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1999 - A Study on Flow Patterns and Fluid Mixing for Water Purification in a Rectangular Water Tank

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1999 - A Study on Flow Patterns and Fluid Mixing for Water Purification in a Rectangular Water Tank

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6-8 December 1999

PURIFICATION IN A RECTANGULAR WATER TANK

Yousuke KAWASHIMA1, Kazuhiro MURAI1 and Tsutomu HOSOKAWA2

1. 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Engineering, Himeji Institute of Technology

2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 JAPAN

ABSTRACT inflow positions of In①, In② and In③, and the outflow

position changes from Out④ to Out⑥ for the inflow

The three-dimensional laminar flow patterns and positions of In④, In⑤ and In⑥, respectively. The inflow

temperature mixing in a rectangular water tank were and outflow angles are 0 degree, i.e. perpendicular to the

calculated numerically using a finite element method, wall surface. Aluminum fine powder was used as a tracer.

changing the inlet position of refreshed water and the

outlet position of dirty water. Then, based on the

numerical results of velocity and temperature

distributions, the criteria for judging a better flow pattern

effective for the purification of tank water were examined.

As the results, it was shown that the criteria obtained from I n‡!

the two-dimensional pond flow simulation, that had been

reported in the previous conference, were applicable to the

I n‡"

three-dimensional water tank. Out !

‡

‡

Out ‡

There are many water reservoirs, tanks and small ponds #

for rainwater utilization and fire prevention in our city,

and we have to purify such impounded water, because the

impounded water becomes dirty. In order to clarify the

water efficiently, the inlet position of refreshed water and

the outlet position of dirty water are important, because Out $

‡

the flow pattern in a reservoir depends on the inlet and

outlet positions. We previously reported the standards for

$

I n‡ Out %

‡

judging a flow pattern for effective purification of pond

water based on the numerical results of two-dimensional Out &

flow patterns and temperature diffusions .

1) %

I n‡ ‡

I n‡

&

In this study, we calculate the three dimensional laminar

flow patterns and temperature diffusions numerically with

a finite element method, changing the inlet and outlet Figure 1: Transparent tank for flow visualization

positions in a rectangular tank. Then, based on the

numerical results, we examine the adaptation of the

standards obtained from the two-dimensional flow NUMERICAL SUMULATION OF FLOW PATTERNS

analysis to the three-dimensional water tank. IN A TANK

For the confirmation of the numerical results of flow Fig.2 shows the outline of the model of the water tank for

patterns, the visual observations of flow patterns are this flow simulation. The inflow position of the refreshed

carried out in a rectangular test tank, as a reference. water is changed from In① to In⑥, shown in the figure.

The outflow position is changed from Out① to Out⑥ for

VISUAL OBSERVATION OF FLOW PATTERNS IN the inflow positions of In①, In② and In③, respectively.

A TEST TANK For the inflow positions of In④, In⑤ and In⑥, the outflow

positions are Out⑦, Out⑧ and Out⑨, respectively. The

Figure 1 shows the transparent tank for confirming the inflow direction is perpendicular to the wall surface.

flow pattern in the rectangular water tank (Width: 30cm,

Height: 40cm, Length: 60cm). The walls are made of Unsteady simulations of fluid mixing are carried out using

transparent acrylic boards. The water depth is about 30cm. temperature as a tracer. The initial temperature of the tank

The inflow position changes from In① to In⑥. The water is 15°C, and the refreshed water temperature is

outflow position changes from Out① to Out③ for the 50°C.

119

The element division and the flow simulation are carried

out using ANSIS and FLOTRAN, which are finite element

flow analysis programs (made by ANSYS, Inc.).

of element is 122852 (W: 18 elements, H: 21 elements, L:

34 elements). The Reynolds number in the inflow nozzle

is 1000.

velocity vectors for the inflow position of In ⑤ and the

outflow position of Out ⑨ and for the inflow position

of In① and the outflow position of Out ③

e

sid B a ck

ft sid e

Le

!

I n‡

F ron t e

Out $

‡

s id e s id

ht

"

I n‡ Out ‡ Ri

g

Out %

‡

#

I n‡

Y

Out ‡ Out &

‡

Z Out ‡

X

Out '

‡

Out(

‡ I n‡

$

Out)

‡

%

I n‡

Figure 3 Representative examples of velocity vectors;

&

I n‡

(a) Inflow position: In⑤, Outflow position: Out⑨

(b) Inflow position: In①, Outflow position: Out③

Z Y

X

In the case of the inflow position of In ⑤, as shown in

figure (a), there is the low velocity area near the left

underside, but it is relatively small and the flow seems

Figure 2: Simulation model of rectangular water tank to be well as a whole. The flow pattern was similar for

the cases in which the inflow and outflow positions

were on the same wall of width side like this case.

