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A!I) UEMSNV HIIM NOIIIOE

ruJoJ pue Suruearu

:reruuerD qsIIEuf, Sursn

a:odeBurg od.4o1

d.aup,,{g oluolol

uoPuo-l )iro1 .llaN IIPH a)rluard

Surqrea; aBen8uel qsrlSuE

liyrctaatup n$nuaj

nl a1n14su1 at11

uo7arnp7 aBan?ual 4sq7u7

poaTrIN '{ a1ortN

pue

llstaaruyl ta$aJua-I

rcl a7n14su1 a41

uo4a)npj a?an?ual 1sq?u3

i: ';t'q-l:!{^ ;

-'r

spooM 'D pre^/wpH

AiI) UITMSNV HIIM NOIIICIE

ruroJ pue tulueatu

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slsPl Mar^ar :01 sqra^ IPPohl 't'z

sruolpl

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:6 sqra^

IPpohtr

'€€'z

slsanbar :g sqra^ lPPohtr 'z€'z

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lq8rw'.,{etu

/]snru

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:g

:t sqra^

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ol aneq /paau

o1 alqe aq'plnol'uel :€ sqra^ IepotUlz'z

Suruearu :Z sqra^

lepo1N

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ruroJ :I sqra^ IPPoIAI '92'z

asn :z a ISsed

'tz'z

LuroJ :I a^rssed '€z'z

ol pasn aq'ot pasn 'zz'z snonurluo] ]raJrad arnlnl'tJaJrad arnlnc'Iz'z

snonurluoJ lJaJrad lsed '02'z lra]rad lsPd .6I.2

snonurluo] lJaJrad luasard 8I'z

lJaJrad luasard lsed aq] ur arnln1 aql :g aJnlnC 9I Z

a^Illultur + o] aq :l arnlnc 9I z

.lI.z

a^rlrurjul + ol ]noqP aq :9 arnlnc iI Z

uuoJ snonurluoJ

luasard :g atnlnc 'I.z

uuoJ aloruls luasard a^rllulJul snonurluoJ + aq + IPt{s/lll./!1

:t arnlnc zl'z

:€ crnlnc 'II'z

alrlrur1ul + ol Suro8 aq :Z arnlnC '0I'Z

a^rlrulJur + Ileqs/llrM

:I arnlnc 6'z

t1sr13uq ur arnlnC aql SurssardxE 8'Z

snonurluoJ lsecl 'l'z

7 a1du15 $ed g'Z

1 aldurg lsEd z snonurluo] luasard

E.Z

't'z

I snonurluoJ luasard '€'z

aldrurg luasard .Z.Z

a.r,r1e3or.ra1ur'aatle8au'a,trltsod

:surrot qra6'I'Z

sqra^ :z uollJes

&T YL

II

aJualuas aql ur uorlrsod :.,{ruanbar; Jo

lsqran d-rer,urrd pue IeJIxal

sqla^pv

'9'I

a)ualuas aql ur uolllsod :saserqdlerqra^pP

lepour

/sqra^pv '''I

salctrJruect :sruJo, qra^ '€'I

:sassel) qran 'Z'I

L

t

sarr€rlrxne

z

I

alrsua+ur'alrlrsueJlur'alrlrsuell

:sarro8alel qra1'I'I

uoqesruB8ro aJualues :I uoqJaS

IX

uorlf,nporlul

aEad

slualuo)

L:r:t{ Lrl:lr)t'. t,

.l ll'L lll

al f

C.r ll.i : : I ,r i'

1.

(-

I

,-.,:t::::

:-.tl::

:r:.

r:-.lt::.'i'.,1.

:l:.

t,' i

,-

,-

:"-: :l -: ,: l

-.

-,-

-i

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-,.i

-,.

li

n

L\--

:r::rng

,--,.--^-

-

-r

:

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rssible

.: inrf.ossible

J: unless

:: rr'i,ching

rniinitive phrases 1 lntlnitive phrases 2

nhraces ?

