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by

Sameer Ranjan
11CH10039

1
Contents

Topic Page Number


Introduction 3
Theory 4
Degradation of Phenol by catalysis 7
Eley Riedel 8
Eley Riedel for Phenol degradation 10
Data Extraction for Phenol degradation 11
Calculations 14
Graph for rate 16
Data for regression 17
Code in R 19
Compiled Results 20
Results Summary 23
Photo-reactor design 24
References 26

2
1.0) Introduction

A photo-catalytic reaction is a process that must be preceded by absorption of radiation


of the appropriate energy by the catalyst. Upon radiation absorption the excited
molecule can be transformed, in one or more steps, into a product or it may be
converted into an intermediate species that can participate in subsequent reactions of
thermal nature as happens, for example, in chain reactions. Sometimes, radiation
absorption occurs in a particular molecule but definitive changes occur in others, as in
the case of photosensitized and photo-catalyzed reactions. Photochemical reactions are
attractive because photo-activation may be very selective. This advantage is the result
of a precise and controlled modification in the electronic state of a molecule by
radiation absorption. This selectivity is generally combined with a typical operating
condition: excitation of the reactant is performed by radiation energy of very poor
heating aptitudes and, consequently, photochemical reactions do not involve high
temperatures, nor are they generally required because of the involved activation
mechanism. This last condition means better equilibrium conditions for exothermic
reactions, more favorable conditions for operating in the liquid phase (instead of the gas
phase or the use of high pressures), and minimization of undesirable byproducts.

Despite these advantages, photochemical reactions are not very widely used in
industrial practice. They have been adopted when no alternative thermal or catalytic
process is available or the manufacturing scale is small and, very often, dedicated to
high added value products; then, the processing difficulties and the negative effects of
the operating and equipment costs are greatly reduced. In the past, one of the reasons
set forward to explain this situation was the lack of suitable reactor models and design
procedures and sufficient quantitative information regarding the pertinent physical and
chemical parameters

3
2.0) Theory

• In heterogeneous catalysis, the catalyst is in a different phase from the reactants.


• Transition metal oxides posses a void energy region where no energy levels are
available to promote recombination. The lower level is called valence band, the
upper level is called conduction band and the energy level gap between them is
called band gap.

• When a photon with energy equal to or greater than the materials’ band gap is
absorbed by semiconductor, an electron is excited from valence band to the
conduction band generating a positive hole in the valence band
• Exciton recombination is prevented through structural features such as
heterojunction, noble metal nanoparticles, silicon nanowires and substitutional
cation doping.
• Transition metals show variable valency and a strong tendency to form
coordination compounds.
• Some of the physiochemical properties of TiO2 which make it a good catalyst: -
(a) High surface area;
(b) Small crystalline size;
(c) Anatase form of TiO2;
(d) High crystallinity;

4
(e) Porous structure;
(f) Activation light source.

• Ti alkoxide (typically Titanium isopropoxide) is used for formation of TiO2.


• Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4 ---> TiO2.nH2O ---> Anatase TiO2 --->Rutile TiO2
(hydrolysis) (calcination) (calcination)

• At low temperatures generally amorphous form of TiO2 exists.


• Anatase has a band gap of 3.2 eV and Rutile has a band gap of 3 eV.
• Middle region in the above figure of the anatase region is the best for more
active sites.
• In general TiO2 excites under ultra violet light.
• Doping with non-metals, transition metals or dyes is used to increase activity
under visible light.
• Properties of TiO2 are strongly dependent on the dimensionality of their
structures.
• Non-metal doped TiO2 were found to be more promising than metal doped
counter parts. Main drawback however is increase in carrier recombination.

5
• Recently Metal-organic-frameworks have emerged as novel catalysts due to
catalytically active metal centers, functional organic linkers, easily tunable
properties in addition to large surface areas and well oriented porous structure.
• Stability of MOFs during the photocatalytic reaction is important because
reactions like pyrolyzation may destroy the framework.
• Generally thermal stability of MOFs is determined by the coordination number
and the local coordination environment.
• Another drawback is poor electronic conductivity which hampers charge transfer
from organic linker to metal cluster. Doping can largely boost electrical
conductivity and also one and two dimensional MOFs exhibit higher electronic
conductivity that three dimensional framework.
• Heterojunction photocatalysis is another way to prevent recombination. In this
method two semi-conductor metal oxides are coupled. It is also helpful to
increase visible light absorption of semiconductor photocatalyst.

