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Înființare: 16 octombrie 1923, Los Angeles, California, Statele Unite

Sediu: Burbank, California, Statele Unite
Cotație: DIS (NYSE) 118,00 USD +2,00 (+1,72 %)
9 nov., 16:01 GMT-5 - Declinare a responsabilității
Venit: 55,14 miliarde USD (2017)
Fondatori: Walt Disney, Roy O. Disney
Filiale: Pixar Animation Studios, Walt Disney World, Disney Store, MAI MULTE

Pentru mai mult de opt decenii, numele de Walt Disney a fost proeminent în domeniul
de divertisment de familie, plecând de la un început umil, ca un simplu studiou de desene
animate în anii 1920, devenind astăzi o corporație globală, compania continuă cu mândrie să
ofere divertisment de calitate pentru fiecare membru al familiei din America și întreaga lume.
De la bun început fondatorul Disney a încurajat spiritual de creativitate, inovație și
excelență care continuă să stea la baza tuturor succeselor companiei.
Walt Disney Company, cunoscut în mod obișnuit ca Disney, reprezintă o multinațională
mass-media de origine americană cu sediul în Burbank, California, Statele Unite ale
Americii. Acesta este cel mai mare conglomerate media din lume în ceea ce privește venitul


“to be one of the world’s leading producers and providers of entertainment

and information.” This vision statement shows industry leadership targets for
strategic management, and provides an overview of the nature of the business.
Disney’s corporate vision statement has the following main factors:

1. World
2. Leading producers and providers
3. Entertainment and information

“Using our portfolio of brands to differentiate our content, services and
consumer products, we seek to develop the most creative, innovative and
profitable entertainment experiences and related products in the world.” Thus,
Disney’s mission statement has the following main factors:

1. Content, services, and consumer products

2. Develop the most creative, innovative and profitable
3. Entertainment experiences and related products in the world

he values and ethics of the Walt Disney Company are an essential element of the company’s
culture. Five essential components of the Disney culture are included here. First is innovation.
The company is committed to continued innovation and technology, just as it was when Disney’s
Mickey Mouse was one of the first cartoon presentations to have sound. Next, the Disney
Company strives toward setting a high standard of excellence and maintaining that high
standard. Third, the Disney Company is committed to positive, inclusive ideas about family,
which provide enjoyment for all ages. Fourth, the Disney Company continues a tradition of
timeless storytelling that delights and inspires, and finally, the company is dedicated to honor and
respect decency in order to inspire trust in the company (culture and diversity:
Most predictions for the future destination of the Disney Company are positive ones. The Walt
Disney Company’s Fiscal Year Annual Report and Shareholder Letter addressed the risk factors
facing the media giant (2012, pp. 17-26). One of Disney’s strongest assets is its diversification. If
the company continues to address potential threats to the company and remains focused on its
mission and vision, which have served the company well for over 90 years, then the prospects
for the future for the Walt Disney Company appear promising, and the future may be even more
promising for the organization.
The Walt Disney Co. is a diversified international family entertainment and media
enterprise. It operates through four business segments: Media Networks, Parks &
Resorts, Studio Entertainment and Consumer Products & Interactive Media. The
Media Networks segment includes cable and broadcast television networks,
television production and distribution operations, domestic television stations, radio
networks and stations. The Parks & Resorts segment owns and operates the Walt
Disney World Resort in Florida; the Disneyland

Resort in California; Aulani, a Disney Resort & Spa in Hawaii; the Disney Vacation
Club; the Disney Cruise Line; and Adventures by Disney. The Studio Entertainment
segment produces and acquires live-
action and animated motion pictures, direct-to-video content, musical recordings and live
stage plays. This segment distributes films primarily under the Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar,
Marvel, Lucasfilm and Touchstone banners. The Consumer Products & Interactive Media
segment licenses the company's trade names, characters and visual and literary properties to
various manufacturers, game developers, publishers and retailers throughout the world. It
also develops and publishes games, primarily for mobile platforms, and books, magazines
and comic books. This segment also distributes branded merchandise directly through retail,
online and wholesale businesses. In addition, the segment's operations also include website
management and design, primarily for other company businesses, and the development and
distribution of online video content199.000
Through its great expansion and growth as a company, Disney has divided its company into five main
business segments. These consist of media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment,
consumer products and interactive media. The media network division of Disney is comprised of
broadcast, cable, radio, publishing and digital businesses within the two main subsets of Disney/ABC
and ESPN Inc. Walt Disney Parks and Resorts division has grown into one of the world’s leading
providers for family vacations. The parks and resorts division includes 11 theme parks and 43 resorts
across the globe, Disney’s cruise line with its four ships, and Adventures by Disney, which is guided
family vacations of locations around the world. The Walt Disney Studios segment has been the
foundation of the company for over 85 years. The studio is in charge of bringing the world quality
family movies, music, and stage plays. Feature Films are released through many different ways
under the umbrella of Disney, including Disney, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Dreamworks, and Touchstone
Pictures. The Disney music group includes Walt Disney Records and Hollywood Records. The
business section includes Walt Disney Records and Hollywood Records. The business section of
Disney is in the Disney Consumer Products, which range from selling apparel, toys, home décor,
books and magazines to foods and beverages, stationary, electronics, and fine art. The main retail
chain, The Disney Store, is located in North America, Europe, and Japan. The most recently founded
segment in 2008, Disney Interactive, push the boundaries of technology and imagination to
entertain children and families around the world orld. Disney Interactive uses a variety of ways to do
this, through mobile, social, and console games, online virtual worlds, and top ranked web
destinations. Together all five of these segments create the global corporation that Disney has
become today (Company Overview).


