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3 (de) vizualizări23 paginiMechanical Design

Nov 19, 2018

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Mechanical Design

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Mechanical Design

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support for transmission lines

• To derive the calculation of sag

• To discuss the effect of tower structure and

environment effects on sag calculations

• To discuss about standard formats Sag

template and Stringing Chart

• To discuss about Indian electricity rules

related to transmission line support and

ground clearance

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 2

Introduction

• The power conductors ACSR/AAC/Galvanised Al are

connected to the transmission line structures by

insulators (typically made of porcelain) that must be

strong enough to support tensile forces and the weight

of the conductors while preventing electrical contact

between the conductors and the structure.

• Shield wires are connected directly to the structures,

are installed above the conductors to protect the

conductors from direct lightning strikes.

• Each structure must be designed for both the loads

imposed on it by the weight of the conductors and

dynamic loads resulting from factors such as wind and

ice accumulation.

Line Supports

• Supporting structure of transmission line include

poles/towers

Functions:

To maintain proper spacing between conductors

To provide minimum ground clearance (distance

between lowest conductor and earth)

Features

High mechanical Strength

Cheap in cost

Longer life

Easy availability

Line Supports…

Selection of line support

• Terrain (Environmental conditions)

• Engineering Constraints (Span of line, Line Voltage)

• Local circumstances (Cost, city map, Space etc.)

Types

Material/Stay-wired or Self supporting structure

• Poles (Wooden): Not used these days

• RCC pole : pre-stressed concrete, for Distribution up to 11kV,

long life but more weight, damage during transportation,

more transportation cost, life 20-25 years

• Steel Pole: Galvanised steel, up to 33kV, high mechanical

strength, long life than RCC, less weight, more maintenance

cost due to corrosion, 30-35 years life (short spans)

• Steel Tower: Steel tower, Less breakdown due to tower

foundation, Used for High/EHV lines, Life of nearly 50 years

(long spans)

H Tower, Delta Tower, Lattice Tower

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 5

H- Tower

POLE

Mechanical Design of Overhead Line

• Mechanical design of overhead line is important to know

the tension in conductor supported between pole/towers.

Tension in the conductor under all possible mechanical

loading and environmental conditions should not exceed

safe stress limit.

• An overhead line consists of conductor, supports,

insulators, dampers, power fittings. The flexible conductor

stung between supports form a catenary curve.

• The difference in the level between the points of support

and the lowest point on conductor is called Sag.

• Sag depends on weight of conductor, length of span,

working tensile strength, temperature.

Too high sag : more conductor material, more height in

supports, greater swing amplitude due to wind load.

Too small sag: more strain in conductor, chances for the

conductor to break or partial breaking of strands of ACSR

conductor.

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 7

Sag &Tension Calculations Unlevelled supports

Conductor supported between levelled supports /poles A and B

O : the lowest point on conductor catenary curve taken as origin.

: weight of conductor per unit length

𝑃(𝑥,𝑦): Point on the curve

𝑇𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇𝑦 : Tensions in horizontal and vertical direction at point 𝑃(𝑥,𝑦)

𝑇𝑦

such that = 𝑡𝑎𝑛θ

𝑇𝑥

θ: Tangential Angle w.r.t horizontal axis at point 𝑃

𝑇𝐻 ∶ Horizontal Tension

𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇𝑤 : Vertical tension due to weight of conductor

Equating horizontal and vertical components:

𝑇𝑥 = 𝑇𝐻 =H, 𝑇𝑦 =𝑇𝑤 = 𝜔𝑆

𝑑𝑦

For an elemental length 𝑑𝑠 of conductor such that 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑥 2 + 𝑑𝑦 2 and 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 =

𝑑𝑥

𝑇𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝜔𝑆

= 𝑡𝑎𝑛θ = =

𝑇𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝐻

2 2

𝑑𝑆 𝑑𝑦 𝜔𝑆

= 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃 = 1 + = 1+

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝐻 Levelled supports

Solving for 𝑥 D

𝐻 𝜔𝑆

𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ−1 + 𝐶1

𝜔 𝐻

At origin O, 𝑥=0, when 𝑆 = 0 𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = 0, 𝐶1 = 0,

𝐻 𝜔x

hence S= 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ

𝜔 𝐻

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 8

Sag Calculations…

To determine sag at point 𝑃(𝑥,𝑦) is the vertical distance between point 𝑃(𝑥,𝑦) at lowest point 𝑂 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒 ∶

𝑑𝑦 𝜔𝑥

= sinh

𝑑𝑥 𝐻

𝐻 𝜔𝑥

Solving for 𝑦 ∶ 𝑦= cosh + 𝐶2

𝜔 𝐻

𝐻

At origin O, 𝑥=0,𝑦 = 0, 𝐶2 = −

𝜔

𝐻 𝜔𝑥

𝑦=

(cosh − 1) is the equation of catenary curve.

