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Leading-Edge Motorsport Technology Since 1990

April 2013 • Vol 23 No 4 • • UK £5.50 • US $13.50

Formula 1 2013
Full grid analysis


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8 Formula 1 Testing 39 The Consultant
The cars took to the track for the first time in February, and we When you can’t solve a problem entirely, tweak
were there to see the latest trends and controversies 43 Databytes
Fine-tuning your fly-by-wire control system
Columns 47 Aerobytes
More wind-tunnel insights into the Subaru Impreza
5 Ricardo Divila 50 Avon Tyres
Why analyse data in the pits when you can see it on the beach? After seven years as sole supplier to the British GT
7 Peter Wright championship, Avon are making waves across Europe
Ponders the potential problems of fuel flow sensors 56 Gould GR59
After an impressive winning streak was broken last year,
the UK firm are back with a formidable hillclimber
65 Coatings
14 Formula 1 cars Extra layers that can offer performance and reliability gains
Something old, something new. We look at the launch of the
71 Wind tunnels
Formula 1 grid, car-by-car
The latest information on NASCAR’s widely used wind tunnels
20 Fuel flow sensors
79 Danny nowlan
The FIA says this could be the future of performance balancing
You’re given a brand new car to work on – where do you start?
25 F1 2014
82 Tech update
How are teams coping with splitting their resources between
How the Ferrari 458 has adjusted to rule changes
the new season, and the colossal changes next year?
28 Toyota Ts030
To the watching public, little appears to have changed, but BusInEss nEWs
there’s more than meets the eye to the 2013 model
84 Industry news
32 mADI-moskvitch Emirates F1 deal, IndyCar purse, and a lifeline for British F3
A Russian engineering programme led engineers to use aircraft
wheels, cable suspension and develop advanced aerodynamics 88 Racecar people
Q&A with Swindon’s Raphaël Cailé, Chris Aylett looks
back to glimpse forward, plus the latest race moves
95 new products
Jenvey throttle position sensor, enhanced torque measuring
from Kistler, plus new kit from Viper, Roar and Cruden
98 Bump stop

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April 2013 • 3

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Racing by remote
There’s too much information in the pitlane, and not enough skill on track…

f I look at a racing track, the Background music would be a Driving on the Dakar, I became Tracks are not ‘dangerous’,
black stuff between the white soundtrack to the action on track, very aware of the moustache because every corner is safe at
lines is pretty similar to what has let’s say The Ride of the Valkyries, tropic. There’s a meandering the right speed. If drivers don’t
been there since the first closed when your car is gaining ground line that stretches through feel safe at a given point on
circuit racing, eliding the dirt tracks on the race leader, or Benny Hill’s Africa, the Balkans and Asia the racetrack, they can take
and board tracks. Similarly, what theme for certain drivers, while Minor, particularly visible as you their foot off the loud pedal and
the driver does on it has hardly Mozart’s Requièm Mass in D minor travel south through Libya. Past make it as safe as they wish.
changed, given the goal of running (K 626) could mope in when your it, everyone has moustaches, Given the use of every inch of
round in circles until time, or the car retires. The work wouldn’t although when I say everyone tarmac by drivers trying to increase
given distance to do, runs out. change much, but your level of I mostly (though by no means the radius of their corner, seeing
But the pits side has changed personal enjoyment would be exclusively) mean the men. two wheels on the kerbs makes a
considerably. We don’t see Alfred considerably higher. As is often said, western mockery of track limits. Every year
Neuberger’s beloved signalling Testing a Formula 3000 at civilisation sprang from Greece, they would build up the worn grass
flags, and we have gone from Enna in the mid-80s was much and Greece from Sparta – or saved with a tarmac patch, only to have
the old days of a stopwatch (or the drivers use up the additional
clepsydra for the slow cars) and space. The rumble strips need a
a pit board to the prat perch label: ‘Drive on here’. Stirling Moss
monitor wall of today, which totally has spoken out on this, calling for
obscures any view of the track brick walls to be built around the
in front of the labouring bods. outside of today’s tracks. ‘To race
You don’t see anything if you a car through a turn at maximum
also add the mesh fence or speed is difficult,’ he said, ‘but
plate glass barrier, so what is to race a car at maximum speed
the point of sitting out there? through that same turn when
At Le Mans I tend to spend there is a brick wall on one side
time in the back room, looking and a precipice on the other – ah,
at the telemetry monitors, doing that’s an achievement.’ He knows
simulations for the strategy what he is speaking about, having
and surveying the opposition’s often reflected on results from
options, while an electronic Managing a car from a hotel balcony is possible, though the team may object a hospital bed. ‘Formula 1 has
pit board sliding out on a become a safe sport. It has no more
motorised rail gives the driver like all this, sadly minus the by Sparta – so maybe we can say risk than football – the new level
additional information you have blondes. The hotel was on the we are what we are because of of safety emasculates it. People
keyed in to a computer at the hill overlooking the pits, and Lycurgus, who established the say I advocate being killed. It’s not
control room, much as the bank of lying by the pool with headphones military-oriented reformation of advocating killing, but the freedom
computers that is hidden behind and computer gave me a pleasant Spartan society. His precepts, to drive with danger.’
the panels in an F1 pit. tan, while I could enjoy occasional reputedly under the guidance of I would agree, with the obvious
So why be at the track at all? dips to assuage the stifling heat the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, were caveat of not having the track lined
Do it from a distance, given the and snacks from the bar. A good directed towards the three Spartan with trees, lamp posts or hay bales,
on-board cameras, radio, telemetry time was had by, well, principally virtues: equality (among citizens), though I would stretch to a moat
and full electronic sector timing me. The testing also went very military fitness, and austerity. But on both sides filled with alligators,
that give you more information well, despite being seen rather most importantly, he also banned shark or piranhas – that’d keep
than just eyeballing it on a wet sniffily by the team. moustaches. Things improved drivers honest. Few tracks are
day at Snetterton. Going back a bit, Camus once after that. Before, Sparta had left as a major challenge that
Your car could be racing at a wrote that everyone’s life looks oscillated between the extremes reward skill within limits. Not
aesthetically boring track such like it’s in pieces from the inside of democracy and tyranny: anarchy surprising the fulsome praise from
as today’s Hockenheim while for a whole variety of reasons – it’s and dictatorship. More F1 parallels… drivers for Spa – even though
you’re on a sunny beach in the how you deal with your personal The ubiquity of moustaches in Eau Rouge is a shadow of itself –
Bahamas with a couple of blondes freak show that establishes who that region is clear reflection of Suzuka and Monaco with corners
applying suntan oil on your back you are. And that includes how you cultural bias, which brings me to where not all will go at the same
and cosseting your palate with notice things, what strikes you as another bat flapping in my belfry, speed. They inspire awe and a
caviar and sour cream on blinis strange and what you say about it. the proliferation of ‘safe’ tracks. sense of self preservation.
and bringing you some cool So I will be going to these
orange juice (or other beverages).
Data is already being transmitted
“Having the track surrounded tracks, but can quite contentedly
run my cars remotely while
in F1 to the shaker rig at the by a moat filled with alligators evilly twirling my moustache
factory to be tried out in real time, (cue Scarpia singing Te Deum
why not the rest? would keep drivers honest” on the soundtrack).

April 2013 • 5


It’s all in the timing

New regulations require new thinking – and the devil is in the detail

ever have the technical time is very short, the engineers Stint time between refuelling not necessary to state the exact
regulations influenced simply have to use the permitted stops: Again as a tank size. time unit used in the regs, as the
the sporting regulations maximum fuel flow rate as Formula 1; not applicable. WEC; actual measurement and units
as much as they will in both efficiently as possible to generate around 10-12 laps of Le Mans, used will be embedded in the
Formula 1 and WEC in 2014. as much power as possible – hence depending on class. If used in engine controller/scrutineering
At the heart of this new era is the turbo-cycle, low rpm engine isolation, some other limit must be data recorder (SDR) used to
a concept first conceived by configurations with all the waste put on maximum power. determine compliance. The
Keith Duckworth in the late- energy recovery that is practical. Lap time: Allows drivers to store chosen fuel flow rate sensor will
’70s, whereby the fuel flow The driver has to use maximum fuel during part of the lap to pass its data to the SDR at some
rate to the engine (or energy power as much of the time as provide a boost for overtaking (not very high frequency, where it will
flow rate if different fuels are possible to be fast. The team dissimilar to KERS), but again, if be signal conditioned in a way
used in the same competition) strategists will have little to do. used in isolation some other limit that is relevant to the unit of
is limited. Duckworth envisaged must be put on maximum power. time chosen to limit the fuel flow.
a mechanical valve that limited Minute: Similar to lap time The SDR will not control the fuel
the flow rate, and it was then Second: Any time less than 1 flow, as that would cause all sorts
up to the engine manufacturers second effectively imposes a limit of disputes if the sanctioning
to manage the consequences. on maximum power. 1 sec equates body’s device erroneously limited
Nearly 35 years later, as his vision to around 200 engine revolutions. engine power during a race.
comes to fruition, electronics have Revolution: Here we get out Instead, the data will be passed
changed how it will be applied, of the time domain, and use to the engine ECU and the engine
altering the sporting contest. units based on the cycle of manufacturer’s engineers and
Even in Roman times, when the engine (1 cycle/2 revolutions software experts will decide how
promoters realised that sporting for a 4-stroke). to react to it. The flow rate will
contests had the potential to Cycle: This unit (2 revolutions) be recorded and the regulation
separate punters from their dinars makes sense, as it averages all maximum figure must never be
if you could use the contest Measurement is simple, relatively cylinders over one complete cycle. exceeded. A simple principle that
to entertain them, technology Cylinder cycle: Not as simple as is surrounded by complex detail!
dominated the sport of gladiators, If the unit of time is long – a complete cycle of the engine as The most satisfactory rule
Christians and animals. The say, the length of the race – individual cylinders may vary due combination is a fuel flow rate
animals were armed with teeth then the engineers still have to air intake conditions and require limit for around one or two
and claws; the gladiators with to do their jobs as before, but different fuelling. revolutions of the engine, allied to
armour, swords, nets and tridents. the driver now has to be as Millisecond (or some other a race (F1) or refuelling-stint limit
The Christians had nothing. fast as possible spending as unit of time much smaller (WEC), which can be imposed via a
However, if technology had little time at maximum power than any relevant engine cycle maximum tank size.
allowed a Christian to whip as possible, and the team time): Once the unit of time is One challenging issue,
out a Colt 45 from under his data analysis and simulation less than a cylinder cycle, a new particularly if the unit of time
loincloth, the punters would computers will be running red- problem occurs: DI engines, is chosen as one or two
have felt cheated, there would hot to inform the driver how to both gasoline and diesel, used revolutions equivalent to 5 or
have been protests, enquiries, drive and adjust the car/engine multiple injection events during 10 msecs at the likely maximum
and an instant ban. for greatest efficiency. And the intake stroke. These are RPM of 12,500 for a typical 2014
The fuel flow rate regulation, then there is everything in- used to control combustion and Formula 1 engine, is that the
around which both these 2014 between, including combinations shape the combustion pressure fuel flow rate sensor is going
Formula 1 and WEC technology of these two extremes. rise. A rich mixture may also to be vibrated hard at some
regulations are written, is a bit The possible units of time be used to initiate combustion, frequency linked to engine RPM,
subtler, but the detail of how it is that might come into play include: followed by a weaker one for such as at a cycle time similar
written is crucial to the contest Race time: Usually converted economy once the flame is to or some multiple of the
the drivers and teams will be into total fuel used or tank size. established. Limiting the fuel fuel flow rate averaging time.
waging. The rule to control the In Formula 1; around two hours. flow rate down to milliseconds The favoured sensor is an
fuel flow rate is written as: For WEC; up to 24 hours. If used or less may inhibit this area of ultrasonic sensor, which have
Quantity of fuel/Unit of time in isolation, some other limit combustion technology. no moving parts so should be
The number chosen for this must be put on maximum power It is probably one of the many relatively immune to vibrations,
parameter is a simple determinant to prevent the most powerful reasons the 2014 Formula 1 and but this is a whole new area for
of the maximum power and/or engines possible being developed WEC technical regulations are this technology.
average power and hence engine for the sprint to the line. taking time to finalise. In fact, it is The drivers will resolve all
performance. The unit of time this on the track, and it looks as
chosen determines the relative “If the unit of time is short, team if the regulations will favour the
roles of driver, team and engineer thinking man’s driver rather
in the contest. If the unit of strategists will have little to do” than the absolute fastest.

April 2013 • 7

FORMULA 1 2013

n paper Formula 1,
has not changed
a great deal going
into the 2013
season. The engines
remain unaltered, with the
specification essentially
frozen since 2007. Chassis
regulations are almost
identical. Similarly, the
aerodynamic requirements are
the same. Indeed, the current
aerodynamic and chassis
rulebook has remained roughly
the same since its introduction
in 2009. For the 2013 season,
teams could essentially have
carried over their 2012 cars,
although none have chosen
to do so. So, teams are chasing
ever smaller gains, and
with the grid already tightly
bunched on lap time, the
smallest gain can be the
difference between being
on the podium or out of the
points completely.

The last
of the V8s
With new regulations anticipated for 2014, not much has changed for the
2013 F1 season, but that doesn’t mean that teams have been standing still


8 • April 2013

‘The incremental gains are better performance – particularly test at Jerez, though they had
getting smaller and smaller so when it comes to combined tried out the basic construction
we had to have a new chassis,’ traction and cornering. It also in free practice at the final race
said Force India’s technical means that temperatures of the 2012 season.
director Andy Green. ‘We could are more evenly distributed ‘We got quite a lot of data
not just sit on our laurels and across the whole surface of the about the tyres from Pirelli and
roll out last year’s chassis. tyre, meaning that there is no we got to run the casings in
While the gains are small we localised heat build-up that can Brazil,’ said McLaren sporting
will need them. We optimised lead to blistering. director Sam Michael. ‘We know
the layups as we are always The new construction what they do from a handling
looking to get weight out. For means that the weight of the point of view. We have not run
the 2013 tub, the weight has tyres has increased slightly, the compounds, although we
gone down and the stiffness but not enough to affect the know where they are going to
has gone up. There are some performance of the cars. On shift to. We get all the book data for the teams either,
new devices coming later in the average, each front tyre now data from Pirelli, but running sending them into the first
season that will increase the weighs around 200g more the tyres is the best data of race, at Melbourne, Australia
weight though. The reworking than they did last year, while all – you have your own car, somewhat in the dark. ‘In
of the chassis allowed us each rear tyre is 700g heavier, your drivers and your own testing we had to artificially
to optimise some of the meaning that approximately sensors. That’s always better induce some things into the
suspension pickups. This was two kilograms have been than book data, which is always tyres, as winter testing will
needed to give us the tools to added to the overall weight of a mixture of academic and not teach us what we need to
do things with the tyres that a set of tyres. However, the theoretical data vs some rig know,’ Green admits.
we learned about last year.’ overall minimum weight of the tests that they have done.’ Suspension design has been
One of the things that car has been adjusted in the Even after the teams one of the areas where the
has changed once again is 2013 technical regulations to arrived at the Jerez test, they teams have worked hard to be
the Pirelli tyres. The defining compensate for this. were not able to glean much able to increase the car’s ability
characteristic of Pirelli’s new to work with the tyres, with
tyres is softer compounds all
round, and the new hard tyre
“Conditions at Jerez were not ideal most on the grid reworking
both the front and rear units.
is roughly equivalent to last this year, as it was an extremely McLaren has interestingly
year’s medium compound. followed Ferrari down the
The tyre sidewalls are softer abrasive track. It was hard to draw pull rod front suspension
this year, but the shoulders route. ‘What convinced us to
are stronger. any proper conclusions” do this was a lot of research,’
The effect of this is faster explains Tim Goss, director of
thermal degradation while the The performance gap information. ‘Conditions at Jerez engineering at McLaren. ‘In F1
tyre’s peak performance window between the different were not ideal this year, as you cannot just copy someone
is extended. The new structures compounds is now meant to it was an extremely abrasive else’s concept – if you do it
have been designed with new be in excess of 0.5 seconds track,’ said Pirelli’s F1 boss tends not to work. What you
materials that increase the per lap, as opposed to last Paul Hembery. ‘It’s the most have to do is get a thorough
footprint of the tyre, allowing year when the difference was abrasive of all the circuits we understanding of why they
more rubber to be in contact often smaller, particularly in visit all year and consequently have done it. We looked at it
with the track and leading to the latter half of the season. it was hard to draw any proper and after some time we found
Faster thermal degradation conclusions. The surface had that it would benefit our car
and a bigger performance actually become even more and what we wanted to do with
gap between the compounds abrasive than last season. We our car. We found its benefits
should encourage overtaking came away with plenty of data in terms of aerodynamics
throughout each race. for the hard and medium tyres, overcome the negatives in
Due to restrictions on very little for the soft tyre and terms of kinematics and the
testing, the teams had not run none for the supersoft.’ structural negatives of
the new tyres before they got The subsequent tests may doing a slightly more extreme
to the first four day pre-season well also not yield adequate anhedral suspension.’

