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The

 Nervous  System    
 

The central
processing unit

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 Parts  of  the  Nervous  System  

•  Central  Nervous  System  (CNS):  brain  and  spinal  


cord  
 
•  Peripheral  Nervous  System  (PNS):  craniospinal  
nerves  
 
•  Autonomic  Nervous  System  (ANS):  nerves  that  
control  vital  organs:  heart,  lungs,  brain,  etc.  

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Sensory  receptores    

CharacterisAcs  of  sensory  receptors  in  the  skin  

Receptor   SAmulus   SensaAon     AdaptaAon  

Merkel's  disk   Steady  indentaAon   Pressure   Slow  

Low  frequency  
Meissner's  corpuscle   Gentle  fluKering   Rapid  
vibraAon  

Ruffini's  corpuscle   Rapid  indentaAon   Stretch   Slow  

Pacinian  corpuscle   VibraAon   VibraAon   Rapid  

Hair  receptor   Hair  deflecAon   Brushing   Rapid  or  Slow  

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Somatosensory  receptors  

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Glial  cells  
•  10  Ames  than  neurons  
•  50%  of  volume   •  O2A,  in  remyelinaAon  
•  Astrocytes  in  BBB   •  Microglia  as  
macrophage  

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Astrocytes    
•  Ions  &  NT  regulaAon  in  ECF  
•  Buffering  K+  
•  Trophic  support  of  neurons  
•  Boundaries  between  adjacent  process  
•  Capillaries  &  neurons  
•  Forming  glial  scar  
•  Removing  debris  
•  Neurotaxism    
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Types  of  Neurons                      
type connected to carry impulses carry impulses
from to

sensory receptors (eyes, ears, sense organs spinal cord


other sense organs) and brain
(afferent)
other neurons

motor (efferent) effectors (muscles and spinal cord muscles


glands) and brain and glands
other neurons

connector other neurons other neurons other neurons


(interneuron)
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Receptors  
(eyes,  ears,  other  sense  organs)  
 
change  informaAon  from  outside  the  
body  (  for  example,  light  waves)  into  
electrical  impulses.  
DigitalizaAon    
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More  nerve  terms                          
nerve fibers Dendrites and axons

nerve A bundle of dendrites and axons

nucleus A group of neuron cell bodies INSIDE the


brain and spinal cord
(plural: nucleii)

ganglion A group of neuron cell bodies OUTSIDE the


brain and spinal cord
(plural: ganglia)

synapse The space connecting one neuron to another

neurotransmitter A chemical which transmits an electrical


impulse from one neuron to the next
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The Central Nervous System includes

White matter: bundles of axions and dendrites

Gray matter: masses of nerve cell bodies

The brain: inside the cranium


The spinal cord: inside the vertebral column
(the “backbone”)

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The  meninges:  three  membranes  

envelop the entire CNS


(central nervous system)
dura mater The outer, hardest, toughest

arachnoid The middle, web like

pia mater The inner, thinner

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Spaces  between  the  meninges  

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Spinal  cord    

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Spinal  cord  
Rexed  lamina  organizaAon  
•  Lissauer: entrance of inputs
•  Lamina I: pain & temperature inputs
•  Lamina II: Substantia Gelatinosa Rolandi (SGR); in the
control of pain
•  Lamina III & IV: similar to II but receive more senses of pain,
temp & touch
•  Lamina V: T cells that transmit the pain sensation
•  Lamina VI: present mainly in cervical & lumbosacral regions.
Receive proprioception of muscles

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Spinal  cord  
Rexed  lamina  organizaAon(cont.)  
•   Lamina VII: intermediolateral (preganglionic of sympathetic &
intermediomedial nuclei; clark’s column, thoracic nucleus.
Neurons
•  Lamina VIII: interneuron for flexor & extensor muscles
•  Lamina IX: consists of IXm (medial) & IX (lateral, present in
cervical & lumbosacral); alpha & gamma motoneurons of
muscles
•  In limbs motoneurons of axial muscles in medial & proximal
and distal laterally; flexors more internally & extensors more
externally
•  Lamina X: interconnections between two sides of spinal cord

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Spinal  cord  transecAon  

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Spinal  cord  
•  SubstanAa  GelaAnosa  
Rolando(SGR)  

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Gate  control  theory  

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Pain  receptors  
•  Thermal(45<-­‐-­‐-­‐<5),  by  myelinated  A-­‐delta  
•  Mechanical,  by  A-­‐delta(5-­‐30m/s)  
•  Polymodal  ,  by  C  fiber(<1m/s) mostly  in  teeth  
pulp  
•  Visceral  nociceptors,  they  are  silent,  but  the  
threshold  decreased  with  chemical  or  physical  
sAmuli  
–  Ischamia,  distension,  inflammaAon    