The Walt Disney Company has a generic strategy for competitive advantage that
capitalizes on the uniqueness of products offered in the entertainment, mass media,
and amusement park industries. Michael E. Porter’s model indicates that a generic
competitive strategy enables the business to develop and maintain its
competitiveness in the target market. Disney’s generic competitive strategy is based
on making its products different from those of competitors. On the other hand, the
corporation’s intensive strategies for growth are focused on developing new products
that suit global market trends. The company grows through innovation and creativity,
which enable the business to compete against large firms. For example, the
company competes against Viacom Inc., Time Warner Inc., Sony Corporation, CBS
Corporation, and Comcast Corporation, which owns Universal Pictures. The Walt
Disney Company’s generic strategy and intensive growth strategies address such
competitive landscape. Through corresponding strategic objectives and competitive
advantages, the entertainment conglomerate manages challenges in its industry
This business analysis reflects strategic management efforts. The company’s
generic strategy focuses on developing competitive advantages based on innovation
in product development. Disney’s intensive strategies are implemented with strategic
objectives for maximizing the growth benefits of such innovation. For example, the
company grows by introducing technologically enhanced products, such as movies
for customers in the international market. In the context of Michael Porter’s model,
The Walt Disney Company’s generic competitive strategy and intensive growth
strategies are aligned for product-focused development.

The Walt Disney Company’s Generic Strategy for

Competitive Advantage (Porter’s Model)
Disney uses product differentiation as its generic strategy for competitive
advantage. Michael Porter’s model states that this strategy involves unique products
offered to many market segments. For example, the corporation offers its
entertainment products to practically every person in the world, especially with the
core emphasis on family-oriented programming. In this generic competitive strategy,
quality and uniqueness through innovation differentiate the company’s products from
competitors. The subsidiary Walt Disney Imagineering Research & Development,
Inc. has dedicated teams to ensure the uniqueness of entertainment experiences in
the company’s theme parks and resorts. The company’s intensive growth strategies
and associated strategic objectives are applied alongside this generic strategy, with
emphasis on differentiated competitive advantage to support and manage business

The Walt Disney Company’s generic competitive strategy pushes for product-
focused strategic objectives. Such business focus is necessary for supporting
product development efforts to differentiate the company from competitors. For
example, the strategic objective of developing new augmented reality products adds
to the uniqueness of the Disney experience. Based on this generic strategy, another
relevant strategic objective is to strengthen competitive advantages through
marketing strategies that reinforce the uniqueness of the company’s brand. These
marketing strategies are part of Disney’s marketing mix or 4Ps. Also, related
managerial efforts contribute to the achievement of Disney’s corporate mission and
vision statements in the global market for entertainment, mass media, and theme
park products. Brand uniqueness helps in achieving industry leadership. Considering
the differentiation generic competitive strategy in Porter’s model, intensive strategies
must involve differentiation to grow the business.

The Walt Disney Company’s Intensive Strategies for

Product Development (Primary). Product development is The Walt Disney
Company’s primary intensive growth strategy. This strategy involves offering new
products in the company’s current or existing markets. For example, the company
releases new movies with corresponding merchandise to generate more profits from
its target customers worldwide. This company analysis also sheds light on the
importance of Disney’s organizational structure, which provides the organizational
design to effectively manage product development. This intensive strategy links to
the differentiation generic competitive strategy in emphasizing uniqueness in product
development. A related strategic objective is to achieve business growth by
effectively persuading customers to purchase Disney’s products on the basis of their
unique attributes, such as in entertainment experience.

