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Nov 13, 2018

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FLUID

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FLUID

© All Rights Reserved

- RC pier-f(Box & Girder).xls
- (Thiet Bi)Boue de Forage
- Abstract & conclusion.docx
- Viscosity
- Oil Grades for BearingDynamic Viscosity
- Topic 1- Latest Sem Dec-mac 2014
- Characterization of chitosan in acetic acid.pdf
- 1974_Die Swell and Melt Fracture- Effects of Molecular Weight Distribution
- gene project.ppt
- postfile_14968
- Ammar Hafez Presentation SP2019
- Transport Phenomena in Material Processing (good).pdf
- Studies of the Reduction of Pipe Friction With the Non-Newtonian Additive CMC
- Rotational Viscometer
- Mains Fluids Paper-1 Ezyexamsolutions
- Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Mechanical Engineering Questions and Answers1
- Evonik
- Scheid_The Role of Surface Rheology in Liquid Film Formation
- Jchps 9(4) 171 Shubrajit Bhaumik 40 2624-2626
- LTRC Final Report 519 Evaluation of Dynamic Shear Rheometer Tests for Emulsions

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

i. Define fluid

ii. State the differences between solid and fluid

iii. Calculate common fluid properties when

appropriate information are given.

iv. Define Newton’s Law of viscosity; relationship

between shear stress and rate of shear strain

1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

– Familiar: pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m.

– Less familiar: viscosity, thermal conductivity, modulus of

elasticity, thermal expansion coefficient, vapor pressure, surface

tension.

• Intensive properties are independent of the mass of the

system. Examples: temperature, pressure, and density.

• Extensive properties are those whose value depends on

the size of the system. Examples: Total mass, total

volume, and total momentum.

• Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific

properties. Examples include specific volume v = V/m

and specific total energy e=E/m.

1.1 FLUIDS

• Although differ in many respects, liquids and gases have common

characteristics in which they are differ from solids.

• Liquid and gas are fluids: in contrast to solids, they (fluid) lack the ability to

resist deformation. Because a fluid cannot resist the deformation force, it

moves, it flows under the action of the force. Its shape will change

continuously as long as the force is applied.

• A solid can resist a deformation force while at rest, this force may cause

some displacement but the solid does not continue to move indefinitely

FLUID

Deforming continuously

Flow under the action Unable to retain any

for as long as the force

of such forces unsupported shape

applied

3

1.1 FLUIDS

What is a fluid?

• Distinction between solid and fluid?

– Solid: can resist(oppose) an applied shear by deforming. Stress is

proportional to strain

– Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear. Stress is proportional to

strain rate

Solid Fluid

F V

F

A h

A

1.1 FLUIDS

area.

• Normal component: normal stress

– In a fluid at rest, the normal stress

is called pressure

• Tangential component: shear stress

1.1 FLUIDS

container it is in and forms a free

surface in the presence of gravity

• A gas expands until it encounters

the walls of the container and fills

the entire available space. Gases

cannot form a free surface

• Gas and vapor are often used as

synonymous words

1.1 FLUIDS

• Liquids (generally incompressible) and gases (compressible)

• Liquids – takes shape with side and bottom

– Top or uniform level

– Liquid pours out (viscous) Focus of this course

• Gases – expand to completely fill space

– Gas escapes container

1.1 FLUIDS

A fluid is defined as

any matter that

flows when force is

applied.

silver are kinds of

fluid.

Forces in fluids

Forces in fluids are more complicated

than forces in solids because fluids can

change shape.

Pressure

A force applied to a fluid creates

pressure.

Pressure acts in all directions, not just

the direction of the applied force.

No-slip condition

``sticks'‘ to the surface due to viscous effects

• Responsible for generation of wall shear stress w,

• surface drag D= ∫w dA, and the development of the

boundary layer

• The fluid property responsible for the no-slip condition is

viscosity

1.1 FLUIDS

• Deforming is caused by shearing forces, i.e. forces such as F (refer Figure

1.1), which act tangentially to the surfaces to which they are applied and

causes the material originally occupying the space ABCD to deform AB’C’D.