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Pain  
•    Sharp  pain;  by  Aδ  fiber  
•    Dull(slow)  pain;  by  C  fiber  

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•  Sharp  pain,  lamina  I-­‐V,    
–  Mechanical,  thermal  
–  Spinothalamic  pathway(neospinothalamic  tract)  
•  Dull  pain,  Lamina  VII-­‐VIII,  
–  Chemical  or  persisAng  mechanical/thermal  sAmuli  
–   SpinoreAculothalamic  pathway(paleo)  
–  ReAcular  formaAon  
–  Basal  ganglia  
–  Majority  parts  of  cortex  
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Chronic  Pain  
•  NocicepAve  
–  OA,  sprain,  strain,  skin  injuries,  tumor…  
•  Neuropathic  
–  Herpes,  phantom,…  

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Control  of  pain  
•  Descending  pathways;    
–  Periaquaductal  gray  maAer  (PAG)  
–  Prefrontal  cortex  
–  Raphe  nuclei  
•  Endorphins  &  enkephalines  

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Gate  control  of  pain    

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Allodynia    
•  Central  pain  sensiAzaAon  following  normally  
non-­‐painful,  ohen  repeAAve,  sAmulaAon  
•  Allodynia  can  lead  to  the  triggering  of  a  pain  
response  from  sAmuli  which  do  not  normally  
provoke  pain  
•  Temperature  or  physical  sAmuli  can  provoke  
allodynia,  which  may  feel  like  a  burning  
sensaAon,  and  it  ohen  occurs  aher  injury  to  a  
site(sunburn,  RA,  Fibromyalgia,  postherpeAc  
neuralgia,  Migrain..)  
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Types  of  Allodynia  
•  TacAle  allodynia:  pain  caused  by  touch.  This  can  
include  clothing  lying  against  the  skin  (especially  the  
Aghter  parts  of  clothing,  such  as  waistbands,  bra  straps  
or  the  elasAc  part  of  socks,)  a  hug,  or  someone  
touching  you  lightly  on  the  arm  
•  Mechanical  allodynia:  pain  caused  by  movement  
across  the  skin.  This  can  be  a  towel  as  you  dry  yourself  
off,  bed  sheets  brush  against  you,  or  even  the  air  from  
a  fan  blowing  moving  over  your  skin  
•  Thermal  (temperature-­‐related)  allodynia:  pain  caused  
by  heat  or  cold  that  is  not  extreme  enough  to  cause  
damage  to  your  Assues.  Your  hands  and  feet  may  burn  
if  they  get  chilled,  or  gejng  too  hot  may  make  them  
ache  
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Hyperalgesia    
•  Increased  sensiAvity  to  pain,  which  may  be  
caused  by  damage  to  nociceptors  or  peripheral  
nerves  and  can  cause  hypersensiAvity  to  
sAmulus,  sAmuli  which  would  normally  not  be  
cause  for  a  pain  reacAon  (eyes  or  brain  having  a  
painful  reacAon  to  daylight)  
•  PG  E  and  F  are  largely  responsible  for  sensiAzing  
the  nociceptors  
•  Temporary  increased  sensiAvity  to  pain  also  
occurs  as  part  of  sickness  behavior,  the  evolved  
response  to  infecAon  
•  Opioid-­‐induced  hyperalgesia  
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Sensory  pathways  of  spinal  cord  (afferents)  

•    Spinocervical,  from  sensory  hairs  


•    Dorsal  spinocerebellar  tract  (DSCT),  from  Clark’s  
column,  same  side,  inf  peduncle,  same  
hemisphere,  second  order  neuron  in  Clark  
•     Ventral  spinocerebellar  tract  (VSCT),  opposite  
side,  sup  peduncle,  both  hemispheres      
•    Rostral  spinocerebellar  tract,  joints  &  muscle,  
same  side,  sup  peduncle,  both  hemispheres  
•    Anterolateral  system:  1  or  2  segment  upper  
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Sensory  pathways  of  spinal  cord  
(afferents)  
•  Dorsal  column:    
•  Gracilis:  lower  limbs    
•  Cuneatus:  upper  limbs  
–  Cuneocerebellar:  inf  peduncle,  same  side  of  
cerebellum      

