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Page 1 of 11

REF. Dr No.

SE-01-1001

MODEL :

48’ 15T LOW BED TRAILER

TRAILER OVERALL DIMENSIONS:

OVER ALL LENGTH

FROM GROUND LAVAL

:

14675 MM (48’)

OVER ALL WIDTH

:

2600 MM

HEIGHT OF THE TRAILER BED

: 650 +/- 25 MM (UNLADEN)

WHEEL TRACK

:

2435 MM

SPRING CENTERS

: 1900 MM

CHASSIS FRAME :

MAIN MEMBER CROSS MEMBERS OUT RIGGERS PLAT FORM

KING PIN :

: ROLLED BEAM ISMB 300x150 & 250x125

: ROLLED

CHANNEL ISMC 125x65

: PRESSED BOX SECTION 125x65x6 THICK

: 3.15 MM MS SHEET

2” DIA AS PER IS:6763(PART 1)-1987, EN 24 FORGED MATERIAL OR SAE/SMMT EQUVELENT STANDRED. KING PIN LOAD AT THE TRAILER 12T

AXLE :

TWO AXLES OF LOAD RATING 13000KG EACH ARE PROVIDED IN DOUBLE

SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENT. AXLES ARE MADE OUT OF EN-8 ALLOY STEEL HAVING PRECISION FINISHED BEARING JOURNALS. FITTED WITH TAPER ROLLER BEARINGS, AXLES ARE DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND RUGGED CONDITIONS OF OPERATION.

SUSPENSION :

DOUBLE AXLE SUSPENSION COMPRISES OF 4 NOS, LEAF SPRINGS OF ADEQUATE

CAPACITY, THE SPRINGS ARE MADE OUT OF EN-45 SPRING STEEL MATERIAL.

BREAKES :

BREAKES PROVIDEED WORKS ON TWIN LINE AIR PRESSURE BRAKE SYSTEM INTERNAL EXPANDING QUICK CHANGE ‘S’- CAM TYPE OF SIZE 15.5” x 5”

WHEELS :

4 NOS. H 7.0 x 20

TYRES :

4NOS. 10.00 x 20 - 16 PR NYLON TYRES

FRONT SUPPORT :

IT CONSIST OF TWO NO. OF LEGS EACH CONSISTING OF TWO TUBES, ONE

SLIDING INSIDE THE OTHER THE MATERIAL OF THE TUBE IS MILD STEEL.

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 2 of 11

Calculation of Main Member :

Pay load

= 12.8 T

Chassis wt

= 12.2 T

Design load

= 25.0 T

 

U.D.L. Due to Design Load

= 25000 / 14675 = 1.70 Kg/mm

The loading distribution is as shown in fig. given below.

Page 2 of 11 Calculation of Main Member : Pay load = 12.8 T Chassis wt

Calculation for Reaction Taking moment About King Pin ‘K’,

R A x 10000 = 25 x (7337.5 - 675)

R A = 16.65 T
R A = 16.65 T

R K = 25 – 16.65 =

8.35 T
8.35 T

Load on Axles

R A + Dead Wt of Axles = 16.65 + (0.45x2)

=

= 17.55 T

Calculation for BM:

BM at ‘K’

BM at ‘C’

BM at ‘A’

= 675 x 675 x 1.70

=

0.3873 x10 6 Kg
0.3873 x10 6 Kg

2

= 7337.5 x 7337.5 x 1.70 – [8350 x (7337.5-675)] =

9.8688 x 10

6

Kg mm

2

= 4000 x 4000 x 1.70

=

13.6 x10
13.6 x10
Kg mm
Kg mm

2

Let the B.M is maximum at a distance of ‘X’ from front,

In this case

B max

=

X 2 x 1.70 - (X - 675) x 8350

2

To have BM max the dB max should be zero

dB max = 0 dx

dx

= d (0.85 X 2 – 8350 X – (8350 x 675) dx

0.85 x 2X – 8350 = 0 X = 8350 / 1.70 = 4912 mm

BM at 4912 mm from front we have = (4912 x 4912 x 1.70) – [8350 (4912 – 675)] = 14.87 x10 6 Kg-mm

2

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 3 of 11

Main Member Material Sailma 350 HI

Yield stress of Sailma 350 HI is 350 MPa Factor of Safety 2

Allowable stress

Section selected – ISMB 300x140:

