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Experiment 2: Resultant and Equilibrant Forces

Demi Louise Go, Vheverli Whendel Go, Marc Lennard Ip, Daphne Sophia Javellana, Heather
Allison Lao, Ryan Christopher Laranang

Department of Math and Physics


College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila Philippines

Abstract performing together. the resultant pressure is


determined by the parallelogram law of
The purpose of doing this vectors. The equilibrant of two or more
Experiment is to lead-in into Force,
forces is that unrelated force so that you can
specifically into Resultant and Equilibrium balance all of the ​different forces taken
for which are vector quantity. In this collectively. It's far identical in importance
Experiment the force table is used to but contrary in direction to the resultant
demonstrate the interactions of Force. The pressure.
Method of this experiment the gold circular
ring is pulled by three strings with an 2. Theory
balanced weight of 100g each string and
must remain in the center of the Force table This experiment is primarily about
assuming its in the Equilibrium state. The forces. A force is a type of vector quantity
student uses the analytical and graphical which contains a magnitude and direction.
There are several ways possible in obtaining
method to determined the resultant of
the sum of forces. When adding two or more
several forces. forces, the Graphical or Analytical method
may be utilised. The Graphical method may
1. Introduction be subdivided into two methods namely; the
Triangle Method of Addition or the
On this lab, we are going to use the Parallelogram Method of Addition and the
first law of equilibrium forces which will Polygon Method. The Parallelogram Method
examine the approach of vector portions. A is used when adding two forces graphically
good way to do this, we should understand while the Polygon Method on the other hand
may be used in getting the sum of three or
step one to measure the validity of this
more forces. By using the Graphical method,
regulation is to feature the vectors all of the we are acquiring the resultant (R) of these
forces performing on the desk bound item, forces.
after which recognise the amount of the
consequent pressure differs from the The Analytical method is employed
anticipated value of pressure. the ensuing in order to determine the vertical and
force is that unrelated force which appearing horizontal component vectors and the
magnitude and direction of a resultant
alone could have the equal impact in vector. It focuses on applying geometry and
magnitude and course as two or more forces simple trigonometry instead of rulers and
protractors. The Equilibrant of a ​force may pulleys to weight holders. The direction of
also be acquired since it has the same each force is read on the circular scale of the
magnitude but is in the opposite direction. force table. Second, the group used the 3
forces that acted at different angles. Then
The following formulas listed below
are utilised in the experiment: designated the resultant ​Fa ​of the two forces
F1 ​and ​F2​, ​Fb ​for resultant of ​F2 ​and ​F3​,
a. Resultant of two forces for Graphical and ​Fc for the resultant of ​F3 ​and ​F1​. Next,
method computed for the magnitudes of the
​R​ ​= F​1​ + F​2 following. Then extend each resultant into
opposite direction. Using all three forces,
b. Horizontal component determine if they are in equilibrium by
(Fx-component) checking if their resultant is zero. By using
component method, compute for the
resultant of the three forces. In the last step,
c. Vertical the group used graphical method to compute
component (Fy-component) for the resultant of the three forces and
different methods like polygon and
analytical method and calculated the
d. Pythagorean theorem percentage error.

e. Direction

3. Methodology

To determine the resultant and


equilibrant, we used the force table, weights,
weight hangers, protractor and ruler. First,
the group mounted the force table such that
its surface is horizontal. As the ring served
as the object on which the forces acted upon.
A pin within the ring prevented the motion
of the ring before the equilibrium is
established. Forces are applied by strings
that start from the ring and passed over the
F3 0.98 N 60​°Q3 -0.49 -0,85