'riinitirre ''

r"

"-".-

St.ltementS

qr.lestlons, requests

5echon 3: f)eterminers

I

DiiPrDrrnerEaroups

Cen::ai cieterminers 1: the use oi articles

Cc'.:r-.1. eleterminers 2: a and an

Ceitral tleterminers 3: the

Ce n:raL cleternriners 4: this, these, that, those Lr :'::.1i rletermttrers 5: possessives

C c':.tr.rl cleterminers 6: quanti fiers

Cr'ntral determt ners 7: wh-detenniners

J f.e,lprprminers. mrrltioliers: all, both, half; once, twice

Pcstcleterminers 1: cardinal and ordinal numbers, general ordinals I'ostcleterminers ? : quantifiers

Secfion 4r \lodification

I I

-J -

I i

.\.1:ectives 1: position

.\-i vtttr es

\l

e.rrves

2:

comparison

3: comparison

-1.-1. -\.1tr'ctives,l: -ing, -ed endings

l.r. --\tiverbs

-1 r

4 .

Prepositional phrases: place, time, manner

Intensiiiers; \'ery, too, enough

-l

J

> Rt'lative Clauses 1: form; defining, non-defining

'

Rel.rtive Clauses 2: ob ject of clause

-1.1-r Rel;rtrve Clause-s 3: preposition + relative; whose

l. i 1 I(elative Clauses,l: adverbs as relative pronouns; special use of that I ll Reiative Clauses 5: reduced relative with -ing/-ed

Secbion 3: Discourse i.l . Plr.nouns

I l. IT .rs introduction word

5.-1. Sc neither nor

l.i. Cc-. -trrciin.rting conjunctions

r.5. Connectg;5

I o. Connecters l: order, summary, claritv, extra information 5 L SL:L.trrciin.ite cr)njunctions 1:place, time, manner

l; 6ontrast, result, difference

5.S. Sut orcltnatL Lrnjunctions J.9. Topic rlisation

2: Concession, contrast, cause and effect,

P'lgc

1,25

128

732

135

139

742

147

150

153

757

15E

159

162

165

170

173

't77

160

182

184

186

191

't9?

195

200

203

207

270

11 !

I

t+

276

221

225

228

LJI ial

235

236

211

244

248

252

255

258

result, purPose 262

266

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692

aEud

slualuoJ

xapul

,(a4 ransuy

suorlrsodard.{q parurolloy saarltalpe :g xrpuaddy

sqraa;eln8arrr:Txrpuaddy

sqra^ prom-rllnu : xrpuaddy

sase.rqd unou lern1d qllM

alf,rue oraz

El{I

:7 xrpuaddy

aql :I xlpuaddv

sarrpuaddv

'aJualuas e ur sqra^pP JoJ alqrssoo suorllsoo snorJe^ ar{l : a)ualuas

aLIl ul sproM raqlo Jo rapro aql slJaJJe addl qrea .^^or{ pue 'sqra^ Jo sad.,{1 luara;;rp aql :Eur.\ olloJ aql le )iool a,4^ I uorlJas uI

lnq lsuorlrsod paxq

a^er{ sluauraia asaql;o ,{ue61 'qra^

'(Surueau sr{arruor lpql qral e 'a'r) lerrxal pue ('r1a raqrunu 'asua1 Surrvroqs turoJ

'Jlqpa^ou a;e 'saserqd

lprqra^pp

ro slprqra^pp se Ll)ns 'aruos

srrl}

Punore paurro] arp aJua}uas aqt ul sluauala laqlo aql

IIn,

e

qJaA e ur}uoJ lsnru a)ualuas V 'qran aql sr uorlesrue8ro

aql ur sprom aL{l Surllnd suearu slq+ 'ia^al

seq ler{l qro^ e 'a'r) alrurJ r{loq sr leql

slql ot lprlua3 'aJualuas E ur rapro lq8rr

Iprurot d-rarr e 1y

'dpadord sa8essaru ,{a.luol o1 Surdlaq uI lueuodur st reruruer8 Jo asn }JaJJoJ

uorlEsruutro aJualuas :I NoII)gs

UNIT 1.1.

VERB CATEGORIES:

transi tiv e, intransitive,

intensive

The agent collected the rent. The older people left. Thatcher became Prime Minister in 1979.

VerL.s can

Lt,f.,;::j:

L.e fransitive, intransitive or intensive

:L,'.ftl/llplCS:

Trans ibive

Intransitive

The .reent collected the rent.

f her ve ,.rr en the kevs to the owner

The olc.ler people left the street.

james went to Rome.