April 2013 • 9

FORMULA 1 2013

Not everyone thinks that the change from a vehicle dynamic or teams are now fully enclosing Ever since the banning of
switch to a pull rod front end is aerodynamic perspective.’ the drive shaft. ‘Enclosing it has a double diffusers at the start of
worthwhile, including Red Bull’s Meanwhile, many teams have relatively small effect,’ says Green, 2011, teams have been exploiting
Adrian Newey. ‘The pushrod been revising the rear suspension ‘but lifting the wishbone up off the exhaust flow to increase
vs pull rod debate is a feature layouts, not only to improve the the floor away from the diffuser downforce on the car. Even after
that has attracted attention car’s interaction with the tyres, area is a larger effect, in essence the effective ban of off-throttle
because you can see it,’ he says. but also to clean up the airflow you are clearing the way for the blowing at the start of 2012, the
‘I don’t honestly think it is a big around the rear of the car. Some air around the top of the floor.’ exhaust designs still provide a
significant amount of downforce.
‘It still is a battleground as
it is not a simple job,’ explains
Goss. ‘One of the reasons our car
performed last year is that we
did a good job of understanding
it. The understanding of
aerodynamics and vehicle
dynamics – the what and why
– are really what underpins our
performance. Understanding why
things work is what allows you
to get them to work. We have
seen teams copy us and not make
a dramatic leap in performance.
It’s not a simple case of putting
one of these exhaust bodywork
solutions on the car and
expecting it to perform.’
Most teams on the grid have
followed McLaren’s lead on
exhaust design, but Lotus and Red
Bull have pursued an alternative
layout featuring tunnels under
the exhaust exit. Goss argues
The stepped noses of 2012, which were brought about by regulations that stipulated a low nose to reduce that this approach is not as good
the risk of injury in a side-impact, have been covered over with so-called ‘vanity panels’. These carbon fibre as McLaren’s. ‘We tried it back in
panels help to smooth the airflow over the front of the car, but two teams – Sauber and Red Bull – have 2011,’ he said. ‘There are some
retained the vents, while some teams didn’t bother with the panels at all. British company epm:technology significant negatives to doing it
supply carbon fibre panels to four Formula 1 teams, including Force India. in that it becomes very difficult to
feed the central diffuser ramp and
the starter hole, and sure enough
we looked at the Red Bull solution.
But we found greater benefits
using the concept we launched
last year, where you have quite an
extreme undercut running through
that area which is used to drive
the diffuser and the starter hole.
Fundamentally it’s two different
approaches to the same issue. The
thing is you have to make sure
that when the exhaust gases are
not flowing, the rear end of the car
is still behaving itself.’
One change to the regulations
has led to a very visual difference
between the 2012 and 2013
cars, the partial elimination of
the ugly step on the noses of the
cars. This appeared last season
due to a minor regulation change
which would see teams forced to
lower the overall height of the
car nose for safety reasons. Much
was made of the aesthetically
unappealing design solution
developed by the majority of the
Nico Rosberg takes the 2013 Mercedes through its paces during testing at Jerez in February grid. As the reaction to the look

10 • April 2013

of the cars was so negative, the
2013 regulations allow fitment of
a small piece of laminate known
as a ‘‘vanity panel’ to smooth the
appearance of the nose section.
While most teams have opted
to use the panel, Sauber and Red
Bull use a partial panel and retain
vented noses, while Lotus and
Caterham have decided against
the panel all together.
‘We feel that we want to run
the nose and chassis has high
as possible, so we have done
that and used the vanity panel,’
says Green. ‘Aerodynamically it
is close to neutral, but it does
tidy up the flow on the top of the
chassis. But the improvement
is very small. It is not an area of
performance at all. It is not what
is going on on top of the chassis, surrounds the rear wing and the Lotus technical director James Allison feels that the delicate balance
it’s what’s going on underneath so called ‘drag reduction system’, coming from running at the edge of stall is lessened with the new
that matters. There is a weight or DRS. Last season drivers DRS usage rule, which could allow more emphasis to be put on stability
gain from using it, but it is offset were able to use it anywhere
by the aerodynamic gain. It on the track during practice and – in some cases – actually effect on the gearing you will
really does not take much and qualifying, but were limited going through the corner with want to run. In general, it could
aerodynamic improvement to specific overtaking zones the DRS on. Because it is a also affect the balance of power
to offset any weight penalty, during the race. In 2013 very on-off phenomenon with between the teams, because
especially when the car is however, new rules stipulate a high amplitude – we are not those teams that had the most
underweight anyway, though the that DRS usage will be restricted talking about just a few points of effective DRS will lose a bit of
additional weight is high up and in qualifying to the designated downforce, in fact it’s a massive their qualifying advantage.’
forward of the centre of gravity. zones used during the races. step – the mental commitment But for some they feel that
It only weighs grams – it’s just ‘As usual teams and drivers you need to tell yourself to go this change makes the design
one ply of carbon fibre either side were pushing to the limit with through a corner with the DRS of a rear wing somewhat easier
of a 3mm Nomex core. it has to DRS,’ said Laurent Mekies, on was becoming a bit of a as the benefit of a good DRS is
be like that as it is not allowed to head of vehicle performance dangerous game. This change reduced. ‘DRS is easy in terms of
influence the impact test.’ at Toro Rosso. ‘There was a will have an impact on the setup, but it is tough in another
A more significant, though strong incentive to switch it on engineering and on the racing way,’ says Lotus technical director
less visual, change to the as soon as you came out of a itself – there is small impact on James Allison. ‘Rear wings used
aerodynamic regulations corner, especially in qualifying, the optimum aero level you will to be about the easiest thing
want at the track and also a small on the car aerodynamically to do.
“in F1, you cannot just copy
FRont WingS
someone else’s concept – if you
n years gone by, it has Flexible bodywork became a
do, it tends not to work” become accepted practice major talking point last season,
to allow front wing systems with a number of teams believed
to run up to 3mm lower than to have excessive movement
the regulations prescribed. in their front wing design
Decades ago, when this trend and subsequently gaining
was established, it was a nod to aerodynamic performance. As a
the difficulties of manufacturing result, a further deflection test
and measuring to a precise has been introduced to ensure
tolerance. However, for many that the front wing assembly
years it has been possible to remains as rigid as possible
be much more accurate in the as speed increases, thereby
production process, and so from reducing the possibility of such
2013 the front wing height advantages being made.
dimensions will need to be While continuing to limit
respected without any implied the extent to which the tips
tolerance. This means that all of the front wing ‘droop’ under
teams will be forced to lift their load, the new test will also
there has already been some controversy surrounding exhaust design. A front wing assemblies by up to ensure that the assembly is not
flow conditioner in the exhaust channel of the Caterham Ct03 is thought 3mm, giving rise to a certain capable of rotating the nose up
to be outside of the regulations with Lotus publicly questioning its legality. loss of front wing performance. or down around a lap.
See for more information

April 2013 • 11

FORMULA 1 2013

DRS was activated, subsequently

travelling through the car to
help stall the front wing. Not
only is it now forbidden for
the rear wing end plates to
transport air around the car,
but a similar rule also applies
to the centre section of the
front wing. This will not,
however, affect so-called
passive DRS systems as trialled
by Lotus last season.

‘Passive DRS is not the right
term really – it should be called
a passive fluidic switch,’ explains
Michael. ‘It is a device or ducting
that remains the same all the
time and causes a stall on the
rear wing. I think fluidic switches
have still got a place in F1,
and I think we will see them
developed in the coming years.
Everyone had more or less the But they are extremely sensitive,
same rear wing, and it just wasn’t as the people who have tried
Other rule ChangeS an area of competitive advantage to develop them have found
– you just had big ones for Monaco out, and they are only second
Suspension members was agreed to be somewhat and small ones for Monza and or third order gains. When you
A traditional Formula 1 spurious, the rule has been inbetweeny ones for everywhere are talking about something
suspension system has six changed for 2013 such that all else. With DRS you have to have that small, it’s just that your
members, namely the top chassis must now demonstrate a wing that produces reliable resources are better off
wishbone front leg, top satisfactory performance at the downforce, but shifts a huge put somewhere else. In the
wishbone rear leg, lower higher level of load given to the amount of drag when you theoretical world they work,
wishbone front leg, lower first chassis, thereby providing switch it on. That means taking but they are hugely sensitive
wishbone rear leg, trackrod further assurances in terms of the wing much closer to the in the real world and extremely
and push/pullrod. Although not driver safety. edge of stalling in normal hard to get right.’
previously exploited, it became operation than you would Some teams are definitely
clear during the 2012 season Force majeure traditionally have done. The evaluating systems for use
that it was possible to make In previous seasons, the ‘force obvious dilemma is that skirting in 2013, including Lotus, and
a suspension system which majeure’ allowance has provided the edge of stall with a wing many suspect also Red Bull.
satisfied the written rules, but teams with some leeway in means that things like bugs ‘What people call passive DRS
which consisted of more than terms of fuel levels remaining in hitting the leading edge of the is the device that Lotus trialled
six members. The potential a car should it stop on the track wing, or a bit of rain, or just last year, which will use
benefit of such a system would during qualifying. This element misjudging it a bit in the wind some speed sensing device
be that it could afford more has been removed from the tunnel, means that your wing – whatever that may be – to
aerodynamic surfaces to exploit. regulations for 2013, with rules is not stable enough – that’s augment or replace the DRS
To forestall such a system, it has now stating that any car which where all the setup difficulty effect where DRS is not allowed,’
been agreed to amend the rules stops out on track must have is with the rear wing. It’s just said Newey. ‘It is an interesting
to limit all suspension systems enough fuel for the mandatory getting the right compromise area, but a very tricky one to
to just six members. 1-litre minimum sample, between stability and switch size. get a signal that is reliable
plus an additional amount The changes to the DRS rules and withstand things like
Chassis testing proportional to the amount don’t effect that – all it does is following another car. It is not
In the weeks building up to of fuel that would have been de-power the effect of DRS on straightforward.’
the first test, all Formula 1 used in returning to the pits, as lap time. So there is slightly less The 2013 season will be all
chassis are subjected to a determined by the FIA. incentive to put a lot of effort into about the details. Every little gain
series of squeeze tests, where maximising the switch versus the will matter, and when some teams
large forces are applied to the Qualifying stability, but there is still lap time switch their focus to 2014
chassis to prove that it is strong With the 2013 grid fielding an there. It’s a competitive pressure they will likely fall down the
enough to be used in anger. In entry list of 22 cars – reduced to make this knife-edge wing, order rapidly.
the past, the first chassis under from 24 last season – there which is difficult to do.’ Full technical analysis of the
production was subjected to a will be six drivers eliminated at Also banned this year is Formula 1 grid 2013 can be found
special series of tests that were the end of both the Q1 and Q2 the so called “double-DRS”. In at www.racecar-engineering.
at 120 per cent of the level qualifying sessions, as opposed 2012, some teams developed a com. The website will be updated
applied to each subsequent to the seven ruled out at each concept which allowed air to be throughout the season with the
chassis. As this difference stage in 2012. channelled through an opening latest news and developments,
in the rear wing endplate when and interviews.

12 • April 2013

Engineering Patterns Tooling Parts Assembly

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The 2013 runners

Evolution of last year’s cars is the trend among manufacturers ahead of
2014’s rule changes – but there’s still room for some interesting developments



The MR02 represents a comprehensive evolution of the

2012 car, which proved to be the most successful package
in Marussia’s three formative years of competition, borne
out by its progressive development during the latter half
of last season. Certain elements of the new chassis have
been subject to redesign to accommodate important new
developments aimed at achieving a further performance
step. In addition, the MR02 is the first complete car conceived
using a design philosophy of CFD complementing wind tunnel.
The RB9 is an evolutionary car according to Adrian Newey, retaining all the key Although the 2012 in-season development was conducted in
elements of recent Red Bulls. ‘The most work has probably gone into the middle of this way, the MR01 from conception to launch was all-CFD.
the car as that is the area that is most fixed for the season,’ he says. ‘Things like The heart of the car bears the most significant area of
the front wing you can change as you go through the season relatively easily. The redevelopment due to the requirement to accommodate the
middle of the car – in which I include the gearbox and rear suspension – would be KERS installation, new to the package this season.
a huge effort to change during the season, so that is the area where most of the The MR02 retains a number of features from the MR01
work goes in. You can change the rest as the year goes on.’ The RB9 retains the such as the front and rear suspension, as much of the teams
exhaust concept of the RB8 but has switched to a Sauber-style vented nose. development work was focused on integrating KERS.

14 • April 2013

SAUBER C32 (above)

A year ago almost all the cars on the grid had one particular feature The aerodynamicists have also invested a lot of time developing
in common: a stepped nose. This design element caused an outcry the details around the exhaust exits – an area which has a major
among the fans, but was rendered nigh-on unavoidable by the impact on performance and in which the Sauber F1 team was one
regulations. For 2013, the FIA has now allowed a cosmetic fairing of the leading exponents last season. Interestingly, the car has
to be used in this area, while retaining the current chassis and migrated towards the McLaren-style solution rather than its own route,
structural nose height regulations. Sauber has used this fairing, but now followed by Red Bull and Lotus.
also retains its nose vent. The rear axle is a totally new development. Although it still works
The sidepods of the C32 are notably slimmer than the Formula 1 according to the pullrod principle, its layout has been designed to
norm up to now and are responsible for giving the new car a very better interact with the airflow around the rear of the car, while further
distinctive look. ‘The airflow in this area has a major influence over improving the tyre management.
everything that happens at the rear of the car,’ said chief designer Matt Another high priority was reducing the car’s overall component
Morris, offering a glimpse into the team’s thinking. The significantly weight, to allow a better distribution of the ballast, while retaining its
reduced volume of the sidepods over conventional variants makes structural requirements and mechanical setup flexibility.
packaging a particular challenge. ‘We have set ourselves lofty goals with the Sauber C32-Ferrari, and
An extremely slim rear end was high up the engineers’ list of I’m confident that we’ll be able to meet them,’ said Morris. ‘The C31 gave
priorities. One of the key aspects here is the arrangement of the us a very good basis, to which we’ve made further improvements. Our
radiators, which is very different from that in the C31. A look at the rear aim is to line up for 2013 with a car that is competitive from the first
end of the new car reveals the engineers’ rigorous approach to this area. race, but which also offers extensive potential for further development.’


Lotus was the first team to show off its 2013 design, albeit in digital form
via a launch on YouTube. At the launch, technical director James Allison
said ‘The E20 proved itself to be an effective racing car – particularly
towards the end of last season – so there is an element of expectation
from the E21 and plenty to build upon. We have continued with our design
themes and tried to create a more efficient and faster racing car based
on all the lessons we learned last year. How successful we have been in
this task will only be discovered when we take to the track at the winter
tests and – more significantly – at grands prix. Depending on where you
look, some parts of the new car are a ground up redesign and in other
areas we have further optimised the best bits of the design philosophy
we’ve adopted for several seasons. The front and rear suspension
layouts are substantially revised to try and give us better aerodynamic
opportunities. The front wing is a continuation of the concepts we have
worked on since the 2009 rules were published. For the rear wing system, There are a number of areas of the car which show off the current design
we’ve continued to try to work on having a satisfactory level of rear trends in F1, and it retains a humped nose despite the rule change
downforce stability while having maximum DRS switching potential.’ allowing teams to fit a vanity cover.

April 2013 • 15



The F138 is the 59th car built by Ferrari specifically to take

part in the Formula 1 World Championship. The name comes
from a combination of the current year and the number
of cylinders, to mark the fact that this is the eighth and
final year of competition for the V8 engine configuration.
It is the first car designed by Simone Resta. ‘There were
very few changes to the regulations, but nevertheless we
chose to work on and modify all aspects of the car, trying
to move forward in every area, because we felt there was
a significant amount of performance that could be gained
with this new car,’ he says. ‘I would say the biggest changes
relate to the front suspension, which has an improved
layout, while at the rear, the suspension is completely new.
We also have a revised sidepod design, aimed at improving
the aerodynamics in this area, as well as a completely new
layout for the exhaust system.’

‘It’s a brand new car from the ground up – everything is new,’

CATERHAM CT03 explains Force India technical director Andrew Green of
the VJM06. ‘We discussed carrying over big chunks of last
year’s car, including the chassis, but decided not to. There
were still some gains to be had with the chassis, so we
elected to take the performance benefits. However, the
car is evolution rather than revolution compared with last
year, simply because of the nature of the regulations.
‘There are quite a few large changes under the skin.
Because we focused a lot on the tyres last year, we’ve
given ourselves a few more options on setup to help
manage them from qualifying to the race. So that’s
something we will focus on going into winter testing –
The Caterham CT03 is a mild evolution of the CT01, according to technical director we’ll be looking at those options and trying to understand
Mark Smith. ‘The season ahead presented us with an interesting challenge early in the them. It’s going to be a challenge assessing these during
design process as it is the last year of the current regulations before the introduction the cold winter tests, but those options will give the
of the new engine rules in 2014,’ he said. ‘With that in mind we decided that CT03 engineers more weapons in their armoury.’
would be an evolution of CT01 rather than a complete redesign, allowing us to
focus our resources on developing areas of last year’s package where opportunities
would give us the greatest return, while also beginning work on the 2014 package.’
Caterham’s preparations, however, have been disrupted after the FIA deemed their
exhaust design – along with that on the new Williams – to breach the rules.