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Dorsal  column-­‐Medial  lemiscus  
1.  Touch  sensaAons  requiring  a  high  degree  of  
localizaAon  of  the  sAmulus  
2.  Touch  sensaAons  requiring  transmission  of  fine  
gradaAons  of  intensity  
3.  Phasic  sensaAons,  such  as  vibratory  sensaAons  
4.  SensaAons  that  signal  movement  against  the  skin  
5.  PosiAon  sensaAons  from  the  joints  
6.  Pressure  sensaAons  having  to  do  with  fine  
degrees  of  judgment  of  pressure  intensity  
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Dorsal  Column  Medial  Lemniscus  
•  Fine  touch  
•  2-­‐point  discriminaAon  
•  VibraAon    
•  PropriocepAon  
•  Second  neuron  in  lower  medulla(  Gracile  N.&  Cuneate  N.)  
•  Cross  in  medulla  
•  3rd  order  neuron  in  Thalamus,  goes  toward  PCG  

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Anterolateral  System  
1.  Pain  
2.  Thermal  sensaAons,  including  both  warmth  and  
cold  sensaAons  
3.  Crude  touch  and  pressure  sensaAons  capable  
only  
of  crude  localizing  ability  on  the  surface  of  the  
body  
4.  Tickle  and  itch  sensaAons  
5.  Sexual  sensaAons  
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Ascending  pathways  

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Pyramidal  tract  

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Brown-­‐Sequard  Syndrom  

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RecepAve  field    

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The  Brain                  

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The  cerebrum  

"   is  divided  into  two  cerebral  hemispheres  


"   has  an  outer  surface,  
 
       or  CORTEX,  
 
       made  of  “gray  maKer”      
 

www.laskerfoundation.org
 
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The  cerebral  cortex  
is  divided  into  parts  called  lobes:  
1.  the  frontal  lobe  
2.  the  parietal  lobe  
3.  the  temporal  lobe  
4.  the  occipital  lobe  

www.colorado.edu

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The  frontal  lobe  

"  is  the  center  for  voluntary  movement  


"  is  called  the  “motor  area”    (movement)  
"  includes  the  prefrontal  area,  
     for  intelligence,  creaAvity  and  ideas  
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Phineas  Gage(1848)  

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Edvardo(2012)  

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The  parietal  lobe  
Collects,  recognizes,  and  organizes  sensaAons:  
feelings  of    
"  pain  
"  temperature  
"  touch  
"  posiAon  
"  movement  
 
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The  temporal  lobe  
•  Processes  auditory  (hearing)  informaAon  
•  Stores  auditory  (hearing)  and  visual  (seeing)  
memories  
•  Includes  Broca’s  speech  area  

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The  occipital  lobe  
"  is  at  the  back  of  the  cerebral  hemisphere  
"  involves  
 
"  vision  
"  visual  memory  
"  eye  movements  

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Side  to  side?    
 
-­‐  The  right   The left
  hemisphere  
hemisphere
controls  the  leh  
controls the right
side  of  the  body!  
side of the body!

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Sensory  cortex  

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•  Columnar  organizaAon    
•  Parallel  processing  

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Parts  of  the  Brain  
•  Brainstem    
•  Cerebellum    
•  Diencephalon    
•  Cerebrum    

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Cortex    
•  Prefrontal  
•  Frontal:  motor  cortex/  supplementary  &  
premotor  cortex  
•  Somatosensory  cortex  ;  for  the  sensaUon;  it  
has  huge  connecUons  with  other  parts  of  
cortex,  such  as  premotor  cortex,  temporal  
lobe  &  associaUon  cortex  

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Motor  Areas  of  Cerebral  Cortex  
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Strategy  of  movement  

•  Step  1:  highest  level;  aim  of  movement,  


specific  for  human  
•  Step  2:  how  it  can  be  performed,  which  
muscles  should  contract  
•  Step  3:  how  to  do  it;  the  lowest  level,  
present  in  all  animals  

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•  TerminaAon:  directly  
on  motor  neuron  or  on  
the  interneuron  
•  55%  end  in  cervical  
region,  20%  in  thoracic  
and  25%  in  lumbosacral  
region  
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CorAcobulbar  tracts  
•  Origin  and  course  is  same  All  pons  