Market Penetration (Secondary). The Walt Disney Company achieves growth

partly through market penetration. As a secondary intensive strategy, market
penetration enables growth by increasing sales of existing products in the company’s
current markets. For example, one of the corporation’s strategic objectives is to use
aggressive advertising to increase its revenues from products released in the global
entertainment industry. The business strengths shown in the SWOT analysis of
Disney contribute to success in implementing this intensive growth strategy. A strong
brand based on the differentiation generic strategy creates competitive advantage to
attract customers to the company’s products, and to manage customers’

Market Development. Market development is an intensive growth strategy that is

less frequently used in The Walt Disney Company’s business. In growing the
business, this intensive strategy requires the company to introduce its existing
products to new markets or market segments. For example, growth is achieved by
establishing operations in new markets, such as through a new Disneyland
amusement park to capture a regional market. Even with competitive challenges,
entry into new markets can increase the company strengths to manage the industry’s
competitive forces shown in the Porter’s Five Forces analysis of Disney. A key
strategic objective in market development is to use the differentiation generic
competitive strategy to successfully introduce the company’s products into new

Diversification. The Walt Disney Company uses diversification as a supporting

intensive strategy for business growth. Developing or acquiring new businesses is
the typical approach in this intensive growth strategy. For example, through the
establishment of the Disney Cruise Line, the company grew by entering the cruise
line market of the tourism and hospitality industries. The differentiation generic
strategy develops the competitive advantage of new business operations that use
the company’s brand. Under diversification, a strategic objective is to manage
competitive challenges by developing new businesses that grow the company’s
presence and brand popularity in the international market.



Modelul lui Walt Disney a inceput sa fie luat in calcul in lumea afacerilor mai ales dupa ce Tom
Peters, unul dintre cei mai importanti autori in domeniul managementului, l-a mentionat in cartea
sa “In Search of Excellence”, aparuta in 1982. De atunci, modelul Disney in materie de cultura
corporatista n-a facut decat sa se rafineze.

In spatele succesului Disney

Viitorii angajati ai Walt Disney Company isi incep aici cariera la biroul de recrutare din Orlando,
Florida, unde au loc interviurile cu candidatii. Disney pune un accent mare pe procesul de
recrutare, pentru ca piata muncii din zona centrala a Floridei este competitiva, iar rata somajului
este foarte mica.

Cei care lucreaza in departamentul de recrutare provin din diverse zone ale organizatiei si
lucreaza aici timp de 12 luni, Disney considerand ca este foarte important ca oameni care
lucreaza la diverse niveluri in cadrul companiei sa conduca procesul de recrutare.

In timp ce candidatii asteapta sa sustina interviul initial, vizioneaza un scurt film care descrie
modul cum va avea loc interviul si accentueaza asteptarile pe care compania le are de la viitorii
angajati. Nonconformistii nu trebuie sa candideze; de exemplu, un angajat barbat nu are voie sa
poarte cercei sau sa nu fie barbierit. Odata angajati, toti oamenii noi participa la acelasi program
individual de training de o jumatate de zi, numit “Traditiile Disney”, unde invata notiunile de baza,
de la istoria Disney pana la directii referitoare la cum sa-si indeplineasca sarcinile in echipa.
Este, de asemenea, primul contact cu Universitatea Disney, care isi pune ulterior amprenta
asupra carierei tuturor angajatilor. Walt Disney a infiintat Universitatea Disney dupa ce a deschis
parcul de distractii Disneyland din Orlando, cand si-a dat seama ca are nevoie de un sistem
structurat prin intermediul caruia sa-i instruiasca pe angajati. A fost prima universitate
corporatista din SUA si ramane una dintre cele mai mari institutii corporatiste de training din
lume. Aici, cei peste 40.000 de angajati ai Walt Disney Company beneficiaza de programe de
instruire care vizeaza arii diverse - de la lucrul cu calculatorul pana la arta culinara. Universitatea
foloseste tehnologii avansate de instruire, care permit angajatilor sa participe la traininguri atunci
cand doresc si cand timpul le permite.

Pentru vizitatorii parcului tematic Disneyland, calitatea serviciilor care li se ofera este decisiva
spre a-i face sa revina; conform statisticilor companiei, aproape 70% dintre vizitatorii Disneyland
din Florida revin. Jim Cunningham, program manager al programelor de business din cadrul
Institutului Disney, considera ca definitia cea mai buna a calitatii serviciilor tine de atentia la
detaliu si capacitatea de a depasi asteptarile vizitatorilor.

Astfel, compania colecteaza cat de multe informatii posibil despre asteptarile vizitatorilor, pe
baza unor chestionare, focus grupuri sau sondaje de opinie. Colectarea de date se face regional,
echipele din fiecare regiune unde opereaza Disney evaluand care sunt lucrurile cele mai
importante pe plan local pentru a masura calitatea serviciilor.