He cried bitterly. The older people left

In the left-hand column of the chart above, the verbs are being used transitively. This means that thev arr' all followed by a direct object, which answers the questron WHO? or WHAT? after the 1's1b; in these cases, the rent, the keys and the street.

In the right-h.rnd column of the chart, the verbs have no obiect. There is nothing which

.rns\\'ers \\'l-JO? or WHAT? after the verbs as in the left-hand column. If anything follows

these verbs. it is an adverbial phrase which answers the questions WHERE? or HOW? and in

other cases \\'HEN? These verbs are being used intransitively.

Some verl.s.rre alrvays used transitively. You cannot sav, for erample:

'Tr:a

-I';,.;;

,i i', rtt collected.

la (n'en.

These sentences are incomplete. Verbs such as collect and give alwavs need an obiect.

Some lerbs are always used intransitively, for example:

Jamesn'ent

The book iell

Vt'rL-s sucjr es go and fall are never followed by an otrject.

Some leri.,c can L.e used either transitively or intransitively, for example:

The rrldtr ;reopie left. (lntransitiae)

The trl.ler people

left the street. (Trausitiae)

Ther-e i: .r qrouFr of verbs which are knolvt't as intensive or linking

(see Unit 1.2). They

'erbs

.rre not tollo\\'ed bv a direct object, but by a complement. The complement tells you more about the sublect and rs sometimes a description of the subject.

l-oLri: rit l;1r'-ir' r'.1,ti1i11/c-sl

Th.rtcher L.r'came Prime N{irrister in 1979. Rcntv i. l tt.rcher.

Some intensrve vcrbs are. appear, be, become, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste,

Learner dictrcnaries indrcate whether verbs can be used transitively, intransitively or

intensrveil'.

'a>lrp lsoruralno aqt 3uo1e (aa4tsua4ut)

(>1) sn 1o uazop aaj-.

e (aatl$ubtt) ' '

puplloH lo JIeq (aa4tsuatq)

(t) aruo tql aprs.,{_rlunor 1o p

(q) ll Jlas]l uorleN aLIl se q)lnq se {le.M e sr slr{t pup ipuplloH ur alp

'eas quoN ar{l ssorle IIe^{ ol lnoq arp aM qlparq umo rno (aa4tsuutl) .

pr* (aatsuayul) "

(l) pulrur aqJ raqlpa.lr aql roJ alenbapeur

-,,{ep pue lapef-urer'raleams'sprL{s's{)os'slaurerl

dol-q8rq

(3) ueJ a^r '. -

(a) srr{f .){r:.1

(p) sn Jo q:-.

'u€a)o aqt 1o a8pa

aqt Suolp (aa4tsua4ur) ' '' (r) aM 'eas qlroN aqi JJo pur^l p'

""

sn;o auofualg.u.\.,:_

stua a:

sr'seslalerJ,3u111e.u are,Surdurerl arp,aas,Surlea.u sr,pauln; a.reu

'(q)

s8al a1rqr14 (aalllsuatyur)

(e) '

aql urorJ :1'urd(aarsualu!)

'sr'paralo)'Surra,rrqs

'sl)I)atq ut paJDls itoSatu, .

sqtt 4cu.1m mopq sqraa at11 lo auo Swltaps rtq spnm Sutsstw ary ul ltlJ pua lxal Eumogoj atl] l1t:

o1vll ISPI

aArsualul

pe;o

P"^t'l

a^rlrsuequl

aAursuPJI

eulqf ol leoq Mols e se1e1 lpauua; lpuy

'sl€oqasnoq o,u1-.{1uam; uMo sraqlorq xrs aqf

'1ood aql ur paleu ruems uarplrq) aqI

'slsrrnol aql roJ IIPM sleurrxrrJ Jo spur) IIV

'sued pue siod eql uealJ uaruo,M aql 'ranrr aq] Jo slueq aql uO

'puauJ asoll € se,!r ueuaaH 'proJXO ol lsrue aql palr^ur

Ieurpre]

.{rry,q

'{eprloq rraqt roJ sa^l }S ol luam puarr1 raq pue er)rrled ',,i.auotu no.4. sales Jueualor lo paap V

'sJaploq .{rr1od uor; sarJanb snoraurnu alreJar aM

l\

( '.1

{.'