B B’ C C’

F

ø x

E

y

A D

Figure 1.1: Deformation caused by shearing forces

We can then say:

A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously, or flows,

when subjected to shearing forces.

On the other hand, this definition means the very important

point that:

If a fluid is at rest, there are no shearing forces acting. All

forces must be perpendicular to the planes which they are

12

acting.

1.2 SHEAR STRESS IN A MOVING FLUID

the particles of the fluid move relative to each other so they

have different velocities, causing the original shape of fluid

to become distorted.

• If the velocity of fluid is the same at every point, no shear

stresses will be produced, since the fluid particles are at

rest relative to each other.

• The force per unit area, F/A is the shear stress τ and the

deformation, measured by angle ø (the shear strain), will be

proportional to the shear stress.

• The shear strain ø will continue to increase with time and

the fluid will flow.

• The rate of shear strain (or shear strain per unit time) is

directly proportional to the shear stress.

13

1.2 SHEAR STRESS IN A MOVING FLUID

distance x.

B B’ C C’ F

• If E is a distance y from AD then, for a small angles,

ø x

E

y

A D

x

Shear strain ,

y

x (x / t ) u

Rate of shear strain

yt y y

where u x / t is the velocity of the particle at E

u

constant x Equation 1.1

y

14

1.2 SHEAR STRESS IN A MOVING FLUID

• The term u/y is the change of velocity with y and may be written in differential

form du/dy.

Substitute to Equation 1.1,

du

τ=μ

dy

15

1.3 NEWTONIAN AND NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS

of viscosity and for which μ

has a constant value are

known as Newtonian fluids.

this category, for which shear

stress is linearly related to

velocity gradient (refer Figure

1.2)

16

1.3 NEWTONIAN AND NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS

known as non-Newtonian fluids and fall into one or the following

groups.

commences. Thereafter, shear stress increases with the rate of

shear according to the relationship in Equation 1.3, where A, B

and n are constants. If n=1, the material is known as Bingham

plastic, e.g. sewage sludge.

du

n

A B

dy Equation 1.3

rate of shear increases, e.g. colloidial substances like

clay, milk and cement.

17

1.3 NEWTONIAN AND NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS

increase, e.g. quicksand.

4. Thixotropic substances: Dynamic viscosity decreases with the time for

which shearing force is applied, e.g. Thixotropic jelly paints.

5. Rheopectic substances: Dynamic viscosity increases with the time for

which shearing force is applied.

6. Viscoelastic materials: Behave similar to Newtonian fluids but if there

is a sudden large change in shear stress, they behave like plastic.

• There is also one more - which is not real, it does

not exist - known as the ideal fluid. This is a fluid

which is assumed to have no viscosity (τ = 0). This

is a useful concept when theoretical solutions are

being considered - it does help achieve some

practically useful solutions in analyzing some of the

problems arising in fluid mechanics.

18

1.4 DENSITY

volume of the substance. It can be expressed in three different ways.

volume.

• Units: kilogram per cubic meter (kgm-3)

• Typical values at p=1.013 x 105 Nm-2, T=288.15 K, mass

density of water is 1000 kgm-3 and air is 1.23 kgm-3.

19

1.4 DENSITY

• Since weight is dependent on gravitational attraction, the specific

weight will vary from point to point, according to the local value of

gravitational acceleration g.

• The relationship between w and ρ can be deduced from Newton’s

second law where,

w = ρg

• Typical values for water is 9.81 x 103 Nm-3

and air is 12.07 Nm-3.

20

1.4 DENSITY

the mass density of a substance to some standard mass density.

• For solids and liquids, the standard mass density chosen is the

maximum density of water (which occur at 4°C at atmospheric

pressure).

• SG is a dimensionless quantity. SG=r/rH20

ρsubs tance

σ=

ρ water at 4°C

• The relationship between is represented by,

hydrogen at a specified temperature and pressure,

but the term is not used frequently.

• Units: since relative density is a ratio of two

quantities of the same kind, it is a pure number

having no units.

• Typical values for water is 1.0 and oil is 0.9.

21

1.5 VISCOSITY

represents the internal

resistance of a fluid to

motion.

The force a flowing fluid

exerts on a body in the flow

direction is called the drag

force, and the magnitude of

this force depends, in part,

on viscosity.