-cum sunt oamenii la ei/cum sunt la noi
-cum ne percep ei pe noi (??? Wtf srlsy)
-cum ii percepem noi pe ei
-mentalitatea lor
Disney is a name that carries clout and evokes images of excellence - and
that also goes for The Disney University. Mention this highly-regarded
institution to any business leader and the question that often follows is:
“How do they develop the world’s most engaged, loyal and customer-centric
employees, year after year?”
The simple explanation for the Disney (DIS) University’s success can be
attributed to the levels of support and clarity of purpose found in the Four
Circumstances, organizational values promoted by Walt Disney and the
founder of the Disney University, Van France. All play vital roles in creating an
organizational culture that has sustained “The Happiest Place on Earth” at
Disney theme parks for over 57 years.
Absent the kinds of values found in the Four Circumstances, employee
development and organizational culture initiatives are bound to fail; even the
best funded organizational “universities” are doomed to become universities-

Circumstance #1: Innovation

Leaders must be innovative and comfortable with risk.
This circumstance reveals the traits associated with those who break new
ground: the pioneers who are not afraid to take risks. Van France took Walt
Disney’s lead by relentlessly focusing on being innovative, creating an ever-
evolving learning culture by challenging the status-quo.
Similar to Walt Disney, Van France brought up pointed and controversial ideas
that kept the Disney leadership thinking. France’s zeal for
creating The Happiest Place on Earth through innovation, and challenging
entrenched behavioral patterns and beliefs, is evident in a passage he created
for an early 1980’s Disneyland management training program:
“Budgets, schedules, reports, more reports, union negotiations, training
programs, meetings … more meetings, handbooks, cover-your-ass memos
and the endless things which take up your time are of no value unless they
end up producing A HAPPY GUEST.”
Van didn’t hesitate to stir the pot.

Circumstance #2: Support

Leaders must provide overt, enthusiastic and sustained support; be
cheerleaders of employee development!
This circumstance adds a component lacking in too many organizations;
unabashed organizational support. From Walt and Roy Disney, and then to
many generations of Disney leaders, management participates in Disney
University programs.
Unless those from the highest ranks of management back employee
development, it won’t happen; leadership must be intimately involved and set
the tone. Picture the following: When the Chairman of Disney Studios sits
down with a group of managers—participating in a multi-day Creative
Leadership seminar— to discuss the creative side of making and distributing
films, everyone listens.
No one is ‘too big’ to participate in training at Disney.

Circumstance #3: Education

Employee education and development must be woven into organizational
Without a doubt, this circumstance reveals the roots of the Disney University;
Walt’s long-standing value of providing employees a tailored, relevant training
and education experience.
Walt often brought into the Studio prominent educators and artists, such as
Frank Lloyd Wright, to give classes and lectures to the animators. Their
innovative ideas and outside-the-box thinking became an invaluable source of
Education, offered consistently and with creativity, is an indispensable
commodity held in high esteem in the history and culture of The Walt Disney

Circumstance #4: Entertain

Employee development … ranging from the front lines to the executive suite
… must be entertaining,engaging and memorable … not boring and
Van France and generations of Disney University leaders share Walt Disney’s
belief that it is possible to entertain and educate. Employing entertainment as
a training strategy goes well beyond telling jokes and laughing. It is a powerful
tool that can increase trainee engagement and ensure the retention of new
A famous Walt quote reflects the roots of this value, “When the subject
permits, we let fly with all the satire and gags at our command. Laughter is no
enemy to learning.”

Culture is Much More Than Pixie Dust

Van France and his team of employee development pioneers brought to life
the values found in the Four Circumstances. Disney corporate leadership
along with Van and his team of strong-willed visionaries created a corporate
culture and an organizational DNA well before these words were ever in
vogue. They didn’t just go to the store, buy pixie dust and start throwing it
around. Their tireless devotion to perpetuate Walt Disney’s dream, plus the
game-changing business concepts they created, helped build a resilient
organizational culture that has overcome tremendous challenges and is
respected around the world.


