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# Lecture

Notes 4
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils –
Airfoils with Thickness,
Panel Methods,
Stall and High-lift Devices
Chapter 3, Section 17
Chapter 4, Sections 10-16 (skip 12)

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Notice
material from Anderson’s Aerodynamics
textbook and other sources
Effect of Thickness
Conformal Mapping: Joukowsky Airfoil

## Inviscid theory predicts that thickness increases lift slope:

+
!" = 2% 1 + 0.77 sin / − /12
!
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Effect of Thickness
• Inviscid theory predicts increase in lift slope
with increased thickness
• Viscous effects tend to decrease lift slope
because of displacement thickness
• Effect of thickness thus depends on Reynolds
number, transition location, surface
roughness, and other conditions

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Effect of Thickness on Lift Slope
NACA 2412

## • Thickness acts to increase lift slope

• Viscous effects decrease lift slope
• Here thin airfoil theory works
better than panel method because
effects are canceling out

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Effect of Thickness on Lift Curve Slope

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7
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Arbitrary Shape:
Conformal Mapping

Here c is not
chord length

## • Useful for understanding flow behavior

• Not very practical for design calculations
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Arbitrary Shape:
Panel Methods

Nonlifting Lifting

## Symmetric airfoil at a = 0 34 = 567 Γ

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Arbitrary Shape:
Finite Difference Methods
Unstructured Mesh

Structured Mesh

## Solve 9 : ; = 0 (or other

model) numerically
www.pointwise.com 11
Arbitrary Shape:
Overset Grids

## P. Tucker, Advanced Computational Fluid and

Aerodynamics, Cambridge U. Press, 2016
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V-22 Tiltrotor (Robert L. Meakin, Army
Aeroflightdynamics Directorate) 13
Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle and Attached Hardware
(Reynaldo J. Gomez, et. al., NASA Johnson Space Center) 14
• Very simple vortex panel method

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Source Panels

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Source Panels
• Consider point source at arbitrary point
• Source panel is distributed line source, integrate
to get induced velocity
• Enforce no flow through airfoil at control points,
typically center of panel
• Enforce no normal flow at N control points; gives
N equations in N unknowns
• Solve linear system for source strengths
• Sum to get velocity; use Bernoulli to get pressure

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Vortex Panels
• Consider point vortex at arbitrary point
• Vortex panel is vortex sheet; integrate to get induced
velocity
• Enforce no flow through airfoil at control points, typically
center of panel
• Vortex panel does not induce flow normal to itself
• Enforce no normal flow at N control points; gives N
equations in N unknowns
• Enforce Kutta condition
• Use error minimization to solve N+1 equations in N
unknowns
• Sum to get velocity; use Bernoulli to get pressure

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Other Panel Methods
• Combine source panels and vortex panels
• Second order methods: linear variation of
strength over each panel
• In general, must satisfy flow tangency on N
panels plus Kutta condition

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Cosine Distribution of Points

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Notice that 12 panels is too crude
Must do resolution study

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Modern Airfoils
NASA LS(1)-0417

## • Developed for general aviation by

Whitcomb in 1970s
• Flatter pressure profile to avoid
separation
• Highly cambered near trailing edge
• Similar shape to supercritical
airfoils
• Higher maximum lift coefficient
• Lower drag; better lift-to-drag ratio

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NACA 4412

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Trailing-Edge Stall

NACA 4421
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NACA 4412 NACA 4421

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Thin-Airfoil Stall

Flat Plate
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Different Stall Characteristics

## Know this figure

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Effect of Thickness
on Maximum Lift Coefficient

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• Relationship between stall speed and
maximum lift coefficient

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EXERCISE
The stall speed is the minimum speed
that you can fly and still support your
weight. From the definition of the lift
coefficient:
Red-Tailed Hawk:
G = 0.6 kg 2?
6stall =
A = 0.05 m2 5 A B2,max
The maximum lift coefficient for both a
hawk and a sparrow is about B2,max =
1.0. Estimate the minimum airspeed of
each bird in gliding flight.
House Sparrow: ---
Ref.: P. C. Withers, “An Aerodynamic Analysis of Bird
G = 0.03 kg Wings as Fixed Airfoils,” Journal of Experimental
A = 0.01 m2 Biology, v. 90, pp. 143-162, 1981.
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Effect of Flap Deflection