𝜔 𝐻

Tension at point 𝑃(𝑥,𝑦) on conductor

2 2 𝜔𝑥

𝑇= 𝑇𝑥 + 𝑇𝑦 = 𝐻2 + 𝜔𝑆 2 = 𝐻𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ

𝐻

At distance 𝑥 = ±𝑙 = ±𝐿/2 at supports A and B:

𝜔𝑙 𝐻 𝜔𝑙

𝑇 = 𝐻𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ

𝐻

and Sag D=

𝜔

(cosh

𝐻

− 1),

𝐻 𝜔𝑙

Length of line in half span = S= 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ

𝜔 𝐻

Hyperbolic function is simplified using McClaurn’s series

𝑧2 𝑧4 𝑧6 𝑧3 𝑧5 𝑧7

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑧 = 1 + + + +… and sinh𝑧 = 𝑧 + + + +…

!2 !4 !6 !3 !5 !7

Neglecting higher order terms

𝐻 𝜔x 𝜔2 𝑥 3 𝜔2 𝑙3

S= 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ = x + 2 , Conductor length in half span= S= L + 2

𝜔 𝐻 6𝐻 6𝑇

𝐻 𝜔𝑙 𝐻 (𝜔𝑥) 2 (𝜔𝑥) 4 𝜔𝑙 2

and Sag D= 𝜔 (cosh 𝐻 − 1) = 𝜔(1 + 2𝐻 2 + + 24𝐻 4 +…)-1)= 2𝑇

(𝑇 = 𝐻, 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑎𝑔 𝑖𝑠 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑎 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑠)

Supports at different level

ℎ = 𝐷2 − 𝐷1 ; difference in level between supports A and B

O : the lowest point on conductor catenary curve taken as

origin.

: weight of conductor per unit length

Conductor is 𝑥 units from the support of low level. Distance of

point O from higher level supports (L-𝑥)

𝜔𝑥 2 𝜔(𝐿−𝑥)2

𝐷1 = and 𝐷2 = ;ℎ = 𝐷2 − 𝐷1

2𝑇 2𝑇

Substituting and solving for 𝑥 to locate point O .

𝐿 𝑇ℎ

Span length 𝑥 = −

2 𝜔𝐿

If 𝑥 comes out be negative, then it implies that both supports

will be on the higher level support.

Effect of Ice Loading and Wind Pressure

Ice loading and wind pressure increases the effective weight

of conductor and hence vertical sag is increased.

𝑑: diameter of conductor

𝑡: Thickness of ice in radial direction

Overall diameter of conductor = D = (𝑑 + 2𝑡)

Area occupied by Ice: Outer Area-Inner area=𝜋𝑡(𝑑 + 𝑡)

Volume of ice per meter length of conductor Conductor

Layer of Ice

V=𝜋𝑡 𝑑 + 𝑡 × 1 = 𝜋𝑡(𝑑 + 𝑡)

𝜌: Density of ice (910kg/m3)

Weight of ice per meter length =𝑤𝑖 = 𝜌 × 𝜋𝑡(𝑑 + 𝑡) kg.

It acts vertically downwards.

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 11

Weather conditions…

Wind pressure is assumed to be in horizontal direction and pressure is

taken on projected area.

Projected surface of conductor of length= (𝑑 + 2𝑡) × 1

Wind load per unit length= 𝑤𝜔 = 𝑃𝑤 𝑑 + 2𝑡

𝑃𝑤 is wind pressure in kg/m2.

Maximum wind pressure in India is (100-150kg/m2)

Total vertical loading= 𝑤𝐶 + 𝑊𝑖

Total horizontal loading= 𝑤𝜔

Resultant effective weight on conductor = 𝑊 = 𝑤𝐶 + 𝑊𝑖 2 + 𝑤𝜔 2

Loading factor= 𝑞𝜔 = 𝑊/𝑤𝐶

for fair weather 𝑞𝜔 = 1.0 𝜑 𝑤𝜔

𝑊𝐿2

Sag in vertical plane = sin𝜑 and

2𝑇

𝑊𝐿2

Sag in horizontal plane = = cos𝜑

2𝑇

𝑤𝐶 + 𝑊𝑖 𝑊

Example

An overhead line has a span of 250m. Find the weight of

the conductor, if the ultimate tensile strength is 5758kg ,

sag = 1.5m and factor of safety as 2.