F1 0.98 N 14​°Q1 0.95 0.24


0.76 52.98​°
F3 0.98 N 60​°Q3 -0.49 -0.85

Table 2. Resultant Forces

From the experiment, the group was


able to calculate the equilibrant forces as
well as the resultant forces of F​1​, F​2​, and F​3
which were placed on a ring with weights
applied. When the three forces were at
equilibrium, one of them would be the
4. ​Results and Discussion equilibrant force. The two other forces
would then have the same magnitude with
Table 1 illustrates the values of x and the equilibrant forces but in an opposite
direction resulting to a different quadrant.
y of F​1 with F​2​, F​2 with F​3​, and F​1 with F​3
using the component method. It also shows 5. Conclusion
the resultant theorem obtained by the
Pythagorean theorem. Table 2 illustrates the Resultant is the force that causes the
experimental equilibrant, experimental movement or displacement of a body, while
resultant and computed resultant of the an equilibrant is the force that cancels out
forces. The results have been gathered and the resultant forces, keeping the body at rest.
Using the force table setup with three strings
shown through the graphs. that has weights tied at its ends attached
around a ring stabilized at the center of the
Table 1. Resultant Forces table, the researchers obtained a specific
Magnitude Direction x y R θ magnitude of 0.98N for Forces 1, 2 and 3
with directions of 14° angle in Quadrant I,
F1 0.98 N 14​°,Q1 0.95 0.24
1.04 72.09​°
50° angle in Quadrant II and 60° angle in
F2 0.98 N 50​°Q2 -0.63 0.75 Quadrant III, respectively. The experimental
equilibrants are then determined as having
F2 0.98 N 50​°Q2 -0.63 0.75 the same magnitude of 0.98N for all three
1.12 5.10​°
forces with F​1 having a 14° angle in
Quadrant I, F​2 a 50° angle in Quadrant II force or which brings the system and the
and F​3 a 60° angle in Quadrant III. On the body to equilibrium. It keeps the body at rest
other hand, the experimental resultants still (i.e. in equilibrium); The set of forces which
has 0.98N magnitude with F​1​, a 14° angle in keeps the body at rest is known as
Quadrant III; F​2​, a 50° angle in Quadrant IV equilibrium forces or components of
and F​3​, ​a 60° angle in Quadrant I. equilibrant.

By using the component method, the 2) If three concurrent forces are in


researchers determined the resultant forces equilibrium, what is the relation between
and their corresponding directions. The any one of the three forces and the resultant
computed values of magnitude and direction of the other two forces?
are as follows for F​1​, F​2 and F​3​: 1.12N with
5.10° angle in Quadrant III, 0.76N with The concurrent forces are the
52.98° angle in Quadrant IV and 72.09° in resultant forces of the possible combinations
Quadrant I. of any two forces. Any one that is not added
to the other two will be the equilibrant force.
It can be concluded from the Since the equilibrant force makes the forces
experiment that the experimental and go under the state of equilibrium, the sum of
calculated values of the resultant and the equilibrant force and the resultant force
equilibrant forces are accurate as the values is zero. That means that they have the same
are not far from each other. Any magnitude but different direction.
discrepancies may be due to certain
systematic errors regarding the set-up, such 3) If two forces with the same
as the surface of the objects placed under the magnitude were exactly in opposite
strings of the weights on the force table may directions, what is the magnitude and
not have been smooth or slippery enough, direction of their resultant? What is the
causing the weights to appear balanced magnitude and direction of their equilibrant?
because of friction.
Since the two forces have the same
6. Applications magnitude but opposite directions, they will
just cancel out. The resultant will have a
1) Differentiate the resultant and magnitude of 0 N and there will be no
equilibrant of two forces. direction. Since the two forces have a
magnitude of 0 N, the equilibrant will also
A resultant force of two forces is a have a magnitude of 0 N and there will be
single force which can produce the same also no direction.
effect on the body as it is produced by all the
forces acting together. It causes the 4) Use the component method to find
displacement of a body (i.e. body moves). the magnitude and direction of the resultant
The sets of forces which causes the of the following forces:
displacement of a body are called as
components of resultant or component A = 2000.0 N at 0˚
forces. On the other hand, an equilibrant of B = 1500.0 N at 60˚
two forces acting on a body is a single force C = 1000.0 N at 150˚
which cancels the effect of the resultant D = 3800.0 N at 225˚
x y

2000 N (cos
2000 N (sin 0˚)
A 0˚)
=0N
= ​2000 N

1500 N (cos 1500 N (sin


B 60˚) 60˚)
= 750 N = 1299 N
In order to offset the weight of the body,
1000 N (cos 1000 N (sin T 1y must be equal to it.
C 150˚) 150˚)
= − 866 N = 500 N T 1y = 100.0 N
3800 N (cos 3800 N (sin T 1 (sin 60˚) = 100.0 N
D 225˚) 225˚) T 1 = 115.5 N
= − 2687 N = − 2687 N
Since the body is not moving, there is
R − 803 N − 888 N equilibrium between T 2 and T1x.

2 2
T 1x = 115.5 N (cos 60˚)
R=
√( ∑Fx ) ( )+ ∑Fy T 1x = 57.75 N

T 2 = T 1x
T 2 = 57.75 N
R= √(− 803) 2
+ (− 888) 2

7. References
Magnitude of R = 1197.23 N
[1]Barwad, R. (2014, August 16).
∑ Fy
Difference between Resultant and
θ = tan−1 + 180˚
∑ Fx
Equilibrants. Retrieved September 6,
2018, from
https://www.polytechnichub.com/dif
θ = tan−1 ( −888 N
−803 N )
+ 180˚ ference-between-resultant-and-equili
brants/
θ = 47.88˚ + 180˚

Direction of R = 227.88˚

5) A body weighing 100.0 N is


suspended by a rope. A second rope attached
to the body is drawn aside horizontally until
the suspended rope makes an angle of 30˚
with vertical. Find the tension in each rope.