16 • April 2013



The Mercedes W04 is an evolution of the 2012 car, and is likely to feature
a rear wing stalling device. Preparations were hampered when the car
suffered from a fire and a brake failure that disrupted its first test.
‘We had a transition of the management of the aero group last year,
and the task was to produce a strong, predictable car,’ explains Ross
Brawn. ‘They’ve been looking at a number of concepts and this car has
taken a good step forward in terms of aerodynamic performance and
The Williams FW35 is an evolution of the 2012 FW34, though according that is all that matters. We are comfortable with the design solutions
to the team more than 80 per cent of the FW35 is new. It has a new that we have come up with. Aerodynamic performance is always very
gearbox, new rear suspension, new radiators, a new floor, new exhausts, significant and if you improve there – if you improve the efficiency –
new bodywork, a new nose and a significant amount of weight has been then you have a better chance to do well. I think we have a much better
saved as well. With many new parts on the car, the team has carried out understanding now about the exhaust and the suspension – all these
a lot of reliability work over the winter. The gearbox alone has already things that have a huge impact on the performance.’
completed 3200kms on the dyno, a lot of which was conducted in the
form of five straight simulated grand prix weekends.
The exhaust solution on the Williams, like that of the Caterham, has McLAREN MP4-28
attracted controversy, with the FIA far from convinced of its legality.
‘The Coanda effect is going to be a big thing for us,’ says technical
director Mike Coughlan. ‘There’s been no rule clarification concerning
this area of the car, so we’ll work closely with Renault to maximise the
available gains. Use of the DRS is more restricted this year, so we’ll take
some resource away from that and focus on other areas.’


‘In pre-season testing last year, we were able to get a first look
at the strengths and limitations of the STR7,’ explains designer
Luca Furbatto. ‘It was clear from the start that we had some issues
with the weight distribution of the car and we were not able to
effectively cover the entire weight distribution range, as controlled The 2013 McLaren MP4-28 is a fairly major departure from the 2012 car,
by the FIA regulations. This therefore became a point we wanted as the team hopes to take a major step forward. The new car features
to rectify with the STR8. A further key point was that I wanted to 16,000 components. ‘We have pushed all the areas you can with a
create a platform for aerodynamic development of the car. The rear car that will have no carry over into next year, when everything will
end of the STR7 was effectively derived from the STR6, and I felt go into the bin,’ says McLaren’s Sam Michael. The new model features
the rear could be made much slimmer and more compact and that pullrod front suspension and a much higher chassis compared to the
was another area we focussed on in designing STR8.’ 2012 car, a major departure for the Woking team.

18 • April 2013


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Let it flow
The future of Formula 1 and World Endurance
Championship performance management lies
in the accuracy of the fuel flow sensor

he regulations for equaliser throughout motorsport, selection and checks in addition heavily in the development of an
Formula 1 and the should the sensors become to the price of the sensor itself, ultrasonic sensor that fits all the
World Endurance more affordable. which won’t be cost-effective, at necessary criteria. Bar one. ‘[With
Championship are ‘For high level competition with least for the first years. the WEC] there are two fuels
all but finalised, and a small amount of sensors, we ‘I therefore don’t think we involved, the Shell E10, and the
one major piece of the jigsaw can produce the sensors, make a are close to putting them on the LM24 diesel, predominantly for
that has yet to be confirmed is selection, double check them in lower categories, but it is an aim. Audi,’ says Gill’s lead consultant
the identity of the supplier for order to be sure that they are OK, With the air restrictor, as air flow engineer, Neville Meech. ‘The
the fuel flow sensor that is at and deliver them,’ says Fabrice is limited, to get the performance other fuel that will be used
the heart of both. Lom, head of powertrain at the FIA. you try to burn more fuel into the is essentially the F1 variants
The FIA has refused to ‘It is controlled, but this process engine, so it is not pushing you which will come from different
rush ahead with a decision is expensive. If you go to lower towards more efficient engines. manufacturers, but are blended to
as suppliers vie to provide level of competition, Formula 3, for To use a fuel flow meter to limit a minimum 5.75 per cent ethanol
the incredible accuracy that example, you will have 100 cars performance pushes you to content. Our technology has been
is needed to measure around the world, managed by improve efficiency, and that is a developed to provide error figures
performance in two of the premier the ASNs, not by the FIA. It won’t target of the FIA.’ not greater than plus or minus
world championship events. It be possible to apply the same Although the decision has yet 0.25 per cent, and we have used
is critical to get it right, not only selection of sensors and to ensure to be taken on the supplier for E10 as the reference fuel. In all
because of the competition all the checks are done. Moreover, the sensor in both Formula 1 the gasoline-based fuels that we
today, but because the sensor it is a lower cost formula and and sports car racing, British have used, from straight pump
could become a performance they can’t afford the price of this company Gill Sensors has invested fuel to E10, biobutanol and many

20 • April 2013

“None of the fuel manufacturers
tests its fuel ultrasonically, so we
have had to pioneer all that work
in all these different fuels”

iso-based single molecule fuels more difficult to get a good Much of our work over the last find fluid dynamic information.
that have equivalent density clean ultrasound signal through 12 months has been to develop None of the fuel manufacturers
and performance specification the liquid, unlike gasoline the algorithms in the sensor to routinely tests its fuel for how
as a performance fuel but are fuels. We are currently focused compensate for those changes it performs ultrasonically, so we
safer to use in a laboratory, we on a software development in temperature. That has been have had to pioneer all that work
have demonstrated to the FIA programme to filter out the quite a challenge in the petroleum in all these different fuels. Then
that we have achieved their “noise” effects that this causes, fuels, and a much bigger you have to match that to a
accuracy figures, and have with very positive results to date. challenge in diesel because of set of mechanical parameters
exceeded that in many areas, ‘One of the biggest challenges the components that are in the with minimal pressure drop,
averaging to a maximum error of is that you are making an diesel, and the ultrasound pulse and a good turbulent flow path.
0.15 per cent in many cases. accurate measurement over a through the medium. You don’t want the fuel to go
‘The performance in diesel, wide range of temperature. ‘Pressure drop has been through the sensor in a laminate
however, is still being finalised. In F1, the fuel temperature another one that we have format – you want turbulence
We have not yet made the same could be anything from 10 worked hard on to achieve the as it is much easier and more
performance value and we are degrees to 60 degrees centigrade, accuracy and minimal pressure reliable if it is in a turbulent
currently working on improving and you need to be sure for any drop, which meant some clever state as it passes through the
that part of the process. The given flow rate, you can ensure mechanical design work and a lot sensor. The last part of the
ultrasonic attenuation through the same flow rate parameter, of CFD modelling to model the puzzle is that all the materials
diesel is more complex due to and the density of the fuel fluid dynamics in conjunction that you use in the design and
the density and viscosity of the and viscosity of the fuel will with the ultrasound properties. manufacture are compatible
medium. It is therefore much change with temperature. Of course it is very difficult to with all these different fuels.’

April 2013 • 21


the housing, and channelled

through a flow tube which sits
in the flow body. The flow tube
itself has a smaller aperture that
runs through the centre of the
tube. At either end you have
ultrasonic transducers, which
send an ultrasound signal down
the centre of the flow tube
bore. They are positioned in
the fuel flow line, so have to be
compatible with the fuel and the
pressure. The sensor is designed
to be located in the low-pressure
side of the fuel system at
approximately 6 bar.
‘As fuel passes through the
sensor, one transducer sends
an ultrasound signal through to
the opposing transducer, and
Gill’s ultrasonic fuel flow sensor has tested at Le Mans with the Starworks team, though didn’t race because we know the physical
distance between the opposing
Working with Stäubli, a faces of the transducers, we can
custom dry break system has Gill’s sensor measures just determine the time of flight. We
been developed for the WEC 164.4mm x 67.5mm x 36mm and record that time, and then we
cars, which will run the sensors weighs 325g (11.46oz) switch off that transducer and
outside the fuel cell. In Formula 1, send a pulse from the receiving
the sensors will be submerged transducer in return. We do this
in the fuel cell. 2000 times per second. Once
However, Audi has complained we have both those readings,
that the size of the sensor we take one from the other,
compromises the work already and knowing the distance and
undertaken in the monocoque the density of the fuel we can
of its 2014 car. It is not that the carefully calculate the flow rate,
sensor is too big, more that three and therefore the mass flow rate.
are stipulated by the regulations. That is the basic principal of the
With three sensors, and three system. It is simple, but there is a
connectors, the size of the overall lot of maths that goes on in there.
package is significant, says Audi. with the understanding that F1 is constant maximum flow in LMP1, ‘We can use the speed of
Taking into account the going to adopt this technology.’ and a maximum flow function sound in a number of other ways.
parameters that packaging up The approved system is of revs in Formula 1. This is As a result of having that number,
to three sensors creates initially requested to be able to achieve why inboard equipment able to we can use it technically to do
seemed a straightforward a repeatable accuracy of plus or measure flow live is needed. a fuel fingerprint. Because we
application, but has ended with minus 0.25 per cent, the most ‘One of the big issues is know what the speed should be,
both a new and adapted solution accurate ever seen in the sport, that in LMP1 we have one if that number falls outside that
for Stäubli’s motorsports series regardless of whether the engine competitor with petrol, and one boundary, we can then say that
of connectors. The solutions runs on diesel or gasoline, or the has diesel – it’s complicated to maybe the team is not using the
will give the teams a reliable, different fuels used by the various make it repetitive and accurate fuel it is supposed to be.’
safe, ergonomic and efficient manufacturers in Formula 1. between them. The second thing Security is something that the
solution when installing or ‘Regulations are on one is the different fuels in Formula 1. team at Gill has taken seriously,
removing the flow sensors. hand based on consumption per In F1, every engine manufacturer commissioning former Formula 1
‘We have achieved all the lap, or for the race in Formula 1,’ has its own fuel.’ engine manufacturers to conduct
requirements, that the sensor has says Lom. ‘This could have been So accurate and sensitive cheat tests, and trying to
to be within the weight restriction done after the race, by measuring is Gill’s system, it’s possible identify the problems ahead of
for the FIA, all the pressure how much goes in at the start and to use the recorded fuel flow introduction into the car.
ratings that are necessary, and how much is left at the end, and data to detect injector pulses, ‘Together with our partners
we have moved from an analogue in LMP1 by how much is filled into which could give an indication Hyspeed, we have commissioned
and CAN-based system to a the tank at each stop, but this is of the start of a misfire. two independent cheating studies,
purely CAN-based system for FIA,’ complicated and not very accurate. ‘You have a fuel inlet port, and approached former F1 engine
says Meech. ‘It has gone from On the other hand regulations and an outlet port,’ says Meech. builders who have compiled
development sensors to twin are based on instantaneous flow, ‘The fuel is then diverted inside reports and we have presented
connectors, to a single connector. them to the FIA,’ says Meech.
Deutsch have worked to produce
a specific connector that can be
“Fuel flow data can detect injector ‘The FIA is focused on fairness
and ensuring whatever system is
fully submersible for us for this pulses, which could give an finally adopted is considered fair
project – the first time that that to all the competitors and end
has been done in this format – indication of the start of a misfire” users irrespective of fuel type.’

22 • April 2013

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FORMULA 1 – 2014

2014: A seismic change

Torn between the new season and the enormous preparation needed for
next year’s regulations, F1 teams have had some tough decisions to make

here was one thing well as how they utilise their The top teams already have ‘There will be opportunity.
that all the Formula 1 resources in a given year. This significant resources already I suspect things like the front
technical directors restriction bites especially deep dedicated to the 2014 cars, wing and the diffuser will
agreed on – the hardest when it comes to developing cars Ferrari has brought Rory Byrne follow similar paths to recent
thing about the 2013 season is for 2014, when a new powertrain out of retirement to develop years, and the hunting ground
the 2014 season. ‘The biggest formula is introduced along with its design, while Geoff Willis will be how you cope with the
challenge with this car was that revised aerodynamic regulations. is heading up the efforts at low nose chassis and how you
through most of its gestation, ‘The main difficulty with 2014 Mercedes. One of the issues that integrate what is a very fierce
there was a pretty hard fight is how much resource you have they are already facing is that cooling requirement into the
going on for the championship,’ got,’ continued Allison. ‘You know the goalposts are not quite set. chassis without haemorrhaging
explains Lotus F1 Team’s you have to take a certain number ‘The aero package is a slightly downforce. There is a very wide
technical director James Allison. of people out of this car and watered-down version of what field aerodynamically to play on,
‘On top of that, a big chunk of the devote them to next year’s car, we have now,’ says Allison. but the rules are very similar to
factory was also looking at the otherwise next year’s car won’t ‘One of the things the sport now, though some things are still
2014 car, so looking after three be competitive. Investment into consciously had to do was not to under discussion.’
cars simultaneously was tough. next year’s car has a longer shelf bite off more than it could chew. The aerodynamic regulations
You run out of people.’ life than this year. Once you have With the engine, chassis, gearbox, may be similar, but the changes
Formula 1 teams comply taken out the key people, you cooling integration and all that to the powertrain are likely to
with the Resource Restriction then have to do the bravest, most goes with it, that’s mammoth have a knock-on effect on how
Agreement (RRA) which limits aggressive car you can in 2013 enough without having to the design trade-offs are handled
the annual spend of teams, as with the people you have left.’ reinvent the aero package as well. aerodynamically. With a fuel flow

Formula 1 teams are under pressure to divert resources from their 2013 cars to 2014 models, which will feature 1.6 litre V6 engines

April 2013 • 25

FORMULA 1 – 2014

to balance with the 2014 car,

the tunnel is a first order thing,’
explains Sam Michael, McLaren’s
sporting director. ‘We are using
both our own tunnel in working
and TMG in Cologne. We have
three models. But for 2014 you
are in such broad brush changes
and you are looking for big gains,
and that means the correlation
between the models does not
have to be too tight. But as you
get more advanced you need to
focus on one. The change in the
front wing design and the loss of
the rear wing lower element are
both first order for principal flow
mechanisms around the car. That
means you have to start again
in defining what you want from
flow structures.’
Some in the paddock
have suggested that the
new powertrains will cause
substantial reliability issues with
the new cars, but most technical
Renault was the first to release information on its 2014 engine. Development continues apace directors are playing that down.
‘From a reliability point of
limit in place there will be a keep an eye on the gains we are field being as close as it is, the view we can be ready for the
real restriction on how much making in the tunnel with this teams that switch off 2013 start of the season,’ says Allison.
drag is acceptable. ‘There are year’s car and where we are with development could pay a huge ‘Dynos are quite good at telling
lots of things that cause you next year’s. It’s a big trade-off, financial penalty at the end of you if the engine is reliable, and
to burn fuel, and lots of things and the question is, when do the year, but could make hay they are quite good at making
that give you lap time and you turn off development with when the new season starts. gearboxes reliable – and that’s
when you design the cars for this year’s car and focus purely ‘The biggest issue is the the majority of the drivetrain.
any year you are trying to find on 2014? The development restriction on aerodynamic So really the only open point
the optimum combination of all curve for next year’s car is very testing,’ says Green. ‘Next year’s is whether you are going to
of those things to make the steep, and with this year’s car car is going to be all about produce a car that has enough
fastest race time coupled the gains are marginal. It’s a big aerodynamic development cooling, which is a fair challenge
with the best qualifying lap,’ compromise. It may be there’s a and what you can get out of in 2014, but wind tunnels are
continues Allison. ‘It is certainly gain to be had this year at the it in the time you’ve got. not bad either. Most of the things
the case that you will have a expense of next year, but there Whatever you have on next year’s that allow us to put the car on
different response next year to will be three teams fighting for car you have to take off this the ground and expect it to work
this year in terms of how dirty a championship who are going year’s car – you can’t have both. are there, so testing will be about
– in terms of drag – a downforce to find it very difficult to turn off I think some teams at the back unloving some performance.’
device you can use. But that 2013 development. But as you will just present the 2013 car But it is certain that the field
does not mean that you will go further back, the decision gets and move all of their resources of play in Formula 1 is about to
see the cars just scissoring change substantially and the
downforce off it compared to
what you are used to.’
“The development curve for next order of teams could change with
it. Allison believes that there may
That will not be the toughest year is very steep, and with this be one team that will become
trade-off for the teams. Just dominant. He hopes that it will be
managing the access to the year’s car the gains are marginal” his, but only time will tell. ‘When
tools required is a major issue, there is that much new stuff on
with the RRA covering CFD and a lot easier. I’m sure there are to 2014. At the front it’ll be the car and no rule on where
wind tunnel testing, while the some teams behind us who are much harder to do that, and you bung it, people will have
FIA’s sporting regulations restrict thinking “why bother with 2013 we are in the middle so we could different ideas about what the
straight line testing and full scale at all – let’s focus on 2014 now lose out doubly.’ right way to put it in,’ he says. ‘As
tunnel runs. Indeed, according and get the advantage.”’ Some of the larger teams, sure as eggs are eggs, someone
to some in the paddock, there Adding to the trade-off like McLaren, started 2014 wind will have the best idea and it
will be teams who do not do any for midfield teams is the tunnel testing back in 2012 to will be substantially different to
development on the 2013 car in fight for prize money. The be able to spread the burden, everyone else. Its going to be
order to concentrate on 2014. difference between constructors but as the designs get closer to scary and exciting at the first
‘We are behind on 2014,’ championship positions at the reality, the demand on resources test next year, the 2009 changes
admits Force India technical end of the year can be huge increases. ‘Tunnel time and were a ripple compared to the
director Andy Green. ‘We have to in financial terms. With the design time are pretty difficult tsunami of 2014.’