Soln.: T= Ultimate strength/2= 5758/2= 2879 kg.

D= 1.5m, span length=250m

𝜔𝑙 2

Sag=D= ; 𝑙= 0.5 times span length

2𝑇

Solving for Weight of conductor 𝜔= 0.5528kg/m

𝜔2 𝐿3

Total length of conductor = 𝐿 + = 250.024𝑚

24𝑇 2

Weight of conductor =𝜔𝐿=0.5528*250.024= 138.21kg.

Example

An overhead line consists of 7 strands of copper

conductor having a cross-sectional area of 2.2cm2. Weight

of conductor = 1.4kg/m, ultimate strength =8000kg/cm2,

Wind pressure =40kg/sq-m of projected area. Calculate

the vertical sag for a span length of 300m with a factor of

safety=3.

Soln.: Working tension+ 8000*2.2/3= 5866kg.

Diameter of conductor 𝑑 = 4 × 2.2/𝜋=1.67cm

Wind pressure loading = 𝑤𝜔 =40*1.67*1/100=0.668kg

𝑊 = 𝑤𝐶 + 𝑊𝑖 2 + 𝑤𝜔 2 = (1.4)2 + 0.668 2

= 1.55𝑘𝑔.

𝜔𝐿2 1.55∗150∗150

Vertical sag= sin𝜑 = *(1.4/1.55)= 2.673m

2𝑇 2∗5866

Example

A transmission line conductor crossing a river is supported from two towers at

heights of 30m and 75m above the water level. The horizontal distance

between the supports is 275m. If the allowable tension in the conductor is

1600kg., find the clearance between the water level and the conductor at a

point mid way between the towers under fair weather conditions. The weight

of conductor is 0.7kg/m. also find the allowable span for the maximum sag if

the supports are at the same level.

Soln.: ℎ = 𝐷2 − 𝐷1 = 75 − 30 = 45𝑚

𝐿 𝑇ℎ 275 1600×45

Span length 𝑥 = − = − = −236.5𝑚

2 𝜔𝐿 2 0.7×275

Since 𝑥 is negative, both the supports are on same side of the lowest point.

𝐿 275

Distance of mid point P from O= − 𝑥 = -(-236.5)= 374m

2 2

Distance of point B from O= L − 𝑥= 275-(-236.5)= 511.5m

𝜔𝑥 2 511.52 𝜔(𝐿−𝑥)2 3742

𝐷1 = = 0.7 × =57.2m and 𝐷2 = = 0.7 × = 30.7𝑚

2𝑇 2×1600 2𝑇 2×1600

Distance between mid point P and point B= 57.2-30.7=26.5m

Distance of point P above water level= 75-26.5= 48.5m

Maximum Sag= 57.2m

𝜔𝑙 2

For level supports Sag= D= 57.2=0.7𝑙 2 /(2*1600)

=

2𝑇

Solving for 𝑙 = 512.5m, Span length L = 2𝑙 = 1025m

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 15

Vibrations

Overhead lone is subjected three types of vibrations:

Simple Swing

Low frequency Vibrations

High frequency Vibrations

1. Simple swing due to wind. It is harmless provided the

clearance is sufficiently large so that during swing

conductors do not reach within sparking range of each

other.

2. Low frequency vibrations about 1cycle/sec that occurs

during sleet storms with a strong wind. The amplitude of

vibration may go beyond 6m or more and the conductors

are said to galloping/dancing. Due to dancing of conductor

horizontally and vertically , irregular sleet deposition takes

place.

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 16

Vibrations…

• . High frequency oscillations of 5-100Hz and

amplitude about 2-5 cm. This vibration is due to

formation of eddies and the leeward side of

conductor. The frequency of vibration depends

upon wind speed 2-10km/hr. The line conductor

will vibrate in a number of loops depending upon

its length, mass per unit length and tension. This

vibration can cause fatigue and ultimate failure of

supporting clamp.

• The conductors are protected by dampers which

prevent the vibrations from reaching the

conductors at the clamps or suppports.

