “Active Source” view, use the Associate VP right-click


shortcut to enter the number of the Swath and the next VP to do
for each source.

Figure 6-48

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How to take shots or sweeps > Shooting with an LSS

If shots are taken sequentially (see Moving: Sequentially — page 291),


each source will remain associated with the swath you select with the
Associate VP right-click shortcut.
If you are using the “Navigation-driven shooting” mode (see Moving:
Randomly — page 292), then two cases must be distinguished when a
“Ready” is received in the “Active Source” view:
- if the source is already associated with a VP in a swath, then the
source will do a VP in the same swath;
- if the source is not associated with any VP, then the system asks
you to specify which swath to do next.

Shooting with an LSS


6
Overview

LSI
LRU

HSU

Blaster controller
You can connect another
shooting system on the second
Blaster connector

Figure 6-49

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The LSS (Line Shooting System) allows you to use the 428XL
telemetry network rather than a radio link to synchronize a remote
shooting system with the recording truck, for example in situations and
over stretches of land where radio communications are difficult.
Shooting with an LSS does not require any audio communications
between the observer in the recording truck and the shooter. The LSS
consists of an LSI unit associated with an HSU.
• The LSI (Line/Source Interface) allows you to connect a blaster
controller along an acquisition line instead of connecting it to the
control unit’s Blaster connector. It acts as a remote Blaster connector.
• The HSU (Hand-Shake Unit) is used by the shooter to supply the
status of the firing device and the number of the corresponding shot
point to the central unit.
For details on how to connect the HSU to the blaster controller, see
428XL Installation Manual.

Note On a line segment including an LSI, the Autolook function is


disabled: to see new FDUs, you must use manual Look in that
case.
Note Instrument tests on LSI channels need a special procedure (see
Instrument tests on LSI channels on page 318).

Note Neither the LSI nor the HSU can be tested with an LT4208. If
an LSI is encountered on the line segment, it is viewed as two
FDUs on the LT428. The serial number of the LSI is displayed
in the “RCV” field with “LS” as a prefix.
Note The dual-channel FDU inside the LSI cannot be calibrated with
the TMS428 system.

LSS FO/TB delay calibration


With a shooting system connected to an LSS, the shooting system’s
delay between the FO (Firing Order) and PTB (Predicted Time Break)
must be known prior to shooting.

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This delay must be entered in the “TB Window” field of the “Process
Type” used to shoot (see TB Window on page 258). To calibrate the FO/
TB delay, use the following procedure:
1. Connect the blaster controller to one of the Blaster connectors of
the LCI (use the normal interface cable). Insert the LSI into a line,
and connect the HSU to the LSI.
2. Define an explosive “Process Type” using the connected Blaster
plug, and enter 0 into the TB Window field of this Process Type.
Use the Explo LSI tab in the “Source Type” setup to create a
shooter.
3. The shooter should send the stack number by pushing the Send
button on the HSU, causing a red arrow to appear in the Active
Source view in the Operation window. The observer should 6
double-click on this red arrow, then the shooter should push the
Arm Set button on the HSU.
4. Click Go in the Operation window to take a dummy shot using the
Process Type created in step 2. A message should appear in the
status pane, displaying the value of the FO/TB delay measured by
the system:
FO / TB delay measured = xxxxxxx micro seconds
5. Enter that value (in milliseconds) into the TB Window field of the
Process Type used for shooting with LSS.
Example: with Shot Pro Encoder Time adj = 0.5 ms, Rad Ref
delay = 1.9 ms and Vertex2000 radio: FO/TB Delay = 1000.583 ms.

Taking a shot with an LSI


Prerequisites
1. To enable shooting with LSI units, you must select the “LSI”
option and the type of blaster in the Install main window. See
Blaster type (page 72).
With the LSI option enabled:

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- the indicator LED on FDUs, otherwise used as a test result


indicator, is used to tell the shooter whether he is allowed to
connect/disconnect an LSI between two links.
- you cannot take a shot until retrieval of the previous one is
complete, whatever the field equipment and the shooting method
used.
2. The delay between the Firing Order and the predicted Time Break
is assumed known and invariable. See LSS FO/TB delay calibration
on page 312. It must be entered into the TB Window field (see TB
Window on page 258).
3. Use The Source Type setup (page 289) menu to assign a Shooter
name to the LSI to use, and choose the desired gain for the Uphole
and CTB channels.

LSS shooter 1
LSS shooter 1
LSS shooter 2

Figure 6-50

Until the LSI is inserted into a line, a “No entry” traffic sign is
displayed ahead of it in the Active Source view.

Not connected
LSS shooter 1

Figure 6-51

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Step-by-step operating instructions


Below is the typical step-by-step procedure for a shooter to insert an
LSI into the spread and for an observer in the recording truck to take a
shot using that LSI.
1. Observer: go to “Field On” (unless already
done) in the Line main window.
2. Shooter: locate the junction of the two FDU links where to insert
the LSI, and check to see if the indicator LED on FDUs is
blinking.

Blinking Blinking

Figure 6-52 Unplugging is allowed


6
When FDU indicator LEDs are blinking, disconnect the links and
connect the LSI in between. The “Line OK” indicator should light
up.

Line OK

Figure 6-53 LSI connected

3. Observer: Click on Look in the Line main window to view the


LSI channels connected.
In the Active Source view, the “No entry” sign is replaced by a
red arrow sign meaning that the LSI is present. Be sure the “Rdy”
(Ready) button is activated. This will enable the system to
automatically select the shot point to do when the shooter says he
is ready.

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How to take shots or sweeps > Shooting with an LSS

Connected
LSS shooter 1

Enabled

Figure 6-54

4. Shooter: Dial the Shot Point number, using the knobs on the
HSU. Press the Send button.

Dial Shot Point


number

Push Send

Figure 6-55

5. Observer: The focus goes to the selected shot point in the


Operation table. The selected source point is displayed in the
Active Source view. When you want to accept the shot point and
allow the shooter to arm the blaster, double-click on the left-hand
status indicator.

Double-click
to enable arming
25 LSS shooter 1 1 25 1

Shot Point to do

Figure 6-56

6. Shooter: The indicator on FDUs stops blinking. The spread is


formed.
When the Observer accepts the shot point as explained in the
previous step, the “Arm enable” indicator should light up on the
HSU. It is important to wait for “Arm enable” to light up for

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How to take shots or sweeps > Shooting with an LSS

correct synchronization of the Time Break. Then press “Arm set”


on the HSU.

Push “Arm set”

Figure 6-57

7. Observer: In the Active Source view, the status indicator must


have changed from red to yellow. Click Go. This triggers the
firing device. 6
25 LSS shooter 1 1 25 1
Click

Figure 6-58

8. Shooter: The “Arm enable” indicator on the HSU goes out.


After the seismic data is retrieved, the “Disconnect enable”
indicator on the LSI lights up, and FDU indicators are again
blinking, meaning that the shooter can unplug the LSI and move it
to another location if required.

Note
1. The Up-Hole and CTB (Confirmed Time Break) auxiliary traces
from the LSI are acquired with the same Sample Rate and filter
type as seismic traces.
2. You can have both ways of shooting available (via an LSS and via
a radio link) and use whichever is most appropriate, at your own
convenience. In that case, be sure the value used as TB Window
for LSS-fired shots does not give rise to any ITB error for

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How to take shots or sweeps > Shooting with an LSS

radio-fired shots. (If an ITB arises, define a Process Type for LSS-
fired shots and another one for radio-fired shots). Also, remember
that whenever you select an LSI shooter, the Up-Hole and CTB
traces from the LSI are systematically placed ahead of the
Auxiliary traces from the blaster controller connected to the LCI,
and they are recorded as “a1” and “a2” in the SEGD file.
Therefore you have to do as follows:
- In the Layout setup, define the auxiliary channels for radio-fired
shots as “a3” (for Shot Pro “Analog Data” or Macha “UH”
signal) and “a4” (for Shot Pro “TB” or Macha “FTB” signal).
- In the Process Type used in common, define only “a3” and “a4”
in the description of auxiliary traces.
3. The shooter can use the rotary switches on the HSU to send
messages (user-reserved shot point numbers) to the recording
truck if audio communications are totally impossible. For
example, the following code can be adopted:
- 999999: Emergency alert.
- 777777: Shot point not found (Skip Shot Point).
- 555555: Cap test failure, or shot not loaded (Skip Shot Point).
- 333333: Moving up LSI.
- 111111: Technical trouble.
4. See “Source controller formats” in User’s Manual Vol. 3 for the
fields updated with the messages from the source controller.

Instrument tests on LSI channels


LSI channels are not tested through a standard Instrument Test. To
perform an Instrument test on LSI channels, do the following:
1. Enter the two LSI channels as Aux channels (e. g. a1 and a2) in
the Layout - Aux - Setup menu. See page 139. (To find the Serial
Number of the LSI channels, double-click on the LSI icon in the
graphic view, or open an Instrument Numeric view).

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2. Launch the Instrument test.

More about the Shot Pro blaster controller


You can have both ways of shooting available (via an LSS and via a
radio link) and use whichever is most appropriate, at your own
convenience. In that case, with Shot Pro blaster controllers, the
following points should be borne in mind:
• With LSS-fired shots, the serial line from the Shot Pro Encoder is not
supported. As a result, the Shot Pro Encoder does not return any
ASCII message (for shot point position, TB, UH data) via the serial
ports of the HSU.
• For a radio-fired shot, selecting a Shooter name in the Operation main
window initializes the Shot Pro Encoder (through the serial port of 6
the Encoder). As a result the Encoder assumes the sequential number
of the selected shooter from the shooter list as Shot Pro Encoder
number. Therefore, you must make sure the right Box Id is associated
with it on the Shot Pro Decoder.
• A distinct setting is required for the Encoder and Decoder used for
LSS-fired shots: the Start Code should be different from that used for
radio-fired shots, and the Box Id of the Decoder should be used as
Shot Pro number of the Encoder (e. g. Box Id. = 10 and
Encoder No. = 10).
• The LSI shooter appears at the top (Number 1) position in the list of
shooters in the Operation main window, therefore the first radio
shooter appears as Number 2.