L:

(:

(f

{--

(.

{r

'(eruezuel rrtou) elrdue8uel ur parp pue panrl auols8ur^r'l pr^EC

: J ILlut

L) \

'noli toi uaJiltm uaaq sn4 aldruaxa uV alqol SutotolloJ a4J Lu uwt1l. aqaudotdda a4l ut q)ao a4i Suqum rtq qtaa io Ato?alat at11 Ai7uay puu sa)uajuas SLuotollot a41 pl1,1 .

auo {sEf

sxsvl - serroSaler qra^ I.T llun

UNIT 1

2

Nurse Lane continued with her knitting.

VERB CLASSES: lexical and

primarl'verbs; modal

auxiliaries

Romy and Alan became neighbours.

I don't do that any more.

|ohn has sent the application off.

He was arrested last night.

Payment must be received on or before

19 April1988.

\\'hat eir, ', erl-s DO? Some verbs tell us n'hat is happening or thev describe something; other

vt-rbs .ril

ii supportels to main verbs ancl help to show the tense or n'hether the form is a

qLresi:(.rr,: '.r'rrjle trthers qualify what the n'rain t'erb does.

1. Verbs and meaning

-.-.-,.,: :':,'.t i,rntttp/es:

r, She applied for the senior post.

r.'

\r-rrse Lane continued rvith her knitting.

c, Rom)' and Alan became neighbours.

,lr Churchill was Prime Minister in 1953. Tire',rtrrtls in bold type are verbs. In exampies (a) and (b), thev are telling us what the

sui:,ject did. In (c) and (d), they form a link between the subject and information

.rL.r.r.rt ihc subject. The words that follow the verbs are descriptions of the subject.

\eighbours .rncl Prime Minister here are not the object of the verb, br.rt the complement. T:rtv tltrn't tell us rvhat the subject is doing as in (a) anct (b). They tell us more about the

su bj ect.

l.'

,;:

lltt.t exnntples:

She .rpplied for the senior post. In this example, applied for the senior post answers the question, WI{AT did she do? \-erbs like this are extensive. They go out from the subject.

\rr.

SHE --

applied for the job.

lr.,k Ltt tltis exnmple:

Churchill r,vas Prime Minister in 1953.

In this er.rmple, was Prime Minister in 1953 answers the questiorr IVHAT happened to

Chulchill? or WHO was Chr-rrcl.rill? Verbs like this are intensive. Thev so back to the

sr:L.ic'ct.

vt

Clrurci.rill _-->

was Prime Minister in 1953.

Botir rri these tvpes of verb (extensive and intensive) are called lexical verbs (see also Unit

1.1). Ther carrv the meaning of the action or description.

There nrust be a lexical verb in every sentence.

'srelP] ur uaas uaaq seq aqs

'qo[ raltaq P ualrg Suraq sr aqg :qran freurrrd e se slred o,ta'l ser{ aq ol qra^ aq} saurrlauos 'qsrueos sElll osseJrd

'uarplltl)

aa.rql seq rhe7,q

ar{} op ILI

.dn-8urqse.u

:sa^lasuraql sqla^ Ielrxal s uorlJunJ osl - aq ol pup a^Bq ol 'op ol - sqra,r.,{reunrd aql 'sqran Ief,rxal raq}o Suruoddns se 11a.u sy

XOS DNINUVM

.1OI

'qru fua,r

'srear{ :o; .,{ldua 'uorlua]+€ ol

lsoJ

aq

ueaq

pools

aAeq

sPr{

lsnru

IIIl\^

rPr ]eqJ

ruoJ

asnoq aqJ

rarplos aqf

IErIxe'I

{reunr4

IEPOl\tr

',llolaq alqel aql uI u^roqs se 'lpJrxel 'rfterurrd 'r(.reryrxne Ipporu :rapro

no{ uaqJ sqra^ Jo sassel) aaJql IIe lrrel sarualuas sarullauJos

3ur.no11o1 aql ur uaql lnd

-ftt'Z-SZ'Z slrug aas) sarrerllxnp leporu

se unoul are,{aq1 'sqral IPJrxaI aql

d;r1enb pue ' Jla ',{+lllqe 'uorle8rlqo 1o saar8ap

.uoqs dnor8 srql ul adfi ploq ur sqra^ aqI

lsea-quou

ar{I

'Suruana srql ralel ure; lradxa ueJ

'886I grdv 6l aroJaq ro uo palla)ar aq lsnru ]uaLuAed

:saldwaxa asa4l la 4oo-l

srarJrlEnb sE sqra^ 't

'arrrssed aql Sursn are a.ry\ uaq./\^

llnoqp 3ur11e1 arp arvr arull Jo lradse leqrvr la,lrle8au aql ur Sulqlatuos Surdes ro uotlsanb e 3ur1se arp a.l,l taqlaqm