However, in the case of the inflow position of In①, as

shown in figure (b), comparatively large low velocity

area was formed near the bottom. Also there were some

low velocity areas near the center of the left side and

near the right side.

120

Inflow position: In①, Outflow position: Out①

Inflow position: In⑤, Outflow position: Out⑨

Inflow position: In③, Outflow position: Out④ Inflow position: In⑥, Outflow position: Out⑧

Figure 4: Representative examples of the relation between the velocity and the volume ratio occupied by the velocity

Figures 4 (a), (b), (c) and (d) show the representative small variance values.

examples of the relation between the magnitude of the (2) When the variance was large, there were both cases in

velocity and the percentage of the volume occupied by which the refreshed water diffused relatively well and

the velocity. In the cases of the inflow position on the cases in which the refreshed water did not diffuse well.

side wall, the volume ratio occupied low velocity was (3) For the flows having good fluid mixing, the area

reduced and the flow pattern was comparatively well in occupied by the low velocity was small, and .the variation

coefficients were comparatively small for the flows having

comparison with the cases of the inflow position on the

small low velocity area.

front wall.

Table 1 is the summary of the average velocity, the

STANDARDS FOR EVALUATING FLOW variance of velocity and the coefficient of variation of

PATTERNS velocity, which were calculated from the results of the 3D

flow simulations. As shown in Table 1, when the inflow

In this study, the evaluation of the flow pattern was also

position is In①, variance values and C.V. values are small.

performed using the average velocity, the variance of

velocity and the coefficient of variation of velocity, the In the cases of inflow position of In①, the area occupied

same as the case of the two-dimensional pond. by low velocity is relatively large and the average velocity

is also lower compared with others. So, this inflow

The variation coefficient is defined as position In① is not very good.

Cv = Var1/2 / vave x100 (1) However, in the cases of inflow positions of In⑤ and In⑥,

variance values are large and C.V. values are small. In

where vave is the mean velocity, Var is the variance and Cv these cases, the area of low velocity is comparatively

is the variation coefficient of the velocity distributions. small and the fluid mixing is well. So these inflow

1) positions are good.

In the previous report , the following conclusions have

been obtained from the two-dimensional pond flow These results coincide well with the standards obtained in

simulation: the two-dimensional pond.

121

Inflow Position

Outflow Position

In(1) In(2) In(3)

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.682 0.761 0.729

-6 2 2

Out(1) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.207 0.295 0.261

C.V. [%] 66.7 71.4 69.9

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.672 0.699 0.722

-6 2 2

Out(2) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.207 0.267 0.252

C.V. [%] 66.8 73.9 69.5

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.673 0.739 0.737

-6 2 2

Out(3) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.213 0.293 0.257

C.V. [%] 68.5 73.3 68.8

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.684 0.746 0.663

-6 2 2

Out(4) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.208 0.288 0.267

C.V. [%] 66.6 71.9 78.1

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.673 0.756 0.681

-6 2 2

Out(5) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.201 0.266 0.261

C.V. [%] 66.4 68.2 75.1

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.665 0.719 0.766

-6 2 2

Out(6) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.205 0.278 0.261

C.V. [%] 68.1 73.4 66.6

Inflow Position

Outflow Position

In(4) In(5) In(6)

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.778 0.906 0.825

-6 2 2

Out(7) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.271 0.322 0.324

C.V. [%] 66.9 62.6 69.1

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.713 0.812 0.836

-6 2 2

Out(8) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.252 0.283 0.313

C.V. [%] 70.5 65.4 66.9

-3

V ave [ x 1 0 m/s] 0.681 0.911 0.799

-6 2 2

Out(9) V ar [x10 m /s ] 0.248 0.354 0.327

C.V. [%] 73.2 65.3 71.6

Table 1: Summary of the average velocity, the variance of velocity and the coefficient of variation of velocity.

CONCLUSIONS well.

In the rectangular water tank, the flow pattern in which the REFERENCES

refreshed water spreads well is better. The following

conclusions were summarized: 1. KAWASHIMA, Y., MURAI, K., (1997) Proc. of Int.

Conf. on CFD in Mineral & Metal Processing and

(1) The criteria for judging a flow pattern by the variance Power Generation, p.253

and the variation coefficient of the velocity distributions 2. ANSYS/FLOTRAN Program; made by ANSYS Inc.,

were adaptable for the three-dimensional water tank. US.

outflow position were put on the same wall of width side

(narrow side wall) and the inflow position was near the

water surface, the area occupied by low velocity was

122

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