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EGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics

† Static equilibrium of above element leads to ΔP = P2 − P1 = ρ g Δz (*)


N
γs≡
specific
weight

• ΔP ∝ ρ (and is usually negligible in gases for small changes in


depth)
• If point 1 is taken at the “free surface” open to the atmosphere then
P = P2 = Patm + ρ gh

o Leads to definition of gage pressure Pgage = ρ gh


(amount pressure is above local atmospheric
pressure)
o Similar concepts for absolute and vacuum pressures

ΔP dP
• From (*), lim Δz = = − ρ g (− sign comes from z
Δz →0 dz
direction positive upward so that dP <0 when dz >0)
G G
• General Vector Form: ∇p = ρ g or
G ⎛ ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ ˆ⎞
∇P = ⎜ iˆ + j + k ⎟ P = − ρ gkˆ . Can you see that this
⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠
reduces to

3 Lou Cattafesta
MAE Dept.
University of Florida
EGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics
∂P ⎫
= 0 → P ≠ P( x)⎪
∂x ⎪
∂P ⎬ P = P ( z ) only
= 0 → P ≠ P ( y )⎪
∂y ⎪⎭

∂P dP
= = −ρ g
∂z dz
2
• We can integrate ΔP = P2 − P1 = − ∫ ρ gdz if we know ρ ( z )
1

and g ( z )
• If ρ ≈ const and g ≈ const ΔP = ρ g ( z1 − z2 ) = ρ g Δz
† Reasonable for small depth changes
2
ρ ( z)
• For stratified fluids w/ const g , ΔP = − ρ H 2O g ∫ρ dz
1
N
H 2O
≡ SG
• Example:

ρ3 > ρ 2 > ρ1 Why?

⎡ ⎤
ΔP = P1 − Patm = Pgage = − ρ H 2O g ⎢ ∫ SG1dz + ∫ SG2 dz + ∫ SG3dz ⎥
⎣1 2 3 ⎦
= ρ H 2O g [ SG1h1 + SG2 h2 + SG3h3 ]

4 Lou Cattafesta
MAE Dept.
University of Florida
EGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics
2
† Other Consequences of ΔP = − ∫ ρ gdz
1
• P changes with depth but is constant in other directions, so
Æ P in a fluid at rest is independent of the shape of the container
Æ P is the same at all points on a horizontal plane in same fluid

Æ Pascal’s law: pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the


pressure throughout by the same amount.
Application: Hydraulic Piston

P1 = P2
F1 F2 A
= → F2 = F1 2 Æ hydraulic lever arm
A1 A2 A
N1
1

5 Lou Cattafesta
MAE Dept.
University of Florida
EGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics

Lecture 5
2
† Manometer (based on ΔP = − ρ gdz ) ∫1

o Used to measure ΔP between 2 points in a fluid at rest


o consists of a glass or plastic U-tube containing one or more fluids such as
mercury, water, alcohol, or oil

o Example: We wish to measure the gage pressure in the tank.


ƒ Step 1: Assume pressure changes in gas are negligible compared
to those in the liquid column Æ P1 = PGas
ƒ Step 2: P1 = P2 since same height in same fluid
ƒ Step 3: P2 − Patm = ρ gh >0 since pressure increase with depth
ƒ Solution: Pgage = PGas − Patm = ρ gh
o Surface Tension Effects: (Read Section 2-7)
ƒ Read middle of meniscus away from edge regions dominated by
surface tension (capillary) effects
ƒ Avoid use of very small diameter tubes

Example 3-3 Measuring Pressure with a Multifluid Manometer

The water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the pressure is measured by a


multifluid manometer as shown. The tank is located on a mountain
at an altitude of 1400 m where the atmospheric pressure is 85.6 kPa.
Determine the air pressure in the tank if h1 = 0.1 m, h2 = 0.2 m, and h3 =
0.35 m. Take the densities of water, oil, and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3,
850 kg/m3, and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively.

6 Lou Cattafesta
MAE Dept.
University of Florida
EGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics

SOLUTION The air pressure in the tank is to be determined.


Assumption Neglect the variation in air pressure in the tank with elevation due to
its low density.
Properties The densities of water, oil, and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3,
850 kg/m3, and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively.
Analysis Starting with the pressure at point 1 at the air–water interface,
moving along the tube by adding or subtracting the ρgh terms until we reach
point 2, and setting the result equal to Patm since the tube is open to the
atmosphere gives
P1 + ρ water gh1 + ρ oil gh2 − ρ Hg gh3 = Patm
Solving for P1 and substituting,
P1 = Patm + ρ Hg gh3 − ρ water gh1 − ρoil gh2
⎡(13600 kg m3 ) ( 0.35 m ) ⎤
⎢ ⎥ 1kPa
= 85.6 kPa − ( 9.81m s ) ⎢ − (1000 kg m ) ( 0.1m ) ⎥ ×
2 3

⎢ ⎥ 1000 Pa
⎢ − ( 850 kg m3 ) ( 0.2 m ) ⎥
⎣ ⎦
= 130 kPa

Discussion Is this configuration (with oil as the fluid on top) stable?

7 Lou Cattafesta
MAE Dept.
University of Florida
EGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics
† Barometer (used to measure atmospheric pressure)

Analysis
o PB = Patm = PC + ρ gh
o PC = PHgvap ≈ 0 Æ Patm = ρ gh
o Notes:
1. length and the cross-sectional area (neglecting capillary effect) of
the tube have no effect on the height of the fluid column of a
barometer
2. standard atmosphere ≡ P produced by a column of mercury 760
mm in height = 29.92 inHg at 0°C.
3. If water is used, a water column of about 10.3 m would be needed.
4. Weather forecasters frequently quote pressure in terms of the
height of the mercury column.
5. 1 mmHg = 1 torr

† Other Pressure Measurement Devices


Bourdon tube Æ tube uncurls due to
applied pressure
Æ deflection of end is calibrated vs.
pressure

8 Lou Cattafesta
MAE Dept.
University of Florida
EGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics
MEMS Piezoresistive (silicon strain
gauge) diaphragm
Æsee projects in our web page
http://www.img.ufl.edu/index.htm
Æ based on sensing the deflection of the
diaphragm due to a differential pressure
force across the diaphragm
Æ image at right shows a 1 mm diameter
diaphragm with 4 piezoresistors that
form the 4 legs of a Wheatstone brige

9 Lou Cattafesta
MAE Dept.
University of Florida