:3ur.v.o11o1 aql ^ or{s o1 sn dlaq sqral drewlrd aql

G7Z'tZ'Z

slrufl aas) aarssed aql urrol o1 (q)

(na'tZ'fr'Z'€'Z slrun aas) sluroJ snonurtuo) aql roJ (p) pasn sl aq

'(Zt'Z llun aas) sruroJ

1ra;rad

aql roJ pasn sr aAPq

'(I'Z ttun aas) suorlsanb ro uorle8au ssa.rdxa ol pasn sI op

:sMolloJ se pasn arp pue sqra.r ,{:erurrd are .{ar11 'sqran

IpJrxaI aql lroddns lnq sa^lasuaql Surupaur ,(ue a.teq lou op araq ad.,{1 ploq ul sqra^ ar{I

'lq8ru 1se1 palsarre selr aH

';;o uorlelldde aql luas suq uqof

* * n::

" )T:,?,o,1 ;i i',

"", ",

sralroddns sP sqra^ 'z

sassPlrqra^zIlrun

Unit 1,.2 verb classes - TASKS

Task one

Rr,t.i il:. f.r".i.')rJ

rllrll, !-irr' r.-'; irrlir'1lli lll

f ,,; "::'.,'

In';rr:t Berlin has n'ritten over 800 sor-lgs.

He rvas born rn Russia on 12

saril

ertcts arrd identiiy the clttsses of the t,erbs in bold type br/ placing them in the tlte table. An exantple hns been utritten ior t1ou.

brought him and his six brothers and

in 189-1. 'Ihey lived rvith other immigrants in the Bronx in New York, When

Mav 1888. His parents

si:tt'r s tr' .-\nreric t

ir.' nas l;fteen he left honre and worked as a waiter and singer. t{e became famous when he rvrote'-'\lerander's Rag-Time Band'. Many people know the words of his songs, even when

thev don't know the name of the writer: 'l've never seen the

don't u'ant 1.r get up in the rnorning' trre just two. He has been married trvice. His first wife died .l'.'r'tir'.rtter thev were married. Although he became very rich, the. father of his second

sun looking so bright' and 'I

\\ ife rl asn't ha;.p1, that Berlin had

grown up in a poor immigrant

family

with little education.

lie said iris clai-rghter mustn't marry Berlin. But the couple ignored him.

auxiliary

Primary verb

Lexical verb

Task two

Usi'r,{:

rr?s

ironrthefolloiuinglist,conrTrletetheadrertisementltelou,.Eachiuordmaybeusedmore

tlrrru.rr;ir'. StLtttt the class of each uerb tts you use it.

should, take, rush, seems, consider, is, have, would, sugfiest, engineered

Nr) Lrne ia)

.

. c)r lci)

,

. that buying a Mercedes-Benz (b)

a decision you (c)

lightlv. Far fronr it. It (e)

(i)

not (k)

only rvhen you (0 suchanobviouschoice. (h)

.

the time to

the300E

consrderthe facts thata Mercedes-Benz (g) for er.rmple.

Likt'all \lercerles-Benz c.rrs it

to perform a few sprecifics superbly rvell

but to periorm everv function superblv well. Avoiding extremes in any single area in pursuit

of the ven' highest competence overall.

the .rbilit)' to strike the same balance between comfort, handling

Feiv c.rt s tll

perfr)rnrance, safet\'. reli.rbiliiy and re-sale value.