26 • April 2013












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The waiting game

Toyota has launched its 2013 TS030,
but its sights are set firmly on 2014

oyota’s 2013 Le Mans BY ANDREW COTTON With the new tub, weight car of 2013 featured the Le Mans
car is so similar to the distribution has been a major bodywork of 2012, complete with
2012 machine that ‘In Bahrain, we had a light factor, but the team has not the narrow rear wing and without
there is no new model fail, and had to change almost opted to go with a carbon the huge rear wheel arches that
designation, despite a new tub, a the complete side bodywork for gearbox, similar to that used debuted at Silverstone last year.
more central seating position for that,’ said John Litjens, chassis by Audi in 2012, despite the However, the 2013 car will race
the driver to improve visibility, project leader. ‘The alternator we need to shift the weight as with the wheel arches, and the
and a new aero package that is couldn’t change the position, but far forward as possible. ‘In team believes that it has made
aimed at reducing the sensitivity we can change the access to it general, the balance is changed enough of an aero gain that it
of the car to changing conditions. and also the suspension, to make with the aero package,’ says can run these flared arches at
Despite winning three races it quicker and easier to change Litjens. ‘You go as far forward Le Mans. ‘We were working on
in 2012, Toyota has changed as we try to reduce the damage as you can, but you have to be the details of the aero to make
its overall philosophy towards to the monocoque in case of a careful where you put the extra sure this doesn’t affect the drag
the new car, making it more barrier impact. At Le Mans, Audi weight, and try to limit the so much,’ said Litjens. ‘It looks
serviceable and built more for had some accidents, changed the damage of the extra 15kg.’ as though we will bring it.’ A
endurance than for speed. A suspension and went back out The rear suspension high-downforce package will be
regulation change – increasing again. We couldn’t do that last kinematics have also changed, introduced, but Litjens says that it
the minimum limit by 15kg to year, but I hope we can this year. although there is no all-new will not be as significant as in the
915kg this year – has helped as That was partly the philosophy system. This was to improve latter half of 2012.
components have been beefed up. for last year, and for sure that is driveability following feedback One of the most noticeable
Meanwhile, accessibility to the the experience that you gather. from the drivers, while the hybrid differences between the 2012
suspension, and to vital organs There were still quite some system has also been tuned to racecar and the 2013 version is
of the car such as the alternator, Formula 1 philosophies in the provide a smooth delivery of the nose, which is more similar
have been improved. first tub.’ power. At the rear, the roll-out to that rolled out at the start

28 • April 2013

of 2012. The tub used last year splitter to the racecar with an we have done that, but at Le petrol cars, which also receive
was designed to evaluate both F1-like front end, and now we are Mans we are still the challengers.’ an extra 5 litres in fuel), again
front and rear hybrid systems, more conventional again. We will On speed alone, the TS030 an offer to close the gap for the
and the team raced with the upgrade the rear, and that will had an advantage over Audi’s privateers. However, that could
compromised chassis. Now that come later. At the moment we are R18 over the shorter distances, have far-reaching consequences
it has settled on a rear-only still running last year’s Le Mans but needed to open out a lead for Toyota. Instead of having to
solution, the tub has changed aero. We are not targeting only of around 50 seconds over the open out a 50 second gap, it could
to reflect that, leading to a new, have to open between 10 and 15
tightly controlled aero package. “The major changes are invisible to seconds more if the TS030 has to
The new nose is lower, and the accommodate an extra fuel stop.
change means that the team spectators – the splitter and what At Silverstone in 2012, the
will have to re-crash test the tub TS030 had to complete two extra
ahead of its first race. is facing the ground is different” fuel stops, but that was due to
‘The major changes are poor management of the fuel
invisible to the spectators,’ efficiency, but we have targeted a race distance to accommodate an maps available, says Vasselon. ‘It
said project leader Pascal more consistent front-end so that extra fuel stop, despite carrying is a question mark for this year,’
Vasselon. ‘The concept of the it is not so sensitive.’ a larger fuel tank than the diesel he said, although he admits that
splitter, and what is facing the The team will introduce the hybrid (73 litres for a petrol hybrid nothing is expected to happen
ground, is different. Last year new car in race conditions at compared to 58 litres for diesel). this year. ‘It is easier to restrict
was quite interesting. We lost Spa in May, preferring the 2012 One of the regulation changes for the size of Audi’s fuel tank than
more than we expected in the car at Silverstone, but the team 2013 is that the fuel stops will to inflate ours, but at some point
two scoops in the wishbone still expects to challenge for the take longer, thanks to a reduced if we want to be balanced, why
fairings. We went from the roll World Championship title. ‘We can size of refuelling restrictor (25mm would we accept that we have to
out-car with a conventional be favourite for six hours because compared to 33mm for non-hybrid do one more pit stop?’

April 2013 • 29


the new nose is lower than last year’s model, meaning that toyota will
have to conduct new crash testing on the tub ahead of the first race in May

While cosmetic changes are minimal, toyota’s new philosophy for the the ts030 was launched with the 2012 le Mans bodywork. the team
2013 car has placed more emphasis on endurance than speed believes it can run its high downforce wheel arches at le Mans

rule ructions Eyes are firmly set on the That extra 300bhp, added
2014 regulations. Internal to the 530bhp from the internal

D espite rumours that

Toyota could pull out of
sportscar racing at the end of
system for this regulation, and
it would not make sense to
change it because Audi hasn’t
parts of the hybrid system
will already debut in 2013 as
the team works to improve
combustion engine (both
quoted figures, so likely to have
underestimated the true figure),
2013, the team has already the power to generate 500kJ.’ cooling and deliver the full 500kJ makes this one of the most
started to develop the long Achieving the 870kg of power in any temperature, powerful racing cars around,
lead time items for 2014, weight limit for the 2014 cars having been forced to reduce when the hybrid system is active
including the hybrid system, will be a challenge for the power at Bahrain due to the high under acceleration.
the tub and the gearbox, while manufacturers, which will ambient temperatures. Tyre performance will also
the drivers are under contract have to run two hybrid ‘Performance stayed constant improve, although Toyota says
for a further year. systems to achieve the target. from the first test to the last that it is not its strategy to come
Audi has hinted that it Toyota has not developed a race, but more tuning means up with unique rubber for its cars.
would like to see a change to lightweight bodywork kit for better driveability or more Toyota is working with Michelin
the regenerative braking zones, simple durability. ‘If you make smoothness, said Hisatake to develop tyres that are better
which influence the outcome it too light, with the pick up Murata, hybrid project leader. suited for low temperature
of the race, but project leader and dirt during the race, you ‘The 2014 system is being running than in 2012, after both
Pascal Vasselon dismissed throw away the bodywork developed in the technical they and Audi struggled during
the idea. ‘It is a rule based on at the end of the race,’ says research centre now, but some the night. ‘If you have to manage
physics,’ he said. ‘It is a rule Litjens. ‘For 2014 it will be small parts give us some idea your track time, it is better to have
that is based on braking of more far more critical with the [for next year’s system]. Next an understanding of the existing
than one second, and more 870kg weight limit. It was year the hybrid system will tyres and engineer your car to use
than 1g, and that is it. There very early in the discussions to change, and the power to weight them than to use the track time to
is no room for negotiation. If go to 750kg minimum weight, ratio will increase. To produce develop new tyres,’ said Vasselon.
it changes largely, we have but if you do that, you say 8mJ is a tough target, but we ‘Last year we started from an
developed our system for goodbye to hybrid systems. are trying now. We will have to existing range and it showed a
nothing. I don’t see the point. We are still at the bottom of have two motors. It is impossible few voids, such as at night at
The regulation is in place for the curve with hybrid systems, to achieve this target with one Le Mans. We are developing the
two years, we have sized our so it was too early.’ motor. 500kJ is around 300bhp, range, but there is no strategy
so that is a good balance.’ to have different tyres.’

30 • April 2013

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From Russia
with downforce
In the 1970s, three Russians began work on a true engineering
project. Results weren’t important, but to test theories was

he Moscow by OLEG STOZHKOV the same wheel mounting inside.
Automotive Plant So, the car was really good under
began building cars of course, the technical stewards braking in rain, and had better
in 1929, and at the who had to inspect the design, traction at the rear in the corners.
start of the second remembers Igor Ermilin. The engine was almost
world war devoted its entire ‘Regulations of Group 2 said: standard. The main goal of
production to manufacturer of “Material and dimensions of the project was to create a
the military equipment. After the resilient elements in suspension lightweight car with a very
war, the company bought the are free. It’s allowed to use sophisticated (for Group 2)
Opel manufacturing line from additional resilient elements if suspension. The minor changes
Brandenburg in Germany, and the originals are in their places.” were two Weber carburettors, and
built the Moskvitch 400, based on And here we get that logical some camshaft work. ‘As for restoring the car, I
the Opel Kadett, in 1947. seesaw,’ he said. ‘What do we At that time it was rather a should better say we are restoring
Igor Ermilin, a former Soviet mean by “if the original are in strange situation. Usually people the justice. I left Marussia in
racer and engineer – now their places”? Do we mean that have enough money, but couldn’t May and got some free time to
vice-president of the Russian their material or dimensions are get any cars. The Lada 2101 was work with my old drawings and
Automobile Federation – came already changed? So we made an the only car that was supplied archives. And while digitising
to MADI early in 1975, when originally shaped spring from light to the factory teams and all the all those papers I was suddenly
the idea of making a Group 2 material and the main working racing clubs. So, MADI had chosen stirred by that Moskvitch.
Moskvitch was already being – racing – spring was placed the Moskvitch 412, a car that was Sometimes I read articles about
considered by Stanislav much higher, over the top arm of used in rallying but had almost no our cars that we made with Gess,
Borisovitch Gess de Calve. suspension.’ It was the trend of success in racing. ones that were interesting but
At that time, Ermilin, a the time – the same idea was used Therefore, the car had some weren’t successful. Today you
student of MAMI (Moscow Auto- on the rear suspension of Cologne mileage – about 6000 km – which can reach a conclusion that our
Mechanical Institute) decided Ford Capri RS3100. was good for a standard engine. ‘I cars were not good enough. But
to make an ‘engineering name’ The whole car was unique for liked to work in MADI, with Gess, in the 1970s, our MADI-LSA team
at the Laboratory for Sports that class of racing. As Dmitriev because it wasn’t a pure sport,’ appeared at the track, and always
Automobiles (MADI-LSA) that was became a showstopper. But our
situated at MADI.
The very first month of “The goal was to create a car lack of material base and a huge
enthusiasm of a very mixed team
practice was used for adaptation
and work on a Soviet F1 car,
with a sophisticated suspension” sometimes looked a bit muddled
for the public who even called
a Lotus 72 lookalike that was us a “chapiteau”. And we didn’t
powered by an experimental remembers, it weighed only says Ermilen. ‘We didn’t pursue pursue the top positions – we
Volga V6 engine, but in Ermilin 680kg thanks to a wide usage of any high results. We just liked the were pleased just with pure
then turned his attention to the aluminium in body panels taken engineering process, generating speed demonstrated by our cars.
Moskvitch project. from IZH-rally cars (that factory, ideas, making some interesting ‘The whole sense of the
And that Group 2 car gave IZH, made the same base car as solutions to test them in racing. project is to remind people that
some valuable ideas for the Moskvitch) and modifications In 1976 we had almost 6000km our laboratory produced some
future. Anatoly Dmitriev – who of the front frame. Parts of the of testing. Compare that with really interesting and unique cars
was responsible for the Moskvitch braking system were taken from 3000km that the legendary and a unique engineering team:
412 – had discussed with Ermilin Estonian racing cars. Wheels were sportsman Edgar Lindgren (also Gess, Dmitriev, Lindgren.’
a new suspension layout. taken from an IL-18 aircraft. from MADI) had completed in After the Moskvitch program
It was the last year for Group 2 Those wide wheels solved two all the 13 races that were held was closed due to the rule
rules, which allowed for some problems. For the first time in the that season. He conducted some change in 1976, Ermilin became
deep reconstruction of the car, class, a car had a negative scrub tests too, but his engineering the leading engineer of the
especially if designers had read radius (pivot radius) on the front process was limited by the rules. Experimental Construction Bureau
technical regulations properly. with the wheel mounting situated We had more freedom. The and started a new project. It was
Much depended on the energy outside and wide track at the rear motto was: “We have an idea – apparent that it was the very
and erudition of an engineer and, without any spacers – just putting let’s go testing.” beginning of a model range of

32 • April 2013


racing cars with a very interesting Estonia-19. The front suspension

suspension. At that time it was remained almost the same, but
just MADI-0113 (01 was the there was a negative scrub radius
first car of the Bureau, 13 for the – the idea successfully used at
engine capacity of 1.3-litre). Moskvitch (not just theoretically
The car was built according but practically good for racing).
to the new Formula East 1.3-litre The angle of spring mounting
(Lada engine) rules. The class was was changed a little, taking into
used in The Friendship of Socialist account the narrower front track.
Countries Cup (FSCC). As Group 2 MADI-0113/01 had motorbike
and Soviet F1 classes were pneumatic elements in the front
closed, MADI-LSA had a lot of free suspension, which gave some
time and resources to make a non-linear characteristics. The
completely new car. There were 0113/01 used a heavily modified
two groups within the laboratory. Estonia tube frame chassis with
Ermilin worked with Gess while an original rear subframe that
Dmitriev worked with the engine allowed the team to completely
specialist, Mark Bolezin. change an engine and suspension
Usually, all the projects quickly, which was useful during
The MADI-0313 (top) was used for testing underfloor aerodynamics. started in November, when the testing. There were some
Produced in 1979, it was tested for ground effect, Venturi effect and “box team decided what to do. Gess experiments with non-linear
effect”. Much of the testing work was completed at Estonia’s Talinn airport was busy with financial matters, characteristics in rear suspension
and involved the car being shaken. The 1976 0113 weighed just 380kg, and some welding, Ermilin was by using top arms with rubber
40kg less than its rivals, though it put on weight following the testing and responsible for construction. The engine rings over them. The unit
subsequent beefing up of the suspension. MADI-0113 was based on the became stiffer under pressure.

April 2013 • 33


The MADI-0213 (1978) was

much faster than other F-East
cars. In fact it was almost as
quick as F3 cars with 1.6-litre
engines. At Nevskoe Ring, the
0213 was only two seconds
slower than leading F3 cars. It
couldn’t stay under the radar
with performance like this, and
some technical improvements
led to a strange disqualification.
Originally, the Estonia gearbox
was inverted with its cap under
the unit. It was too close to the
ground, and it was difficult to
maintain. So, the team decided to
flip it, with the cap moved to the
top. But after that, the designers
had to incline the engine. And in
that position carburettors didn’t
work properly. So, it was decided
to make a small wedge to situate
the carburettors horizontally. The
stewards called it a modernisation
of the engine, which was not
allowed in F-East. So Gess and
Ermilin had to remove that wedge
which led to a very complicated
tuning of the carburetors.
Besides, the most powerful
engine was broken due to an oil
leak. The team had to work and
test the car at night before the
race – it was allowed to run some
laps at that time.