1.5 VISCOSITY

applied shear stress. Representative units for viscosity are

kg/(m.sec), g/(cm.sec) (also known as poise designated by P).

unit, since the viscosity of water at room temperature is

approximately 1 centipoise.

The kinematic viscosity (n) is the ratio of the viscosity to the density:

n /r,

and gravitational forces exist

1.5 VISCOSITY

Viscosity of liquids in general, decreases with increasing temperature.

The viscosities () of liquids generally vary approximately with

absolute temperature T according to:

ln = a - b ln T where a,b are constant

Viscosity of gases:

viscosity () of many gases is approximated by the formula:

an absolute reference temperature To, and n is an empirical exponent that

best fits the experimental data.

of real gases and liquids usually increase with pressure. Viscosity of liquids

are generally two orders of magnitude greater than gases at atmospheric

pressure. For example, at 25oC, water = 1 centipoise and air = 1 x 10-2

centipoise.

1.5 VISCOSITY

consider a fluid layer between two

very large parallel plates separated

by a distance ℓ

Definition of shear stress is = F/A.

Using the no-slip condition,

u(0) = 0 and u(ℓ) = V, the velocity

profile and gradient are u(y)= Vy/ℓ

and du/dy=V/ℓ

Shear stress for Newtonian fluid:

= du/dy

is the dynamic viscosity and has

units of kg/m·s, Pa·s, or poise.

1.5 VISCOSITY

force per unit area (or shear stress τ) required to drag one layer of fluid

with unit velocity past another layer a unit distance away from it in the

fluid.

• Rearranging Equation 1.2,

Force

τ Area Force x Time Mass

μ= = = or

du Velocity Area Lenght x Time

dy Distance

or kilograms per meter per second (kgm-1s-1). But

note that the coefficient of viscosity is often

measures in poise (P) where 10 P = 1 kgm-1s-1.

• Typical values for water is 1.14 x 10-3 kgm-1s-1

and air is 1.78 x 10-5 kgm-1s-1.

26

1.5 VISCOSITY

viscosity, μ to mass density, ρ.

μ

ν=

ρ

• Unit: square meters per second (m2s-1) but note that the

kinematic viscosity is often measures in stokes (St)

where 10 St = 1 m2s-1.

• Typical values for water is 1.14 x 10-6 m2s-1 and air is

1.46 x 10-5 m2s-1.

27

Surface Tension

Liquid droplets behave like small

spherical balloons filled with liquid,

and the surface of the liquid acts

like a stretched elastic membrane

under tension.

The pulling force that causes this is

due to the attractive forces

between molecules

called surface tension ss.

Attractive force on surface

molecule is not symmetric.

Repulsive forces from interior

molecules causes the liquid to

minimize its surface area and attain

a spherical shape.

Surface Tension

The surface tension (s sigma) of a liquid is the work that must be done to bring enough molecules

from inside the liquid to the surface to form one new unit area of that surface (J/m2 = N/m).

Surface tension is the tendency of the surface of a liquid to behave like a stretched elastic

membrane.

There is a natural tendency for liquids to minimize their surface area. For this reason, drops of

liquid tend to take a spherical shape in order to minimize surface area. For such a small droplet,

surface tension will cause an increase of internal pressure p in order to balance the surface force.

We will find the amount D (Dp = p - poutside) by which the pressure inside a liquid droplet of radius r,

exceeds the pressure of the surrounding vapor/air by making force balances on a hemispherical

drop. Observe that the internal pressure p is trying to blow apart the two hemispheres, whereas the

surface tension s is trying to pull them together. Therefore, Dp pr2 = 2prs

i.e. Dp = 2s/r

Similar force balances can be made for cylindrical liquid jet.

Dp 2r= 2s

i.e. Dp = s/r

Similar treatment can be made for a soap bubble which is having two free surfaces. Dp pr2 = 2 x

2prs

i.e. Dp = 4s/r

Problem

Air is introduced through a nozzle into a tank of water to form a stream of

bubbles. If the bubbles are intended to have a diameter of 2 mm, calculate

how much the pressure of the air at the tip of the nozzle must exceed that

of the surrounding water. Assume that the value of surface tension

between air and water as 72.7 x 10-3 N/m.