= 35.714 Kg/mm 2

= 35.714

2

= 17.85Kg/mm 2

Page 3 of 11 Main Member Material Sailma 350 HI Yield stress of Sailma 350 HI

Z X (Section modulus)

Max Stress induced

= 140 x 300 3 – 132.5 x 275.2 3 6 x 300

=

14.87x10 6

Page 3 of 11 Main Member Material Sailma 350 HI Yield stress of Sailma 350 HI

=

= 0.5657 x 10 6 mm 3

13.14 Kg/mm 2
13.14 Kg/mm 2

2 x 0.5657x10 6 As the STRESS INDUCED is less than the allowable stress of 17.85 Kg/mm 2 , so the section is safe.

Now checking at reduced section. The main member is as shown in figure:

The section up to 1420 mm is straight after it tapers from 250 to 300mm in a length of 800 mm.

Page 3 of 11 Main Member Material Sailma 350 HI Yield stress of Sailma 350 HI

5mm plate flitching is done in a length of 800mm starting from a distance of 1140mm from front.

BM at 1140mm from front:

Zx

(Fig 1)

Stress induce

BM at 1420mm from front

Zx at 1420 mm (Fig 2)

Stress induced
Stress induced

= 1140 x 1140 x 1.70 – 8350 (1140-675) = 2.778 x 10 6 Kg mm

2

= 125 x 250 3 – 118.1 x 225 3 6 x 250

= 0.405 x 10 6 mm 3

 

= 2.778 x 10 6 Kg mm

=

  • 3.43 Kg/mm

2

  • 2 x 0.405 x 10 6 mm 3

= 1420 x 1420 x 1.70 – 8350 (1420 - 675) = 4.507 x 10 6 Kg mm

2

= 125 x 250 3 – 107 x 222 3

= 0.521 x 10 6 mm 3

 

6 x 250

= 4.507 x 10 6 Kg mm

=

  • 4.32 Kg/mm

2

 
  • 2 x 0.521 x 10 6 mm 3

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 4 of 11

BM at 2220mm from front

= 2220 x 2220 x 1.70 - 8350 (2220 – 675)

2

= 8.71 x 10 6 Kg mm

Zx

= 140 x 300 3 – 122 x 272 3

= 0.736 x 10 6 mm 3

6 x 300

 

BM

= 8.71 x 10 6

=

   
 

Zx

(2 x 0.736 x 10 6 )

As the INDUCED STRESS at all three points are less than the allowable stress of 17.85

Kg/mm 2 , section is safe.

Design Calculation for cross members:

The design load of 25 T is acting over an area of 14675mm x 2600mm. Main members and cross

members resist this load. The load on each cross member is proportional to its distance to the adjacent cross members.

Intensity of load acting over loading area

Maximum spacing of cross member

= 25000 / (14675 x 2600) = 0.00065 Kg/mm 2 = 1200 mm

Equivalent line load over the cross member = 1200 x 0.00063 = 0.78 Kg/mm

The cross members are welded to the main members. For calculation purpose the main members are neglected and the cross member and our riggers are assumed to be overhanging beam supported by the longitudinal main members as shown below.

Page 4 of 11 BM at 2220mm from front = 2220 x 2220 x 1.70 -

Reaction at the support in Main member

Bending moment at support Bending Moment at center

(A & B) (C)

= 0.78 x 2460/2 = 0.78 x 530x 530/2

= 959.4 Kg = 0.1095 x 10 6 Kg mm

= 0.78 x 1230 x 1230 - (959.4 x 1400/2)

2

Maximum Bending Moment

= 0.0815 x 10 6 Kg mm =

0.1095 x 10

6

Kg mm

Material selected for cross member is IS: 2062

Permissible Bending stress Section selected is ISMC 125 x 65

= 10.5 Kg/mm 2

Page 4 of 11 BM at 2220mm from front = 2220 x 2220 x 1.70 -

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 5 of 11

From table Section modulus Zx of ISMC125

Stress induced
Stress induced

= 0.067 x 10 6 mm 3

= 0.1095 x 10 6

=

1.634 Kg/mm 2
1.634 Kg/mm 2

0.067 x 10 6 As the STRESS INDUCED is less than the allowable stress of 10.5 Kg/mm2 hence safe.