•  Fibers  terminate  on  cranial  nerve  nuclei  

•  TerminaAon  may  be  ipsilateral,  contralateral,  


or  bilateral    
FuncAons    
•  ExecuAon  of  skilled  voluntary  movements  

•  Anterior  corAcospinal  tract  controls  proximal  


&  axial  muscles  

•  Form  part  of  superficial  reflex  pathway  


Rubrospinal  Tract  
•  Originates  in  magnocellular  porAon  of  Red  
nucleus  
•  Cross  over  in  midbrain  and  descend  on  
opposite  side  
•  Terminate  on  motor  neurons  of  distal  muscles  
•  Has  somatotopic  map  in  red  nucleus  
•  Concerned  with  skilled  movements  
VesAbulospinal  tract  
•  Lateral  vesAbulospinal  tract  arise  from  
Deiter’s  nucleus-­‐  receive  input  from  utricle  &  
saccule  

•  Medial  vesAbulospinal  tract  originates  from  


medial  &  descending  vesAbular  nuclei-­‐  receive  
signals  from  semicircular  canals  

•  Concerned  with  muscle  tone  ,  posture  &  


equilibrium  
ReAculospinal  Tract  
•  Medullary  reAculospinal  tract  decreases  tone  
of  anAgravity  muscles  

•  PonAne  reAculospinal  tract  increases  tone  of  


anAgravity  muscle  

•  Under  the  influence  of  higher  centers  


Tectospinal  tract  
•  Originate  from  superior  colliculus  

•  Cross  over  to  opposite  side  

•  Concerned  with  muscles  of  head  and  neck  

•  Controls  visually  guided  head  movements  


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Medial  Longitudinal  Fasciculus  
•  Originate  from  medial  vesAbular  nucleus,  
reAcular  formaAon,  superior  colliculus  and  
intersAAal  nucleus  of  cajal  

•  Descend  uncrossed  upto  cervical  region  

•  Co-­‐ordinaAon  of  reflex  ocular  movement  and  


integraAon  of  eye  &  neck  movements  
Pyramidal  Vs.  Extrapyramidal  system  
Characters Pyramidal  system   Extrapyramidal  
  system  
Phylogeny   New     Old    

MyelinaAon   Aher  birth   Before  birth  

FuncAons   Fine,  skillful  movements   Gross  postural  movements  

Damage   Flaccid  paralysis   SpasAc  paralysis  

Speed  of  conducAon   Slow   Fast    


Internal  capsule  
•  Mass  of  axons  
•  Laterally  lenAcular  nucleus  and  medially  
thalamus  &  caudate  
•  Ascending  sensory  fibers  occupy  posterior  1/3rd  
of  posterior  limb  
•  CorAcospinal  &  CorAcobulbar  fibers  occupy  genu  
&  anterior  2/3rds  of  posterior  limb  
•  FrontoponAne  fibers  &  thalamocorAcal  fibers  in  
anterior  limb  
•  Injury  at  this  level  causes  hemiplegia  
•  Involvement  of  lenAculostriate  artery  
Parts  of  the  brainstem  

•  pons:  connects  the  medulla  oblongata,  the  cerebellum,  


and  cerebrum  
•  midbrain:  contains  auditory  (hearing),  visual  (sight),  and  
muscle  control  centers.  
•  medulla  oblongata:  lowest  and  most  posterior  
 (at  the  back  of  the  brain)  
 
The  hindbrain  includes  the  pons  and  the  medulla.  

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The  brainstem  

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The  pons  (the  bridge)  
Connects  the  medulla  oblongata,  cerebellum,  
and  cerebrum  
"   Associates with sensory nerves: taste, hearing, and balance.
"   Controls muscles of the face.

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The  medulla  oblongata  

"   Controls    
"  alertness
"  heart action
"  respiration (breathing)
"  blood pressure

"   Connects  the  CEREBRUM  with  the  SPINAL  CORD  


"  the RIGHT side of the brain controls the LEFT side of the body.
"  the LEFT side of the brain controls the RIGHT side of the body.

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The  midbrain  
Controls    
"   vision  
"   hearing  
"   muscles  

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The  cerebellum  

"  Coordinates  muscle  acAvity.  