din prisma celor 6 dimensiuni puse in evidenta de autorul
From the beginning, cultural gaffes by Disney set the tone for the project. By
late 1986, Disney was deep in negotiations with the French government. To the
exasperation of the Disney team, headed by Joe Shapiro, the talks were taking far
longer than expected. Jean-Rene Bernard, the chief French negotiator, said he was
astonished when Mr. Shapiro, his patience depleted, ran to the door of the room and,
in a very un-Gallic gesture, began kicking it repeatedly, shouting, "Get me something
to break!"
There was also snipping from Parisian intellectuals who attacked the
transplantation of Disney's dream world as an assault on French culture; "a cultural
Chernobyl," one prominent intellectual called it. The minister of culture announced he
would boycott the opening, proclaiming it to be an unwelcome symbol of American
clichés and a consumer society. Unperturbed, Disney pushed ahead with the planned
summer 1992 opening of the $5 billion park. Shortly after Euro-Disneyland opened,
French farmers drove their tractors to the entrance and blocked it.
This globally televised act of protest was aimed not at Disney but at the US
government, which had been demanding that French agricultural subsidies be cut.
Still, it focused world attention upon the loveless marriage of Disney and Paris. Then
there were the operational errors. Disney's policy of serving no alcohol in the park,
since reversed caused astonishment in a country where a glass of wine for lunch is a
given. Disney thought that Monday would be a light day for visitors and Friday a
heavy one and allocated staff accordingly, but the reality was the reverse. Another
unpleasant surprise was the hotel breakfast debacle. "We were told that Europeans
'don't take breakfast,' so we downsized the restaurants," recalled one Disney executive.
"And guess what? Everybody showed up for breakfast. We were trying to serve 2,500
breakfasts in a 350-seat restaurant at some of the hotels. The lines were horrendous.
Moreover, they didn't want the typical French breakfast of croissants and coffee,
which was our assumption. They wanted bacon and eggs." Lunch turned out to be
another problem. "Everybody wanted lunch at 12:30. The crowds were huge. Our
smiling cast members had to calm down surly patrons and engage in some 'behavior
modification' to teach them that they could eat lunch at 11:00 AM or 2:00 PM."
2. Human management
There were major staffing problems too. Disney tried to use the same teamwork
model with its staff that had worked so well in America and Japan, but it ran into
trouble in France. In the first nine weeks of Euro-Disneyland's operation, roughly
1,000 employees, 10 percent of the total, left. One former employee was a 22-year old
medical student from a nearby town who signed up for a weekend job. After two days
of "brainwashing," as he called Disney's training, he left following a dispute with his
supervisor over the timing of his lunch hour. Another former employee noted, "I don't
think that they realize what Europeans are like. . . that we ask questions and don't
think all the same way."
One of the biggest problems, however, was that Europeans didn't stay at the park
as long as Disney expected. While Disney succeeded in getting close to 9 million
visitors a year through the park gates, in line with its plans, most stayed only a day or
two. Few stayed the four to five days that Disney had hoped for. It seems that most
Europeans regard theme parks as places for day excursions. A theme park is just not
seen as a destination for an extended vacation. This was a big shock for Disney. The
company had invested billions in building luxury hotels next to the park-hotels that
the day-trippers didn't need and that stood half empty most of the time. To make
matters worse, the French didn't show up in the expected numbers. In 1994, only 40
percent of the park's visitors were French. One puzzled executive noted that many
visitors were Americans living in Europe or, stranger still, Japanese on a European
vacation! As a result, by the end of 1994 Euro-Disneyland had cumulative losses of $2
At this point, Euro-Disney changed its strategy. First, the company changed the
name to Disneyland Paris in an attempt to strengthen the park's identity. Second, food
and fashion offerings changed. To quote one manager, "We opened with restaurants
providing French-style food service, but we found that customers wanted self service
like in the US parks. Similarly, products in the boutiques were initially toned down for
the French market, but since then the range has changed to give it a more definite
Disney image." Third, the prices for day tickets and hotel rooms were cut by one-
third. The result was an attendance of 11.7 million in 1996, up from a low of 8.8
million in 1994.

Euro Disney Case Analysis Global Management Cultural Studies Essay

Disneyland Paris is the brainchild of Disney to build a park that will conquer
Europe, the first sites were initiated in 1988 and the building was officially opened in
1992 under the name of Euro Disney Resort, but the influx of tourists in the park
Disney was much lower than expected. They expected about half a million visitors in
just one day of the inauguration, but after the first three months, the number dropped
even more. In addition, the theme park met protests from those who feared that the
presence of a Disney park in France could clash with the French culture because of its
American influence. Many of these found their way to the park nicknamed a "cultural
Some believe that the park was built bigger than it should be in its first day of
opening, and the project had debts grow dramatically. In addition, the park ran into
difficulties when it collided with a cultural identity different from the American, for
example, did not offer wine in the restaurants or have no menu with French cuisine.

Hofstede Model – Cross Cultural Differences – Reasons for Euro Disney failure

Power distance:

According to Hofstede, the power distance dimension indicates the point at

which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family)
accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This dimension does not
measure the level of distribution of power in a given culture, but analyzes the way
people feel about it. Low scores of power distance means that a culture expect and
accept that power relations are democratic and that the members are seen as equals.
High scores of power distance means that the less powerful members of society accept
their conditions and noted the existence of formal hierarchical position.

France, compared to US has a very high power distance, meaning that there is a
very strict hierarchical system and power is highly centralized. Moreover, superiors
are inaccessible from lower positions within a company and orders from top
management are to be obeyed without any possibility of debate. Thus, attitude towards
management is more formal and power is not equally distributed. Instead, US has a
totally different approach to power distance. In US, equal rights are believed to be for
everyone and hierarchy is only a convention, meaning that superiors are always
accessible and the organization is meant to be a very friendly environment. Thus,
there is no center of leadership, power is distributed equally, and there is a very low
authority distance.