6
2.1) Degradation of phenol by photocatalysis.
A wide variety of organic pollutants are introduced into the water system from various
sources, such as industrial effluents, agricultural run-off and chemical spills. Their
toxicity, stability to natural decomposition and persistence in the environment has been
the cause of much concern to the societies and regulation authorities around the world.
Phenol is a kind of refractory organic compound, having the toxicity of carcinogenesis,
teratogenesis and mutagenicity. The treatment of phenol in micro-polluted water has
always been paid attention by many researchers.

The traditional purification technique has been not suitable for the existing water
source and water quality standards. Therefore, it is necessary to develop low cost and
high efficient treatment technique.

Several specific new technologies, called Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP), have
been developed to eliminate dangerous chemicals such as organics from polluted
waters. The photocatalytic process, based on UV irradiated semiconductor, represents
one of AOP that provide an interesting route to the destruction of many organic
substances to CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids.

Semiconductor such as titanium dioxide TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation has


received much attention in environmental remediation field, especially for
mineralization of many toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in wastewater.
Among the photocatalysts, TiO2 (in anatase phase) has been most widely used because
it is easily available, inexpensive, non-toxic, and shows a relative high chemical stability.
The process of the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by the
semiconductor powders has been considered to be very promising. Under UV light
illumination, absorption of photons creates an electron-hole pair if the energy is higher
than the bandgap (3.2 eV) of TiO2. The pairs migrate at the surface, are trapped by the
titanium and OH surface groups, and finally from OH° and HO2° radicals. These free
radicals cause the oxidation of organic compounds.

TiO2 is doped with Fe (III) to increase its activity under visible light.

7
2.2) Eley Riedel model

According to this model of heterogenous catalysis, one reactant species is adsorbed


while, the second reactant species is not adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The reaction
then occurs when the passing gas molecules of B in gas phase directly react with
adsorbed species A.

8
9
2.3) Eley Rieldel for Phenol degradation derivation

A+B→C+D

A + S ⇌ AS

AS + B → C + D

r= (k.Co.Ka.Ca.Cb)/(1+Ka.Ca)

AS + B ⇌ CS + DS

r= kf .Cas.Cb-kb.Ccs.Cds

CS → C + S

DS → D + S

Ccs= Kc.Cc.Cv

Cds= Kc.Cd.Cv

Co= Cas + Ccs + Cds + Cv

Cv= Co/(1+Ka.Ca+Kc.Cc+Kd.Cd)

Cas= Ka.Ca.Cv; Ccs= Kc.Cc.Cv; Cds= Kd.Cd.Cv

Cas= Ka.Ca.Co/(1+Ka.Ca+Kc.Cc+Kd.Cd)

Ccs= Kc.Cc.Co/(1+Ka.Ca+Kc.Cc+Kd.Cd)

Cds= Kd.Cd.Co/(1+Ka.Ca+Kc.Cc+Kd.Cd)

So, r= kf .Cas.Cb-kb.Ccs.Cds

r= (kf.Ka.Ca.Co.Cb)-(kb.Kd.Kc.Cc.Cd.Co2)/(1+Ka.Ca+Kc.Cc+Kd.Cd)

10
3.0) Data Extraction for Phenol degradation.

Conditions of reactions taken: -

Fe(III)-doped TiO2= 0.5 g/L (M.Wt.=79.866g)

TiO2 concentration= 0.006 mol/L

pH = 3

Initial concentration of Phenol = 100 g/L (M.Wt.=94g)

Phenol concentration= 1.06 mol/L

Assumption of 1 litre solution

O2 initial moles are 100.

Phenol is the limiting reactant.