LSI connected LSI not connected

Shooters list Encoder No. Shooters list Encoder No.


LSI shooter 10 Radio shooter 1 1
Radio shooter 1 2 Radio shooter 2 2
Radio shooter 2 3

Figure 6-59

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How to take shots or sweeps > Shooting with an LSS

As a result the shooters list (i. e. the Encoder No.) is shifted every time
you connect or disconnect the LSI, meaning that you have to change the
Box Id of the radio Decoders accordingly, unless you delete the LSI
from the Shooter setup window whenever radio-fired shots are taken.
Therefore, the following rule is recommended: for radio-fired shots,
delete the LSI from the Shooter setup window, regardless of whether the
LSI is connected or not.

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Operation
Flip-Flop sweeps >

Flip-Flop sweeps
What is meant by “Flip-Flop” mode with the 428XL is the use of
multiple sources alternately (not only two, but up to four).

Flip-flop with two sources


A simple textbook example of Source Type setup for flip-flop
operations is shown in Figure 6-60 where two sources (Source1 and
Source2) are alternately generated by two vibrator fleets (respectively
F1 and F2). In this example, no stacking is requested.

6
1 Source1 2
Source1 2
Source2 2

Source1 1 3 1
Source2 2 4 1

3 1 1 Dump

F1 moving to F1 moving to
VP5 location VP7 location
Source1 VP3 (Acq1) VP5 (Acq1)

F2 moving to
VP6 location
Source2 VP4 (Acq1) VP6 (Acq1)

F1 Ready F2 Ready Expired delay F2 Ready

Figure 6-60 Typical Flip-Flop, no stacking

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Flip-Flop sweeps >

With the above settings, if you right-click on VP3 and choose “Start
Seismonitor with Vib Source1”, and right-click on VP4 and choose
“Start Seismonitor with Vib Source2”, then the system will do VP3
with fleet #1, VP4 with fleet #2, VP5 with fleet #1, and so on.
In the example shown in Figure 6-61 below, the same scheme is used but
two acquisitions are stacked at each VP without shifting the vibrators.

1 Source1 2
Source1 2
Source2 2

Source1 1 3 1
Source2 2 4 1

3 1 2 No Dump
3 2 2 Dump

F1 moving to
VP5 location
Source1 VP3 (Acq1) VP3 (Acq2) VP5 (Acq1)

Source2 VP4 (Acq1) VP4 (Acq2)

F1 F2 Expired Expired F1 Expired Expired


Ready Ready delay delay Ready delay delay

Figure 6-61 Flip-Flop, stacking with no vib shift

With the above settings, if you right-click on VP3 and choose “Start
Seismonitor with Vib Source1”, and right-click on VP4 and choose
“Start Seismonitor with Vib Source2”, then the system will do two

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Flip-Flop sweeps >

stacked acquisitions for VP3 with fleet #1, and then two stacked
acquisitions for VP4 with fleet #2, two stacked acquisitions for VP5
with fleet #1, and so on.
In the example shown in Figure 6-62 below, the “Work by Acq” option
is used. As a result the two acquisitions to stack are not done in
succession: while the vibrators are shifting to the location of the second
acquisition, the system takes an acquisition for another VP.

1 Source1 2
Source1 2
Source2 2
6
Source1 1 3 1
Source2 2 4 1

3 1 2 No Dump
3 2 2 Dump

F1 moving to
F1 shifting VP5 location
Source1 VP3 (Acq1) VP3 (Acq2) VP5 (Acq1)

F2 moving to
F2 shifting VP6 location
Source2 VP4 (Acq1) VP4 (Acq2) VP6 (Acq1)

F1 F2 Expired F2
Ready Ready delay Ready

Figure 6-62 Flip-Flop with “Work by Acq” option

With the above settings, if you right-click on VP3 and choose “Start
Seismonitor with Vib Source1”, and right-click on VP4 and choose
“Start Seismonitor with Vib Source2”, then the system will do the
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6 Operation
Flip-Flop sweeps >

first acquisition for VP3 with fleet #1, and then the first acquisition for
VP4 with fleet #2 (while a pause icon appears ahead of VP3), and
resume VP3 with fleet #1 (while a pause icon appears ahead of
VP4), resume VP4 with fleet #2, and so on and so forth.

Note To enable the system to open and suspend two or more VPs, see
428XL scalability (page 77).

Note You can use a positive or negative value in the “Step” field.
In the example in Figure 6-63 below, the two source are moving in
opposite directions because a negative “Step” is used for source #2.

In progress
(source #1)

Negative step

1st acq. done


Done To do with
(source #2) source #2

2nd acq. in
progress

Figure 6-63 Negative “Step”

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Operation
Flip-Flop sweeps >

Flip-flop with three or four sources


The above simple schemes can be extrapolated to four sources.

Note If you want to use three or four sources with the “Work by Acq”
option, you have to use the Administration window to set the
Maximum open VP parameter (2 by default) to 3 or 4. See
428XL scalability (page 77).

In the example shown in Figure 6-64 below, the system will do only two
VPs out of four because the Step field is set at 4 but only two sources
are used. You still have to choose the first VP to do with source #2
(using the right-click popup menu) and that with source #4.

6
In progress

1st acq. done


Not used
Suspended

2nd acq. in
Not used progress

Figure 6-64 Flip-flop, 4 sources, with “Work by Acq” option

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Simultaneous sources >

Simultaneous sources
For operation modes using simultaneous seismic sources, you can
manually create a fleet cluster specifying which fleets are expected to
shake simultaneously, or let the system automatically build a fleet
group. Each fleet may consist of one or more vibrators.
• Manual clustering (page 327) is suitable for a cluster invariably
consisting of the same vibrators, like for example in SQC Dump mode
(page 348).

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3


Fleet 1

1 4 7
Fleet 2

2 5 8
Fleet 3
3 6 9

Figure 6-65 Manual clustering

• The Dynamic Fleet grouping (page 329) option is suitable for seismic
recording techniques where you want the system to built a fleet group
dynamically with those fleets which are ready to shake and far
enough apart.

Area 1 Area 2 Area 3

1 4 7

2 5 8

3 6 9

Figure 6-66 Dynamic fleet grouping

• The Autonomous mode (page 373) allows simultaneous-source


shooting, with sweeps being launched independently by pressing the
Ready button on the DSD of each fleet leader.
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Operation
Simultaneous sources > Manual clustering

Manual clustering
When used with a VE464, the system can record acquisitions from up
to 32 simultaneous sources and generate an SEGD file for each source.
For sources to start shaking simultaneously, the following is required:
• Create the necessary sources in the Source Type setup, and specify
which fleet to use for each source.

Same Cluster
6
Figure 6-67

- Assign the same Cluster number to all the fleets to use. This will
allow the sources to shake simultaneously.
- Set the Moving option as required. If you choose “Sequential”
then the Step should be equal to the number of sources.
• The shot points you want to do with the simultaneous sources must
have the same Process Type number. To specify the Process Type,
use The Source Point Setup (page 275) setup window.
• You must associate each source with a shot point in the operation
table (using the Start Seismonitor with Vib Source right-click
shortcut in the “All VP” or “VP to do” view, or using the Associate
VP shortcut in the “Active Source” view).
In “Navigation-driven shooting” mode, you set the Moving option to
“Randomly”. In that case, you need to use the Start or Associate
shortcut only once, and you can choose any shot point (the system will
not associate a source with a shot point unless and until it receives a
Ready message from the fleet, and only those sources from which a
Ready message is received will be allowed to start shaking).

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Simultaneous sources > Manual clustering

Same
Process
Type

Simultaneous
sources

Figure 6-68

If several sources are used simultaneously but, for any reason, you want
to silence one of them for a number of acquisitions, you simply have to
disassociate it (with the right-click menu in the “Active Source” view).

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Simultaneous sources > Dynamic Fleet grouping

Dynamic Fleet grouping


The “Dynamic Fleet Grouping” option in the Seismic setup options
(page 281) is intended for seismic recording techniques where you want
the system to built a fleet group dynamically with those fleets which are
ready to shake and far enough apart. This option is associated with three
parameters:
• If a minimum distance is required between fleets shaking at the same
time, the Fleet Min Distance specifies how far apart fleets must be
for the system to allow them to shake simultaneously. The system
uses the GPS position included in the Ready messages collected from
vibrators to calculate how far apart they are from one another, and
automatically determines the eligible vibrators. The selection process
also has to ensure that vibrators are equally used, and prevent 6
selecting vibrators converging to the same area. Priority is given to
those vibrators that sent a Ready message first.
• The Min number of fleets specifies how many fleets at least should
be included in the group;
• The Max number of fleets specifies how many fleets at most should
be included in the group.
When “Dynamic Fleet Grouping” is enabled, the “Type of Moving”,
“Step” and “Cluster” parameters in the Source Type setup window are
irrelevant, therefore not prompted.

Figure 6-69 Source Type Setup for dynamic fleet grouping

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Simultaneous sources > Dynamic Fleet grouping

Note that priority is given to the group that has the largest number of
fleets. If two or more groups have the same number of fleets, priority is
given to the group with the oldest age of Ready fleets.

First step: manual selection


Below is an example with 8 vibrators or fleets and the following
settings:
- Min Number of Fleets = Max Number of Fleets = 3
- Fleet Min Distance = 250 m.
In the Positioning window, flags indicate which vibrators are ready to
shake (after a Ready message has been received from those vibrators).