This dimension has no political connotations and refers to the group rather than
the individual. Individualistic cultures value the achievement of personal goals. In
collectivist societies, the group's goals and well being are valued more than the

France scores quite high meaning that the culture is mainly individualistic,
taking care primarily for them. Also in work environment autonomy is preferred to
teamwork. Instead, US scores even higher, underlining their individualistic culture
and their looking after themselves and their close family first. However, US has a very
high geographical mobility and Americans are very keen in doing business outside
their country and interacting with different cultures. Also in work environment,
employees are expected to take initiatives and be self reliant, instead of waiting for
orders from upper management. In the Euro Disney case the French were particularly
annoyed about Americans enforcing their rules and culture, which went against their
culture and customs. Moreover, the imposition of dress code was seen as an assault to
French traditions and their professional dress code laws.


This dimension measures the level of importance given to a culture that values
masculine stereotypes as assertiveness, ambition, power and materialism, as well as
stereotypical feminine values such as the emphasis on human relationships. Cultures
in a high position on the ladder of masculinity have generally most significant
differences between the sexes and tend to be more competitive and ambitious. Those
with low scores show less difference between the sexes and give more value to the
development of relationships.

France scores very low in this dimension meaning that it is a very feminine
society where quality of life is more important than work success. In fact, French
“work to live” and not the other way around. Moreover, competition is favored,
however signs of success are preferably not too visible. Instead, US is predominantly
a masculine society where competition, success, and achievement are the main
motivating elements. Americans “live to work” in order to achieve a higher status in
society and they set specific goals in both their private and public life. In the Euro
Disney case, US did not even think of the impact on the French culture, highlighting
their predominant characteristic of their masculine culture, wanting to prevail on

Uncertainty avoidance:

This dimension measures the way a company manages unknown situations,

unexpected events and the stress of change. Cultures with high score in this index are
less tolerant to change and tend to minimize the fear of the unknown through the
application of rules, regulations and / or rigid laws. Companies with low score are
more open to change and have fewer rules and laws, directives with more freedom.

France scores very high in uncertainty avoidance meaning that French people do
not like to take risks and prefer well structured management with strict rules and
security. They rarely change policies or try something new because it is considered
stressful. On the other hand, US scores very low in uncertainty avoidance meaning
that Americans accept uncertainty are is not afraid of what will come in the unknown
future. Americans have lower uncertainty meaning that they are more courageous
when it comes to face risks, less traditional to rules and more risk taking. Thus,
Americans are keener in accepting new ideas, products, and are always willing to try
something innovative in any sector. Moreover, they are very tolerant people, they
strongly believe in freedom of expression, and they do not require very strict rules
compared to countries that score high as France.

Long term Orientation:

This dimension describes the time horizon of a society. The cultures with short-
term orientation appreciate traditional methods, devote a considerable amount of time
to the formation of relationships and generally have a circular vision of time. This
means that past and present are interrelated and that what cannot be done today can be
postponed until tomorrow. In contrast there is the long-term orientation, which sees
time as linear and looking to the future rather than the present or the past. It is an
attitude aimed at the result, which gives value to the rewards obtained.

France scores very low in long term orientation. This means that French are
more oriented on short-term goals. They are a very traditional based society and they
feel the need of norms and guidelines in the business environment. Management is
mostly based on self-reliance and personal achievement. Also US scores quite low
meaning that Americans are more short term focused and in quick results in work
environment. Moreover, they are very committed in traditions and in fulfilling social

The Trompenaars Theory:

Trompenaars divides culture in four main categories:

Trompenaars analyzes the cultural differences that may exist between countries
and within organizations. Trompenaars identifies several dimensions that distinguish
one culture on the other (vs. universalism. Particularism, individualism vs.
Collectivism...). The model on the vertical axis is a distinction between hierarchical
cultures and egalitarian cultures, while the horizontal axis is the distinction between
cultures people oriented and task-oriented culture. The hierarchical culture is defined
family-oriented people. Inside this culture, the leadership plays an important role in
the strategic direction, internal cohesion, conflict resolution, and is generally
embodied by a prominent figure that acts as the glue of the organization. Among other
characteristics, the fact that the decisions of the top management have priority over the
other, the presence of a large amount of information that is taken for granted by the
members, and power is not imposed to people but exercised by the people.
Hierarchical task-oriented culture is defined as Eiffel Tower. It is a more formal
culture than that of the family and with a strong emphasis on the role and respects the
rules, norms and standards. Rational, analytical approach, and efficiency are the key
words of this type of culture. Egalitarian culture and people-oriented is defined as
Incubator. In the context of this type manifests a strong-shared purpose. Informal
environment and the importance of creativity and innovation are the main focus
points, and people tend to develop a sense of self-training. Finally, the last quadrant is
the Guide Missile culture (egalitarian tasks / results oriented). In this case there is a
low attachment to the company, but a strong commitment to professionalism. In this
context, people show a strong focus on achieving results. The actual status does not
depend so much on the skills possessed by the hierarchical role but on the contribution
to the improvement of business performance and team. The classification proposed by
Trompenaars is very interesting because it shows the influence that the culture of a
country can have on how an organization operates, and it allows you to open a debate
about the appropriateness of a culture to the logic of business in which a company
operates and its strategic choices.