11
Data extraction by Web Plot Digitizer

Time (min) C/CO


0 1
17.31156 0.768542
18.40308 0.745163
20.53396 0.728192
22.31839 0.709086
24.46045 0.685732
26.23743 0.67088
28.02186 0.651774
30.14901 0.63693
33.32299 0.624239
36.84341 0.613684
41.07538 0.596763
44.93108 0.594727
49.48342 0.594834
53.70048 0.586423
58.62163 0.575901
61.79188 0.565338
65.65131 0.561174
70.21855 0.552771
76.52924 0.548665
82.49721 0.540296
88.46144 0.534054
84.95964 0.533971
79.33813 0.544476
72.66981 0.552829
91.98187 0.523498
94.79821 0.515054
98.65764 0.51089
102.1706 0.50459
104.6331 0.498266
107.4457 0.491949
110.6085 0.485641
114.1214 0.479341

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117.627 0.477296
121.4976 0.466749
124.6604 0.460441
128.5273 0.452022
132.3867 0.447858
136.2536 0.439439
140.1205 0.431019
144.3301 0.426864
149.24 0.422724
153.1069 0.414305
156.2697 0.407997
160.4719 0.408096
164.6703 0.410323
168.526 0.408287
172.7356 0.404131
175.5408 0.40207
178.7036 0.395761
182.9095 0.393733
186.7689 0.389569
190.2782 0.385397
193.0908 0.37908
195.5569 0.370628
199.0587 0.370711
203.2683 0.366555
206.7813 0.360255
210.9872 0.358227

13
4.0) Calculations for this data set.
Time C/CO Phenol CO2 H2O O2 moles Rate
(min) moles moles moles (moles/L(min))
0 1 1.06383 0 0 100 -
17.31156 0.768542 0.817598 1.477393 0.738697 98.27637 0.01422357
18.40308 0.745163 0.792727 1.626617 0.813309 98.10228 0.014731387
20.53396 0.728192 0.774673 1.734942 0.867471 97.9759 0.014081892
22.31839 0.709086 0.754346 1.8569 0.92845 97.83362 0.013866742
24.46045 0.685732 0.729502 2.005966 1.002983 97.65971 0.01366809
26.23743 0.67088 0.713703 2.100763 1.050382 97.54911 0.013344571
28.02186 0.651774 0.693376 2.222721 1.111361 97.40683 0.013220165
30.14901 0.63693 0.677585 2.317466 1.158733 97.29629 0.012811177
33.32299 0.624239 0.664084 2.398472 1.199236 97.20178 0.011996083
36.84341 0.613684 0.652856 2.465845 1.232922 97.12318 0.011154616
41.07538 0.596763 0.634854 2.573852 1.286926 96.99717 0.010443615
44.93108 0.594727 0.632688 2.586851 1.293426 96.98201 0.009595627
49.48342 0.594834 0.632802 2.586165 1.293082 96.98281 0.008710542
53.70048 0.586423 0.623855 2.639851 1.319926 96.92017 0.008193134
58.62163 0.575901 0.612661 2.707013 1.353506 96.84182 0.007696285
61.79188 0.565338 0.601423 2.774439 1.387219 96.76316 0.007483288
65.65131 0.561174 0.596994 2.801018 1.400509 96.73215 0.007110845
70.21855 0.552771 0.588054 2.854652 1.427326 96.66957 0.006775635
76.52924 0.548665 0.583686 2.880861 1.440431 96.639 0.006273988
82.49721 0.540296 0.574782 2.934284 1.467142 96.57667 0.005928047
88.46144 0.534054 0.568142 2.974126 1.487063 96.53019 0.005603432
84.95964 0.533971 0.568054 2.974655 1.487327 96.52957 0.005835427
79.33813 0.544476 0.57923 2.907599 1.453799 96.6078 0.006108031
72.66981 0.552829 0.588116 2.854282 1.427141 96.67 0.006546235
91.98187 0.523498 0.556913 3.041499 1.52075 96.45158 0.005511048
94.79821 0.515054 0.54793 3.095397 1.547699 96.3887 0.005442081
98.65764 0.51089 0.5435 3.121976 1.560988 96.35769 0.005274091
102.1706 0.50459 0.536798 3.162189 1.581094 96.31078 0.005158347
104.6331 0.498266 0.53007 3.20256 1.60128 96.26368 0.005101255
107.4457 0.491949 0.52335 3.242878 1.621439 96.21664 0.005030259
110.6085 0.485641 0.516639 3.283143 1.641571 96.16967 0.004947094