Figure 6-70 Positioning window

In the Operation window, when a Ready message is received from a


vibrator or fleet, the system automatically associates a source point (i. e.
a VP) with it. You can also manually associate a vibrator with a source
point by using the right-click popup menu in the Operation table as
usual, or by drag-and-drop of a flag to a source point in the Positioning
window.
So long as no group is available, the Go button is dimmed. To select
which vibrators will start shaking, do the following:

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1. Select a vibrator from those ready by clicking in its row in the


Operation table. When a vibrator is selected (e. g. Vib 1 in
Figure 6-71 on page 331), a green arrow appears in the leftmost
column in the Active Source view, and the row’s colour changes
to light blue. The minimum distance from other vibrators that are
ready to shake is displayed in the Dist Min column. The eligible
vibrators (i. e. which are far enough apart from those already
selected) are displayed as green rows (from light green for the
nearest ones to dark green for the farthest ones), meaning that they
can be added to the current selection.

Selected
6
Eligible

Figure 6-71 Active Source view

2. Select a second vibrator (e. g Vib 7). As a result the Dist Min
column is updated. In Figure 6-72, Vib 4 is no longer eligible
because it is too close (200 m) to Vib 7.

Selected

Eligible
Selected

Figure 6-72

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Simultaneous sources > Dynamic Fleet grouping

3. In this example, the group must include at least (and at most) three
vibrators. Let us assume you select Vib 6 as third vibrator in the
group. As a result, the Go button is undimmed, meaning that the
group is complete. Clicking on Go will cause Vib1, vib 6 and
Vib 7 to start shaking.

Selected

Selected
Selected

You can click on Go

Figure 6-73

Note that if, instead of clicking on Go when the group is complete, you
select one more vibrator, the system dismisses the former group
selection and starts a new one beginning with that vibrator.

Second step: automatic selection


The system waits until a new fleet group can be built and all previous
operations are complete, then it automatically launches the
simultaneous sweeps with the new group.
For each fleet that is ready in the Active Source view, the “Dist Min”
column indicates its minimum distance from any fleet currently shaking
or included in a group currently being built. Each row where that
distance is greater than the specified Fleet Min Distance is displayed in
green (from light green for the shortest separation to dark green for the
longest one).
In Figure 6-74 on page 333, acquisition is in progress with Vib 1, Vib 5
and Vib 9. Note that the Ready flag in the “Rdy” column has been
cleared for these three vibrators.

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Vib 2 cannot be selected for the next group, although a Ready was
received from it, because its Ready button has been released (Ready is
blocked), and also because it is less than 150 m away from the eligible
vibrators (Vib 4 and Vib 6).
Vib 3 cannot be selected because it did not send any Ready after doing
its latest sweep (shot number 1,628).
Vib 4 can be selected for the next group.

In progress

Eligible
Blocked
Ready

In progress 6
Too close

In progress

Figure 6-74

Vib 6 can be selected, as it is ready and far enough from Vib 4, but it
will not be selected until its Ready button is clicked (presently its Ready
is blocked).
Vib 7 cannot be selected for the next group because it is too close to the
eligible vibrators (227 m).
No source point is associated with Vib 8 because no Ready was yet
received from it (or it has been disassociated).

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Slip-sweep > Theory of operation

Slip-sweep
(For VE432 or VE464 users only). In this section:
• Theory of operation (page 334)
• How to implement slip-sweep (page 336)
• Standard Slip-Sweep mode (page 339)
• Allowable minimum distance between simultaneous sources (page 343)
• Dynamic Slip-Sweep mode (page 345)

Theory of operation
With the slip-sweep option enabled, the system lets a vibrator fleet start
sweeping without waiting for the previous fleet's sweep to be
completed. The system only waits until a delay (Slip Time) specified by
the operator has expired — the estimated time for a given frequency in
the previous sweep to die out — and lets the next vibrator fleet start
sweeping when it is ready, with the appropriate receiver stations
activated. For this technique to work properly, a minimum distance is
required between the fleets shaking simultaneously (see Allowable
minimum distance between simultaneous sources — page 343).
The system cuts the acquisition data flow at the appropriate time-zeroes.
The data appear in SEGD files as individual correlated records.

Fleet 1 sweep Fleet 1 sweep


Slip Time Slip Time
Fleet 2 sweep Fleet 2 sweep
TB
TB Slip Time Slip Time
Fleet 3 sweep
TB TB
TB TB

Fleet 2 Fleet 3 Fleet 1 Fleet 2 Fleet 3


Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready

Figure 6-75 VE464 (version 3.0 or above)

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Slip-sweep > Theory of operation

The “Slip Time” is regarded as the minimum time between a Time


Break (TB) and the next one. Unless the VE464 has to wait for the
Firing Order (for example because no fleet is ready), the time between
two TBs is always minimum and equal to the Slip Time. Vibrators are
not allowed to start sweeping automatically unless they send a Ready
message.

Note With a VE432 or earlier VE464 version (less than 3.0), the
“Slip Time” is the time between a TB and the next FO. After
the Slip Time has expired and the Firing Order is generated, the
time required for the DPG to send the Time Break depends on
the number of T0 codes used to synchronize the vibrators.
With two T0 sync codes, the FO to TB time is about 1.5 s, i. e. T = 2 s
approximately. See the T0 Setup in the VE432 DPG main window
6
(page 646).
T = time from
Fleet 1 sweep T Fleet 1 sweep
FO to TB
Slip Time T Slip Time T
Fleet 2 sweep Fleet 2 sweep
Slip Time T Slip Time T
Fleet 3 sweep
Slip Time

Fleet 2 Fleet 3 Fleet 1 Fleet 2 Fleet 3


Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready

Figure 6-76 VE432 (or VE464 version less than 3.0)

Each VE432 vibrator fleet you want to use in slip-sweep mode must
have its own vibrator controller (DPG). Since up to four VE432 DPGs
can be attached to the system, you can use up to four fleets in slip-sweep
mode.
Slip-Sweep requires a single VE464 DPG, regardless of how many
vibrator fleets are involved.

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Slip-sweep > How to implement slip-sweep

How to implement slip-sweep


1. To enable the Slip-sweep option see Seismic setup options on
page 281.
2. To set the Slip Time, see The Delay setup (page 295).
3. Use the The Acquisition Type setup (page 518) menu in the DPG
window to create an Acquisition Type (this determines which
type of sweep signal will be generated by the vibrator fleets).
4. Use the Process Type setup menu in the Operation main window
to create a Process Type for each fleet.

Same type for all


acquisitions to stack in
Correlation operation this process type
Same list of auxiliary specific to this process
channels in all type
process types

Stacking fold

Figure 6-77

- You must use the Correlation Before Stack option.


- All the Process Types you want to use must include the same list
of auxiliary channels to acquire. In the example shown in
Figure 6-77, “aux1” and “aux2” should appear in each Process
Type to use. Process Type #1, is set to display “aux1*aux1”
(autocorrelation of “aux1”) on the third auxiliary trace; Process

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Slip-sweep > How to implement slip-sweep

Type #2, can be set to display “aux2*aux2” (autocorrelation of


“aux2”) on the third auxiliary trace.
- In each Process Type, use a single Acquisition Type for all the
acquisitions to stack.
5. Use the The Source Point Setup (page 275) menu to create a list of
VPs and build an Operation Table. All VPs should use the same
spread (this is easy to achieve by creating a Superspread). Assign
one of the Process Types created at step 4 to each VP, for example
(see Figure 6-80):
VP11 Process Type 1
VP12 Process Type 2
VP13 Process Type 1 6
VP14 Process Type 2
VP15 Process Type 1, etc. .
6. Create a Source name and number for each vibrator fleet to use.
See Vibroseismic source parameters (page 291) for details. If you
choose Sequential as Moving option, choose the appropriate Step
(typically to be equal to the number of fleets used), depending on
how VPs are to be taken in sequence in your operation table.

Figure 6-78

7. Start each source by right-clicking on the first VP to do with it


(e.g. VP11 in the example shown in Figure 6-79) and choose the
appropriate source number from the “Start Seismonitor with Vib
Source”popup menu (e. g. source #2).

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Slip-sweep > How to implement slip-sweep

Figure 6-79

1st acq. done

Second VP11 acquisition starting with


Source #2 before first VP12 acquisition is
complete with Source #3

Figure 6-80 Slip-Sweep with two sources

You will probably prefer to use the Navigation-driven shooting (page 309)
mode. To do that, you must use the “Randomly” Moving source type
option, rather than “Sequential”, and use the DSD Network (page 500)
option. In that case, Slip-Sweep shots are not necessarily taken in the
order defined in the Operation Table. Instead, the system automatically
selects the planned VP that matches the source location received from

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Slip-sweep > Standard Slip-Sweep mode

the next vibrator fleet leader that becomes ready (which sends the
Ready signal), regardless of which VP is next scheduled to get the focus
in the Operation Table.

Standard Slip-Sweep mode


In the examples shown in Figure 6-81 and Figure 6-82, each fleet can
start shaking right after the Slip Time has expired.

F1 moving to
VP3 location

Fleet 1 VP1 (Acq1) VP3 (Acq1) VP5 (Acq1) VP7 (Acq1)


Slip Time Slip Time

F2 moving to
Slip Time Slip Time
6
VP4 location

Fleet 2 VP2 (Acq1) VP4 (Acq1) VP6 (Acq1)


Slip Time Slip Time Slip Time

Figure 6-81 Slip-sweep with sequentially moving source, no stacking

F1 moving to
VP3 location
Fleet 1 VP1 (Acq1) VP1 (Acq2) VP3 (Acq1) VP3 (Acq2)
Slip Time Slip Time Slip Time Slip Time

F2 moving to
VP4 location

Fleet 2 VP2 (Acq1) VP2 (Acq2) VP4 (Acq1)


Slip Time Slip Time Slip Time

Figure 6-82 Slip-sweep with sequentially moving source, stacking (2)

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6 Operation
Slip-sweep > Standard Slip-Sweep mode

In the example shown in Figure 6-83, each fleet can start shaking when
it is Ready and the Slip Time has expired and its COG matches a
planned source point to be done with that fleet (see VP Grabbing Radius
— page 414), regardless of which VP is next scheduled to get the focus
in the Operation table.