Trains and paupers

The car started from the back of
the grid, but soon it was up to
third. The late Vladislav Barkovsky
recounted that the greatest
difference was in the famous
Long Radius high speed turn.
Barkovsky was able to accelerate
Almost all its life, the car only for the first quarter of the
was based at Estonia’s Talinn arc while Gess, having a slower
airport, conducting aerodynamic car, was still maintaining speed
testing. At 380 kg, 40kg lighter up to the last quarter of the turn.
than its rivals, the Moskvitch ‘As a fast train passing a pauper,’
MADI-0113 had to gain a little remembered Barkovsky. The car
weight following testing after was much stable that a usual
components were broken due to F-East and F3 machinery.
shaking at the airport. Unfortunately, on lap four, the
The MADI-0113/2 (1977) driveshaft broke, and Gess had
chassis was made of three to retire. He was lucky enough
modules to make it easier to go home without an injury as
to experiment with front the brake discs on 0213 were still
suspension. And there was a mounted to the gearbox. When
prototype of cable suspension. the car used usual tyres it was
Instead of cable, a motorbike reasonable, because it helped
chain was used. It was connected to reduce unsprung masses.
The 0213 (top and bottom) had torsional stiffness four times greater than to the upper arm, went over a But when 0213 was equipped
the 0113 (middle). Produced in 1978, it was only two seconds slower than chain wheel and into the box with slicks, the braking moment
the Formula 3 cars of the time, and had outstanding performance in the with resilient elements. Under appeared to be much greater
long radius corners. The 0213 was initially fitted with inboard brakes, pressure the chain was trying than engine moment, and the
but designer Igor Ermilin moved to outboard brakes in later versions. to draw out, tightening the driveshafts were not designed
The 0213 completed more than 12,000km of testing at Talinn airport. resilient element. for such loads. Later Ermilin put

34 • April 2013


Suspension technology was at the heart of the MADI programme The 0113 was fitted with a 1.3-litre engine. Its wheels were from an aircraft

brake disks into the rims because ‘Smoothing Iron’. It was tested in all written in the patent. It would
strengthening the driveshafts a wind tunnel, but some problems stabilise the road height at every
eliminated all the advantages of appeared at the very first road speed to help the aerodynamics.’
the inboard scheme. test in Kiev. The car was too Lateral acceleration at that
The car was destroyed in Riga. nervous, the suspension too stiff. time was about 70 per cent
At that time, it had completed ‘You should understand of what it should have been in
more than 12,000km, most that it was 1978,’ says Ermilin. theory because of the unstable
of which were at the airport The Group 2 Moskvitch pushed the ‘“500hp karting” [ironic name for behaviour of the tyre contact spot.
where the surface was not ideal. boundaries of the regulations ground effect cars with almost no LSA-MADI tested Estonia and
There were some problems with suspension] appeared a bit later. 0213/2 at a special ring where
changing gears – once it led to a and even two anti-pitch bars, And at that moment we could not lateral acceleration was checked.
crash. Gess walked away without located on top of the block. A understand what was happening. The usual car had 70 per cent
injuries thanks to strengthened cable, made at an aerospace We thought that suspension was and the MADI car on the same
tubular frame and special factory, went from the upper initially too stiff and so softened tyres gave about 95 per cent of
anatomic seat made in MADI. arms, over a roller to the rocker it, but that had no effect at all. theoretical numbers. It’s all down
Information and data gathered arm near the block. Those rocker The suspension was designed to better road bump tracking by
during testing and racing this arms had three positions for quick with a hypothetical influence of softer progressive suspension.
car was enough to make a next setup. Then the cable went to aerodynamics. So, we got back MADI 0313 (autumn of 1979)
generation. A new car, 0213/2, the block where it interacted with to our garage, and got some had the usual ground effect. For
had a mixed frame of steel tubes resilient elements. self-recorders from jet planes. the first time it had no wings
and aluminium sheets joined by Anti-pitch bars were necessary After the first test at the Dmitrov and at the very first tests it just
aviation rivets. It gave torsional as the whole concept of the car track, we understood that at 170 flew as there was a big pressure
stiffness of about 2500 Nm/ was built around aerodynamics. km/h, the car generated 350kg of under the nose. After some tests
degree. Wheels, hubs, braking During acceleration or braking, downforce. The whole car weighed in the wind tunnel at Moscow
discs – all were self-made and body incline was a problem as the 400kg. We just changed resilient State University the problem
very light with a wide use suspension was soft. elements and the car handled was solved. It was planned
of titanium and magnesium. It took only five months to superbly, but it had a weak area. that this car would be produced
The main idea was to make build MADI-0213/2. At that time As the tracks were not clean, sand in Leningrad and used by the
aerodynamic pressure centre there was no technology to make lifted to the rollers. As those units national team in The Friendship
and centre of gravity as close of Socialist Countries Cup (FSCC).
as possible. Its rear wing was
mounted on to the central air “The car generated 350kg of Unfortunately, by the end of
testing, Gess had left MADI, and
intake where the stream is clean.
The CoG was almost under the
downforce. It only weighed 400kg” the whole structure of LSA-MADI
changed. The next models, 04
wing. There was no need for a big and 05, were just modified road
wing at the front – it needed only characteristics of front winglets were made from duraluminium, cars, and the last racing car made
small winglets to balance the car. stable enough. So, Ermilin had to some pieces pressed into it and by Ermilin in MADI was the 0620,
For the first time, Ermilin used a instal the rear and front wings began rubbing the cables. The with a 2-litre engine. It was an
narrow aluminium plate, but after instead of one central wing. team changed cables once a race F3 car with cable suspension but
a few laps it became damaged ‘We reached all the goals weekend, and that material wasn’t even used in testing.
and was replaced with an element with 0213/2, but an effect was, was very expensive. ‘We were not copying foreign
made of stiff rubber. I should say, academic,’ says ‘The result of using cables ideas,’ says Ermilin. ‘We knew what
The main goal led to a Ermilin. ‘It was not practical. It was amazing but short-lived,’ the goal was, and we saw the
very interesting solution in was good for theory but too remembers Emilin. ‘We just way to reach it. That testing work
suspension. It had cables on complicated for racing.’ couldn’t solve the problem with was more interesting than the
all four corners. All resilient For the next car, the main the cable working resource. We races. It was a very interesting
elements were grouped in a small interest was ground effect. A skirt had patents in which there was a time when we had to weld, to
block near the CoG. The size of was added to the sides and to next step of development – to use mill, to turn details and use that
that unit allowed the engineers the front, creating a vacuum at electric-hydraulic units instead of period to keep away, rethink
to use very short anti-roll bars, the rear end. The car was called anti-roll and anti-pitch bars. It’s and produce some results.’

36 • April 2013

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Loose in sweepers,
tight in tight turns
Some problems can’t be solved entirely, but there are still
measures that can be taken to help alleviate effects…
Mark Ortiz Automotive is a

chassis consultancy service What can one do to solve Lengthening the wheelbase is I still haven’t been able
primarily serving oval track and the oversteer (fast) good, except maybe for very tight to get the fog to lift
road racers. Here Mark answers understeer (slow) problem turns, but carries penalties in while trying to develop a
your chassis setup and handling mentioned last month? packaging and weight. Generally spreadsheet to calculate
queries. If you have a question I’m racing a Lotus 7, with we can’t do much to change lateral load transfer to get
for him, get in touch. open diff, about 150hp, on semi- wheelbase on an existing car. a better ‘feel’ for the
slicks with no aero assistance. We can add low-speed contribution of geometric
E: markortizauto
damping at the rear, and/or and elastic load transfer
T: +1 704-933-8876
A: Mark Ortiz,
A The causes of this effect
are things we can’t do
much about. Aero balance is the
reduce it at the front. This will, to
some degree, free up entry and
tighten exit, particularly when
contributions to dynamic
wedge in just a steady state,
flat, constant radius corner
155 Wankel Drive, Kannapolis only really powerful tool we have steering inputs have to be abrupt. (ie: relative wheel load changes
NC 28083-8200, USA to attack it with. If our hands However, using this trick conflicts to roll centre and asymmetric
are tied regarding that, we are with the objective of calibrating spring changes). Can’t wait until
limited to minor tweaks that the damping to make the car ride I lay geometric anti-forces and
have small effects and carry bumps as well as possible. shock forces in transients on
some penalties. Reducing yaw Finally, we can simply top of this! I’m trying to compile
inertia helps, so centralising accept the characteristic and some rough data for all of the
whatever masses we can is drive around it. That’s what we setups we tried last season to
good. With a production car, generally do, with varying levels see if there is a common thread
there often isn’t much we can of awareness that we’re doing and recalibrate our baseline
relocate. In some cases we have it. This involves setting up the for the coming season.
a choice with ballast location, car so the driver can live with it All of this relates to
but this often plays off against in sweepers, and then managing racecars with beam axles
getting the static weight its behaviour with throttle and front and rear for oval tracks,
distribution we want. brakes in the slower turns. ie: left-hand turns.

“Aero balance is the only really powerful tool we have to attack it with”

April 2013 • 39


If possible, could you

expand on this to your method
of treating asymmetrical
load transfer when the
cg is offset and you have
asymmetrical springing?

A Actually, when defining

wheel rates for the four
modes of suspension movement,
it is necessary to think in terms of
equal absolute amounts of linear
displacement at the four wheels.
This is normally equivalent to
using an origin at the track/
wheelbase midpoint, and not
at the cg when the cg is offset,
either laterally or longitudinally.
If pure roll – or pitch, or warp –
is defined as some combination
of equal and opposite
displacements at the wheels,
then when the cg is not central
to the wheels and we have spring
splits and other asymmetries,
pure roll or pitch in terms of
Here’s an excerpt from All of this is clear for a racecar half rear track width which, for displacements at the wheels
one of your past newsletters that is symmetric about the me at least, confuses the issue. necessarily implies some vertical
(July 2008): chassis centreline – ie cg and roll Even when I take the RCVD translation at the cg, and/or some
axis are considered to be on the equations and use a banking change in total wheel load.
‘I probably should spell out chassis centreline, and the spring angle of zero I do not get the In an asymmetrical car,
exactly what I mean by the wheel rates left and right are identical. result I think I should get. we do get somewhat different
rate in roll, as I have encountered My question, though, is how I have a very good Kφ depending on whether
some confusion on this from you go about modifying the understanding of how the four we assume rotation about
various quarters. Wheel rate above as the total vehicle and primary torques that produce the track midpoint, the
in roll, as I use the expression, sprung mass centre of gravity TLLT – unsprung weight, spring centre or the cg plane.
is the rate of elastic change in moves to the left and you add geometric sprung and elastic However, in most cases the
wheel load with respect to linear asymmetrical springing to the sprung and movement of the differences are small. The
suspension displacement, when front and rear wheel pair? cg due to roll – are derived. The objective is to come up with
the two wheels of a front or Every reference work I conundrum for me is how these a reasonable Kφ, by some
rear pair each move the same have seems to fall back to the torques are distributed out to method that makes sense to us.
amount in opposite directions – ‘well, let’s take a symmetric front/rear tire contact patch With an asymmetrical beam axle
in English units, the pounds of car as an example’ and I agree load as asymmetries increase. setup, it may be useful to use
load change per wheel when one the spring centre as a centre
side compresses one inch and
the other side extends one inch. “It may be useful to use the spring of rotation, as that will model
a condition where the total load
This relates to the angular roll
resistance as follows:
centre as a centre of rotation” on the axle is constant.
Remember that when we
assign a Kφ – or a roll centre
Kφ = ½ * Kroll * t2 * π/180 with this approach when first The continued use of a for that matter – we are engaging
Kroll = (2 * Kφ) / (t2 * π/180) = 360Kφ / πt2 introducing the basics of LLT chassis centreline by RCVD, in simplifications, for the
and the concept of a three mass as opposed to the use of purpose of avoiding the need
Or, approximating 180/π to system. But no one seems to the sprung mass centreline to solve large numbers of
three significant figures: take the next step completely. as you do in your articles simultaneous equations using
RCVD takes what I believe pertaining to asymmetric elaborate computer programs.
Kφ = ½ * Kroll * t2 / 57.3 is a slightly different approach racecar setups, also seems We are not going to get
Kroll = 2 * 57.3 * Kφ / t2 to yours and attempts to to add to my confusion. I like exact modelling of loads and
introduce a LLT correction, so your use of the cg location displacements.
Where: to speak, for an offset cg. But and definition of the vehicles In most cases, the errors
the example used is combined X-axis along the cg plane as it introduced will be small
Kφ = angular roll resistance, lb-in/deg with banking angle effects, clearly shows the difference in compared to those we’re
Kroll = linear wheel rate in the roll uses their ‘simplified’ one mass the moment arms left to right getting by ignoring tyre
mode, lb/in model, all the while maintaining and how these asymmetries compliance and the
t = track width, inches a vehicle centreline defined by effect car behaviour. aerodynamic forces.

40 • April 2013


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Tel: +44 (0)2380 742 750 Fax: +44 (0)2380 741 947

AMARI AEROSPACE AUG AP 1-2.indd 1 7/1/11 12:00:01 PM


Refining fly-by-wire
control strategy
Now your system’s calibrated, it’s time for some fine-tuning…

Databytes gives insights to

ontinuing on from last issue we get the fast reaction needed, to its target value. In this case we
help you improve your data
where a fly-by-wire (FBW) but equally care must be taken know that when the FBW error is
analysis skills each month as
throttle system was to stop the oscillation of the close to 10, we need to reduce the
Cosworth’s electronics calibrated for steady state response, and reach a stable duty driving the motor to prevent
engineers share tips and conditions, it is time to look at target as soon as possible. the overshoot. The motor duty is
tweaks learned from years of further steps needed to perfect To introduce a step change, the set at 55 per cent at that point, so
experience with data systems. the control strategy. As a quick ECU configuration software must a logical test would be to reduce
Plus we test your skills with a reminder, this method applies to have a live update ‘patching’ mode this by 5 per cent and check the
teaser each month an engine with one FBW motor so the step input can be simulated. response again. This process
and uses a PID controller. Currently Start by going through the throttle needs to be repeated for all the
To allow you to view the I and D terms are set to zero, position value range from 10 to 90 incremental steps both up and
the images at a larger and work continues on the P term. and back down to 10 while down the throttle position range.
size they can now be Once the steady state values logging the relevant data. In this Once the small steps show a
found at www.racecar- have been tuned and thoroughly case the following channels satisfactory response, it’s time to checked, it is time to look at the should be logged to gauge the move to larger step inputs that
databytes next step. This is looking at step response of the system: FBW more resemble what might be
changes and to observe how the Control Duty (Green), FBW P term, seen on track. Examples would be
system responds to step inputs. FBW Error Angle (Blue), FBW a throttle blip (idle to 30) or a hard
This means that an instant change Target TPS (Pink) and Throttle braking effort (wide open throttle
to the FBW Requested TPS is Position (Red). These can be seen to idle). The procedure is the same
introduced to create a square in the image below. as for the smaller step response.
Figure 1: step change input wave, forcing the controller to In this case, the response is The next step is to simulate
to the FBW Requested TPS (Pink) react immediately. underdamped and the throttle normal use of the throttle. This can
is introduced and the subsequent In order to get the best position has overshot the target be done either using the vehicle
behaviour is then observed. response out of the system, it by a bit too much. The point to pedal or – if available – a hand
FBW Error Angle is blue and is necessary to tune the system consider is the amount of duty throttle control, such as used in
throttle position is red to be overdamped. This means when the throttle position is close dynamometer cells. It is important
that the PPS to TPS map remains
linear at this stage so that it does
not influence the system in any
way. The PPS to TPS mapping
should only be calibrated once the
control strategy has been
implemented satisfactorily. Once
the ECU has been started and
logging data has commenced, the
operator should try to simulate the
following conditions:

• Driver coming on throttle,

out of corner. This requires
low throttle initially and
smooth application to wide
open throttle
• Driver coming off throttle at
the end of a straight, fast
movement from wide open
throttle to idle
• Driver feathering the throttle
mid-corner, mid-range throttle
opening with fluctuations in
both directions

April 2013 • 43


The results above are positive and in

the right direction. However there are
points for consideration. The throttle
cannot close all the way, so more
negative duty is required at around -4
error, and more duty is also required at
early opening stages for a faster
response. The P-term can be adjusted to
improve the systems response. The
offset, however, requires adjustment
beyond the P-term’s ability.
Once the response of the system
is satisfactory and it is not possible to
get any further with the P-term alone,
it is time to look at how the Integral
and Differential terms can help.
The contribution of the I-term is
proportional to both the magnitude
and duration of the error. It is the sum
of the instantaneous errors over time
and gives the accumulated offset
that should have been corrected
Figure 2: underdamped fly-by-wire system, which has overshot the FBW Target TPS, but then settles. Note that previously. This accumulated error is
the P-term and the FBW Control Duty are one and the same, as the I and D terms are not influencing the system multiplied by the I-term gain and then
added to the controller output. The
I-term can accelerate the movement of
the process towards set point and
eliminate the residual steady-state
error that occurs with a pure
proportional controller. The I-term can
also help deal with changes in
conditions, such as heat or a sticky
throttle. However, as the I-term
responds to the accumulated errors
from the past, it can cause the present
value to overshoot the set point value.
It is not recommended that the I-term
is used to give faster response times –
this should be handled by the P-term.
The D-term is calculated by
determining the slope of the error
over time and multiplying this by a
constant, the D-term gain. The D-term
slows the rate of change of the
controller output in order to reduce
the magnitude of the overshoot
produced by the I-term and improve
Figure 3: results of first throttle tracking test. Positive, but improvements can be made the combined controller-process
stability. As a result the D-term also
slows down the transient response of
the controller. Additionally, as the
D-term is a differentiation of a signal,
it is sensitive to noise and can
cause the process to become
unstable if the noise and gain are
sufficiently large.