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114.1214 0.479341 0.509937 3.323355 1.661678 96.12275 0.004853536
117.627 0.477296 0.507762 3.336407 1.668203 96.10753 0.004727384
121.4976 0.466749 0.496542 3.403727 1.701863 96.02899 0.004669129
124.6604 0.460441 0.489831 3.443992 1.721996 95.98201 0.0046045
128.5273 0.452022 0.480874 3.497732 1.748866 95.91931 0.004535655
132.3867 0.447858 0.476445 3.524311 1.762156 95.8883 0.00443689
136.2536 0.439439 0.467488 3.578051 1.789025 95.82561 0.004376706
140.1205 0.431019 0.458531 3.63179 1.815895 95.76291 0.004319843
144.3301 0.426864 0.45411 3.658317 1.829158 95.73196 0.00422448
149.24 0.422724 0.449707 3.684738 1.842369 95.70114 0.004115001
153.1069 0.414305 0.44075 3.738477 1.869239 95.63844 0.004069572
156.2697 0.407997 0.434039 3.778742 1.889371 95.59147 0.00403015
160.4719 0.408096 0.434145 3.778108 1.889054 95.59221 0.003923957
164.6703 0.410323 0.436514 3.763894 1.881947 95.60879 0.003809525
168.526 0.408287 0.434348 3.776893 1.888446 95.59362 0.003735223
172.7356 0.404131 0.429927 3.803419 1.90171 95.56268 0.003669789
175.5408 0.40207 0.427734 3.816577 1.908288 95.54733 0.003623637
178.7036 0.395761 0.421023 3.856842 1.928421 95.50035 0.003597057
182.9095 0.393733 0.418865 3.869788 1.934894 95.48525 0.003526142
186.7689 0.389569 0.414435 3.896367 1.948184 95.45424 0.003476995
190.2782 0.385397 0.409997 3.923 1.9615 95.42317 0.003436197
193.0908 0.37908 0.403277 3.963318 1.981659 95.37613 0.003420945
195.5569 0.370628 0.394285 4.017269 2.008634 95.31319 0.003423784
199.0587 0.370711 0.394373 4.01674 2.00837 95.3138 0.003363111
203.2683 0.366555 0.389952 4.043267 2.021633 95.28286 0.003315212
206.7813 0.360255 0.38325 4.083479 2.041739 95.23594 0.003291302
210.9872 0.358227 0.381092 4.096425 2.048213 95.22084 0.003235919

15
5.0) Graph for above rate calculation

Rate vs Time
0.016

0.014

0.012
Rate (moles/L(min))

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (minutes)

16
6.0) Data Arrangement for regression

Rate Ca.Co.Cb Cc.Cd.Co2 Ca Cc Cd


(moles/L.min)
0.014224 0.482103 3.93E-05 0.817598 1.477393 0.738697
0.014731 0.46661 4.76E-05 0.792727 1.626617 0.813309
0.014082 0.455396 5.42E-05 0.774673 1.734942 0.867471
0.013867 0.442803 6.21E-05 0.754346 1.8569 0.92845
0.013668 0.427458 7.24E-05 0.729502 2.005966 1.002983
0.013345 0.417726 7.94E-05 0.713703 2.100763 1.050382
0.01322 0.405237 8.89E-05 0.693376 2.222721 1.111361
0.012811 0.395559 9.67E-05 0.677585 2.317466 1.158733
0.011996 0.387301 0.000104 0.664084 2.398472 1.199236
0.011155 0.380445 0.000109 0.652856 2.465845 1.232922
0.010444 0.369474 0.000119 0.634854 2.573852 1.286926
0.009596 0.368156 0.00012 0.632688 2.586851 1.293426
0.008711 0.368226 0.00012 0.632802 2.586165 1.293082
0.008193 0.362785 0.000125 0.623855 2.639851 1.319926
0.007696 0.355987 0.000132 0.612661 2.707013 1.353506
0.007483 0.349174 0.000139 0.601423 2.774439 1.387219
0.007111 0.346491 0.000141 0.596994 2.801018 1.400509
0.006776 0.341082 0.000147 0.588054 2.854652 1.427326
0.006274 0.338441 0.000149 0.583686 2.880861 1.440431
0.005928 0.333063 0.000155 0.574782 2.934284 1.467142
0.005603 0.329057 0.000159 0.568142 2.974126 1.487063
0.005835 0.329004 0.000159 0.568054 2.974655 1.487327
0.006108 0.335749 0.000152 0.57923 2.907599 1.453799
0.006546 0.341119 0.000147 0.588116 2.854282 1.427141
0.005511 0.322291 0.000167 0.556913 3.041499 1.52075
0.005442 0.316886 0.000172 0.54793 3.095397 1.547699
0.005274 0.314223 0.000175 0.5435 3.121976 1.560988
0.005158 0.310197 0.00018 0.536798 3.162189 1.581094
0.005101 0.306159 0.000185 0.53007 3.20256 1.60128
0.00503 0.30213 0.000189 0.52335 3.242878 1.621439
0.004947 0.29811 0.000194 0.516639 3.283143 1.641571
0.004854 0.294099 0.000199 0.509937 3.323355 1.661678
0.004727 0.292798 0.0002 0.507762 3.336407 1.668203
0.004669 0.286095 0.000209 0.496542 3.403727 1.701863
0.004604 0.28209 0.000213 0.489831 3.443992 1.721996