F1 moving to F1 moving to
VP6 location VP8 location

VP1 (Acq1) VP6 (Acq1) VP6 (Acq1)


Fleet 1 F2 moving to
Slip Time Slip Time Slip Time
VP4 location

VP2 (Acq1) VP4(Acq1)


Fleet 2
Slip Time Slip Time F3 moving to
VP5 location
VP3 (Acq1) VP5 (Acq1)
Fleet 3
Slip Time Slip Time

F1 F2 F3 F2 F1 F3 F1
Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready

Figure 6-83 Slip-sweep, randomly moving source, Navigation mode, no stacking

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In the example shown in Figure 6-84, you have to choose the Work by
Acq option for each source (see Vibroseismic source parameters —
page 291). Each fleet can start shaking when it is Ready and the Slip
Time has expired and its COG matches a planned source point to be
done with that fleet (see VP Grabbing Radius — page 414), regardless of
which VP is next scheduled to get the focus in the Operation table.

F1 moves to VP1 second


acquisition. location

VP1 (Acq1) VP1 (Acq2) VP4 (Acq1)


Fleet 1
Slip Time Slip Time Slip Time

F2 moves to VP2 second

Fleet 2
acquisition. location
VP2 (Acq1) VP2 (Acq2)
6
Slip Time Slip Time

VP3 (Acq1) VP3 (Acq2)


Fleet 3
Slip Time Slip Time

F1 F3 F2 F1 F2 F3 F1
Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready Ready

Figure 6-84 Slip-sweep with randomly moving source, Navigation mode, stacking (2)

Note To enable the system to open and suspend two or more VPs, see
428XL scalability (page 77).

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In the example shown in Figure 6-85, each fleet will start shaking when
it is Ready and the Slip Time has expired and its COG matches a
planned source point to be done with that fleet (see VP Grabbing Radius
— page 414). Because acquisitions are stacked at the same place, the
fleet is implicitly Ready at the end of each sweep (unless this is the last
sweep within the VP), so it can shake as soon as the Slip Time has
expired.

Implicit
Ready F1 moving to
VP4 location

VP1 (Acq1) VP1 (Acq2) VP4 (Acq1)


Fleet 1 Implicit
Slip Time Slip Time Slip Time
Ready

Fleet 2 VP3 (Acq1) VP3 (Acq2)


Slip Time Slip Time

VP2 (Acq1) VP2 (Acq2)


Fleet 3
Slip Time Slip Time

Implicit
F1 F3 F2 Ready F1
Ready Ready Ready Ready

Figure 6-85 Slip-sweep with randomly moving source, Navigation mode, stacking (2)

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Allowable minimum distance between simultaneous


sources
In Standard Slip-Sweep mode, you may want to let the system check
that, after a fleet has started shaking, no fleet is eligible to shake unless
it is far enough from the fleet currently shaking. The “Check Min
Distance” option in the Seismic Slip-Sweep (page 284) makes it
possible to specify how far two fleets should be apart for them to be
allowed to shake simultaneously.
For example, assuming the four fleets shown in Figure 6-86 and the
Check Min Distance is set to 80 m.

F1 F2 F3 F4
1
10 m
2
100 m
3
100 m
4
6
F2 and F3 Ready (Note 2)
(Note 1)
(Note 3)

F4 Ready
F1 sweep (Note 4)
Fleet 1
Slip Time
F3 sweep
Fleet 3
Slip Time
F2 sweep
Fleet 2
Slip Time
F4 sweep
Fleet 4

Figure 6-86

Note 1: In the above example, while F1 is shaking the system is notified


of F2 and F3 being ready,
- F2 is not eligible because the distance between F1 and F2 is less
than 80 m.
- F3 is eligible because it is far enough away (110 m) from F1. It
can start shaking after the Slip Time has expired.
Note 2: After the Slip Time for F3 has expired, F2 is ready, but not
eligible because it is less than 80 m from F1 which is still shaking.

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Note 3: After the F1 sweep is complete, F2 can start shaking as it is far


enough (100 m) from F3.
Note 4: The system is notified of F4 being ready. F4 is eligible because
it is 200 m away from F2, but it will not be allowed to shake until the
Slip Time for F2 has expired.
For each fleet that is ready in the Active Source view, the “Dist Min”
column indicates its minimum distance from any fleet currently
shaking. Each row where that distance is greater than the specified
Check Min Distance is displayed in green (from light green for the
shortest separation to dark green for the longest one).

In progress

Eligible

Selected

Done

Too close

Figure 6-87

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Dynamic Slip-Sweep mode


The farther apart the fleets, the shorter the required Slip Time. Rather
than always using the same Slip Time, regardless of how far the fleets
are apart (that is the standard Slip-Sweep mode), you may want to use
the Dynamic Mode which allows you to specify different Slip Times
depending on the distance between fleets.

6
Figure 6-88 Delay setup in Dynamic Slip-sweep mode

By selecting the Dynamic Mode (page 285), you can create a table in the
The Delay setup (page 295) to enter different Slip Time setpoints for
different fleet separations.
After a fleet has started shaking, in order to determine which fleet is
next eligible to shake, the system interpolates between your Slip Time
setpoints and calculates the suitable Slip Time for the distance between
each fleet ready to shake and the fleet currently shaking. The system
automatically selects the fleet associated with the shortest Slip Time as
the one eligible to shake after this Slip Time has expired.
For example, in the chart below the slip time for a fleet separation of
500 m is calculated to be 3 s.

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Figure 6-89

F1 F2 F3 F4
1 2 3 4
300 m 200 m 300 m

F2 and F3 Ready F4 Ready

Fleet 1 F1 sweep
3s
F3 sweep
Fleet 3
9s
F4 sweep
Fleet 4
3s
F2 sweep
Fleet 2

Figure 6-90

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In the above example, the system is notified of F2 and F3 being ready


after F1 has started shaking, with F2 located 300 m from F1, and F3
located 500 m from F1. Therefore, F3 starts shaking after the calculated
Slip Time (3 s) has expired, because the Slip Time for F2 is longer (9 s).
When the system is notified of F4 being ready, the Slip Time for F2
(located 200 m from F3) is 12 s whereas the slip Time for F4 (located
300 m from F3) is shorter, therefore F4 starts shaking after its Slip Time
(9 s) has expired.
After F4 has started shaking, the Slip Time for F2 (located 500 m from
F4) is calculated to be 3 s. F2 can start shaking after this Slip Time has
expired.

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SQC Dump mode


Some vibratory seismic techniques require the recording of vibrator
motion signals on each vibrator. The 428XL allows the signals picked
up on the vibrators to be radioed to the central control unit in real-time
(as soon as each sweep is complete), using standard radio telemetry
units (LAUR), so that they can be recorded as auxiliary channels in the
SEGD file. To connect the necessary auxiliary channels, see Vibrator
signal recording (VSR) — page 347 in 428XL Installation Manual.
With the SQC Dump mode enabled, the system will record only
uncorrelated (raw) data. An SEGD file containing the raw data is
generated and recorded for each individual acquisition for a shot point
(VP). Correlated data is only sent to the QC processing tool (eSQC-Pro)
for monitoring, but not recorded. The file supplied to eSQC-Pro has the
same file number as the raw data file for the last acquisition of the VP.
In this section:
• SQC Dump mode with VE464 (page 348)
• SQC Dump mode with VE432 (page 361)

SQC Dump mode with VE464


Below is a tutorial that will guide you through the process of setting up
the SQC Dump mode with the VE464.

1. In the Config window


Choose the Post Annotation Logging option in the Config window’s
Crew setup. With a GPS receiver attached to each DSD, this allows the
position of each vibrator to be recorded in the Trace Header (Extension
block #2, bytes 1 through 20) of the auxiliary traces containing the
vibrator motion signals.

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Figure 6-91 6
2. In the VE464 window
Processing techniques making use of the vibrator motion signals
recorded require that you program the VE464 specifically, not to have
all the vibrators doing the same sweep. This is easily done with the
VE464, by creating a distinct fleet for each vibrator and having all fleets
(with the same Cluster number) shaking simultaneously.
For example, assuming you want to take four acquisitions for each shot
point, with four vibrators (therefore four fleets, each including a single
vibrator), and for each acquisition to stack, you want the initial phase of
each vibrator to be as in the table below:
Table 6-1 Textbook example
Vibrator number (= Fleet number)
Acquisition Number
1 2 3 4
1 0° 90° 180° -90°
2 90° 180° -90° 0°
3 180° -90° 0° 90°
4 -90° 0° 90° 180°

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2.1 To implement this example, you need four basic signal types. Use
the Basic Type setup (see Figure 6-92 below) to create a “Basic”
signal type (e. g. “linear1”) with 0° phase shift.
- Create another one (linear2) with 90° phase shift, another one
(linear3) with 180° phase shift, and another one (linear4) with
-90° phase shift.
- For each signal type, tick the “Numeric Pilot“ option.

Enter the desired


initial phase for each
signal type.

Figure 6-92

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2.2 Use the Acquisition Type setup window to create an Acquisition


Type for each acquisition to stack. For this example, you need four
Acquisition Types, each with four fleets.

1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3
2 2 2 3 2 3 3 4
3 3 3 4 3 4 4 1
4 4 4 1 4 1 1 2

1 1 2 2

1 3 3 4 1 4 4 1
6
2 4 4 1 2 1 1 2
3 1 1 2 3 2 2 3
4 2 2 3 4 3 3 4

3 3 4 4

Figure 6-93

For each Acquisition Type:


- Assign the appropriate “Basic” signal type to each fleet,
depending on the desired phase shift.
- In the “Correl With” field for each fleet, enter the Basic signal
type number to use as Numeric Pilot. In this example, let us
assume you want to record another pilot signal for each fleet. Its
Basic signal type number must be entered in the “Add Pilot”
field (see Figure 6-93 above).