According to this model, US is a classical example of guided missile culture,

characterized by an organizational culture promoting task orientation and support for
people in the work environment. This type of culture is not only task oriented, but it is
also focused on people. In fact, employees should respect fixed set of rules and be
highly efficient. They should be more focused on the result of a project and not the
process that led them to that result and this culture asks for a very high loyalty to the
project rather than the company itself. The US guide missile organizational culture has
a more domestic nature structure and employees are evaluated on their individual
performance, even though the success of this type of organization is strictly connected
to teamwork.

On the other hand, France is an example of Eiffel tour organizational culture,

which is more submissive, laid back, and has a more traditional attitude towards
management styles. Moreover, the Eiffel tour organizational culture has a pyramid
structure meaning that high management takes all the important decision. In France
organizational culture, hierarchy is very important and organizations duties are well
established from the beginning. This type of organizational culture pays more
attention to people compared to the US one, thus interpersonal relationships are more
important than task.

Mistakes made:

Many mistakes have been made in the realization of the Euro Disney
entertainment park in France. They literally transplanted US culture in France without
taking into consideration the cultural clash that this might have caused. US imposed
their culture over the French one, and this was seen as an attack to French traditions
and customs, resulting in protests from local residence and farmers.

First of all, there was a general misunderstanding of the French culture both
under the lifestyle and legal aspects. The top management made wrong assumptions,
which led them to take wrong management decisions. In fact, French habits and
traditions were not taken in to account. For example, breakfast at the park was not
served; instead in the French culture breakfast is one of the most important
“moments” of the day. Moreover, alcoholic drinks were not allowed in the park:
contrary French always have a glass of wine during their main meals. In addition, also
the dress code requirements did not meet the French standards in work environments.
And the fact that they were supposed to be always smiling and kind did not reflect the
French attitude and the staff was not comfortable with these policies. Furthermore, the
top management positions were al given to American, which made the situation even
worse because they were incapable to fix the mistakes made from the very start.
Instead, if they had hired French people to manage the park, they would have been
able to assess these cultural differences in a more efficient way, avoiding such a
cultural clash.
Second, it was given for granted that French entertainment culture was as the US
one. Thus, staff and resources were allocated in the wrong way, because the peek days
were not the same as the US Disney Land. This led to a lack of staff in crowded days
and a surplus of staff in empty days affecting efficiency and profitability of the park
negatively. Moreover, they assumes French would have gone to the park with their
private transportation, thus they built many car parks which were most of the time
empty, instead the parking were not big enough for buses, which was the more used
transport used to get to the park.

Third, recession signs were not taken into consideration and too high
expectations were placed in the profitability of this new Euro Disney. Thus, too high
revenue expectations were set and the park did not even manage to sell the tickets
available also due to the quite high price imposed. Moreover, the wrong allocation of
staff and resources made the situation even worse and the park’s expenses almost
were more than its revenues.