Design calculation for axle:

Two axles are provided made out of EN8 alloy steel Yield strength of 35.71 Kg/mm 2 . Taking factor of safety of 2.5 on yield strength,

Allowable stress U.T.S. of EN 8

= 14.28 Kg/mm 2 = 54 Kg /mm 2

= 13.5 Kg/mm

2

Allowable stress with factor of safety 4

Axle assembly Weight Load per spring Wheel track Spring centers

= 450 x 2 axles = 900 Kg = (16650 + 900)/4 = 4387.5 Kg = 2366 mm = 1860 mm

Page 5 of 11 From table Section modulus Zx of ISMC125 Stress induced = 0.067 x

Max. B.M. will occur at spring centers:

Max. B.M. at A & B

Section modulus of axle at spring centers,

= 4387.5 x 253 =

1.11 x 10
1.11 x 10
Kg mm
Kg mm
 

Zx

= d 3 = x 110 3 = 0.13 x 10 6 mm 3

 

32

32

Max. Stress developed

= Max. BM. /Zx

= (1.11 x 10 6 ) / (0.13 x 10 6 ) =

8.54 Kg/mm

2

 

Since the MAXIMUM STRESS developed is less than the allowable stress of 13.5kg/mm 2 , axle is safe.

Checking the axle at reduced sections:

Page 5 of 11 From table Section modulus Zx of ISMC125 Stress induced = 0.067 x

At section ‘A-A’:

B.M

Section modulus (Zx)

Bending stress developed

= 4387.5 x 61.6

= /32 x 78.7 3

= 0.27 x 10 6

=

= 0.27 x 10 6 Kg mm = 0.0478 x 10 6 mm 3

5.648 Kg/mm 2
5.648 Kg/mm 2

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 6 of 11

At section ‘B-B’:

B.M Section modulus (Zx)

Bending stress developed

0.0478

x 10 6

= /32 x 82.6 3 = 0.4435 x 10 6

=

0.0553

x 10 6

= 4387.5 x 101.1 = 0.4435 x 10 6 Kg mm

= 0.0553 x 10 6 mm 3

8.02 Kg/mm 2
8.02 Kg/mm 2

Since the MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS developed is less than the allowable stress of 13.5kg/mm 2 , axle is safe.

Design calculation for suspension:

Material of spring:

Spring steel EN 45 confirming to BS: 970-1955.

Working stress

(F)

= 5500 Kg/cm 2

No. Of leaves

(n)

= 12

Effective span

(L)

= 882 mm

= 88.2 cm

 

Width of leaf

(b)

= 76.2 mm

= 7.62cm

Thickness of leaf

(t)

= 11.11 mm

= 1.111 cm

Therefore capacity

(P)

= 2 x f x n x b x t x 2 /(3 L)

= 2 x 5500 x 14 x 76.2 x 1.111x 2 / (3 x 88.2) = 5474 Kg There are 4 numbers of springs are used in double axle suspension unit. The maximum static load

on the suspension unit is 16650 Kg

 

Load per spring

=

4162.5 Kg per spring

 

Allowable load

= 16650 / 4 =

5474 Kg per spring

 

Hence spring design is safe.

 

Design calculation for equalizer arrangement:

 

Load on each spring

= 16650/4

= 4162.5 Kg

Load on equalizer

= load on each spring = 4162.5 Kg

 

Load on equalizer bracket is shown in fig below.

Page 6 of 11 At section ‘B-B’: B.M Section modulus (Zx) Bending stress developed 0.0478 x

Maximum bending moment,

B max

= 2081.25 x 225

=

0.468 x 10
0.468 x 10
Kg mm
Kg mm

Section modulus (Zx) The cross section of equalizer welded assembly is as shown in fig below:

Page 6 of 11 At section ‘B-B’: B.M Section modulus (Zx) Bending stress developed 0.0478 x

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 7 of 11

A1 = 2(11x10)

= 220 mm 2

Y1

= 5.5 mm from top

A2 = 2(114x8)

= 1824 mm 2

Y2

= 51 mm from top

A3 = 2(67.75x10) = 1355 mm 2

Y3

= 124.875 mm from top

Y = A1xY1 + A2xY2 + A3xY3 A1 + A2 + A3 = 220 x 5.5 + 1824 x 51 + 1355 x 124.875 220 + 1824 + 1355 = 77.5 mm from top Y max = 158.75 - 77.5 = 81.25 mm

