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Environmental influences

- Nature – Nurture
- Shared and non-shared environment

- Genetic influences – generates similarities between siblings

Environment infl. – dissimilarities between them

- Interaction with the environment:

1. Passive covariation
2. Reactive or evocative nature-nurture covariation
3. Active nature-nurture

Home environment and family

- Beginnings of environmental influences

- Starts before birth, during the last weeks prior their birth
- Infants are able to hear music and speech several weeks prior to their birth and can
recognize these after birth
- Trevarthen (1999–2000) has argued that the fetus feels the rhythms of the mother’s
body and hears the inflections—the melodic contours—of external noises, including
speech and music
- During the infant phase, the nonverbal communication (mother–infant cooing or
motherese) between child and mother or caretaker is crucial for communication
- The expressive communicative content of the parent–child interaction (e.g., emotions,
needs, mental states) is mediated primarily by musical parameters such as pitch,
melody, rhythm, tempo, and dynamics (Noy, 1968; Papoušek, 1996).
- without being aware of it parents provide their infants with a type of elementary
music education that stops with the acquisition of language (Papoušek & Papoušek,

Badur (1999) elenca as atividades musicais familiars que trarão benefício à criança:

- cantar e fazer música juntos

- atividades secundárias: attending concerts with the family, talking about music, and
practicing in the presence of parents may also be useful.

- atividades de prática musical só trarão acréscimo se a criança estiver inserida de forma


Maturzeuska (1995): Child-centered attitude of the parents with emphasis on the musical
education of the child • Deliberate organization and channeling of child’s interests, time,
and activities • At least one person in the family believing in the potential of the future
musician and encouraging the child • Music being a genuine value in family life • Emphasis
not being placed on a musical career but on enjoying making music • Praise and rewards
even for small successes • A positive emotional atmosphere for musical activity • Careful
selection of teachers and monitoring of musical development • Conscious and active
organization of a supportive and understanding network for the child, including personal
contacts to professional musicians and music teachers • Willingness to invest considerable
time and effort in musical activities

Davidson, Sloboda, and Howe (1995/1996): estudo com 257 children between the ages of
8 and 18 who had instrumental lessons and performed to varying levels of achievement
with regard to the role that parents and teachers played

- melhor desenvolvimento: crianças até 11 anos com acompanhamento dos pais

- depois dos 11 houve diminuição deste acompanhamento e uma maior independência
por parte dos músicos
- alunos com melhor desenvolvimento no início, sem acompanhamento dos pais,
tenderam a desistir na adolescência, momento em que os pais passam a ser ativos,
sem sucesso.

Ex: Armstrong 1. Early frequent and casual exposure to musical stimuli 2. Opportunities
over an extended period of time to explore the jazz musical medium 3. Early opportunities in
music to experience intense positive emotional or aesthetic states 4. An opportunity to amass
large numbers of hours of practice 5. A number of externally motivating factors such as role
model performers whom Armstrong used to watch to gain “informal tuition”

This example suggests that a successful career in music without noteworthy support of the
family background is possible but exceptional.

Teacher’s influence

they more or less influence musical tastes and values and are role models and hold a key
position with regard to motivation—for good or for bad.

Davidson et al. (1998): Professional qualifications, along with personality characteristics and
interpersonal skills, come into play