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2.1 Use the Crew setup window to create vibrators and fleets (four
vibrators and four fleets for this example).

Figure 6-94

2.2 Use the Vibrator Fleet function to build the four fleets (in this
example, each fleet includes a single vibrator). Double-click on
the vibrator in each fleet’s list box to set is as “Leader”, and then
Click Go.

Figure 6-95

2.3 Click the Set DSD pushbutton in the control panel. In the list box
showing the DSDs that responded to the Vibrator Fleet function,
select the four vibrators you want to use, and then click Go.

Figure 6-96

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3. In the Line window


Open the Layout setup window and click on the the Auxiliary tab.

Vibrator 1 (Fleet 1)

Vibrator 2 (Fleet 2)

Vibrator 3 (Fleet 3)
6
Vibrator 4 (Fleet 4)

Any other auxiliary signal required,


from FDUs in the spread or
connected to the LCI

Figure 6-97

3.1 Choose the FDUs to use as auxiliary channels to convey signals


from DSDs (vibrator motion signals). Note that you can do that by
right-clicking on the desired FDUs in the topographic view and
selecting the “Set Aux” shortcut from the popup menu.
- For each of them, choose “DSD” from the “Input from” option
button.
- In the associated “Device Nb” field, enter the identification
number of the vibrator (DSD).
3.2 In this example, let us assume you want to record two more
auxiliary signals (Aux17 and Aux18) via two FDUs within a line
or connected to the LCI. For those auxiliary channels, choose
“Spread” from the “Input from” option button.

Note You will not be allowed to take sweeps unless all the auxiliary
channels you create in this setup are actually connected.

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4. In the Operation window


4.1 From the Seismic setup menu, choose “SQC Dump”. This
enables the recording of a raw data file for each acquisition. The
correlated data will be sent to eSQC-Pro but not recorded.

Figure 6-98

4.2 Use the Process Type setup window to create a “Correlation


Before” Stack process type.

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“Numeric”
pilots

For eSQC-Pro
4 acquisitions

This option enables


the recording of
6
vibrator motion signals

Figure 6-99

- Enter the description of auxiliary traces, for example an


auxiliary signal from the spread (aux17), autocorrelation of the
“Numeric” pilot signal of each fleet (correlWith*correlWith),
another auxiliary signal from the spread (aux18) and the
additional “Numeric” pilot for each source (addPilot).
- In the “Correl with” field, specify the reference signal
(correlWith) to use for the seismic channel correlation data
intended for eSQC-Pro.
- Choose the “Append Auxes From DSD” option. As a result, in
the SEGD file, the auxiliary traces containing the signals from
the DSDs will be recorded after those described in the Process
Type setup (see the example in Figure 6-103).
- In the “Acquisition” list box, create four acquisitions and choose
the “dump” option on the fourth. Assign the appropriate
“Acquisition Type” to each acquisition (for example Type 1 for
the 1st, Type 2 for the second, etc.).

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4.3 In the Source Type setup, create four sources and specify which
fleet to use for each source.

Same Cluster

Figure 6-100

- Assign the same Cluster number to the four fleets. This will
allow the four sources to shake simultaneously.
- Set the Moving option as required. If you choose “Sequential”
then the Step should be equal to the number of sources (because
you are using simultaneous sources).
4.4 In the Source Shot setup window, a Shot (VP) number must be
created for each source point (this is typically done by loading
appropriate SPS files in the Log window). Assign the same
Process Type number to all source points.

Same
Process
Type

Figure 6-101

4.5 In the main window, associate a shot point with each source, by
right-clicking in the “All VP” view (or in the “Active Source”
view) and slecting the “Start Seismonitor with Vib Source#”
shortcut (or “Associate VP”). If you are using the “Navigation-

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driven shooting” mode, you can choose any shot point since the
system will wait for the “Ready” message from each fleet to
determine which shot to do. Click Go.

Simultaneous
sources
6

Figure 6-102

The operator report (also available from the Log window) contains the
detailed indentification of the shot point (VP) and source points the
acquisition relates to. It includes one row for each source point. With
four acquisitions for each VP in this example, the observer report will
include 16 rows for each VP (4 source points × 4 acquisitions).

5. In the Log window


An SPS S output file is available for each source point. With four source
points in this example, four SPS S files are generated for each
acquisition, and the SPS X output file includes four source points for the
same file number.
A source COG file is generated on the last acquisition of each VP.
For the format of those files, see User’s Manual Vol. 2.

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6. In the SEGD file


The system generates an SEGD file with raw data for each acquisition.
The list order in the Process Type setup determines the order of
auxiliary traces in the SEGD file (see Figure 6-103). With the example
described above, the SEGD file will include 22 auxiliary traces.
SEGD Trace Header
(extract)
Aux Unit
1 1 1 2
trace Type S. N.
2 2 2 3
1 FDU 5491 (A) 3 3 3 4
2 ve464 1 (B) 4 4 4 1
3 FDU 5072 (C)
4 ve464 2 (D)
1 1
5 FDU 5012
6 FDU 5562
(E)
7 FDU 5374
8 FDU 913
9 ve464 3 (F)
10 FDU 5674
11 FDU 5114
(G)
12 FDU 1192
13 FDU 5212
14 ve464 4 (H)
15 FDU 523
16 FDU 5293
17 FDU 5133 (I)
18 FDU 3574
19 FDU 3541
20 FDU 1021 (J)
21 FDU 5023
22 FDU 5474

Figure 6-103 Auxiliary traces recorded for the first acquisition

(A) Aux17 from FDU Serial No. 5491 in spread.


(B) “Numeric” Pilot for Fleet 1 (Basic signal Type 1).
(C) Aux18 from FDU Serial No. 5072 in spread.
(D) Additional Pilot for Fleet 1 (Basic signal Type 2).
(E) Appended signals from Vibrator1 (Fleet 1): ref1, plate1, etc.
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(F) Additional Pilot for Fleet 2 (Basic signal Type 3). Note that the
“Numeric” Pilot for Fleet 2 (Basic signal Type 2) is not repeated
since it is already recorded in the 4th trace.
(G) Appended signals from Vibrator2 (Fleet 2): ref2, plate2, etc.
(H) Additional Pilot for Fleet 3 (Basic signal Type 4). Note that the
“Numeric” Pilot for Fleet 3 (Basic signal Type 3) is not repeated as
it is already recorded in the 9th trace.
(I) Appended signals from Vibrator3 (Fleet 3): ref3, plate3, etc.
(J) Appended signals from Vibrator4 (Fleet 4): ref4, plate4, etc.

7. In the Positioning window


The Positioning window calculates and displays a source COG on the 6
last acquisition of each shot point (VP).

8. FPS files
For each acquisition, a “File Per Source” (FPS) file is generated in this
directory: workspace/result/log.
The FPS file includes vibrator attributes (much like a verbose APS file)
plus the SEGD file number. See User’s Manual Vol. 2.

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9. In the eSQC-Pro window

eSQC-Pro
Aux Unit
trace Type S. N.

1 FDU 5491 (A)


2 Autocorrelation of Basic signal Type 1
3 FDU 5072 (B)
4
Basic signal Type 2
5 FDU 5012
6 FDU 5562
Stacked signals from fleet1
7 FDU 5374
8 FDU 913
9 FDU 5491 (A)
10 Autocorrelation of Basic signal Type 2
11 FDU 5072 (B)
12 Basic signal Type 3
13 FDU 5674
14 FDU 5114
Stacked signals from fleet2
15 FDU 1192
16 FDU 5212
17 FDU 5491 (A)
18 Autocorrelation of Basic signal Type 3
19 FDU 5072 (B)
20 Basic signal Type 4
21 FDU 523
22 FDU 5293
Stacked signals from fleet3
23 FDU 5133
24 FDU 3574
25 FDU 5491 (A)
26 Autocorrelation of Basic signal Type 4
27 FDU 5072 (B)
28 Basic signal Type 1
29 FDU 3541
30 FDU 1021
Stacked signals from fleet4
31 FDU 5023
32 FDU 5474

Figure 6-104

After the last (fourth in this example) acquisition for a shot point (VP)
is complete, a file with correlated data is supplied to eSQC-Pro for

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monitoring, but not recorded. With this example, it includes 32


auxiliary traces). On each VP, a single source is monitored, but the
correlation pilot is different, allowing all the sources to be monitored in
turn.

SQC Dump mode with VE432


Below is a tutorial that will guide you through the process of setting up
the “SQC Dump mode” with the VE432.

1. In the Config window


Choose the Post Annotation Logging option in the Config window’s
Crew setup. With a GPS receiver attached to each DSD, this allows the
position of each vibrator to be recorded in the Trace Header (Extension 6
block #2, bytes 1 through 20) of the auxiliary traces containing the
vibrator motion signals.

