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Item 1

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There is no other way to accommodate the In the new paradigm of the information
facts that different children learn at age, rather than serving as a dispenser of
different rates and have different learning knowledge as teachers did in the industrial
needs. But to have an attainment-based age, their role must change to that of coach
rather than time-based system, we must in or facilitator of learning (Reigeluth, 1994).
turn have person-based progress rather There is no other way to accommodate the
than group-based progress. And that in tum facts that different children learn at
requires changing the role of the teacher different rates and have different learning
to that of a coach or needs (Reigeluth, 1994, p. 8).
facilitator/manager, rather than that of
dispenser of knowledge to groups of
students who pass by at the ring of a bell References:
like so many little widgets on an assembly Reigeluth, C. M. (1994). The imperative for
line. systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth & R. J.
Garfinkle (Eds.). Systemic change in
References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1994). The imperative for education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth & R. J. Educational Technology Publications.
Garfinkle (Eds.). Systemic change in
education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Educational Technology Publications.

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Item 2

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Learning is a complex set of processes that A learning theory is made up of a set of


may vary according to the developmental constructs linking observed changes in
level of the learner, the nature of the task, performance with whatever is thought to
and the context in which the learning is to bring about those changes. Therefore since
occur. As already indicated, no one theory learning is a complex set of processes that
can capture all the variables involved in may vary according to the developmental
learning. level of the learner, the nature of the task,
and the context in which the learning is to
References: occur, it is apparent that no one theory can
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and capture all the variables involved in
instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.).
learning.
Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

A learning theory, there, comprises a set of


constructs linking observed changes in
performance with what is thought to bring
about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of
learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham
Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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Merck, in fact, epitomizes the ideological Research conducted by Collins and Porras
nature--the pragmatic idealism--of highly (2002) highlights the importance of
visionary companies. Our research showed establishing and committing to an ideology
that a fundamental element in the "ticking comprised of two parts: (1) core values; (2)
clock" of a visionary company is a core a core purpose. In my personal experience
ideology--core values and a sense of it seems easier to define a core ideology
purpose beyond just making money--that than to live it consistently.
guides and inspires people throughout the
organization and remains relatively fixed for
long periods of time. References:
References: Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to
last: Successful habits of visionary
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to
last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper
companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.
Paperbacks.

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Item 4
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Suppose you study a group of successful Attributes of rigorous research can be


companies and you find that they shared across subjects of study. For
emphasize customer focus, or quality example, Collins and Porras (2002) highlight
improvement, or empowerment; how do the importance of having a control group
you know that you haven't merely when comparing companies in any effort to
discovered the management practice identify what specific company
equivalent of having buildings? How do you characteristics are able to distinguish the
know that you've discovered something successful from the ordinary.
that distinguishes the successful
companies from other companies? You
don't know. You can't know--not unless
you have a control set, a comparison
group. References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to
References: last: Successful habits of visionary
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to companies. New York, NY: Harper
last: Successful habits of visionary Paperbacks.
companies. New York, NY: Harper
Paperbacks.

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Item 5
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The philosophical position known The philosophical position known


as constructivism views knowledge as a as constructivismviews knowledge as a
human construction. The various human construction. The various
perspectives within constructivism are perspectives within constructivism are
based on the premise that knowledge is based on the premise that knowledge is not
not part of an objective, external reality part of an objective, external reality that is
that is separate from the individual. separate from the individual. Instead,
Instead, human knowledge, whether the human knowledge is a human construction.
bodies of content in public disciplines (such
as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge
of the individual learner, is a human
construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and
instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.).
Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