']ualuLuo) ol pasnJar da;yyoaa rrs 'luaruaal8e ue

lnoqe

palsv

'lalreur aql ol juam aqs 'deaqr raqler Surqlauros 3uque14

:5Jld/ur.r,' .1:.1llJ JD )ool

arualuas aql Jo SuruurSaq aql le sasBrqd IudrrrlrPd

'arur1 oql slragar qrrqm qre^ ,{rerurrd aLIl sl ll 'sasel asaql IJE ul

(paJt,t41su4) 'ssarc{ aql palJeltp peq raql+eL{I

(pafiarl

7su4)

luasat4) ssard aql pa))pllp seq raq)leqJ

'luaprsard

.lrau e Surlraya aram qJuarl aqJ

(snonutluo3

(snonu4tLoS luasat4)'luaprsard ,rtau e Surllala arp qJuarl aql

:;,tldtuuxa Jsarlt tu 40o-l

'sqJaA

lroddns aql qll^,\ srxJoJ ur pasn are daql araq,n saJualuas uI srr{l aas ueJ aM

l-rpur:d

;o

'eruq alerrpur lou op .{aq1 'aldrrured lsed ro luasard paller are sruroJ a}IUIJ-uou qSnoqlly

'tr xrpuaddy aas lsrl IInJ P ro{

(1nd) 1n4

(pres) /.eg

(auo8) o3

:3urrnro11o; aq1

,z

se q)ns 'sturo; relnSarrr iueu are araq] lng 'urroJ reln8ar aql sl slr11 'pa- + qJaA a].{} Jo ruals aql ruorJ pauroJ sr aldlJllrEd lsed aql leql pres aneq a.\,t 's3urql .{1r1dturs o1

XOS 9NINUVM

'pa- +, Ise laldnured lsed)

pa- + qra^ aql Jo urals aql

13ur- a 1rre,r.r (aldrorlred luasard)

Bu1- + qra^ ar{} jo ruals aq}

:s,\r.ollot se dn apeu ale PuP seldrrrlred sP uMou>l

.{11eraua8 are asaql 'pa- ro 8ur- ut pua r{)It{M suIIoJ allulJ-uou aAPLI osle sqlal Ie)IxaI IIV

'sr-uroj alrurJ se

uMoul are ,sqta^ l-reutrrd Jo ltoddns aLll tnoqlrM ' pi!\ srlll uI aruq alP)lput t{JttlM sluroC

(lsPd) rrr^pP :o; no.{ ol alorM aM

(1uasartr) alqnlosul sruaas ualqord aq1

:saldwaxa asaLll lD 1001

'arurl lsed ro luasard .\^or{s q)Iq^^ surroj a^Pq sqra^ IP)Ixal IiV

eruq alP)Ipur qJrqM sruroJ

qre^ 'I

,{ar;; o a 3 r, r', " "*"i;"":Tfi

t?:;:lltJ

'laIrPur aql ol

lua1vr aqs 'deaqr raqlPr SuIqlatuos 3ur1ue1q

saldnrlred

:shtruo{ gugn

€.I IINN

Unit i.i \-erb forms

The first part of each sentence does not indicate whether we are talking about a present or

past event; it rs in the second part, where there is the finite verb, that we can find this rnformation.

Lcok iit tltt exatrples in the following chart:

Participle phrase

\\'antrng something rather cheap,

Asked about an agreement,

Finite clause

she went to the marker.

Robert is going to the charity shop.

Sir Ceoffrey refused to comment.

Sir Geoffrey will refer you to his report

In both cases we can see that the same participle phrase can appear with finite clauses

that retlect a different time. This will become clearer if we expand the participle phrases.

Lrot irf these examples:

Because she wanted something rather cheap, she went to the market. As he wants something rather cheap, Robert is going to the charity shop.

lVhen he was asked about an agreement, Sir Geoffrey refused to comment. If he is asked about an agreement, Sir Geoffrey will refer you to his report.

The expansion of these examples shows the following three

phrase is an abbreviation of an

things:

(a) the time eiement is reflected in the finite verb in the main ciause;

(b) the present participle

(c) the past participle phrase is an abbreviation of a passive clause.

active clause;

3. Present participle versus infinitive after verbs of senses

After verbs, such as see, watch, hear, notice, feel, etc., we can use either the infinitive or the nrpsent narficiple.

Look nt these examples:

Frankenstein watched his man-made person coming to life. Frankenstein watched his man-made person come to life.

The difference is the sense of duration of the activity. In the first example, the writer is

focusing on the process itself as the creature became alive. In the second example, the focus is on the result of the process. (Other uses of the non-finite form are discussed in

unit 4.12.)