Figure 6-105

2. In the VE432 window


Processing techniques making use of the vibrator motion signals
recorded require that you program the VE432 specifically, not to have
all the vibrators doing the same sweep within a vibrator group. This is

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easily done with the VE432, using the Custom (page 631) sweep type
option that allows each vibrator to generate a sweep loaded from a
PCMCIA card.
You only have to record replicas of a custom sweep, shifted as you like
(see Table 6-2) but identified with the same name, on as many PCMCIA
cards as required, then load each card to a DSD.
For example, assuming you wish to take four acquisitions on each shot
point (VP), with four vibrators, and the initial phase of each vibrator for
each acquisition to be as in the table below:
Table 6-2 Textbook example
Vibrator
Acquisition Number
1 2 3 4
1 0 90 90 180
2 90 0 180 90
3 90 180 0 90
4 180 90 90 0

2.1 To implement this example, you have to create the following four
acquisition types in the Acquisition Type Setup window:
• Acq #1: fleet #1: basic #1, Pilot signals: see Figure 6-
106
• Acq #2: fleet #2: basic #2,
• Acq #3: fleet #3: basic #3,
• Acq #4: fleet #4 : basic #4,

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1 1 1 2 3 4

1 1 1 2 3 4
2 2 2 3 4 1
3 3 3 4 1 2
4 4 4 1 2 3

Figure 6-106

2.2 Create the following four basic sweeps in the Basic Type Setup
window:

6
custom sweep#1

1 Basic#1
1 Basic#1
2 Basic#2
3 Basic#3
4 Basic#4

Figure 6-107

• Basic#1: custom sweep#1


• Basic#2: custom sweep#2
• Basic#3: custom sweep#3
• Basic#4: custom sweep#4
To record files to a PCMCIA card, see PCMCIA Tools (page 669).
On the PCMCIA for vibrator #1, store the following files:
• Custom sweep #1: sweep initial phase: 0°
• Custom sweep #2: sweep initial phase: 90°

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• Custom sweep #3: sweep initial phase: 90°


• Custom sweep #4: sweep initial phase: 180°
On the PCMCIA for vibrator #2, store the following files:
• Custom sweep #1: sweep initial phase: 90°
• Custom sweep #2: sweep initial phase: 0°
• Custom sweep #3: sweep initial phase: 180°
• Custom sweep #4: sweep initial phase: 90°
On the PCMCIA for vibrator #3, store the following files:
• Custom sweep #1: sweep initial phase: 90°
• Custom sweep #2: sweep initial phase: 180°
• Custom sweep #3: sweep initial phase: 0°
• Custom sweep #4: sweep initial phase: 90°
On the PCMCIA for vibrator #4, store the following files:
• Custom sweep #1: sweep initial phase: 180°
• Custom sweep #2: sweep initial phase: 90°
• Custom sweep #3: sweep initial phase: 90°
• Custom sweep #4: sweep initial phase: 0°
On the PCMCIA for the DPG , you can store the following files:
• Custom sweep #1: sweep initial phase: 0°
• Custom sweep #2: sweep initial phase: 90°
• Custom sweep #3: sweep initial phase: 90°
• Custom sweep #4: sweep initial phase: 180°

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3. In the Line window


Open the Layout setup window and click on the the Auxiliary tab.

Vibrator 1

Vibrator 2

Vibrator 3
6
Vibrator 4

Pilot1
Pilot2 Analog pilots from DPG via FDUs
Pilot3 connected to the LCI
Pilot4

Figure 6-108

3.1 Choose the FDUs to use as auxiliary channels to convey signals


from DSDs (vibrator motion signals). Note that you can do that by
right-clicking on the desired FDUs in the topographic view and
selecting the “Set Aux” shortcut from the popup menu.
- For each of them, choose “DSD” from the “Input from” option
button.
- In the associated “Device Nb” field, enter the identification
number of the vibrator (DSD).
3.2 In this example, let us assume you want to record four analog pilot
signals (Pilot1, Pilot2, Pilot3, Pilot4) from the DPG via two FDUs
connected to the LCI. For those auxiliary channels, choose
“Spread” from the “Input from” option button.

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Note You will not be allowed to take sweeps unless all the auxiliary
channels you create in this setup are actually connected.

4. In the Operation window

4.1 From the Seismic setup menu, choose “SQC


Dump”. This enables the recording of a raw
data file for each acquisition. The correlated
data will be sent to eSQC-Pro but not
recorded.
4.2 In the Process Type setup, create a
“Correlation Before” Stack process type and
choose the “Raw”option to record the raw
data.

Figure 6-109

Pilot1
ta1 Pilot1
ta2 Pilot2
ta3 Pilot3
ta4 Pilot4
For eSQC-Pro Pilot1
4 acquisitions

This option enables


the recording of
vibrator motion signals

Figure 6-110

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- Enter the description of auxiliary traces: a trace for the Pilot1


signal, another trace for the Pilot2 signal, etc.
- In the “Correl with” field, specify the reference signal (Pilot1)
to use for the seismic channel correlation data intended for
eSQC-Pro.
- Choose the “Append Auxes From DSD” option. As a result, in
the SEGD file, the auxiliary traces containing the signals from
the DSDs will be recorded after those described in the Process
Type setup.
- In the “Acquisition” list box, create four acquisitions and choose
the “dump” option on the fourth. Assign the appropriate
“Acquisition Type” to each acquisition (for example Type 1 for
the 1st, Type 2 for the second, etc.). 6
4.3 In Source Type setup, create a source and specify which fleet to
use.

Figure 6-111

4.4 In the Source Shot setup window, a Shot (VP) number must be
created for each source point (this is typically done by loading
appropriate SPS files in the Log window). Assign the same
Process Type number to all source points.

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SQC Dump mode > SQC Dump mode with VE432

Same
Process
Type

Figure 6-112

4.5 In the main window, associate a shot point with the source, by
right-clicking in the “All VP” view (or in the “Active Source”
view) and slecting the “Start Seismonitor with Vib Source#”
shortcut (or “Associate VP”). If you are using the “Navigation-
driven shooting” mode, you can choose any shot point since the
system will wait for the “Ready” message from the fleet to
determine which shot to do. Click Go.
The operator report (also available from the Log window) contains the
detailed indentification of the source point the acquisition relates to. It
includes one row for each acquisition. In this example, the observer
report will include 4 rows for each shot point.

5. In the Log window


An SPS S output file is generated on each acquisition.
A source COG file is generated on the last acquisition of each VP.
For the format of those files, see User’s Manual Vol. 2.

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6. In the SEGD file


The system generates an SEGD file with raw data for each acquisition.
The list order in the Process Type setup determines the order of
auxiliary traces in the SEGD file (see Figure 6-103). With the example
described above, the SEGD file will include 20 auxiliary traces.

SEGD Trace Header


(extract)
Aux Unit
trace Type S. N.

1 FDU 5491 (A)


2 FDU 5072 (B)
3
4
5
FDU 3523
FDU 2147
FDU 5012
(C)
(D)
ta1
Pilot1

Pilot1
6
ta2 Pilot2
6 FDU 5562 ta3 Pilot3
7 FDU 5374 (E) ta4 Pilot4

8 FDU 913 Pilot1


9 FDU 5674
10 FDU 5114
(F)
11 FDU 1192
12 FDU 5212
13 FDU 523
14 FDU 5293
(G)
15 FDU 5133
16 FDU 3574 Pilot1
17 FDU 3541 Pilot2
18 FDU 1021 Pilot3
(H) Pilot4
19 FDU 5023
20 FDU 5474

Figure 6-113 Auxiliary traces recorded for the first acquisition

(A) Pilot1 from FDU Serial No. 5491.


(B) Pilot2 from FDU Serial No. 5072.
(C) Pilot3 from FDU Serial No. 3523.
(D) Pilot4 from FDU Serial No. 2147.
(E) Appended signals from Vibrator1: ref1, plate1, etc.
(F) Appended signals from Vibrator2: ref2, plate2, etc.
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(G) Appended signals from Vibrator3: ref3, plate3, etc.


(H) Appended signals from Vibrator4: ref4, plate4, etc.

7. In the Positioning window


In the FPS layer in the Positioning window a circle is displayed around
the planned position of each vibrator, and a smaller circle filled with
green is displayed for the actual position.

8. FPS files
For each acquisition, a “File Per Source” (FPS) file is generated in this
directory: workspace/result/log.
The FPS file includes vibrator attributes (much like a verbose APS file)
plus the SEGD file number. See User’s Manual Vol. 2.

9. In the eSQC-Pro window


After the last (fourth in this example) acquisition for a shot point (VP)
is complete, a file with correlated data is supplied to eSQC-Pro for
monitoring, but not recorded. With this example, it includes 32
auxiliary traces.

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Operation
Micro-seismic >

Micro-seismic
Selecting the Micro-seismic option in the Seismic setup options
(page 281) window allows the system to do a continuous acquisition
from a fixed spread with no source (passive listening). For example, this
operating mode can be used in shallow-water operations.

6
Figure 6-114

• If you are using an LCI as control unit, the FO signal (pin T) on its
Blaster port must be wired to the TB signal (pinK) using the Blaster
plug provided. Also, pin L must be wired to ground (pin R). The
precision of the built-in clock can be increased by using the PPS
signal from a GPS receiver, connected via the XDEV2 port of the
LCI. In that case, you have to choose the “GPS” Time Management
(page 90) option in the Configuration window’s Crew setup.
• If you are using a 428-Lite box as control unit, an external Time
Break is required. The acquisition length must be set to be equal to
(or a multiple of) the recurrence rate of the Time Break.
To launch the acquisition, simply click Go. The continuous acquisition
consists of consecutive shots with zero dead-time. No sample is lost
between the last sample in a shot and the first sample in the next one.
As the Spread never changes, a single Process Type is used and a single
row is required in the operation table. After each shot is completed, the
File Number is automatically incremented and an operator report is
generated. The Point Index and Shot Number are not incremented.

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Micro-seismic >

With the Line Error Recovery option activated, the system


automatically goes to “Field Off,” then “Field On” if an error arises (this
resets the field electronics). Acquisition resumes as the system goes to
Field On, regardless of whether or not any dead traces are present.
Offset removal is disabled (this is notified by recording “1” in bytes
873-876 in the SEGD file’s Extended Header).

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Autonomous mode >

Autonomous mode

Introduction
The “Autonomous” mode allows simultaneous-source shooting with
sweeps being launched independently. As soon as all vibrators in a fleet
are ready (pads down) at the planned locations, the operator pressing the
Ready button on the Leader DSD starts a sweep on all DSDs without
caring about synchronization with the recording truck. The planned
Vibrator Points can be done in any order.
The interest of using the Autonomous mode is to eliminate the need for
radio communications for starting the sweeps, which makes it
especially suited to difficult radio environments. A radio link is still 6
required, however, but only for the status messages from the vibrators
to the GUI, which can be transmitted during intervals with good radio
conditions.
The recording unit is set to perform a continuous acquisition consisting
of consecutive shots with zero dead-time. No sample is lost between the
last sample from a shot and the first sample from the next one (like in
Micro-seismic mode).
Note that unless it is attached to a fleet, an Autonomous DSD behaves
like any DSD in “Local” mode (same as after pressing the “Local”
button on the DSD).