"  has  three  parts:  
"  the  vermis  
"  the  right  cerebellar  hemisphere  
"  the  leh  cerebellar  hemisphere  
 

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The  diencephalon  

"   is  located  between  the  midbrain  


and  the  cerebrum  
"   has  three  parts:  
"   the  thalamus:  receives  sensory  
informaAon  and  sends  it  to  the  
cerebral  cortex.  
"   the  epithalamus:  contains  the  
pineal  body  and  olfactory  centers.  
"   the  hypothalamus:  connects  the  
endocrine  and  nervous  systems.  
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/A/anatomy_and_physiology.html

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The  hypothalamus  
"   connects  the  endocrine  and  nervous  systems.  
"   controls  
"   the  autonomic  nervous  system  
"   body  temperature  
"   carbohydrate  and  fat  metabolism  
"   appeAte  
"   emoAons      
www.brainexplorer.org

 
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Apraxia(kineAc)    
•  Inability  to  perform  certain  learned  
movements,  motor  memory  
•  Lesion  in  premotor  area  
–  Placing  a  leKer  in  an  envelop  

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Apraxia(ideomotor)  
•  Lesion  in  parietal  lobe  of  dominant  
hemisphere  
•  Bilateral  effects  
•  Unable  to  perform  pantomim    

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The  limbic  system      

controls  emoAons  and  memory  


controls emotions and
  memory

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Memory  
•  Sensory,  less  than  a  second,  in  sensory  cortex  
•  Short-­‐term(Working  memory),  if  the  
informaAon  has  some  meaning  
–  Mostly  5-­‐9  items  could  be  stored  
•  Long-­‐term  

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Short-­‐Term  memory  
•  Involves  chemical  modificaAons  that  
strengthen  synapses  
•   if  repeated  could  changed  to  long-­‐term  
memory    
•  Thalamus,  cortex  and  everywhere  in  CNS..!!  
•  Could  be  lost  

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Papez  cicuit  

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Cerebrospinal  fluid  
•  Cerebrospinal  fluid:  watery  liquid  
"  is  found  inside  the  brain,  spinal  cord,  and  
subarachnoid  space  
"  supports  the  brain’s  weight  
"  protects  and  cushions  the  brain  and  the  spinal  
cord  
 

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PNS:  Peripheral  Nervous  System  
•  Includes  all  the  nerves  and  ganglia  outside  the  
brain  and  spinal  cord  
 
"  cranial  nerves:  12  pairs  of  nerves  connected  
directly  to  the  brain      
 
"  spinal  nerves:  31  pairs  of  nerves  connected  to  
the  spinal  cord  

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Nerve  Pathways  
SomaAc  (body)  motor  pathways  carry  impulses  
from  the  CNS  (central  nervous  system)  to  
skeletal  muscles  
•  pyramidal  pathways  carry  impulses  that  
control  voluntary  acAons  that  involve  thought  
•  extrapyramidal  pathways  carry  impulses  that  
control  automaAc  movements,  such  as  
walking  
 
 
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Reflexes  
•  A  reflex  is  an  acAon  that:  
"  occurs  below  the  brain,  within  in  the  spinal  cord  
"  is  an  automaAc  reacAon  
"  is  not  conscious  (voluntary)  
"  can  be  inborn  (a  baby  has  it  at  birth,  such  as  
sucking,  swallowing,  urinaAng)  
"  can  be  learned  (such  as  talking,walking,  driving)  

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More  reflexes  

•  INBORN       •  LEARNED  
"   knee  jerk  reflex   "   reading  
"   pupillary  reflex   "   typing  
"   Babinski   "   swimming  
"   swallowing   "   dancing  
"   coughing   "   skaAng  
"   blinking   "   playing  football  
 
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Important  reflexes  
•  knee  jerk:  lower  leg  jerks  when  knee  is  tapped  
•  Babinski:  toes  curl  up  when  sole  of  foot  is  
stroked  
•  pupillary:  pupils  of  eyes  contract  in  bright  light  

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The  Autonomic  Nervous  System  
controls  
•  involuntary,  smooth,  and  cardiac  (heart)  
muscles  and  glands.  
•  systems  that  work  automaAcally:  digesAve,  
circulatory,  respiratory,  urinary,  and  
endocrine.  
 

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The  Autonomic  Nervous  System  
has  two  parts  
•  the  sympatheAc  system    
•  the  parasympatheAc  system  

These  parts  work  together  to  maintain  


homeostasis:    normal  balance  of  the  systems  
in  the  body.    (More  informaAon  on  pg.  288)  
 
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127
128
AKenAon    

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Related  Terms:  parts  of  the  Nervous  System  
 
•  Central  nervous  system  
•  Peripheral  nervous  system  
•  Autonomic  system  
 

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Related  Terms:   Autonomic  System  
"   part  of  the  peripheral  nervous  
system  
"   serves  automaAc  systems  
"   cannot  be  controlled  voluntarily  
"   includes:  
"   parasympatheAc  system  
"   peripheral  system  
   
131
Related  Terms:   Spinal  Nerves  
•  spinal  cord:  lowest  part  of  the  central  nervous  
system  (CNS);  extends  from  the  medulla  
oblongata  to  the  base  of  the  spine  
•  subarachnoid:  space  between  the  pia  mater  
and  the  arachnoid  
•  subdural  space:  space  between  the  dura  
mater  and  the  arachnoid.  