Moment of inertia of cross section (I) = I1 + (A 1 x H 1 2 ) + I 2 + (A 2 x H 2 2 ) + I 3 + (A 3 x H 3 2 ) = 2(10 x 11 3 ) + (220 x 72 2 ) + (114 x 80 3 ) – (114 x 64 3 )

12

12

+ (1824 x 26.5 2 ) + 2(10 x 67.75 3 ) + 1355 x (47.375 2 )

= 8.356 x 10 6 mm 4

Z =

I

Y max

= 8.356 x 10 6

81.25

Max bending stress induced

= 0.1029 x 10 6 mm 3

= 0.468 x10 6

12

=

4.55 Kg/mm 2
4.55 Kg/mm 2

0.1029 x10 6 MAX. BENDING STRESS INDUCED is less than the allowable stress of 10 Kg/mm 2, hence equalizer welded assembly is safe at this section.

Calculations for equalizer shaft:

Load on each spring = 16650/4 = 4162.5 Kg The equalizer welded assembly is supported by the M.S shaft in the central spring hanger bracket. Load distribution on the shaft is as shown below:

Page 7 of 11 A1 = 2(11x10) = 220 mm Y1 = 5.5 mm from top

Checking the shaft for bending:

U D L W

= 4162.5 /114 = 36.51 Kg/mm

Max. BM

= 2081.25 x 95 – 35.85 x 57 2

2

= 0.139 x 10 6 Kg mm.

Section modulus (Zx)

Bending stress

= /32 x d 3 = 0.139 x 10 6

= /32 x 63.5 3 = 0.0251x10 6 mm 3 .

=

5.54 Kg/mm 2
5.54 Kg/mm 2

0.0251 x 10 6 Since the BENDING STRESS is less than the allowable stress of 10 Kg/mm 2 , shaft is safe.

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 8 of 11

Checking the shaft for double sheer:

Fs

= load / area

= 4162.5

=

0.657

kg/mm

2

 

[2 x ( x 63.5 2 ]

 

Since the STRESS induced is less than allowable stress of 10 Kg/mm 2 for rolled section, shaft is safe.

Design calculation for kingpin:

 

Kingpin to be fitted on to the trailer is as per the BIS/SAE/SMMT standards. The kingpin size is 50 x 73mm (2” x 2.7/8”) as per IS: 6763(part1)1987. The kingpin is designed to withstand a draw bar pull of load ‘P’ on force and aft direction (27215 Kg = 27.215 T) Material is EN 24 suitably heat treated to give hardness of 269 BHN to 321 BHN.

Fs = load / area = 4162.5 = 0.657 kg/mm 2 [2 x (  x
 

Ultimate tensile strength of material = 94.7 Kg/mm 2 For repeated cycles we will take Permissible Bending Stress = 15 Kg/mm 2 and Permissible Sheer Stress = 9 Kg/mm 2

To check for bending:

Bending stress, Fb Now bending moment B.M

= BM. /Zx = 27215 x 17.5

 

= 476.26 x 10 3 Kg mm

 

Section modulus, Zx

= /32 x d 3

= /32 x 73 3

 

Fb. (bending stress)

= 476.26 x 10 3 / 38.19 x 10 3

= 38.19 x 10 3 mm 3 =

12.47

kg/mm

Since the BENDING STRESS is less than the Permissible Stress of 15kg/ mm 2 , the kingpin is safe in bending.

To check for sheer:

Sheer stress, T

=

Load

 

C/s area of kingpin

 
 

=

27215

= 6.5 Kg/mm 2

 

(/4) x 73 2 Since the SHEER STRESS INDUCED is less than the Permissible Shear Stress of 9 Kg/mm 2 , the kingpin is safe for shearing.

Tractive force of king pin, F

= x w

(Where ‘‘is the coefficient of friction between road and tyres, generally taken as 0.3 and w = GLW of trailer)

hence kingpin is safe.

F = 0.3 x 26650

=

7890 Kg
7890 Kg

which is less than the above load P,

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 9 of 11

Brakes calculation:

R.T.O. regulations - At 20mph (32 Km/h) vehicle fully loaded should stop within 14.5 meters from

the point of application of brakes

Initial velocity (u)

= 32Km/h = 8.889 m/sec.