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Item 6

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When instructors are creating discussion According to Moore and Marra's (2005)
board activities for online courses, at least case study, which observed two online
two questions must be answered. courses, students in the first course
First, what is the objective of the implemented a constructive argumentation
discussions? Different objectives might be approach while students in second course
to create a "social presence" among had less structure for their postings. As they
students so that they do not feel isolated, stated, when instructors create online
to ask questions regarding assignments or discussion board activities, they must
topics, or to determine if students answer at least two questions. These
understand a topic by having them analyze questions are: "What is the objective of the
and evaluate contextual situations. Based discussions?" And "How important are
on the response to this question, different online discussions in comparison to the
rules might be implemented to focus on the other activities that students will perform?"
quality of the interaction more so than the According to their findings, the discussion
quantity. The second question is, how activities that were designed based on the
important is online discussions in answers to these questions can influence
comparison to the other activities that the quality and quantity of interactions
students will perform? This question (Moore & Marra, 2005).
alludes to the amount of participation that
instructors expect from students in online
discussions along with the other required
activities for the course. If a small
percentage of student effort is designated References:
for class participation, our results show that Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2005) A
it can affect the quality and quantity of comparative analysis of online discussion
interactions. participation protocols. Journal of Research
on Technology in Education, 38(2), 191-212.
References:
Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2005) A
comparative analysis of online discussion
participation protocols. Journal of Research
on Technology in Education, 38(2), 191-212.

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Item 7

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Instructional designers typically employ "The main goal of any instructional design
models to guide their day-to-day work. Due process is to construct a learning
to the increased practice of the systematic environment in order to provide learners
design of instruction in a growing number with the conditions that support desired
of settings, available models become more learning processes" (van Merriënboer,
and more proliferated, focusing on 1997, p. 2). Process models proliferate
particular types and contexts of learning, because more and more designers generate
particular groups of learners or designers, models that focus on specific contexts,
or particular instructional units (either learners, or even units of instruction,
whole curricula or individual modules or according to van Merriënboer.
lessons.)

The main goal of any instructional design


process is to construct a learning
environment in order to provide learners
with the conditions that support desired References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training
learning processes.
complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs,
References: NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training
complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

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Item 8

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If learners are new to critique, we see If providing peer feedback is a skill to be


anonymity as a scaffold to generating learned then perhaps it is advisable to give
critical feedback. Learners can practice learners opportunities to practice giving
giving feedback knowing they are not feedback knowing they are not vulnerable
vulnerable to social repercussions. Less to social repercussions. In this way,
than perfect expressions, unwarranted anonymity can act "as a scaffold to
negative reactions, and fruitless ideas are generating critical feedback" (Howard,
bound to be part of novice feedback, but Barrett, & Frick, 2010, p. 104).
teachers hope to create learning
configurations that support both the giver References:
and the receiver of feedback, especially if Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W.
the commenters are novices. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer
feedback: Pre-service teachers' comments
References: in asynchronous computer-mediated
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. communication. Journal of Educational
(2010). Anonymity to promote peer Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.
feedback: Pre-service teachers' comments
in asynchronous computer-mediated
communication. Journal of Educational
Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

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Item 9

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The theory we have constructed originates Another ID theory that could be useful in
with the three phases of learning described the design of educational games is a model
above. We have organize and adapted the presented by Reigeluth and Schwartz
features of simulations to provide the (1989) intended for designing instruction in
learner with the most effective and educational simulations. This model
efficient presentations in order to achieve provides a more specific approach to
successful acquisition, application and designing instruction. Reigeluth and
assessment. Our general model describes Schwartz propose three phases of the
five aspects of simulations and provides learning process which educational
prescriptions for the implementation of simulations should activate. They are: (1)
each. It applies to all simulations for acquisition of basic knowledge, (2)
teaching principles or procedures. Specific application of knowledge to the full range
conditions or types of simulations require of scenarios, and (3) assessment of what
their own characteristic prescriptions that has been learned. Their model for designing
are described G3 variations on the general educational simulations is comprised of
model. heuristics intended to inform the designer
in following a set of prescriptions.

References:
References:
Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An
Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of
instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of
computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.
Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.
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Item 10

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But what are reasonable outcomes of the The question of “how global processes
influence of global processes on education? influence all aspects of education (and who
While the question of how global processes controls these forces) is multidimensional
influence all aspects of education (and and not completely testable but there
who controls these forces) is appear to be some theories of globalization
multidimensional and not completely as it relates to education that can be
testable, there appear to be some theories empirically examined” (Rutkowski and
of globalization as it relates to education Rutkowski, 2009, p. 138).
that can be empirically examined.

References:
Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009).
Trends in TIMSS responses over time:
Evidence of global forces in
education? Educational Research and
Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

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