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Nerve  Structures  and  Related  Terms  

•  myelinated  nerves:  nerves  covered  with  


white  faKy  material  called  myelin  
•  neuron:  single  nerve  cell;  has  a  cell  body,  
axon,  and  dendrites  
•  neurotransmiKers:  chemicals  that  sAmulate  
(start)  or  prohibit  (prevent)  the  
transmission  of  nervous  impulses  

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Nerve  Structures  and  Related  Terms    
•  plexus:  network  of  spinal  nerves  
•  reflex:  an  acAon  done  without  a  person’s  
control,  such  as  blinking  
•  sensory  neurons:  nerves  that  carry  
informaAon  from  the  sense  organs  to  the  
spinal  cord  
•  synapse:  space  between  two  neurons,  across  
which  an  impulse  is  transmiKed  (passed)  

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Related  Terms:  Cranial  Nerves  

There  are  12  pairs  of  cranial  nerves.    Here  are  a  


few  of  them:  
•  acousAc  (also  called  auditory):  hearing  
•  facial:  facial  muscles  and  taste  
•  olfactory:  sense  of  smell  

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Related  Terms:  InfecAons  

encephaliAs:  inflammaAon  of  the  brain  


herpes  zoster:  infecAon  caused  by  herpes  virus;  
characterized  by  small  blisters  on  the  skin;  
also  called  “shingles”  
meningiAs:  inflammaAon  of  the  brain  and  
meninges  
myeliAs:  inflammaAon  of  the  spinal  cord  
neuriAs:  inflammaAon  of  a  nerve  
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Related  Terms:  InfecAons  

•  PoliomyeliAs  (“polio”):  virus  infecAon  of  the  spinal  


cord,  caused  by  a  polio  virus  
•  PolyneuriAs:  inflammaAon  of  a  large  number  of  
spinal  nerves  at  the  same  Ame  
•  Rabies:  infecAon  of  the  CNS  and  salivary  glands,  
transmiKed  by  animal  bite  
•  Tetanus:  acute  bacterial  infecAon  caused  by  a  
bacterium  found  in  soil,  dust,  or  animal  or  human  
wastes  

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 Hereditary  and  Congenital  Disorders  

•  hereditary:  inherited  from  a  parent  


•  congenital:  a  disorder  a  child  has  at  birth  
•  developmental:  a  disorder  that  appears  as  a  
child  grows  
 

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Related  Terms:  Hereditary  and  Congenital  
Disorders  
•  epilepsy  
"   nervous  system  disorder  
"   inherited  or  the  result  of  trauma  (injury)  
"   paAent  may  have  convulsions  of  four  types:  
"          grand  mal  
"          peAt  mal  
"          psychomotor  
"          focal  

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Related  Terms:  Circulatory  Disturbances  

•  cerebral  hemorrhage:  bleeding  into  the  


cerebrum  
•  CVA  (cerebrovascular  accident)  
"  also  called  stroke  or  apoplexy  
"  bleeding  in  the  brain  due  to  ruptured  artery  
"  symptoms:  headache,  nausea,  vomiAng,  
confusion  

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Related  Terms:  Circulatory  Disturbances  

•  epidural  hematoma:  collecAon  of  blood  


outside  the  dura  mater  
•  intracranial  hemorrhage:  bleeding  inside  the  
cranium  
•  subdural  hemorrhage  or  hematoma:  bleeding  
between  the  dura  mater  and  the  arachnoid  
membrane  
 

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Related  Terms:  Other  Organic  AbnormaliAes  

•  Alzheimer’s  disease:  progressive  brain  


disease,  mainly  of  the  elderly  (people  over  65)  
•  ALS  (amytrophic  lateral  sclerosis):  progressive  
nervous  system  disease  of  the  spinal  cord  with  
muscle  weakness  and  twitching.  
•  Aphasia:  loss  of  the  ability  to  speak  or  write  
•  Ataxia:  loss  of  muscle  coordinaAon  

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Related  Terms:  Other  Organic  AbnormaliAes  

•  Alzheimer’s  disease:  progressive  brain  


disease,  mainly  of  the  elderly  (people  over  65)  
•  ALS  (amytrophic  lateral  sclerosis):  progressive  
nervous  system  disease  of  the  spinal  cord  with  
muscle  weakness  and  twitching.  
•  aphasia:  loss  of  the  ability  to  speak  or  write  
•  ataxia:  loss  of  muscle  coordinaAon  

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Related  Terms:  Other  Organic  AbnormaliAes,  

•  aura:  before  an  epilepAc  seizure,  a  paAent  


sees,  smells,  hears,  or  feels  something  
unusual.  
•  Bell’s  palsy:  weakness  on  one  side  of  the  face  
•  cerebral  palsy:  brain  damage  affecAng  control  
of  muscles  
•  chorea:  nervous  disease  with  involuntary  jerky  
movements.  