17
0.004536 0.276751 0.00022 0.480874 3.497732 1.748866
0.004437 0.274113 0.000224 0.476445 3.524311 1.762156
0.004377 0.268784 0.00023 0.467488 3.578051 1.789025
0.00432 0.263462 0.000237 0.458531 3.63179 1.815895
0.004224 0.260837 0.000241 0.45411 3.658317 1.829158
0.004115 0.258225 0.000244 0.449707 3.684738 1.842369
0.00407 0.252916 0.000252 0.44075 3.738477 1.869239
0.00403 0.248943 0.000257 0.434039 3.778742 1.889371
0.003924 0.249005 0.000257 0.434145 3.778108 1.889054
0.00381 0.250408 0.000255 0.436514 3.763894 1.881947
0.003735 0.249125 0.000257 0.434348 3.776893 1.888446
0.00367 0.24651 0.00026 0.429927 3.803419 1.90171
0.003624 0.245213 0.000262 0.427734 3.816577 1.908288
0.003597 0.241247 0.000268 0.421023 3.856842 1.928421
0.003526 0.239973 0.00027 0.418865 3.869788 1.934894
0.003477 0.237358 0.000273 0.414435 3.896367 1.948184
0.003436 0.234739 0.000277 0.409997 3.923 1.9615
0.003421 0.230778 0.000283 0.403277 3.963318 1.981659
0.003424 0.225483 0.00029 0.394285 4.017269 2.008634
0.003363 0.225535 0.00029 0.394373 4.01674 2.00837
0.003315 0.222934 0.000294 0.389952 4.043267 2.021633
0.003291 0.218995 0.0003 0.38325 4.083479 2.041739
0.003236 0.217728 0.000302 0.381092 4.096425 2.048213

18
7.0) Code for regression approximation in R

19
8.0) Compiled Results in R

20
21
22
9.0) Results summary
K-terms Values
kf.Ka 3.057e-02
kb.Kd.Kc -1.608e+01
Ka 0.34460
Kc 0.064076
Kd 0.12815

R-squared 0.9741
p-value < 2.2e-16
Standard Error 10-3

Rate vs Time
0.016
0.014
→Actual curve
Rate (moles/L(min))

0.012
0.01

0.008 ER- Model
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (minutes)

23
10.0) Basic Design for photo-reactor.
From the extracted data, time for 99% conversion is 328 minutes.

rA= {[3.057e-02.Cao(1-X).Co.(Cbo-7CaoX)]-[1.608e+01.6(CaoX).(3CaoX).Co2]
(1+0.34460.Cao(1-x)+(0.064076.6CaoX)+(0.12815.3CaoX))

Design equation for Batch reactor,

NA0=1.06 , Cao=1.06, Cbo=100, Co=0.006


.
= (NA0/V) /−rA

On solving using Wolfram Alpha, we get V=505 mL (this is the minimum area required
for 1.06 moles of Phenol)

For the given data Phenol Concentration= 100gm/L

If we take this as the minimum concentration for phenol, then in 505 ml of reactor only
0.537 moles of Phenol will be present instead of 1.06, so twice the volume calculated
above is taken. Also, for maximum concentration where in 1 litre 1.06 moles of phenol
are present, we do not want the reactor to be fully filled and have a clearance of atleast
20-25%.