Globalizarea companiei Disney

Globalization of The Disney Company The Disney Company has become a globalized company,
starting its global expansion in Toyko. In the 1990’s Disney started a European initiative, which
included the establishment of a European headquarters in France. Disney also expanded in Europe
with its theme parks and the establishment of Euro Disney. Euro Disney was opened in April of 1992
about twenty miles outside of Paris, France. The establishment of Euro Disney created much turmoil
from the French press. This turmoil was created because, unlike other companies who expand
globally, Disney changed little to nothing when entering the international market. The French place
great value on their language and culture, and due to this the press made the Disney venture out to
be one of American cultural imperialism. The French feared that Disney characters would soon
overtake the French literary masterpiece characters in the mind of French citizens. Disney made very
minor changes upon building Euro Disney, the main language at the park was French andthe Disney
tales that were based on European fairy tales would have more prominence in the park. Otherwise,
few changes were made and the French press felt that Disney’s whole point and purpose was to
glorify America. They claimed the whole message portrayed at the parks was the glorification of
America’s past, power, way of life, and it’s future. This form of globalization links with
Americanization: that American companies and culture are starting to take over the globe (Forman,
1998). The site on which Disney decided to build Euro Disney also created much turmoil. Marne-
lalVallee was the small town on which the park was built. The park destroyed the region, some
protested that it caused them to lose their livelihood, and caused the breakup of French pastoral
setting that was in place before Disney’s arrival. Disney’s arrival also caused many of the surrounding
towns to increase to 2/3 Disney employees. Another complaint made by the French press was that
many of the procedures for employment were not changed to accommodate French culture. The
mandates on personal hygiene and conduct, the expectations of the company, and the dress code all
are at odds with the typical employment practices of the French. The French press also made the
training process out to be one of “suffering through four days of indoctrination at Disney University.”
This Anti-American sentiment that is often shared by the French can be linked to the fear that their
national identity can be threatened by America’s economic, cultural, and political dominance.
Disney’s entrance into France represented a sort of onslaught of American culture and values that
took up a physical place on French soil. The French press created a very negative image of Euro
Disney through odd cultural analyses of Disney to dramatized personal testimonies. They did not tell
any of the positive stories that included the number of jobs that would be brought to the area and
the France-based Disney park that would attract consumers from all over Europe. Despite the
negative image constructed by the French press, Euro Disney was and always has been very
successful. Euro Disney has over one million visitors a month, in fact, the French are the largest
consumers of Disney products in all of Europe. The decision made by Disney to keep its American
ways proved to be a successful one in Europe and in its future expansion (Forman, 1998). Similarly,
Disney brought its global theme parks to Hong Kong and retained its American themes. Through
retaining the American culture within the walls of the theme park it allows people from mainland
China a chance to engage in global consumption and a sense of international travel that would
normally be prevented by their state. When Disney was in negotiations with the government of
Hong Kong, Disney was in negotiations with the government of Hong Kong, the government
“suggested that Chinese culture could be incorporated into the park but Disney argued that visitors
should have an authentic Disney experience.” Disney saw the Hong Kong park as a chance to give
locals a sample of an American park that would make them want to travel to America to see the real
ones. Disney recognizes that the locals want an experience untainted by their own culture. Disney
built the park as a smaller Disneyland just located in Hong Kong. Similarly to the initial reactions in
France, the press of Hong Kong highly criticized Disney’s decision to build in Hong Kong. They
criticized the small scale of the park and questioned whether or not the partnership between Disney
and the government was a sound one. Yet, the park was and still is successful and enjoyed by many
visitors. When people from mainland China travel to Hong Kong Disneyland, they receive a global
experience without going overseas. This allows them to experience a 21 very different, free, and
individualist atmosphere in contrast to the repressive state in which they live (Fung & Lee, 2009).
Another way in which the Disney Company participates in globalization is through the global division
of labor. In the article by James Tracy, Disney is highly criticized for taking advantage of international
labor to increase its profits. How Disney does this is through subcontracting practices that take
advantage of human labor in developing countries. The phrase “division of labor” comes from the
fact that the mental work is completely separate from the physical work, resulting in decreased
wages for those doing the physical labor. They, mostly women, have no say in the products that they
manufacture, are poorly compensated, and lack the ability to control their work environment. The
Disney Company therefore does all of the intellectual conception and planning then subcontracts
the physical labor to developing countries where they can take advantage of lower wages to
increase profit. This relationship can be seen as an example of economic imperialism because the
industrialized nations have all of the power and control in this relationship. In some cases, the
developing countries welcome this business. In places like Indonesia and China, they have
conditioned their women to be subservient to men and to do what they are told at all times. These
international practices that Disney partakes in greatly contrasts their domestic practices. In the
United States, Disney has earned a reputation as a socially liberal company that includes all types of
people with good will towards all employees. Internationally, the reality is far less flattering. In
comparison of products produced in industrialized nations versus dependent nations, the dependent
nations average annual wages per worker are almost $30,000 less than in industrialization nations.
Tracy points out, “while Disney does not directly negotiate the subcontracts discussed, it licenses the
rights to use its intellectual property to contractors at such high prices that they must seek the least
expensive subcontractors to manufacture these products.” The power of the Disney Company is
tremendous, Disney controls a large amount of popular culture and through this it influences our
daily lives. As the economy becomes increasingly globalized, more and more industries are partaking
in the division of labor. Disney is therefore a step ahead and will only continue to rely on workers in
developing countries despite the negative impact it could have on the Disney brand (Tracy, 1999).
Through all three of these examples, we see the power that Disney has in the global economy and
the influence it has internationally. Disney is often met with great criticism when participating in
global ventures, yet it remains successful and profitable. We may not all agree on the practices by
which Disney makes it’s profit, but one cannot deny the influential global power that Disney has