Figure 4: the I-term

Produced in association
(yellow) at work with Cosworth
reducing the effect of Tel: +44 (0)1954 253600
increased friction due Email:
to temperature Website:

44 • April 2013

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Wings and spoilers

Continuing our look at a Subaru Impreza from the UK’s Euro
Saloon and Classic Thunder championships. This month we
investigate interactions between rear spoilers and wings

he Subaru Impreza is a of rear wing location in last month’s One surprising aspect of
favourite among saloon Racecar, and this high location these results is that the front lift
Simon McBeath offers
racers. We took this UK provided the best rear downforce coefficient barely altered despite
aerodynamic advisory
specification 2006 WRX STi of of the three locations evaluated. these quite significant changes
services under his own
clubman racer Danny Precious The wing was set at an angle of 10 at the rear and, if anything, the
brand of SM for an interesting back-to-basics degrees, measured across the top front lift reduced very slightly
Aerotechniques – www. session in the MIRA full-scale of the wing near the tips. with the increased downforce wind tunnel. Preparation experts, Let’s first look at the data generated by the steeper spoilers.
In these pages he uses Scoobyclinic, had come armed provided by the four different This is in direct contrast to what
data from MIRA to discuss with a raft of components to try, spoiler options compared to happened when rear wing angle
common aerodynamic and this month we look at the the no spoiler configuration. Note was increased. The increase in rear
issues faced by effect of rear spoilers. that at this point, although the downforce was accompanied by
racecar engineers One of the oldest aerodynamic car was fitted with the front an increase in front lift. Given the
lift-cancelling devices to have splitter raced in 2012, front lift spoiler’s drag contributions, could it
found use on racecars, the rear was still in evidence. (This was be that they were responsible for
Produced in association with spoiler still has its uses, and subsequently eradicated, and we small increases in mass flow under
MIRA Ltd where wings are not permitted, shall look at how next month.) the front of the car, and that this
it is the only method of obtaining Table 1 shows the coefficients gave rise to the slight reductions in
rear downforce from the upper from the spoiler trials. These fit the front lift that were observed? Such
surfaces. The general relationship expected pattern for rear spoilers, upstream effects are possible.
between length and angle of wiith increased angle and increased It’s interesting to ponder the
Tel: +44 (0) 24-7635 5000 spoiler and downforce generated length adding rear downforce and spoiler mechanisms here, with
Email: are well understood, but perhaps drag. However, while downforce the wing in this relatively high
Website: one aspect that has not been well gains with increased length location. Were the spoilers acting
documented is the interactions tailed off, increases in drag were independently of the wing, or
between wings and spoilers. This fairly linear, leading to a tailing were they interacting with it
session provided the opportunity off in efficiency with the longer synergistically? Well, following
for some trials on just this topic. length. Figures 1-3 make this the last run in Table 1, with the
A set of spoilers at two more evident. Far and away the 60-degree, 100mm spoiler and the
different angles and two different most efficient change came with wing, the wing was then removed
lengths was constructed to fitting the 30-degree, 60mm for a run, and then the spoiler
attach to the rear deck. The wing spoiler, which yielded 91 counts of was removed as well, giving us
configuration used in this instance additional rear downforce for 17 an idea of the contributions of
was the highest position tested counts of drag (1 count being equal each individual component. The
in this session, with the wing’s to a coefficient change of 0.001). results are given in Table 2.
leading edge 330mm above the
rear deck, and the wing’s trailing Table 1: the effects of varying spoiler angle and length
edge just protruding beyond the Configuration CD CL CLfront CLrear
rear deck. We examined the effect
Wing, no spoiler 0.413 -0.121 0.040 -0.162
Wing + 30deg, 60mm spoiler 0.430 -0.212 0.040 -0.253
Wing + 30deg, 100mm spoiler 0.444 -0.231 0.040 -0.272
Wing + 60deg, 60mm spoiler 0.450 -0.240 0.038 -0.278
Wing + 60deg, 100mm spoiler 0.469 -0.258 0.037 -0.295

Table 2: the effects of the spoiler and the wing

Configuration CD CLr
No spoiler or wing 0.377 0.178
60deg, 100mm spoiler only 0.397 0.045
Wing only 0.413 -0.162
Wing and spoiler 0.469 -0.295
Wing in high location at 10 degrees plus 30-degree, 60mm spoiler

April 2013 • 47


From this we can work out the gains increase from a particular may then just have been another 133 counts of rear lift reduction
individual contributions from each device – especially on the rear example of win some, lose some. for 20 counts of drag, the rear
component relative to the no wing, of a racecar – the less efficient Another thing that is wing in its low location and at
no spoiler case – check out the those gains become. abundantly clear from this trial its minimum angle of 4 degrees
results in Table 3. As to whether the devices is how much more effective contributed 268 counts of lift
The comparisons between were working synergistically, the the rear wing was than a rear reduction (and reversal to actual
the values obtained via actual fact that the test value of the spoiler. We can also compare the rear downforce) for the same drag
testing with the arithmetic sum downforce with the wing and 60-degree, 100mm spoiler-only as the spoiler.
of the individual spoiler and wing spoiler combined was no better configuration with the original
contributions are interesting. The than the sum of the two individual baseline wing-only configuration, Next month we’ll look at the
incremental drag of the combined contributions, suggests not. And with the rear wing 155mm lower front of the Impreza and discover
devices was considerably more yet wool tufts attached to the than in the above trials, and at that adding airdams and splitters
than the sum of their individual trailing edge of the centre of the just 4 degrees angle of attack. is not always enough.
contributions, yet the incremental wing were demonstrating better This data is collated in Table 4. Racecar’s thanks to Jonathan
downforce of the combined flow attachment with the spoiler We can see from this that where Fletcher, Danny Precious and
devices was identical to the sum in place, even with this high wing the spoiler on its own contributed the crew at Scoobyclinic
of their individual contributions. location. It’s reasonable to expect
Perhaps we should not be that the spoilers were turning Table 3: the contributions of the spoiler and the wing
surprised at this lesser efficiency, the air in a way that could benefit
Configuration ∆CD, counts ∆-CLr, counts
as we have seen before that as the wing. This particular case
60deg, 100mm spoiler only +20 +133
Wing only +36 +340
Sum of wing and spoiler +56 +473
Wing and spoiler, as tested +92 +473

Table 4: spoiler and wing comparisons relative to the

no wing, no spoiler case
Configuration CD (∆CD, counts) CLr (∆-CLr, counts)
No spoiler or wing 0.377 0.178
60deg, 100mm spoiler only 0.397 (+20) 0.045 (+133)
Low wing at 4deg only 0.397 (+20) -0.090 (+268)
High wing at 10deg only 0.413 (+36) -0.162 (+340)
Wing plus 60-degree, 100mm spoiler

Effects  of  rear  spoilers  on  drag  


30deg  spoiler  
60deg  spoiler  
0   20   40   60   80   100   120  
Spoiler  length  

Prepping for a wingless run, with 60-degree, 100mm spoiler Figure 2: spoiler length and angle versus drag

Effects  of  rear  spoilers  on  rear  downforce   Effects  of  rear  spoilers  on  efficiency  
0.310   0.600  
0.290   0.550  
0.270   0.500  
0.250   0.450  


0.230   30deg  spoiler   0.400   30deg  spoiler  

0.210   60deg  spoiler   0.350   60deg  spoiler  
0.190   0.300  
0.170   0.250  
0.150   0.200  
0   20   40   60   80   100   120   0   20   40   60   80   100   120  
Spoiler  length   Spoiler  length  

Figure 1: spoiler length and angle versus rear downforce Figure 3: spoiler length and angle versus efficiency

48 • April 2013

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Avon’s calling
in GTs
From its initial involvement in the
British GT championship,
Avon Tyres Motorsport has been
gaining customers further afield


50 • April 2013

n 2006 Avon Tyres How has the company achieved
Motorsport became sole this progress? We talked to
supplier and series sponsor to Avon’s technical top brass at
the British GT Championship. the Cooper Avon Tire & Rubber
Meanwhile in Europe the tyres Company Europe’s base, located
in predominant use in GT racing on the banks of the River Avon
were supplied by Michelin, (from which the original company
Pirelli and Dunlop, whether in name was taken) at Melksham in
open series or single supply Wiltshire, England.
championships. However, Avon ‘It has been a steep learning
has been making inroads curve,’ said motorsport general
in open series in Europe. It manager Paul Coates. ‘We came
was appointed as sole supplier into GTs with an amount to catch
to the European and Dutch GT4 up relative to the rest, and we
championships until the end of had limited experience except in
2014, and also the Italian GT and Sports Cars and single-seaters,
sportscar championships, with although we knew the tracks
the Swedish GT Championship from International F3000 and so
also switching to Avons in 2013. on. We effectively had one year

Different cars, different sizes. But all the British GT competitors have
been running on Avons since the firm became sole supplier in 2006

Monitoring performance at the track is a key part of the raceday

support provided by the company's skilled team

April 2013 • 51


to produce new moulds open series? ‘There is obviously For example, we were asked We were taking 1200 tyres per
and new tyre sizes, and as no discussion between tyre to be sole supplier for the round – we had hard, medium
we become more familiar we manufacturers, so we have no inaugural Gulf 12 Hours in Abu and soft compounds, plus
improve with development. idea how others do the job,' Dhabi in January 2012. That intermediates and wets. But
But we’ve had good results said Lynch. 'You can evaluate provided good feedback and with development you can get
already. At the Spa 24 hours other tyres, but you can’t really the teams have been positive both durability and performance
in 2011, the CRS Racing reverse engineer them, so you about our capabilities. Hopefully from a single compound, and
McLarens chose Avons [as did do what you know best, and at this will be influential in the that means fewer tyres are
the Team Preci-Spark Mercedes Avon Motorsport we have key choice for other one make needed. So it became easier for
and Ecurie Ecosse Aston people who understand what’s tyre series – we have picked up everybody.’
Martins, seventh and 20th in needed. Although you start the Italian GT Championship for Even so, with a wide
the race respectively] and we off with shelf technology as a example, and they will run on the range of cars in any given GT
are now a tyre of choice in open basis, we have had to do specific same specification and 18in and championship with different
competition for specific models. development. But we have found, 19in sizes of tyres as were weights, different weight
We won’t suit every model, but for example, that cars that have used in Abu Dhabi.’ distributions, different rim
we will be good on most cars.’ sizes – not to mention varying
So, technically speaking,
how did Avon go about
“Cars that have been running on driver techniques between
the professionals and the
developing tyres for the open Michelins have been quite easy gentleman racers – making
GT market? Technical manager tyres that everyone is happy
Mike Lynch explains: ‘To an to make work on Avons too” with is still no cakewalk. ‘The
extent, it involves matching constructions in a given series
"shelf technology" to the needs been running on Michelins have Logistically, supplying are conceptually similar, although
of the teams. It’s about the been quite easy to make work teams in both open and one- there are some variations
requirements of the car and on Avons too. And as some tyre make series is a serious with respect to different car
tailoring the product to that teams compete in different challenge for any tyre supplier, characteristics,' said Lynch.
using compounds and [tyre] championships that use different but it’s interesting that tyre 'Compounds are consistent
spring rates.' Avon’s time in tyre makes, this helps because development can actually across the range, but there is
British GT since 2006 would, they don’t have to make big simplify the challenge. ‘When we a wide range of sizes from
no doubt, have stood it in setup changes. started doing British GT we went 12in to 18in wide in different
good stead to tackle other GT ‘Not only is it technically with 95 different specifications diameters. Balance of
markets, but how do you go beneficial for us to be invited of tyre,' said Coates. 'The performance measures can
about matching or exceeding into open categories, it is logistical problems were colossal help, but the aim is to provide
competitors’ products in an commercially beneficial too. and the first year was a struggle. tyres on which the teams can

Having been sole tyre supplier to the British GT for the past seven years, Avon are now branching out into Europe, including supplying Dutch GT

52 • April 2013

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compete happily. So you come industry journal. Suffice to say unlikely to be found in a race Avon Motorsport’s compounder
up with a product for a range here that there are natural tyre these days. ‘The components is a polymer chemist. So,
of cars initially, but then you and synthetic constituents, are perhaps not what you might together with the mechanical
aim to improve longevity and some petrochemical-based, expect,' said Lynch. 'But in the engineering side, a range of
consistency without losing some crop-based, and essentially overall performance of a tyre disciplines is involved.
ultimate performance and the ‘rubber’ compound is a there are also structural aspects ‘But don’t think about it
that part is mainly down to mix of polymers, some oil and/ too in terms of stability and as a compound being either
the compounds.’ or resins, and carbon black in consistency, so there is probably hard or soft,' says Coates. 'It’s
Asking a tyre engineer to compositions and proportions more physics than chemistry about the heat that is generated
explain exactly what goes into that can be almost infinitely involved.’ Lynch himself is as well.’ The new tyre for the
a tyre compound is akin to adjusted. Natural rubber is a polymer engineer, while 2012 British GT championship,
asking an engine builder to the fourth iteration since Avon
explain what matters most became sole supplier and sponsor
in the design of a cylinder
head – neither is going to give
“With the new tyre, our drivers in 2006, took two years to
develop and was the tyre that
away hard won knowledge and should feel more comfortable Avon took to the Gulf 12 Hours
experience, especially through in Abu Dhabi in January 2012.
the pages of a widely-read pushing their cars to the limit” It is said to be around a second
a lap quicker around most of the
tracks used in the British GT
championship, more consistent
and have a wider operating
range too. ‘It is more consistent
and faster, and will provide a
more stable drive, so our drivers
should feel more comfortable
when pushing their cars to
the limit,' said Lynch. 'We found
in testing that the drop-off
in terms of grip was almost
insignificant, so drivers wishing
to use a longer-stint strategy
will be able to do so.’ A new
wet weather tyre has also been
produced which is also expected
to be quicker and easier to drive
than its predecessor.
Avon’s developing expertise
in the GT tyre market is now
bringing its rewards through
a raft of new contracts, and
The Avon brand is used in GT racing, whereas parent company Cooper Tires is branded on the British F3 series Paul Coates confirmed the
company’s intentions to move
forwards in similar vein: ‘There
has been a steady and relentless
development of our GT products
since their introduction in the
British GT Championship in 2006,
and our reputation in GT racing
has been growing ever since.
Our GT tyres are now the product
of choice of many top teams in
open competition situations,
and we are justifiably proud of
the level of performance that
we have achieved.
'The new partnerships, as
well as being sole supplier
to the Gulf 12 hour race in
January, show that Avon is now
seen as a world-class supplier
of Grand Touring tyres. We
intend to continue development
of our products and increase
further our involvement in
international Grand Touring and
Things have changed somewhat from Avon's early British GT adventures, where they took 1200 tyres to each round sportscar racing.’

54 • April 2013

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Dry sump lubrication system
Produced in partnership with Geoff 2kW axial starter motor
Page Racing, the new Mussett racing 55A Alternator
Professional Motorsport Wiring
MR-1500T utilises a CNC machined, Harness By DC Electronics
aerospace specification, aluminium Dimensions
alloy crankcase mated to a highly Length 497mm
Width 450mm
modified Suzuki Height 466mm
Hayabusa head. Dry weight 76kg

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the engine to be Power 500bhp
bolted directly Torque 380lbft
Maximum revs 10,200rpm
to the vehicle Bore 81mm
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After a remarkable British Hillclimb Championship winning streak was broken
last year, Gould Engineering’s GR59 was a long time in the making, and
attracted the attention of Formulec in build


hen OMS won its
first British Hillclimb
Championship in
2012 with driver
Trevor Willis’s 3.2 OMS 25
Powertec, holding off Gould-
mounted three-time champion
Scott Moran, it marked the end
of an unprecedented 14-year
run of British titles for Gould
Engineering. Indeed, 2012 was
perhaps one of the most open
seasons in recent years, with
no fewer than five different
marques taking ‘Run Off’
victories, GWR, DJ and Force
winning those that Gould and
OMS did not. This was in marked
contrast with the situation of
a few years ago when Gould
dominated both in terms of the
number of its chassis being used Gould GR59 chassis number one made its long-awaited first track appearance back in April 2012
and in terms of wins. But a hiatus
in new cars appearing from championship victory has also
Newbury, UK-based constructor fluctuated on a longer timeframe.
Gould had masked the fact that After a run of championship
they have been quietly working wins for Hart four-cylinder based
on the design and build of their engines through the 1980s, since
latest challenger, which made its 1990 F1 or Indycar V8-based
long-awaited track debut at the engines have dominated, with
annual pre-season test session the exception of 2001/02
at Gurston Down hillclimb last when the talented Graeme
April. We caught up with David Wight Jr took his 2.8-litre V6
Gould, co-founder and partner of DTM Opel-powered Gould GR51
Gould Engineering, the company to consecutive championship
he runs with son Sean, to learn titles. From 2003 to 2011 the
about the thinking behind his championship has been won by
svelte new turbo challenger. 3.3 then 3.5-litre versions of
the Nicholson McLaren Engines David Gould gave his first championship winning car, the 84/2, a run out in
Basic concepts Cosworth XB-based NME V8, 2012 at the Harewood Hill 50th Anniversary event
Hillclimbing’s past has seen 2012 of course going to the
the pendulum swing to and fro Powertec V8 in 3.2-litre guise. surprise. For example in 2012 getting more potent and more
between ‘small and nimble’ and However, recent seasons have the lightweight 1600cc GWR reliable in recent years. Which
‘large and powerful’ racecars. shown that the ‘small and nimble’ Raptor enjoyed several wins and leads us nicely to the new Gould.
With a wide range of track types, approach using one or other snapped up two hill records. And The first GR59 to hit the
the preferred choice can alter variant of the motorbike engines supercharged and turbocharged track (two more were in build in
from weekend to weekend, but now available can do more versions of the ubiquitous Suzuki December 2012, one of which will
the best concept for overall than just cause the occasional Hayabusa engine have been be ready for the 2013 season)