So final volume of reactor = 2.2 X 505 ~ 1200 mL

We are considering the reactor as an annular cylindermade of glass, with the annulus
space for the reactor and the inner cylinder for light.

For the light, we use CFL lamp with λ>400nm, to cutoff wavelength lesser than 400nm,
we use a cutoff filter inside the inner quartz tube cylinder.

Say, Ro = Outer diameter and Ri = Inner diameter and keeping height of reactor H as 15
cm

V= π(Ro2-Ri2)H; Keeping = 5; H=15cm and V=1200cm3

Ro = 5.15 cm and Ri = 1.03 cm

24
Photo-reactor Summary
Total Volume 1.2 L
Outer Radius 5.15 cm
Inner Radius 1.03 cm
Height 15 cm
Material Glass
Type Annular
Wavelength λ > 400 nm
Phenol Concentration 100g/L

25
11.0) References
[1] TiO2 photocatalysis: Design and applications by Kazuya Nakata, Akira Fujishima in
the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews 13 (2012)
169– 189.

[2] Polyoxometalate-based molecular/nano composites: Advances in environmental


remediation by photocatalysis and biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion by
Radhakrishnan Sivakumar, Jesty Thomas, Minjoong Yoon in the Journal of
Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews 13 (2012) 277– 298.

[3] Visible-light activation of TiO2 photocatalysts: Advances in theory and experiments


by Vinodkumar Etacheria,b, Cristiana Di Valentin, Jenny Schneider, Detlef Bahnemann,
Suresh C. Pillai in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry
Reviews 25 (2015) 1–29.

[4] Design of Photocatalytic Reactor for Degradation of Phenol in Wastewater by


R. M. Abhang, Deepak Kumar and S. V. Taralkar in the International Journal of Chemical
Engineering and Applications, Vol. 2 , No. 5 , October 2011.

[5] Photoelectrochemistry, Photocatalysis and Photoreactors; Funadamental and


Developments by Mario Schiavello (Editor).

[6] Investigation of photocatalytic degradation of phenol by Fe(III)-doped TiO2 and TiO2


Nanoparticles by Saeedeh Hemmati Borji, Simin Nasseri, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ramin
Nabizadeh and Amir Hossein Javadi in the Journal of Environmental Health Science &
Engineering 2014, 12:101.

[7] Photocatalytic reactors by M. Bouchy and O. Zahraa in the INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL


OF PHOTOENERGY Vol. 05, 2003.

[8] Semiconductor heterojunction photocatalysts: design, construction, and


photocatalytic performances by Huanli Wang, Lisha Zhang, Zhigang Chen, Junqing Hu,
Shijie Li, Zhaohui Wang, Jianshe Liu and Xinchen Wang in Chem. Soc. Rev., 2014,
43, 5234.

[9] Metal–organic frameworks for photocatalysis by Prof. Jinhua Ye in Phys. Chem.


Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 7563.

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[10] Photoreactor Analysis and Design: Fundamentals and Applications by Alberto E.
Cassano, Carlos A. Martin, Rodolfo J. Brandi, and Orlando M. Alfano in Ind. Eng. Chem.
Res. 1995, 34, 2155—2201.

[11] Photoreactors for Wastewater Treatment: A Review by Ewa Kowalska and Sven Rau
in Recent Patents on Engineering · November 2010.

[12] Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol and Phenol Derivatives Using a Nano-TiO2


Catalyst: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Factors Using Response Surface
Methodology by Marissa Choquette-Labbé, Wudneh A. Shewa, Jerald A. Lalman and
Saravanan R. Shanmugam in Water Journal, June 2014.

[13] NPTEL Course: Catalyst Science and Technology, Module 2 Heterogeneous Catalysis,
Lecture 19 Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics, page 7.

[14] NPTEL Course: Nano structured materials- synthesis, properties, self assembly and
applications, Module 4, Photocatalysis – III.

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