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Related  Terms:  Other  Organic  AbnormaliAes  

•  coma:  paAent  is  unconscious,  can’t  be  


awakened  
•  delirium:  paAent  has  hallucinaAons,  is  excited,  
restless,  and  incoherent  (  talking  in  an  illogical  
way)  
•  demenAa:  brain  deteriorates  because  of  disease  
•  dyskinesia:  paAent’s  movements  are  incomplete  
or  uncontrolled,  because  of  disease  
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Related  Terms:  Other  Organic  AbnormaliAes  

•  dysphasia:  paAent  doesn’t  speak  clearly  


•  hemiplegia:  one  side  of  the  body  is  paralyzed  
•  Jacksonian  seizures:  seizures  that  start  in  a  distant  
part  of  the  body,  such  as  the  fingers,  and  spread  
towards  the  center  of  the  body  
•  mulAple  sclerosis:  progressive  disorder  of  brain  and  
spinal  cord,  starAng  early  in  life,  resulAng  in    tremors,  
lack  of  coordinaAon,  speech  problems,etc.  

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Related  Terms:  Other  Organic  AbnormaliAes  

•  narcolepsy:  paAent  suddenly  falls  asleep  


•  neuralgia:  pain  in  a  nerve  
•  palsy:  paralysis  
•  paralysis:  loss  of  ability  to  move  a  part  of  the  
body  
•  paraplegia:  paralysis  of  lower  body  and  legs  
•  paresis:  a  form  of  paralysis  

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Related  Terms:  Other  Organic  AbnormaliAes  

•  Parkinson’s  disease:  nervous  system  disease  


of  late  life  
•  amnesia:  loss  of  memory  
•  syncope:  fainAng  
 

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PTSD  
•  Role  of  amygdala  &  cortex  on  PTSD  
•  Role  of  prefrontal  cortex  

154
Depression    
•  Lack  or  decrease  in  serotonin  secreAon  in  
prefrontal  cortex  
•  Prozac,  sAmulates  5-­‐HT  secreAon  in  prefrontal  
cortex,  in  order  to  improve  depression  
•  Prozac  has  dependency    

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Laboratory  tests  

•  brain  scan:  using  a  scanner  to  diagnose  defects  of  


the  brain  
•  cerebrospinal  fluid  tests:  check  for  blood,  
infecAon,and  other  abnormaliAes  
•  echoencephalogram:  using  ultrasound  to  check  
the  brain  for  abnormaliAes  
•  electroencephalogram  (EEG)  using  a  machine  to  
check  for  abnormal  electrical  acAvity  in  the  brain  
•  myelography:  x-­‐ray  of  the  spinal  cord  
156
Psychiatric  (or  Mental)  Disorders  
These  diseases  of  the  mind  generally  are  not  
caused  by  physical  abnormaliAes.  
•  alcoholic  intoxicaAon:  confusion  and  amnesia  
caused  by  drinking  alcohol    (being  “drunk”)  
•  delirium  tremens:  mental  disturbance  caused  
by  drinking  alcohol,  with  trembling,  
excitement,  anxiety,  hallucinaAons,and  
convulsions  

157
Psychiatric  (or  Mental)  Disorders  
•  anorexia  nervosa:  an  eaAng  disorder  
someAmes  resulAng  in  the  paAent  starving  to  
death;  most  paAents  are  young  females.  
•  anAsocial  personality  disorder:  paAent  
behaves  in  a  way  that  is  not  acceptable  to  
society;  for  example,  criminal  or  violent  
behavior  

158
Psychiatric  (or  Mental)  Disorders  
•  aKenAon  deficit/hyperacAvity  disorder  (ADHD):  a  
child  or  adolescent  does  poorly  in  school,  is  restless,  
has  a  short  aKenAon  span,  and  is  very  acAve  
physically  
•  bulimia:  deliberately  vomiAng  aher  eaAng,  to  control  
weight  
•  dissociaAve  disorder:  a  personality  disease  
•  down  syndrome:  congenital  mental  retardaAon  with  
physical  symptoms  