56 • April 2013

The GR37 was Gould’s first customer car, and an immediate success, The GR51 took the 2001/02 BHCC titles with 2.5 V6 DTM power. It now
winning the BHCC titles between 1998 to 2000 features an ethanol-fuelled 4.0 Judd EV

we wanted to produce a good And Brawn/Mercedes then did an

quality, advanced car using similar aerodynamics programme with
materials to Formula 1. And from that design for Segula Matra.
the company’s viewpoint, the car This included making a 40 per
had to be a shop window for our cent scale wind tunnel model
capabilities.’ This last comment for testing in the Brackley wind
relates to Gould Engineering’s tunnel. They developed their own
position as a long-time tier 1 under-body shape to suit the
supplier of complex composite EF01, but out of necessity this
products to Formula 1, and this shape had to incorporate all the
level of expertise quite clearly basic chassis shapes, principles
shines through in all respects in and parameters already designed
the workmanship on the GR59, by us. The hillclimb underbody
The GR61X was a GR55 with different upper chassis; powered by NME V8s, not just on the composite side but and sidepods were designed by
the GR55/61X took nine consecutive BHCC titles from 2003-2011 also in the metallic components. us, with some unofficial help and
guidance from Brawn during the
was propelled by a supercharged comparison alongside its sister chassis gestation later development stage. The
1300cc Hayabusa engine. car. But why was the pressure- With so few regulatory constraints, underbody, sidepods and rear wing
Hillclimb technical regulations charged bike engine route some decisions are necessarily are completely different from the
mandate a 1.4 equivalency factor chosen for the GR59? David slightly arbitrary in nature, boiling EF01, although the EF01 uses a
for pressure-charged engines, and Gould recounted the underlying down simply to preference. One GR55 front wing with shortened
with one of the class capacity philosophy: ‘We started with such decision was to make the flaps, as does the GR59.’
splits for single-seater racing cars an understanding of just how cockpit opening of the car adhere It’s worth pausing briefly to
being at 2000cc, the maximum expensive racing engines have to the then current Formula 3 reflect on the changes that have
swept volume in this class for a become,’ he says. ‘With the GR55B rules as laid down in FIA Appendix occurred since Gould became a
‘blown’ engine is 1428cc. One of the engine and transmission cost J Article 275. Not only was hillclimb constructor. The first
the popular conversions for the roughly double what the rest this a safety enhancement for British Hillclimb Championship
Hayabusa is a large bore kit that of the entire car did, so we felt the car, it also led to another won by a Gould was back in
takes the capacity out to 1400cc, we had to find another solution. business opportunity, as Gould 1985, with the Hart-powered
and this would initially seem like And the motorcycle engine with explained. ‘We were quite well Gould 84/2, an aluminium
an ideal basis to pressure charge integral gearbox was a logical on with the design, which was honeycomb tubbed ground
and stay under the 2000cc limit route. Even highly developed we laid out to facilitate a no- effect car created by the family
with equivalency factor applied. reckon it will be 10 times cheaper. compromise aerodynamic and in a rather cramped residential
But some engine builders have And most importantly we also felt weight distribution package for garage. This car was in fact
found that the small bore spacing, that with 350 to 400bhp the car hillclimbing,’ he said. ‘We had sitting in the spacious, modern
and subsequently limited amount could probably match the times of almost completed a monocoque factory that the company now
of head gasket material between the earlier cars, but it would have when we were approached by operates from at the time of
cylinders, was less than ideal to be a light car with a very good someone from what was then Racecar’s recent visit, receiving
when pressure charging. So, for aero package. This fundamentally Brawn GP, who were working a check-over – the tub is still
reliability reasons the standard dictated the rest of our thinking. on a project with Segula Matra fully usable. For its first foray
1300cc capacity of pre-2008 ‘Other than that there are for an electric car, the Formulec into commercial construction,
engines is generally preferred. not many constraints in UK EF01. They were very interested the GR37 was based on the
The second GR59 will be hillclimbing, so we thought – why in our car because it met the ex-Formula 3 Ralt RT37, and this
turbocharged, however, which don’t we have a go at something relevant safety rules for the brought three successive BHCC
will make for an interesting really advanced? We decided cockpit dimensions and roll hoop. titles from 1998 to 2000.

“there are not many constraints in UK hillclimbing, so we thought –

why don’t we have a go at something really advanced?”
April 2013 • 57
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The roll hoop unofficially passed the F1-specification static load test The composite differential carrier may be seen through the opening
in the rear chassis section, below centre
The next generation began bit’. ‘The electric car was a bit
with the GR51, followed by the longer overall, to accommodate
GR55, cars which were created batteries and so forth, and
around tubs that utilised chassis the rear section was modified
tooling from the Ralt 93C, as accordingly,’ he said. The main
Gould related: ‘The GR51/55 sections have been made so
used the lower half monocoque that the overlaps engage and
tooling of the Ralt 1993 F3 register at the main bulkhead
car, although it was completely locations, offering substantial
designed by us, including the bonding area and consequent
chassis layup and every single high strength and stiffness.
component in the car as well as The modular approach also
the complete aero package,’ he theoretically permits partial
said. ‘The only thing retained disbonding in case of needing
was the external shape of the repair or shape changes.
monocoque forward section The roll hoop is the same as
and nose, which was as drawn that used on the Formulec car, and The front upright and hub. Note the carbon pushrod
originally by Ralt. This was a was actually tested by Mercedes
compromise necessary to save the F1 at their Brackley test facility, successful setup. ‘There are a Gould Engineering shunned the
prohibitive costs of manufacturing exceeding the values required to number of similarities at the more usual chain drive deployed
all new monocoque and nose pass the FIA F3 ROPS regulations. front, with a few more adjustable on most bike-engined single-
tooling (as well as everything The requisite calculations were things,’ he conceded. ‘We can seaters and opted instead for an
else). The original shape was ‘essentially longitudinal’ engine/
a handicap we decided we had
to live with to make the project
“We think that the new gearbox alignment with a Gould-
manufactured steel propshaft
viable – the car would have been aerodynamic package is worth the driving a bespoke final drive
even more effective if funds arrangement. However, to get
had permitted new monocoque extra weight on most hills” the centre of gravity on the car’s
tooling as well.’ The slightly centreline, the engine/gearbox
different GR61X used by Scott still needed, however, for the UK’s add or take off tyre loading – had to be offset to the right-hand
Moran to win the 2008/09/11 governing body, the MSA, in order the GR55 needed to quite side of the chassis, and to achieve
BHCC titles also utilised the to obtain homologation. heavily load its tyres before equal length drive shafts this
upper chassis tooling of the Gould has always gone to they worked. The GR59 is also required that the engine was
Ralt F399, purchased by the considerable lengths to ensure very light, just 305kg with the angled at some 15 degrees to
Morans from Ralt. This featured their suspension systems offer supercharger [‘wet’ but excluding the longitudinal axis. Furthermore,
the later cockpit surround with maximum rigidity, and a look at driver], so we thought the ability a large diffuser volume was a
raised sides, incorporating lateral the fabricated steel uprights at to load the tyres up, especially key aerodynamic requirement,
protective padding. the outboard end of the GR59’s on turn-in, was important.’ and this required that the engine/
The GR59 therefore is Gould’s suspension shows the same At the rear, the car currently gearbox was angled up at the
first entirely in-house designed philosophy adopted here, with features a three-spring system rear by 10 degrees to its usual
car, wherein the monocoque wide-based attachments. Carbon using a pair of roll spring/damper installation angle!
shape and all the tooling has pushrods are used front and rear, units (tucked inside the carbon The final drive currently
been created from the ground and flexure joints are used at rear end) as well as the pitch consists of a Hewland FTR
up by them, which fits in with the inboard end of the steel control spring/damper sitting differential mounted in a bespoke
the stated no-compromise lower front wishbones. across the top of the chassis. moulded carbon carrier, although
approach. The chassis is made In common with its GR55 There is provision for an anti-roll Gould aims to make a lighter
in an ingenious modular fashion predecessor, the GR59 uses a bar, and intriguingly Gould differential unit at some stage.
comprising three main sections, front monoshock, and Gould remarked that they hope to Why add the apparent extra
which Gould described as ‘the leg confirmed that this was a drop the roll damping in 2013 complication of the non-alignment
bit, the central bit and the rear development of the GR55’s and rely on just the springs. with the car’s longitudinal axis?

April 2013 • 59


The rear upright and hub carrier Monoshock front end

The triple spring/damper rear suspension sees the heave spring … while the twin roll springs can be seen tucked inside the rear chassis
transversely mounted over the top of the rear chassis…

Because getting a chain on the accessible with some difficulty,’ would ever see, having a benign worth its weight on most hills,
centreline would have needed a he said, ‘Also, the stressed floor aerodynamic package with low even though there is quite a
still larger engine offset, which and sump are removable with the ride height and pitch sensitivity bit of weight involved,’ Gould
in turn would have made a engine in place, so it is possible to is paramount. ‘On the GR55 we remarked. In reality the weight of
symmetric weight distribution gain access to gearbox internals achieved that, among other the composite panels available
harder to achieve. quite easily – although something things, by progressively raising for ‘hand checking’ in the race
The engine sits on a stressed seriously amiss would require a the front wing height,’ said Gould. shop during Racecar’s visit
carbon composite floor section two-to-three hour engine removal. ‘A similar approach has been seemed very minor, but then it
and is bolted to it via a bespoke But you’re unlikely to want to try applied to the current car. The is with attention to this sort of
dry sump. The underside of this to fix a major engine or gearbox shape of the underbody is well detail that the overall weight was
floor section is an aerodynamic blow-up at an event.’ cambered for low sensitivity, kept close to 300kg.
surface, connects the rear end but with the large diffuser exit Cooling on a pressure-charged
to the differential casing via AERO PACKAGE it needed a large inlet too.’ This racecar is a different prospect
the bottom of the engine and is The first impression of the last comment was of course to that on a normally aspirated
indexed into the bottom of the GR59’s body and aerodynamic referring to the high sculpted setup, with an intercooler
chassis. The carbon composite package is of a very tidy ramps beneath the radiator inlets, necessary for both the
sections above and around the and uncluttered setup, the which taper sideways neatly supercharged and turbocharged
engine are also structural and dominant feature of which is the to near to the minimum ground cars as well as a water radiator.
integral with the tub. beautifully crafted underbody. clearance level (40mm). And this is an area still under
Paddock commentators UK hillclimbing technical It seems that the Goulds development after the first
inevitably point at compromised regulations are remarkably free, questioned the weight of the somewhat disjointed season with
maintainability with an providing ample design freedoms. aerodynamics package in relation the supercharged car. The cooling
installation such as this. Gould However, as applied to earlier to the target overall weight layout sees an intercooler and a
conceded that there is a degree Gould designs, with dynamic during the design, despite radiator sharing the right-hand
of compromise here. ‘You can get suspension movement that is – in the projected engine power sidepod, fed by diffusing inlet
to the fuel and electrical systems some aspects at least – greater approaching 400bhp. ‘We think ducts and a split plenum with a
easily enough, and the clutch is than circuit racing counterparts the aerodynamic package is variable vane, allowing air to be

“The shape of the underbody is well cambered for low sensitivity,

but with the large diffuser exit it needed a large inlet too”
April 2013 • 61

The voluminous diffuser may feature strakes in future The 15 degree angle between the longitudinal axis, which runs across
this image, is reflected in the angle of the propshaft (upper centre) and
the end housings on the engine (lower left centre)

Category: UK Hillclimb Dampers: Koni 2612

Class: Racing cars up to 2000cc Brakes: HiSpec four piston calipers,

solid Brembo discs
Chassis: Carbon composite with
aluminium honeycomb throughout Wheels: OZ magnesium, 10in front,
12.5in rear
Engine: Suzuki Hayabusa derivatives,
supercharged, turbocharged or Tyres: Avon, front 210/550 R13,
normally aspirated rear 245/600 R13

Transmission: Suzuki Hayabusa- Fuel tank: Fabricated aluminium,

based gearbox; shaft drive to 4 litres
The rear wing features the same section profiles as the GR55 but at composite housed final drive;
reduced span and with a single element lower tier Dimensions:
Hewland FTR differential internals
Length: 4103mm
mated to bespoke CW&P
Width: 1720mm
Data system: Life as standard, Height: 985mm plus roll hoop
others may be specified Wheelbase: 2450mm
Track: front 1430mm, rear 1370mm
Suspension: Double wishbones,
front mono-shock, rear triple spring Weight: 280-305kg wet, depending
and damper system on engine configuration

definitely unexpected. In some pick-up began sucking air, the

of its early outings, although other two stages failed to pump
initial pace seemed to be as well. We now have a three-
competitive, a total loss of drive stage Pace pump that has fully
was experienced on occasions sealed rotors, so oil will continue
Close attention to internal aerodynamic detail reveals a split plenum as the propshaft managed to to be pumped at all times. It has
featuring twin diffusers feeding the water radiator (centre) and disengage itself from the final proven to be a different world
intercooler (left) from a single inlet aperture drive pinion. It transpired that dealing with bike engines!’
a particular vibration frequency And perhaps the toughest
directed one way or the other. wing, which ought to provide was exciting the snap ring – gremlin to track down involved
Gould remarked that more work good efficiency, as measured by which would ordinarily have held the quick shift system that
was needed on this to get it the downforce-to-drag ratio. The the shaft securely in place – to developed a habit of changing
absolutely right. currently completely uncluttered hop out of its groove, allowing gear on its own. This was
The GR59 uses essentially underbody leads into the large the propshaft to slide forward eventually traced to a broken wire
the same front wing as the GR55, diffuser with no intermediate and disengage. Once it was sending incorrect signals to the
but with shortened flaps, while strakes present, but Gould did realised what was happening, a control unit, but not before a good
the rear wing uses the same concede that such devices might fix was soon engineered. few events had been spoiled.
dual-element profiles as the well appear in future. ‘There were also a few issues Teething troubles aside,
GR55, but the span has been It is to be expected that with the engine lubrication the Gould GR59 was able to
reduced from the maximum any new car will experience system,’ said Gould. ‘We were used show respectable early season
permitted 1400mm used on the some teething problems in its to dealing with race engines in pace, qualifying for its third BHCC
GR55 to just 1020mm on the first season, but it’s fair to say the previous cars that scavenge ‘Run Off’ and finishing in seventh
GR59. The belief is that, with that some of the niggles that very effectively, but the scavenge place. All involved will be hoping
its potent underbody, the car hampered progress in 2012, pumps in these bike-based for reliable running in 2013
will be able to provide sufficient about which the Goulds are engines didn’t have seals between so the car can demonstrate its
downforce while using less rear refreshingly honest, were most rotors, so when one scavenge true potential.

62 • April 2013

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Zircotec’s award-winning range of coatings are helping to extend
the life of components and improve reliability across the board

apidly becoming the Their key range of products In terms of composite
motorsport equivalent include thermal barrier exhaust coatings, there are several
of a household name, coatings, to manage engine types: thermal barrier coatings,
Zircotec are taking use ZircoFlex, our flexible compartment temperatures RF (Radio Frequency) and EMC
the benefits of their highly heat shield. They like to carry and protect sensitive parts (Electro Magnetic Compatibility)
advanced coatings to a host of this to races as it is the perfect from heat damage; carbon shielding, electrical insulation
motorsport sectors including solution to solve heat issues composite coatings, providing and anti-wear coatings. Their
F1, Le Mans, NASCAR and World in the field. At professional extra protection against heat and thermal barrier for carbon
Rally. ‘In F1 last year we supplied motorsport level, ZircoFlex is wear, allowing these lightweight composites are plasma sprayed
11 of the 12 teams with our also very popular and at materials to be used in new by a 12,000degC flame on to the
ThermoHold for composites national level you’ll find more applications which were previously part to protect against radiant
coating,’ explains Terry Graham, exhaust and turbo coatings. unsuitable; ceramic heatshield heat, hot gas, delamination and
managing director of Zircotec. Around two-thirds of the BTCC products, and turbocharger resin-melt. The RF and EMC
‘Our coating reduces surface grid use our exhaust or air coatings, to reduce heat loss and shielding is a thin layer (usually
temperature by over 125degC, filter housing coatings.’ increase responsiveness. 0.1mm thick) of highly electrical
extending the life of parts as conductive aluminium with a less
well as preventing structural
failure. It is used on brake covers
“Around two thirds of the conductive sub-layer to prevent
electrical contact with the carbon
and ducts, floors, airboxes, bTCC grid use our exhaust or composite. Again, the plasma
bodywork, suspension parts spraying technique ensures
and bodywork. F1 teams also air filter housing coatings” that the coating is well adhered

April 2013 • 65


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to vibration and mechanical 98 per cent reflectivity.’
damage. The coatings used Zircotec discovered that
for electrical insulation are on existing ‘gold’ heatshields
ceramic-based and by providing available, not many actually
a connection to earth, they contained gold. These were
increase electrical safety from simply aesthetic finishes
high voltage devices. with no real improvement in
The advantages of these heat reflectivity. Other more
coatings are astounding. Taking expensive products were in
Zircotec’s exhaust coatings fact copper-based and while
as an example, it is a fit-and- these are effective when new,
forget scenario as it is in effect copper quickly oxidises when
‘welded’ to the substrate using a temperatures exceeds 500degC,
proprietary metal bond system, therefore reducing its ability to
eliminating the need for exhaust reflect heat away. Furthermore,
wrap. Not only does it protect neither of the products tested
components against corrosion, offered any real protection