Requirements
This mode of operation requires special seismic data processing
techniques.
On the Blaster port of the LCI, the FO signal (pin T) must be wired to
the TB signal (pin K) using the Blaster plug provided. Also, pin L must
be wired to ground (pin R).
The LCI must be attached to a GPS receiver so that the seismic samples
can be accurately time-stamped, and each DSD must be set to save the
Force signal locally. Also, each vibrator must use a GPS receiver.
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Autonomous mode >

Unless a fleet consists of a single vibrator, it must use a WIFI network.


The Autonomous mode neither requires nor allows the use of the
Vibrator Guidance function.

How to use the Autonomous mode


1. On a PC computer, use the VE464 VLI interface to set each DSD
to the Autonomous mode (DSD Setup menu), and enable the
Force local archive option (Options Setup menu).

Figure 6-115 VLI setup

2. Use the 428XL GUI to enable the Autonomous mode. To do that,


you have to select that option in the Operating Mode (page 281)
setup in the Operation window, then notify the DPG by going to
Auto in the VE464 DPG window (if the DPG is already in Auto
mode, go to Manual then Auto).
3. Create a Vibroseismic Stack (page 272) Process Type with a single
acquisition (this allows recording uncorrelated, unstacked data).
In the Source Type setup, choose the “Sequential” Moving option
(See Vibroseismic source parameters — page 291).
4. Load SPS files, using the Log window, to populate The Source
Point Setup (page 275) and the Positioning window.
5. Switch all DSDs to the “Remote” mode (press the “Remote”
button on the DSD).

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6. For this step, the radio link must be available so that the following
functions can be done, in the VE464 window:
- Set Vib Fleet to assign DSDs to fleets. Note that unless a fleet
consists of a single vibrator, it must use a WIFI network. Set the
“DSD network” option accordingly in The Vibrator Crew setup
(page 498).
- Set DSD to upload sweep-type parameters to the DSDs, and also
the description of the source pattern.
- Set Servo to set the servo control loop parameters in the DSDs;
- and any other function that may be necessary (Get DSD, etc.).
7. Once the DSDs are assigned to fleets and ready to sweep, switch
all DSDs to the “Local” mode (“Local” button on the DSD). 6
8. In the Operation table, select a VP with the Process Type created
in step 3, and click Go to start the continuous acquisition. After
each shot is completed, the File Number is automatically
incremented and an operator report is generated. The Point Index
and Shot Number are not incremented.
9. When the vibrator pad is down —after pressing the Down button,
and the pressure sensor switch, if used, says the pad is down— at
the planned source location, pressing the Ready pushbutton on the
DSD starts a sweep as follows:
- With no WIFI network (a single vibrator in each fleet), pressing
the Ready pushbutton launches a local sweep.
- With a WIFI network, when all vibrators in the fleet have their
pads down (and the Leader DSD is notified by WIFI of all
pressure switches saying all pads are down), pressing the Ready
pushbutton on the Leader DSD launches a sweep on all the
vibrators. As all the DSDs in the fleet are synchronized with the
Leader, they start sweeping at the same time. This is the
recommended way of using the Autonomous mode.
10. After completing a sweep the DSD tries to send a status message
to the recording truck, via the radio link with the DPG, until it is

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Autonomous mode >

notified of the status being actually received by the DPG. If, for
any reason, the radio path is obstructed for some time, the status
message and the next ones are stored in the DSD and, when the
radio link is available again, they are sent to the DPG in the order
of their occurrence.
11. The VE464 and Positioning windows are updated with the sweep
status messages received, which makes it easy for the operator to
see which shots are done and see if any sweep failed.
The system uses the $GPGGA GPS information from the status
message to find the nearest source point and calculate the COG to
display it in the Positioning window. See Figure 6-116 (page 376) and
Figure 6-117 (page 377) below.

Figure 6-116 VE464 window

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The “Vp” and “Acq#” columns in the VE464 window’s numeric view
are irrelevant, and therefore dimmed. As usual, double-clicking in any
cell opens a secondary window showing the detailed QC values
contained in the status report from the corresponding DSD. This also
causes a sprite to appear in the Positioning window, indicating the
geographical position of the DSD during the sweep.
Selecting “Get Properties” from the right-click menu on the sprite
causes a Properties window to pop up, containing the Vibrator number,
the status code and the actual position of the vibrator during the sweep.
See Figure 6-117 (page 377).

Figure 6-117 Positioning window

Note that you can look for more information in the APS and APS
Verbose file available from the LOG. window.

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Vibrator Guidance > How to use the Vibrator Guidance option

Vibrator Guidance
The VE432 or VE464 Guidance option allows each vibrator in a fleet to
be steered to the next location where it is expected to shake: the 428XL
GUI transmits the shake locations to the DPG, which relays them to
each DSD in the fleet. A graphic interface mounted on the vibrator
truck’s dashboard helps the driver steer the vibrator to the next shake
location.
In this section:
• How to use the Vibrator Guidance option (page 378)
• The Go To Waypoint command (page 379)

How to use the Vibrator Guidance option


1. Make sure the Tablet PC is connected to the DSD in each vibrator
truck. See the VE464 User’s Manual for details.
2. In the Operation window’s Operating Mode (page 281) Setup,
choose the Guidance option and supply the central latitude of the
spread.
3. In the Positioning window, use the Geodetic setup menu to select
the appropriate Datum and Projection. Click Apply.
4. In the VE432 or VE464 window’s Pattern Setup, define the
necessary vibrator patterns. A Pattern description specifies the
position of each vibrator with respect to the Centre Of Gravity of a
Source Point. See The Pattern setup window (page 532).
5. Use the VE432 or VE464 window’s Vib Fleet button to assign a
DSD, hence a vibrator, to each point in the pattern, for each fleet.
See Vibrator Fleet (page 537). Unless the number of vibrators in
each fleet is consistent with the Pattern setup, the system will not
let you take any sweep. Then, use the Set Guidance function to
transmit patterns, Datum and projection parameters to the DSDs.
6. Be sure a vibrator pattern is assigned to each VP in the Operation
window’s The Source Point Setup (page 275).

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Vibrator Guidance > The Go To Waypoint command

7. Set the VE432 or VE464 window to the Auto mode;


8. In the Operation window’s Active Source view, right-click on
source and choose Go To Waypoint. In the box that pops up,
enter the VP number of the first source point to be done by the
vibrator fleet. Click the Go To button. (Subsequently, the location
of the next VP will be radioed to each DSD together with the
command to do a VP). See page 379.
9. Still in the Operation window, click Go to take the first sweep.
Each DSD receives the position of the next VP.
10. After a VP is completed, each driver uses the guidance display
tool to steer the vibrator to the next shake location, depending on
its position within the pattern associated with the VP.
11. When all vibrators in the fleet are ready at the shake location, the
6
sweep can be taken (if the Navigation option is used, the Ready
code from each vibrator allows the VP to be done automatically).

The Go To Waypoint command


In the Operation window’s Active Source view, right-clicking on a
source and choosing Go To Waypoint opens a box that is typically used
to specify the VP number of the first source point to be done by the
associated vibrator fleet’s DSDs.

Figure 6-118

Clicking Go To causes the system to transmit the latitude and longitude


of that source point to the DSDs. Note that this can also be done by
dragging and dropping a fleet’s icon to a source point in the jPositioning
window.
This command can also be used to redirect a fleet back to a VP that was
not done properly. Subsequently, the position of the next VP is

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Vibrator Guidance > The Go To Waypoint command

contained in the T0_Data code radioed to each DSD to launch a sweep


(see Note below).
You can use the Go To Waypoint right-click menu on several sources
in the Active Source view to steer the associated fleets to different
source points, without interrupting the acquisition cycle (for example,
you can redirect one fleet while another one is shaking).

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Multi-gun Shallow-water shooting mode >

Multi-gun Shallow-water shooting mode


(See description of
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 each step below)

Observer
Waiting Waiting
for TB for TB
(1 s min.) (1 s min.)
Acquisition1 Acquisition2
LCI

Air Gun 1
EGO1 TB1 SPS1 (2 s min.) Ready1

Air Gun 2
Ready2 EGO2 TB2 SPS2
6
Figure 6-119

1. Choose Shallow in the Operation window’s Seismic setup options


(page 281). This sets the system to the continuous acquisition
mode. In the Operation main window, choose the first SP to shoot
(this starts seismonitor).
2. The first Air Gun controller generates the External Go (EGO)
signal. This causes the LCI to wait for a Time Break (TB) signal.
(It will keep waiting for the TB endlessly unless you click on
Stop).
3. The first Air Gun controller generates the TB at least 1 second
after its External Go. This starts acquisition.
4. The first Air Gun controller transmits its source status (SPS)
message during acquisition.
5. The "Ready" message from the second Air Gun controller can be
transmitted during or after the acquisition.
6. After the acquisition is complete, the second Air gun controller
generates the External Go (EGO) signal, at least 2 seconds
after transmitting its Ready message. This causes the LCI to
wait for a Time Break (TB) signal from the second Air Gun
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Multi-gun Shallow-water shooting mode >

controller. (It will keep waiting for the TB endlessly unless you
click on Stop).
7. The second Air Gun controller generates the TB at least 1 second
after its External Go. This starts acquisition, and so on and so
forth.
All air gun controllers must be connected to the same Blaster connector
on the LCI (see “Connectors and cables” in 428XL Installation
Manual). See also “Source controller interfacing” in 428XL User’s
Manual Vol. 3.
Air Gun Air Gun Air Gun
controller 1 controller 2 controller 3

Figure 6-120

The source (SPS) message must be transmitted before the “Ready”


message. The “Ready” message can be transmitted during or after
acquisition.
In the Active Source view, the “Rdy” pushbutton must be depressed.
This causes the content of the Ready message (future position of gun
boat) to be automatically accepted to select the next shot to do from the
operation table. As a result, the source point information from the
Ready message overrides the continuous progress scheduled in the list
of shots to do.