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Slats slide
forward

Kruger flap
unfolds from
bottom of wing

## Know this figure

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High-Lift Devices: CL,max

## Maximum lift coefficient for airfoil

with various high-lift devices

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## NACA 4412: LE stall near 15 deg; extended to 30 deg

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Same Airfoil, No Slat

NACA 4412

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Variable Geometry

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Effect of High-Lift Devices
on Streamline Pattern

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Embraer EMB-145

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Embraer EMB-145

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Embraer EMB-145

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Confluent
boundary
layers

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Coanda Effect

Demonstrate
with sheet of
paper

Wikipedia images

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Coanda Airfoil

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NASA QSRA
Plumbing crosses over to both sides in case of an engine failure

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An Overview of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft Program
Michael D. Shovlin and John A. Cochrane, NASA Technical Memorandum 78545
Antonov An-72 'Coaler'

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Boeing C-17 Globemaster III

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Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
NASA QSRA:

F-35 STOVL:

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Mitigating Stall with
Plasma Actuators

Circa 2009-2011

Jonathan Poggie
Integrity « Service « Excellence Air Vehicles Directorate
Air Force Research Laboratory

Stall

## Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited

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Closed-Loop Stall Control
Experiment
Scaled Composites White Knight Aircraft
• Participants
– J. Poggie, C. Tilmann, P. Flick - Air Force
Research Laboratory
– J. Silkey, B. Osborne - The Boeing Company
– G. Ervin, D. Maric - FlexSys, Inc
– S. Mangalam, A. Mangalam - Tao Systems, Inc
• Demonstrate closed-loop stall sense and
control system for subsonic aircraft
• Integrate three technologies
– Morphing structures (FlexSys) FlexSys, Inc.
– Instantaneous flow topology sensing (Tao
Systems)
– DBD plasma actuators (Boeing Co.)
• Example of an AFRL technology
demonstration program

## Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited

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Wind Tunnel Installation
Upstream View
AFRL SARL Wind Tunnel Facility

## Mach 0.05-0.5 Airfoil: 50 in span x 30 in chord

Test Section: 63.1 ft2, 15 ft long (1.27 m x 0.76 m)
(5.86 m2, 4.57 m) Elliptical endplates: 45 in x 24 in
(1.14 m x 0.61 m)
Mach number: 0.05-0.10
Reynolds number: 0.9x106 -1.7x106
AoA: up to 22 deg, Flap: +/- 10 deg
Poggie et al., J. Aircraft, 2010 Turbulent boundary layer state

## Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited

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Closed-Loop Control
Mach 0.05, 10 degrees Flap,
Run 65
Lift vs. Angle of Attack
1.7 0

Control
Here ON
Here 1.5 -0.04

1.4 -0.06

Cm
Cl
1.3 -0.08

1.2
OFF -0.1

## Flow 1.1 -0.12

1 -0.14
10 12 14 16 18 20 10

## Sweeping 13-17 deg AoA

Angle of Attack - degrees

Flow
• Flap hot-film array detects flap
separation
• Fixed shear level triggers DBD panel
• Tested in real-time AoA sweeps

## Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited

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Numerical Simulations:
Interaction of Actuator and Flow
Specified Electric Body Force
Streamlines Colored with Mach Contours
(Semi-Empirical Model)
OFF
Actuator CL

ON
Actuator CL

Separation
ON
Between
actuators

Streamlines Colored
with Mach Contours Boeing CFD
3D RANS Computations
Code: BCFD-MHD
Streamwise vortex between actuators Body force: LENPAM
Separation present between actuators
Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited
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On to Higher Speeds:
Closed-Loop Control with ns-DBD
NACA 0015
Poggie - AFRL
Hot Film Elements Samimy, Adamovich, Little, et al. - OSU
A. Mangalam - Tao Systems

Actuator

## Schlieren Image of Pulse

Control to 93 m/s
Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited
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