159
Psychiatric  (or  Mental)  Disorders  
•  mania:  extreme  excitement  
•  mental  retardaAon:  below  average  
intelligence  
•  paranoia:  paAent  believes  that  people  are  
trying  to  harm  him  
•  posKraumaAc  stress  disorder:  emoAonal  
problems  following  a  traumaAc  (harmful)  
event,  such  as  war,  rape,  or  crime  

160
Psychiatric  (or  Mental)  Disorders  
•  personality  disorder:  paAent  blames  problems  
in  relaAonships  on  other  people.  common  
types:  
"  paranoid  
"  schizoid  
"  anAsocial  
"  passive-­‐aggressive  
"  obsessive-­‐compulsive  
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Psychiatric  (or  Mental)  Disorders  
•  phobia:  an  unreasonable  fear  
•  acrophobia:  fear  of  heights  
•  agoraphobia:  fear  of  open  or  crowded  places  
•  claustrophobia:  fear  of  closed-­‐in  places  
•  xenophobia:  fear  of  strangers  
•  zoophobia:  fear  of  a  animal,  or  of  animals  in  
general  

162
Psychiatric  (or  Mental)  Disorders  
•  posKraumaAc  stress  disorder:  severe  anxiety  
following  a  traumaAc  (frightening  or  harmful)  
event  
•  psychoAc  disorder:  paAent  is  out  of  touch  
with  reality,  confused,  and  cannot  think  
properly  
•  substance  abuse:  paAents  are  dependent  on  
alcohol  and/or  drugs,  and  this  interferes  with  
their  work  or  social  lives  

163
Other  Psychiatric  Terms  
•  amnesia:  loss  of  memory  
•  analgesia:  not  being  able  to  feel  pain  
•  anesthesia:  not  feeling  anything  in  a  body  part  
•  apathy:  not  feeling  emoAons  
•  asthenia:  weakness  
•  auAsm:  personality  disorder  that  affects  
children  

164
Other  Psychiatric  Terms    

•  catalepsy:  muscles  are  rigid  


•  cyclothymic:  switching  between  being  very  
happy  and  very  sad  
•  delusion:  false  belief  or  idea  
•  disorientaAon:  confusion  about  Ame,  place,  
and/or  idenAty  
•  drug  dependency:  being  addicted  to  or  
used  to  using  drugs  
165
Other  Psychiatric  Terms  
•  dyslexia:  being  unable  to  read  well  
•  dysphoria:  sadness  or  depression  
•  egocentric:  self-­‐centered  
•  empathy:  the  ability  to  understand  how  other  
people  feel  
•  euphoria:  feeling  too  happy,  the  opposite  of  
dysphoria  

166
Other  Psychiatric  Terms  
•  gay:  homosexual  (slang)  
•  hallucinaAon:  seeing,  hearing,  smelling,  
feeling,  or  tasAng  something  that  does  not  
exist  
•  homosexuality:  romanAc  aKracAon  to  people  
of  the  same  sex  
•  hypnosis:  induced  condiAon  of  altered  
consciousness  

167
Other  Psychiatric  Terms  
•  incest:  sexual  relaAons  among  close  relaAves  
•  inerAa:  not  acAve  
•  insomnia:  not  able  to  sleep  
•  introverted:  a  person  thinks  about  himself  and  
doesn’t  communicate  much  with  other  people  

168
Other  Psychiatric  Terms  
•  malingering:  pretending  to  be  sick  
•  neurosis:  mild  psychiatric  (mental)  problem  
•  pre-­‐menstrual  syndrome  (PMS):  emoAonal  distress  
before  the  start  of  menstruaAon  
•  psychogenic:  illness  came  from  psychological,  rather  
than  physical,  disease  
•  psychosis:  sever  mental  disorder;  paAent  is  out  of  
touch  with  reality  
•  sadism:  taking  pleasure  in  hurAng  other  people  
 
 
169
Psychiatric  Treatment  
•  electroconvulsive  therapy  (ECT):  electric  shocks  used  
to  treat  depression  
•  anAanxiety  drugs:  tranquilizers,  medicine  that  makes  
a  person  feel  calmer  
•  psychotherapy:  treatment  for  psychiatric  disorders  
•  psychiatry:  medical  treatment  for  diseases  of  the  
mind  and  emoAons  
•  tranquilizer:  medicine  that  makes  a  person  feel  
calmer  

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More  reading    
•  www.nlm.nih.gov

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