Final velocity

(v)

= 0

Distance traveled (s)

= 14.5 meters

From the laws of motion:

 

v

2 - u2 = 2 x f x s

0 - (8.8989 2 )

= 2 x f x 14.5

 

Force (f)

= (8.8989 2 ) = 2.7246 m/sec 2

Load on rear axles Design load per axle No. of brakes per axle Load per brake Required retarding force

29

= 16.35T + 0.9T = 17.55T = 17550/2 = 8775 Kg = 2 = 4387.5 Kg = load per brake x f g

= 4387.5 x 2.7246

9.81

= 1218.57 Kg

Road wheel diameter of tyre (10.00 x 20 x 16 ply) = 1094mm = 109.4 cm

Required retarding torque

= retarding force x rolling radius of tyre

= 1218.57 x 54.7 = Brake size used is 15.5” x 4.5” (39.4cm x 11.5cm)

66,655.8 Kg-cm
66,655.8 Kg-cm

Brake drum diameter Brake lining area

= 394 mm = 39.4 cm = 453.1 cm 2

………………. (1)

Lining material used is DON HF 7 or S/A 63 S having allowable compressive stress 12.0 Kg/cm 2 ,

Co-efficient of friction () Lining drag

= 0.4 =12.0 x 0.4

= 4.8 Kg/cm 2

Available brake drum torque

= brake lining drag x Lining area x Brake drum radius

= 2 x 4.8 x 453.1 x 39.4/2 =

85,690 Kg-cm
85,690 Kg-cm

(2)

... From (1) & (2) it is seen that available brake drum torque is more than the required retarding torque. Hence brakes are safe.

…………

Design calculation for tyres:

Size of tyres used Capacity of tyre @ 32 Km And at cold pressure 725 Kpa. Total load on tyres No. of tyres used

= 10.00 x 20 x 16 ply = 3050 Kg (As per ITTAC Data manual)

= 16650 + 900 (Axle Wt) = 17550 Kg = 4

Actual Load on each tyre

= 17550 =

4387.5 Kg

.

4

As tyres are designed for 50% excess load, Load bearing capacity of 10.00x20-16 PR tyres

= 1.5 x 3050 =

4575 kg each.
4575 kg each.

As designed capacity of tyre is more than the actual load on tyres, hence tyres are safe.

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 10 of 11

Front support calculation :

There are two tube type landing legs, provided at a distance of 2875mm from front. The reaction

and bending moment calculation are given below.

Page 10 of 11 Front support calculation : There are two tube type landing legs, provided

Taking moment about – L

R A x 7800 R A R L

= 25 x (7337.5 – 2875) = 14.30 T = 10.70 T

Actual load coming on landing legs is 10.70T ***

Design of leg on column principle:

Considering top end fixed and bottom end as free. Considering the inner leg, having the lower cross section area, for height of 1100mm in fully extended condition i.e., L = 1100 mm. The cross section of inner leg is as shown in fig.

Page 10 of 11 Front support calculation : There are two tube type landing legs, provided

Using Ranking Formula for Crippling load, Pc =

Where,

F c x A 1 + C (L/K) 2

F c

= compression stress for MS = 33 Kg/mm 2

 

A

= Area of cross section

= 2350 mm 2 (from table)

C

= Ranking constant

=

1

Where 0.25 is the coefficient of end condition

K

= least radius of gyration

7500 x 0.25

= =
=
=

Moment if inertia (I)

Cross sectional area (A)

( 100 x 100 3 ) – (90.6 x 90.6 3 ) = 34.01 mm

12 x 2350

Substituting these values in formula for crippling load, =

Pc

33 x 2350

= 65.336 Kgs.

1 + (1/1875) x (1100/34.01) 2

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer

Page 11 of 11

Allowable load For steady load factor of safety

= Crippling load / factor of safety. = 4

Therefore allowable load

= 49775

= 12443 Kg

 

4

Therefore allowable load per leg

= 12443

=

6221.5 Kg

 
 

2

The allowable load of 6221.5kg is more than the actual load per leg of 10700 =

2

5350 Kg
5350 Kg

. ***

Hence front support leg is safe.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ***this load is transferred on the legs when tractor is detached from the trailer.

DESIGN CALCULATIONS – Tandem Axle Lowbed Semi Trailer