Figure 6-121

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Multi-gun Shallow-water shooting mode >

If the “Rdy” pushbutton is released, then the next shot to do is selected


as scheduled in the operation table, in steps determined by in the
“Increment” parameter from the Source Type Setup (see Explosive
source parameters — page 290).

Ready Message
*AIRGUN SEQ#xx,SPLyyyyyyyy.yy,SPNzzzzzzzz.zz<CR><LF>
xx: AirGun Number
yyyyyyyy.yy: Source Point Line
zzzzzzzz.zz: Source Point Number
<CR>: Carriage Return
<LF>: Line Feed
6
Spread
All acquisitions must be done with the same Superspread. No change to
the Superspread is allowed.
The active spread can be changed between acquisitions.

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Master/Slave operation >

Master/Slave operation
The “Master/Slave” mode allows using up to four separate 428XL
systems synchronized to a “Master” 428XL. For details on cabling, see
Master/Slave configuration (page 66) in the 428XL Installation Manual.
To enable the use of a Master/Slave configuration, you must select the
Master option in the jInstall window on the “Master” system (in the
Master/Slave (page 79) tab), and on each “Slave” system you must select
the Slave option in the jInstall window. As a result, a Master Enable /
Master Disable button is available in the jOperation window of the
Master system, and a Slave Enable / Slave Disable button is available
on each Slave system.
On each Slave system:
• The SPS S, R and X files loaded into the Slave systems must be
consistent with those loaded into the Master system.
• Use the same Operation parameter settings (Process Type, Source
Point) as the Master system.
• In the jConfig window, use the same parameter settings (Sample
Rate, Filter, etc.) as on the Master system, except for the Swath setup.
Click on On Line as usual.
• In the jLine window, use all setup menus as usual and click on Field
On to look for the channels attached to the system.

jOperation window on the Master system


By default, the “Master” process is disabled and the Master 428XL can
be used as a standalone system unless and until the operator clicks on
the Master Enable button in the jOperation window.

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Master/Slave operation >

Figure 6-122 Master system’s jOperation window

Once the operator has selected Master Enable,


the Master system waits until all Slave systems are ready to shoot, and
controls everything to ensure the TB on each Slave system is
synchronized. If any Slave system is not ready, or if there is a problem
with the parameters of the Master system, no shot or sweep can be
launched.
On the Master system, the selection of the Shot or VP to do and the
source to use is done as usual, and the Go and Stop buttons in the Active
Source view work the same way as with a standalone system, i. e.
depending on which Automation option (Continuous/Discontinuous/
Manual) is selected in the Seismic Setup. The Abort button is not
available.
If a shot or sweep is launched but acquisition does not complete
normally on a Slave system (for example because it failed to receive the
TB), the Master system stops the acquisition cycle. Then the operator
can cancel the Shot or VP and select the next one to do.

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Master/Slave operation >

In order to cancel or end a VP in “Continuous” mode, the operator has


to click on Stop on the Master system. The “Cancel”or “End” command
from the Master system is applied to the Slave systems automatically.
Note that when the operator clicks on a Shot or VP in the operation
table, this not only starts the “Seismonitor” function in the Master
system’s Line window, but also causes each slave system to receive a
command to start “Seismonitor” on its own spread — which allows
looking at the spread prior to doing a shot or VP.

jOperation window on a Slave system


By default, the “Slave” process is disabled and the Slave 428XL can be
used as a standalone system unless and until the operator clicks on the
Slave Enable button in the jOperation window of the Slave system.

Unavailable

Figure 6-123 Slave system’s jOperation window

Once the operator has selected Slave Enable,


only the Slave Disable button remains available. All other commands
are unavailable, and shooting is totally controlled by the Master system.
The Automation option (Continuous/Discontinuous/ Manual) in the
Seismic Setup is ignored.

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If anything goes wrong on the Slave system (for example dead traces or
missing auxiliary traces), an error is reported in the jOperation window
of the Master system, or no shot is launched.

jExport window
On each system, use the jExport window as usual (on each shot, each
system generates an SEGD file for the traces from its own spread).

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More About Noise Elimination > “Spike Editing” method

More About Noise Elimination


In this section:
• “Spike Editing” method (page 388)
• Diversity Stack (page 391)

“Spike Editing” method


The Spike Editing method removes all samples exceeding a special
threshold.
The traces are processed successively in the order generated by the
acquisition process. Acquisition is performed line by line (from Low to
High receiver positions), starting with the farthest Left line.
The first trace is therefore the farthest in the Low branch, in the farthest
Left line.
When the number of traces increases (roll in), the new traces are
initialized with the value of the “Threshold Init Value” parameter.
When the number of traces decreases (roll out) it is the last ones which
disappear.
Each trace is divided into several time windows whose length is equal
to Acquisition Length/Nb of Windows.
The maximum number of windows for each trace is 64.
Each window has its own threshold, expressed as a multiple of 3 dB.
Every acquisition with the same length and energy spreading can be
associated with the same threshold type (i.e. if the initial phase only is
different). If acquisition types with different lengths or energy levels are
used, they must be associated with different threshold types.
There may be up to 16 different threshold types.
Two aspects are to be considered in the processing of a trace: removal
of samples exceeding a threshold, and threshold updating.

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More About Noise Elimination > “Spike Editing” method

Removal of samples exceeding a threshold


Two methods can be used:

Zeroing
With this method, any sample greater than or equal to the threshold
causes a number of samples to be zeroed.
The number of zeroed samples is specified by “Zeroing Length”, and
the zeroing process is brought in and removed gradually, i.e. beginning
and ending with a “linear-variation taper”.
The Taper Length is expressed as a number of samples and equal to a
power of 2.

Clipping 6
Any sample exceeding the threshold is cut down to the value of the
threshold.

Threshold updating
In each window, the threshold is updated with respect to the highest
sample in the window.
Threshold updating is performed at the end of the noise elimination
process, using the Range parameter (12 dB) as follows (see also
Figure 6-124 on page 390):

Highest sample within D area:


If Threshold-3dB-Range > Highest sample, then Threshold is decreased
3dB.

Highest sample within C area:


If Thresh -3dB > Highest sample  Thresh-3dB-Range, then Threshold
is unchanged.

Highest sample within B area:


If Threshold > Highest sample  Threshold-3dB, then Threshold is
increased 3 dB.
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More About Noise Elimination > “Spike Editing” method

Highest sample within A area:


If Highest sample > Thresh and VP's 1st acquisition complete, then
Threshold is increased 3 dB.

A A A A
Thr.
B 3 dB B B B
-3 dB
Range
C C C C
(12 dB)

D D D D
Thr.-3dB-Range Thr.-3dB Thr> max sample
> max sample > max sample  Thr.-3dB
Thr-3 dB-Range max sample >Thr.
Thr = Thr-3 dB Thr unchanged Thr = Thr+3 dB Thr = Thr+3 dB

Figure 6-124

Special cases
Threshold updating is not performed:
- if the trace is reported “Low”,
- if the “Hold” option is selected, rather than “Var.” (variable),
- if the trace is “dead” (corrupted).
A trace is “Low” if, before noise elimination, the percentage of samples
which are smaller than the specified “Low Trace Value” exceeds the
specified “Low Trace %”.

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More About Noise Elimination > Diversity Stack

Diversity Stack
The Diversity Stack method is only used with “Correlation After
Stack” process types.
Each trace is divided into several time windows whose length equals:
AcquisitionLength
----------------------------------------------------
NumberOfWindows
The maximum number of windows for each trace is 64.
The entire processing is performed before correlation but includes two
parts: before stacking and after stacking.
A(k) = kth sample
n = number of samples in the window 6
i = trace index
j = window index
p = current stack fold

Processing before stack


For each time window in a trace, the energy is calculated:

n
 A( k )  2

E (i , j , p )  k 1 n

On the first window, the following is calculated:


1
A  k * ---------------------
E  i j p 

On the subsequent windows, a ramp is applied to the samples:

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More About Noise Elimination > Diversity Stack

• Computation of the ramp increment (S) for a window:

E  i j p  – E  i j – 1 p 
S  j  = ---------------------------------------------------------
n

• Processing on the samples:

Ak
---------------------------------------------------- where (1 k  n).
E  i j – 1 p  + S  j *k

Assuming the current stack fold is p, when the whole ith trace is
computed the following computation is performed on all the E(i,j,p)
terms for each window:
1 1
--------------------- + ------------------------------
E  i j p  E  i j p – 1 

Processing after stack


Assuming m is the last stacking fold prior to writing to the SEGD file,
the following computation is performed:
On the first window, the following computation is performed:

1
A( k )  m
1
p 1 E (i , j , p)

On the subsequent windows, a ramp is applied to the samples:


• Computation of the ramp increment (S) for a window:

1 1
m  m
1 1
p 1 E (i , j , p)

p 1 E (i , j  1, p)
S ( j) 
n

392 428XL User’s Manual Vol. 1


April 11, 2013
Operation
More About Noise Elimination > Enhanced Diversity

• Processing on the samples:

 
 
A( k )  

m
1
1
  
S ( j)  k 

  E (i , j  1, p) 
 P 1 

where (1  k n).
See also More About Correlation (page 396).

Enhanced Diversity
The Enhanced Diversity method is only used with “Correlation After
6
Stack” process types.
Each trace is divided into a number of time windows, determined by the
specified Window Length:

Number of windo