WARNINC BOX

This use of the participles is formal and usually used only in writing. It is unusual,

therefore, for the participle phrase to be used with I or you.

A sentence must contain a finite form. When the form of the lexical verb is non-finite.

the primary verb or modal verb is in the finite form:

Dav-Lervis has appeared in many films. This house was built in 1900. We must receive an answer by Monday.

6

'rE) Jarl qllM luapl))e up perl aursg /flrslalrun aql 8u1,rea1 sp.\1 : *: -

3rq e auoraq plno.tr aqs lq8noql aqs ,ralnpord pooalfllog dol u ,(q uaas spm aqs ai - :- -

'll

nq ol palueM

lalerpauurr

auuy,asnoq aql Alps aqs _:_

'qo[ slq

dn a.tr8 ol paprrap r.ulorl€lN,azrrd dol aql papreMe sp,\{ aL{ _:_

E sE ralndruor e uanr8

sEM aus :;-_

:_

'lradxa ue au€Jaq lqrrnb aqs,luasard

'rll.o)sotrAl o1

padersa aq /lno punoJ spm ,{q1rq4

"

'a1drual

.,(q1reseql,re.1 aql slrsl^ ualJo aq 'sErpeI I ur salrl up-::

s€q atl ,aJueJC ur,{eprloq e sluum rpqal\ as_-.:::

sPllr eqs as:.:::

'araql puarrJ srq,ol ua]+rrm

'olaq roJ auoqd l,uplnor aqs ,lleJ aql Aq lrnq

'asror{ al{l slotluo) aq 'surar eql sploq ,{apo[ aq] a .- .

'00t s,nu znlq e 6vy1,tpseil"4 u""s lsvl ua\M

'00I IpnV anlq e Sur,rrrp seM aq ,ueas lspl sp.\l :

;11"1 id,ti1;ii,ta A i'",r1

fq fii;S

/ea4

'ilal arl

aql uory 3un,us u::_:

'nort to1:

:.

aaa4 saldwaxa awos'altutl-uou saunaq adfu ppq ur yad aql lutlj os molaq saruajuas :: _

o-tr: s :

'sn IIeJ 'arud ra.uo1 e ro1 8ur1oo1 ar,nof lne 'd1r1en: :' - -

ur pelsaralu! ar,nod Jr os suaqJlrl arelduor.uuro) aroru 1o aorrd aql JIeLI

lnoq€ lp ;.

:,

ratJo ol aAer{ az\a leqM 'slEAIJ Ino Jo asor{l ueql ssal JPJ lsoJ suaqJlil Jno 'tuoo.I.4,\ous -'

par(eldsrp se 'la1 'lU paJrad E arnsua o] slalrerq lle.l,r pue s3a1 alqelsnfpe a^pq daql s . - ,

rallaq luoq llrnq uoslrg le a./v\ lng

ale suaqJlr{ rno'sl€nu rno qllm pereduo3'tuaql Suouie lou

arE j-

'sl€ap ,o suos IIp no^,{ Surra;;o 'arar{l }no saruedruor uar{rlr) Jo lol e r:: . -

rrarto) aqt otut waql Bulltnd tiq adli' proq u! swroJ qtaa a41 /i/11uap1r#"1::,'llilrlrl,tr,"','

a

auo );:

sxsvr - sruroJ qra^ .I llul

're) raq qllm luapr))E ue peq ausA',{lrsra^run aq} Sur,reey sp,vr eqs sV r\

.IPIS

3rq e auoraq plnom aqs lqSnoql aqs 'reJnpord pooira,{11o11 do1 e ,{q ueas sem aqs asneJag