Data:

Surface tension (s) = 72.7 x 10-3 N/m

Radius of bubble (r) = 1

Formula:

Dp = 2s/r

Calculations:

Dp = 2 x 72.7 x 10-3 / 1 = 145.4 N/m2

That is, the pressure of the air at the tip of nozzle must exceed the

pressure of surrounding water by 145.4 N/m2

Capillary Effect

Capillary effect is the rise or

fall of a liquid in a small-

diameter tube.

The curved free surface in the

tube is call the meniscus.

Water meniscus curves up

because water is a wetting

fluid.

Mercury meniscus curves

down because mercury is a

nonwetting fluid.

Force balance can describe

magnitude of capillary rise.

Wetting and contact angle

The figure shows some of the possible wetting behaviors of a drop of liquid placed

on a horizontal, solid surface (the remainder of the surface is covered with air, so

two fluids are present).

Fig.(a) represents the case of a liquid which wets a solid surface well, e.g. water

on a very clean copper. The angle q shown is the angle between the edge of the

liquid surface and the solid surface, measured inside the liquid. This angle is called

the contact angle and is a measure of the quality of wetting. For perfectly wetting,

in which the liquid spreads as a thin film over the surface of the solid, q is zero.

Fig.(b) represents the case of no wetting. If there were exactly zero wetting, q

would be 180o. However, the gravity force on the drop flattens the drop, so that

180o angle is never observed. This might represent water on teflon or mercury on

clean glass.

We normally say that a liquid wets a surface if q is less than 90o and does not wet

if q is more than 90o. Values of q less than 20o are considered strong wetting, and

values of q greater than 140o are strong nonwetting.

Capillarity is important (in fluid measurments) when using tubes smaller than about 10 mm in diameter.

Capillary rise (or depression) in a tube can be calculated by making force balances. The forces acting are

force due to surface tension and gravity.

Fs = pdscos(q), where q is the wetting angle or contact angle. If tube (made of glass) is clean q is zero for

water and about 140o for Mercury.

This is opposed by the gravity force on the column of fluid, which is equal to the height of the liquid which is

above (or below) the free surface and which equals

Fg = (p/4)d2hgr,

Equating these forces and solving for Capillary rise (or depression), we find

h = 4scos(q)/(rgd)

weight of fluid column = surface tension pulling force

rg (pR2h) = 2 pR s cos

h = 2 s cos

rgR

Problem

Water has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m. In a 3 mm diameter vertical

tube if the liquid rises 6 mm above the liquid outside the tube,

calculate the contact angle. Data:

Surface tension (s) = 0.4 N/m

Dia of tube (d) = 3 mm = 0.003 m

Capillary rise (h) = 6 mm = 0.006 m

Formula:

Capillary rise due to surface tension is given by

Calculations:

cos() = hrgd/(4s) = 0.006 x 1000 x 9.812 x 0.003 / (4 x 0.4) = 0.11

Calculate the rise of liquid between two

dimentional parallel plates shown in Figure 1.17.

Notice that previously a rise for circular tube was

developed which different from simple one

dimensional case. The distance between the two

plates is 0.001 m and the and surface tension is

0.05. Assume that the contact angle is 0 circ

(the maximum possible force). Cumpute the

value for sufrace tension of 0.05 [N/m], the

density 1000[kg/m3] and distance between the

plates of 0.001[m].

Solution

Problem

A 0.6 mm diameter glass tube is inserted into water at 20oC in a cup.

Determine the capillary rise of water in the tube. Data:

Surface tension of water at 20oC (s) = 0.073 N/m

Formula:

Calculations:

Problem

The diameter of a capilary tube is 2 mm. if the surface tension of water

in contact with air is 72.8 mN/m, determine the capillary rise. Take the

contact angle, q to be 0.

Calculations:

h = (4s) cos() / wd

= 4 x 72.08 x 10 -3

9810 x 0.002

= 14.84 x 10 -3 m

Problem

A vessel of 100 mm diameter contains mercury up to the height of 150

mm. Find the mass of the mercury in the vessel if its specific gravity

is 13.6

Calculations:

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