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 17

Dampers

Dampers are two weights of slender shape

(Stockbridge type) fixed at either end of a length of flexible

steel cable which is fastened to the conductor at its mid

point by means of a clamp.

Two dampers are required for each point of suspension of

the conductor, one on either side of line length to supress

wind-induced vibrations.

Damping action is due to dissipation of vibrational energy of

the conductor by inter-strand friction

in the flexible damper cable.

H. Stockbridge, a Scientist who developed vibration damper

in 1920.

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 18

Vibration Dumbbell Damper

Armoured Rods

Armoured rods are also . used to suppress

vibration of line. The point of suspension of the

conductor in the clamp is surrounded by a spiral

layer of small rods. These rods give in effect at

the point of suspension a stranded cable of much

larger diameter than actual conductor.

Example:

An overhead transmission line at river crossing is supported from towers at

height of 25m and 75m above water level. The horizontal distance between

tower is 250m and the clearance between the conductor and water midway

between towers is 45m. If both the towers are on same side of the point of

maximum sag of the parabolic configuration, find the string tension in the

conductor. Also find the span allowable for maximum sag if the two supports

across the river are of same height equal to 75m. The weight of the

conductor is 0.70kg/m.

Soln.: sag at point x= 𝜔𝑥 2 /2𝑇

Sag at point 𝑃1 : 𝑠1 = 𝜔𝑥1 2 /2𝑇

Sag at point 𝑃2 : 𝑠2 = 𝜔𝑥2 2 /2𝑇

𝜔

Difference ℎ = 𝑠2 -𝑠1 = 𝑥2 2 − 𝑥1 2 O P1

2𝑇

ℎ = 𝑠2 -𝑠1 = 75 − 25 = 50𝑚, 𝑥2 -𝑥1 = 250𝑚

T=1.75( 𝑥2 +𝑥1 )=1.75(250+2𝑥1 )=437.5+3.5𝑥1

For point midway between towers 𝑑 = 𝜔(𝑥1 +125)2/2𝑇

Example…

𝑥1 +125)2 𝜔𝑥1 2

𝑑 − 𝑑1 = 45 − 25 = 0.70( −

2𝑇 2𝑇

T= 2.19(125+2𝑥1 )

Solving for T and 𝑥1

𝑥1 =186m and T= 1088.78kg.

When the supports are on same side of allowable

span for maximum sag =2𝑥2 =

2 250 + 186 = 872𝑚

Example

An overhead line has ACSR conductor of 1.95 cm diameter and a span of 244m. The permissible tension

in conductor is 35.6 kN. Find (sag) in still are condition with snow covering. Find vertical sag when an ice

covering of 0.96 cm thickness and a horizontal wind pressure of 380N/m2 of projected area. Ice weighs

8920kN/m2. The line is carried by an insulator string of 1.45m long. What should be the height of lowest

cross arm to give a minimum ground clearance of 7.62m under bad weather conditions. The conductor

weighs 0.847kg/m.

𝜔𝑙 2

Soln.: Sag in still air=𝑠 =

8𝑇

For Weight of conductor 𝜔=0.847*9.81= 8.31N/m, l=244m, T= 35.6kN

𝜔𝑙 2

Sag in still air=𝑠= 8𝑇 = 1.735m

Sag with ice covering and wind pressure in conductor

d= 1.95cm, t=0.96cm, Effective dia with ice = D=d+2t= 3.87cm

𝑁

Wind pressure 𝐹𝑤 = 380 ∗ 3.87 ∗ 10−2 = 14.706 𝑚

Weight of ice = 𝜔 𝑖 = 𝜌(𝐷2 − 𝑑 2 ) × 𝜋/4=8920(3.892 − 𝑑 2 ) × 𝜋/4 =7.8245N/m

Effective stress 𝐹𝑖 = 𝐹𝑤 2 + 𝜔 𝑖 + 𝜔 2 = 21.93N/m

Vertical sag= (21.97*244*244)/8*21.93= 4.552m

−1

𝐹𝑤

𝛾 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛 = 42.33

𝜔 + 𝑤𝑖

Vertical sag = S cos 𝛾= 4.552*cos(42.33)= 3.355m

Height of lowest cross-arm= Minimum ground clearance +vertical sag+ length of

insulator string = 7.62+3.355+1.43= 12.42m

9/7/2018 Manbir Kaur 23

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