.,(lalerpaurur auuv 'asnoq arll MEs aqs uaqM

dol aql paprpme spm arl uaqM

'lradxa up aru€f,aq .,{qcrnb aqs 'luasard e se ralnduor B uarrr8 spm aqs raUV

')l ,{nq o} palue.4

'qof slr{ dn a.rrr8 o} paprJap ruloJlel{

'azud,

',\lo)sonl ol padeJsa aq 'lno PunoJ sP^/vr Aqlrqd uaqM 'a1drua1 ,{ql.reseqpe; aql slrsl^ uago aq 'serpptr l uI sa^ll ue1eg sV

araql puauJ srq o] urlluM spq aq'aJuer{ ur,{eprloq E slupM

dlaq .ro1 auoqd g,uplno) aqs

'llpJ

asne)ag

aql {q gnq sE,rr arls esnp)ag

Ipqehl

'asror{ ar{l slor}uo) ar{ 'surar aql splorl {apo[ aql al1qM

'001 ,nu 2n,g v Fu1,t1,tpseN"r4 u""s levl vt?4M

'001 IpnV anlq e bunrrp sp.ln aLI 'uaas lsel spm aq uarll\

.llal uezaeL."e l

.rn nto,! fv16u6g

'ilal aq 'aa4 aq1 ruor;3unms upzrel s\

:5alawa1 .

'noh tof ua4Jun ud;. aaaq saldtuaxa auos'alrutl-uou sauoraq adly ploq ut Ttod atft laLfl os mopq sa)ualuas aLfl alumal

o1t4l {sEI

'sn IIer 'acud ra.rtol e ro1 3u1>1oo1

ar,nod lnq '.,Qr1enb raq8ru

,ler{ lnoqe le ur sauro:

/urooJ,Mor.{s Ino u-

ur palsaralul ar,nod Jr oS 'suaqJlrl arelduounuor aroru 1o arrrd aql

raJJo o1 aaEq a./tt leqM 'sle^rJ Jno Jo asoql ueql ssai r€J lsoJ suaqJll{ rno

'lU

lcaJred arnsua ol slaT)erq

IIeM

uoslrM le a^{ lng

padeldslp se 'la1

rallaq uror1 llrnq arE suaqJlrT rno 'slplu rno qli^ pa,redruo3 'uaql Suoure lou arE

pue s8al alqelsn{pe alsq.,{aq1 'slerraleu;

i)llD T

'sleap to suos Ile nod turra;;o 'arar{l lno sarueduror uaqJlII Jo }ol e arp araql

j)atto) aqt otut waql Butl,trrl frq adhl ppq,t suto! qtaa aqt filluapr r#'r:::r';li:r:;l;tr;it*;::,

auo {sPI

a

sxsvr - srur0J qra^ .I +Iun

Unit 1.3 Verb forms - Tasks

Task three

\al Thinkoitentltinrsttouliketodoorutishu:ouldhappentoyou.Expressthemthroughtheuseof

otte ttf tht ttott-iinife frtrms. Some examples haae lseen zuritten fot you.

E.trt lr tt 1l-s: Wa lking throygh Un9 ParR i^ th7 ra!n,

(b) \

Plaging football wibh his fviends. Qiven a lot of mo^eJ.

;r'ij;rrrl.rrf

sotnctltingsomeltodqelsemiglttdoormighthnz:edone,u,hiledoittgthenboaeoras

.r lisr,lf rrt tr'/trtf hnd haTtpened to tltent. Some etamples hnz'e been it'trtten ior yott.

Fr,irrrrirs: Walklyg throu.gh Vne711kiy th7 rlin, Xlne s1w a

Playing foobball wibh his fr;ends, ket hurb his knce.

Qiven a lob of rr,ol.eJ, kathl wou)d tnvel uound Ete

worid,-

UNIT 1

4

ADVERBS, ADVERBIAL

PHRASES: position in the

sentence

The wedding is in May

Put the fish stock and the red chilli in the

liquidizer.

He shuggled on bravely.

The doctor sees only private patients on

Thursday.

The position for adverbs or adverbial phrases is usually at the end of the sentence. You may :rave been told that r.r'hen there is more than one adverb or adverbial phrase, the correct order

,s manner (answering the question HOW?), place (answering the question WHERE?), then fime (answering the question WHEN?).

For example, we can sav:

He works at home on Thursdays and Fridays. He works hard at home. He works hard on Thursdays and Fridays. rut it is unlikely that we would say the following:

He works on Thursdaqs and Fridays at home.

He works at home hard.

He works on Thurstlays and Fridavs hard.

:Jowever, there are occasions when we can change the order (see Unit 5.9).

.t is often said that adverbs and adverbial phrases, especially those of time, can be put at the

:.eginning of the sentence. This is true. It is not true, however, that it is not important whether

:hey come at the beginning