“We firmly believe that

but it utilises an extremely high from conductive heat.
level of thermal performance ‘The reflective properties of
which make it suitable for
applications of up to 1,400degC.
thermal energy recovery in gold have long been trusted to
protect sensitive components
It significantly lowers exhaust
temperatures, for example.
all forms of motorsport will against heat. However, real
gold foil is rarely used,’ adds
Surface temperatures reduce lead to more growth. We are Graham. ‘It is highly expensive
by approximately 33 per cent, and offers little or no protection
and this reduction in heat loss experts at managing heat” against conducted heat. Our new
results in a lower engine bay products enable engineers to
temperature by roughly 50degC. temperatures lead to increased temperature of the coating manage both forms of heat with
At only 0.3mm thick, the coating engine power, while keeping cools rapidly when the engine a single gold finished coating
is very lightweight, yet efficient, the heat inside the exhaust is turned off, making pit stops or ZircoFlex GOLD heatshield
and it also offers protection gas allows the gases to flow faster, easier and safer. product, thereby helping to solve
for vulnerable components more easily, increasing cylinder Teams throughout the packaging and installation issues.
located close to the exhaust. It scavenging, and allowing motorsport world are utilising ‘We firmly believe that
avoids heat damage, increasing turbochargers to spool up more every gain that these types of thermal energy recovery in all
component life, and allows for quickly. Furthermore, it reduces coatings can offer. For example, forms of motorsport will lead
closer packaging of equipment heat soak through foot-wells, JMW uses Zircotec’s Zircoflex to more growth. We are experts
inside the engine bay. bulkheads and other areas so which is a flexible heat shield at managing heat. We can
Another knock-on benefit is drivers are potentially cooler, to reduce the heat in the retain higher gas temperatures,
the improved engine performance more comfortable, and more cockpit of their GTE 458, with for example, that will be ideal
and reliability. Lower air intake able to concentrate. The surface the secondary advantage of for TERS. We are also involved

66 • April 2013


An example of a ceramic thermal coating on an exhaust system

in electrical applications; Of course, while drifting, the cars of the coatings and the other of advancing their range of
we can spray metal on to spend the majority of their time engine upgrades – a 60bhp ceramic thermal resistance
composites, helping to improve travelling sideways which leads increase has been achieved coatings by using cars in
EMC performance. With more to restricted airflow through compared to last year. competition to gather test
composites being used we can the front of the car – just one of This partnership with data under the harshest
enable its use in high temperature the reasons behind the extreme Falken is similar to previous environments. This partnership
applications. This is now underbonnet temperatures. arrangements with Team with Falken will raise awareness
happening in road cars.’ Zircotec’s ‘The turbos are also close to the DynoJet’s BTCC Toyota Avensis of the performance gains these
ThermoHOLD or composites master brake cylinder, leading and Team JMW’s Ferarri 458 GTE coatings can offer to the
material is used on the Aston to reliability issues,’ explains and is Zircotec’s effective way drifting sector of motorsport.
Martin One-77 Supercar’s Paul Cheshire, who drives and
diffuser, engine air intakes, and prepares the drift cars. ‘By coating AdvAnced Adhesives
engine compartment chimneys, both the turbo and the manifolds

enabling the engineers to use we aim to improve performance, ontinuing the theme dispensing, jet-dispensing
lightweight materials for these increase reliability as well as of extreme thermal and stamping techniques.
high temperature environments becoming a rolling-real-world resistance, Intertronics These advanced adhesives can
which were previously unsuitable. test bed for Zircotec. Already, have developed the Polytec PT be used in many applications
For instance, the ceramic initial results have suggested range of Polymide adhesives, such as semiconductors,
coatings allow exhaust gas to major potential for performance which can withstand higher photovoltaics, sensors, fibre
pass over the carbon composite gains by introducing Zircotec’s temperatures (approximately optics and general electronics.
without damage. coatings to this discipline. ‘The from 240-500degC) than other The Polytec EC P-690 has been
Zircotec’s future continues coating immediately provides a typical organic adhesives. qualified for a high temperature
to shine as they expand their 200rpm improvement in spool- These polymides are available die attach (1.4mm chips) for
products into the world of up time,’ adds Cheshire. ‘This as electrically conductive, operating temperatures up
drifting. A technical partnership creates a worthy advantage thermally conductive and to 300degC in an application
with the reigning British Drift during competition as we need electrically highly insulating where it has the highest
Champion, and the Falken the power to set up the drift.’ adhesives and coatings die shear strength of all the
drift team, will enable their Early tests on the rolling road which can be utilised through polymide adhesives tested.
coatings to be tried and tested. suggest that – with the addition

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Setting the standard

Based in the heart of NASCAR, the AeroDyn wind tunnel has been
chosen to validate the figures for the Generation 6 cars

The 2013 Lowe’s Chevrolet SS

during wind tunnel testing

he introduction of the spinning wheels and an that they don’t get in their big rule change to stockcar racing,
Generation 6 cars to automatic ride height own wind tunnel – very and the engineers are, from an
NASCAR has meant adjustment that is accurate controlled and accurate boundary aerodynamic point of view, pretty
a reliance on the to the third decimal percentile – layer system, and automated much starting afresh.
expertise of the wind tunnel was in use 24 hours a day, ride height control system ‘The cup teams are
specialists, and in particular five days a week, plus extra that is accurate to the third extremely sensitive to security,’
the AeroDyn facility in North time on Saturday. They’re decimal place. Those are adds Dickert, ‘so we can’t have us
Carolina that was chosen by now running 18 hours a day, five functionalities that wind tunnels be a conduit for one cup team’s
NASCAR to make the final days a week, which is – at GM, Ford and Chrysler don’t advantage to another cup team’s
verification for the bodies ahead says general manager Steve have, all at the same time.’ advantage. We provide and
of their introduction at Daytona. Dickert – a more comfortable The move to the new operate a precision laboratory
AeroDyn will this year position to be in, allowing cars, coupled with the official that meets or exceeds the needs
celebrate its 10th anniversary, engineers time to maintain the sanction from NASCAR, has of our customers.’
having accepted its first paying facility between sessions. meant that the tunnel is The Gen-6 cars have
client in April 2003. Since then, ‘AeroDyn was the first busy enough, and the work is required much the same
it has seen business expand wind tunnel in the United becoming more complicated. aerodynamic development
rapidly in the first five years, States designed specifically Teams have to start from as previous generations, but
before the financial crash in 2008 for NASCAR race series,’ says scratch with their aero figures as have to immediately be on the
that led to a gradual decline in Dickert. ‘Of late, we have been there is no baseline from which pace in a closely contested
trade over the next two. able to offer some testing to work with the Gen-6 cars. It environment. Much as Formula
However, since 2010, capability to OEM manufacturers has been six years since the last 1 is looking ahead to the
business has picked up once rule changes in 2014 with
again, and its reputation has
strengthened considerably.
“The level of teamwork between apprehension after one of its
closest seasons ever in 2012,
In the company’s early years, NASCAR and manufacturers is the pressure is on for the
their main tunnel – which NASCAR teams to get it right
offers a boundary layer control, unprecented with the new cars” first time out in 2013.

April 2013 • 71





ork Wheels are not rotated in A2, the smaller alternative to the main tunnel A last generation car on the move in the main AeroDyn tunnel
ore The new ‘baby’ tunnel at Aerodyn squarely at them. Aerodyn’s
ur is not as‘Itadvanced
is interesting
as the mainthat the other speeds below that, and
little brother is situated mean people who are attempting with their aero programmes. As
h tunnel and wheels are not rotated next to the main tunnel
level of teamwork between even anda few speeds above it. land speed records on salt flats, many low budget teams don’t
is aimed at a lower level Opened: 2006
ay NASCAR and manufacturers
While Windshear, AeroDyn The
market. While also full-scale,general speed is 130mph,
Scale: 100% they come there quite regularly. have an engineer, the firm can
Type: Closed Jet with
t and is unprecedented
Audi may be out of the with the
‘A2’ runs at a slowerwhich
speed is almost 40lbs/sqft in
adaptable They can get large gross aero offer some assistance in guiding
it’s price range of smaller teams, than the main tunnel and is ceiling
facilities of the new
like the new A2 notcars,’
as advanced butkinetic
can still energy.’
Rolling Road: None advantages for very little money them along until they better
tunnel Dickert. are
in Mooresville ‘Theaimed give teams valuable data.Also on Max
development siteAirspeed: 85mph
is the second in a very controlled laboratory.’ understand the process.
has always been driven by wind tunnel – A2. This tunnel This can be essential to them,
NASCAR, but this time it really is is a smaller, economical solution and, for a series were the winner developmeNT pRogRAmme
pretty much reliant
a team effort.’on ‘It is the next big
customerbig thing over
teams thathereareis more gets a hat colour coded for Since opening for business in
es of Computational Fluid using wind tunnels and thorough use of CFD, but
e we DynamicsThe AeroDyn
(CFD) for tunnel building
is builtmodels
to is involved
expensive,’ in everything,
we have a differentfromset of various speed categories. This April 2003, AeroDyn believes
we aeroaccommodate
development, andfull-scaleexplains
cars Romberg. land speed record
‘The next parameters attempts
to work to tothan proves to be a great tool when on that it has tested more racecars
m increasingly, top NASCAR the F1 guys.’
teams with speeds
are turning to this up to 130mph.
VIRTUAL road racing, and
WIND TUNNELS Alankarting.
Gustafson Available
elaborates that kind of out of pocket budget. than any other independent wind
ion, The loads
technology from 130-200mph
to develop Increasingly, CFD is used
at by teams
$490/hour, the
a little company
more. also
‘It is something Most of A2’s customers tunnel in the world. It has tripled
– here the COY is compared to the
e is the CoT. we are getting into. As
y for
are linear with dynamic CoTpressure. offers aerodynamic
in a GM ‘gaffer dazzler’ expertise
technology standardises it
come in as first time users and the amount of data customers
do ‘With scale model testing, through its own filters dedicated
down. We arestaff still doing have never set foot inside a collect in a single test session,
t a lot of development work with
there is a significant Reynolds says David Salazar, general wind tunnel. As such, A2 offers improved repeatability from
. it, a lot of correlation work and
ille number mismatch – for example manager of Pratt A2. & Miller are helping us assistance for these teams to 1 per cent to 0.8 per cent, and
a half-scale model must be ‘It is a smaller tunnel, of
with that.’ help point them in the right decreased fault-related down
the While no NASCAR team is
here tested at twice the full-scale the same design as AeroDyn
yet close to the stage where direction and teach them time by a factor of six.
s, speed. By using the full-scale with an 85mph Formulamaximum
1 is today wind
with world how to understand the wind In the period since 2006,
the class super-computers in
car you can appreciate the speed. It does not have spinning
house, it looks like that is the
tunnel data. This assistance is AeroDyn has added the following
g deflections,’ says aerodynamic wheels, active boundary
direction the wind layer
is blowing. valuable because most people upgrades to the facility:
e It will certainly not be a
consultant Gary Romberg. control or ride height control,’ are intimidated by testing in a
great shock when a big team
‘We think that gives a better says Salazar.announces
‘What isthe doesacquisition wind tunnel for the first time ride Height System
simulation to what you get on have is a greatlyof a powerful
reduced system.
rate, and don’t normally know where Installed in November 2006,
• June 2008 the track. Our normal testing so that smaller teams and to begin. Along with this help is the new system is completely
is 130mph, but we can run privateers – and by privateers I the understanding that A2 does computer operated. To increase
not develop the cars or tell them testing efficiency, teams provide
“With NASCAR’s new cars, the what other customers are doing
22/4/08 13:46:43
a complete map of heights they

rules are so tight that teams look expAnSion progrAmme

for microscopic changes”
H aving developed a strong
reputation within NASCAR,
AeroDyn is now looking to
Although European tunnels
are looking more to alternatives
to motorsport, AeroDyn
expand beyond the confines of is looking more at OEMs.

T he management team
at the AeroDyn facilty
do not consider the rise
the teams and manufacturers
have their own capabilities,
and even the smaller NASCAR
stockcar racing, and has started
working with teams in Indycar,
Grand-Am, and the American
‘Manufacturers do have their
own tunnels, but most of them
don’t have the capabilities of
of Computational Flow teams on the grid have access Le Mans Series, already with the rotating wheels, extensive
Dynamics (CFD) to be a to such data. promising results. boundary layers, and precise
threat to its wind tunnel ‘Nasa has said that CFD and ‘We’ve had some data with ride height settings, so we think
business, having investigated wind tunnels are not at odds,’ an Indycar team which correlates this is the area we can expand
with teams and manufacturers says AeroDyn aerodynamic very closely with what was into,’ says Dickert.
the viability of providing consultant Gary Romberg. ‘They achieved on the track,’ says There are no plans to build a
in-house expertise. Most of are complementary.’ general manager Steve Dickert. third tunnel, however.

72 • April 2013


would like to run for a given increments are pre-programmed, boundary layer control. The the test model through a window,
test. The height tables are based on the customer test splitter and front end under-body and often only one side view of
imported into AeroDyn’s system. schedule. Additional yaw is an extremely sensitive area on the model is available. AeroDyn’s
This has dramatically increased increments can be input with the car. As such, the boundary customers have the ability now
the efficiency of ride height resolution to 0.1 degrees. The layer system was significantly to view the model in real-time,
studies, as well as controlling accuracy and speed of establishing improved and offers a very good in HD (1080p) resolution, and
heights within 0.001-inch. each yaw setting has increased simulation. The total power in eight different camera angles.
testing productivity significantly. the boundary system is now four The system is valuable in
Automated Yaw System times what it used to be. studying panel deflections,
This system, added in January new Test Section Floor flow vis, and model integrity
2008, is completely computer Based on the introduction of Active boundary Layer control during a test. The data collection
operated and uses the latest the Car of Tomorrow, the test This system, added to the system is programmed to
in measurement technology section floor was redesigned facility in January 2010, is automatically capture a snap
to assure accuracy and in June 2008 to increase the completely computer controlled. shot of all eight camera angles at
repeatability. Standard yaw performance of the floor By changing the boundary layer the beginning and of each data
control from a ‘passive’ speed point. Additionally, the customer
setting to an ‘active’ pressure has the ability to record video in
setting, the system very 1080p of any camera angle. The
accurately matches the boundary video is then downloaded to a
layer conditions to actual free- customer external hard drive at
stream dynamic pressure in order the end of the test.
to maintain a constant Cp ratio.
As a result, the overall tunnel increase Yaw Sweep
sensitivity is extremely high and The original yaw system was +3
the smallest, most subtle changes to -3 degrees. With the advent
to a test model can be measured. of the new car design, it
became necessary to gather
HD Camera System data to -5 degrees. This
Incorporated in February 2010, upgrade, added in November
this is a completely new system 2010, required significant
and again is 100 per cent modifications to the tunnel
computer controlled. Most floor, balance, actuation system
tunnels simply provide viewing of and data collection.


The test section floor was redesigned in 2008 to increase the AeroDYn not in North Carolina. In fact it
performance of the floor boundary layer control Also known as ‘Eaker’s place’, AeroDyn is some distance away in Indianapolis.
was built expressly for the purpose of Auto Research Centre (ARC) not
testing stockcars, and its Mooresville, only provides its 50 per cent
THe oppoSiTion scale tunnel for use, but also
North Carolina location means that
makes many of the models used

many teams frequent it primarily for
indshear was formed in rated at 5,100 horsepower,
the cataloguing of cars. ‘We built the by teams, often in collaboration
2006 to provide full- capable of producing air
walls for stockcars, not for everything with C&R Racing.
scale rolling road wind tunnel speeds of up to 180mph. Air Scale: 50 per cent
from Formula 1 to karts and
access to North American and temperature is tightly controlled everything in-between,’ explains the Type: Open Jet
international teams. Their facility to within 1degF. tunnel’s creator Gary Eaker. ‘We have rolling road: Belt
opened in September, 2008, The MTS Flat-Trac Rolling defined that we deal with stockcars
the first facility of its kind in Road measures 10.5 feet wide and trucks only – we lock these walls WinDSHeAr
North America, and the third by 29.5 feet long. It easily keeps and leave them where they are at.’ Windshear (see sidebar left) is a very
rolling road wind tunnel that pace with the wind, accelerating opened: 2003 large three-quarter open jet rolling
Scale: 100 per cent roadtunnel situated on the edge of
operates on this scale. It was from zero to 180mph in less than
Type: Closed Jet with slotted walls Concord Airport in North Carolina.
also the first full-width rolling a minute. This ‘road’ is actually
rolling road: None, wheels spun This facility, opened in 2008, is
road that supports full scale a continuous stainless-steel
on rollers capable of running at speeds of up to
vehicle testing. belt just one millimetre thick. 180mph, and is climatically controlled.
max airspeed: 130mph (147mph
The project was funded by During testing, the through-the- possible with recalibration) Emphasis has been placed on the full-
Haas Automation, the company belt sensors precisely measure scale tunnel being used by NASCAR
that owns Windshear. Facility the aerodynamic downforce A2 Tunnel teams though IRL and Formula
design and construction under each tyre. opened: 2006 1 teams, including Lotus, have
were overseen by Jacobs The facility’s 40-hour Scale: 100 per cent also used this facility extensively.
Technology, whose engineers weekly operating schedule Type: Closed Jet with Reliability and repeatability are the
adaptable ceiling focus of the technical team behind
manage the day-to-day is filled with NASCAR and
rolling road: None the tunnel.
operation of the tunnel. Indycar racing teams from all
max Airspeed: 85mph opened: 2008
The air in this closed-circuit over North America. Teams
Scale: 100 per cent
wind tunnel covers and area of from Europe and Asia are also Type: ¾ Open Jet
160,000 square feet, its main bringing their wind tunnel The most popular scale tunnel rolling road: Steel belt
fan is 22 feet in diameter and testing to Windshear. for NASCAR teams is surprisingly max airspeed: 180mph

74 • April 2013

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Initial testing
A vehicle dynamics perspective
You're presented with a new car for analysis – where do you start?

’ve been involved in the by DannY nowlan on our testing because as the becomes a priority. As another
business of making racecars downforce increases this will rule of thumb, if CLA/total car
go fast now for over 18 of the testing I’ve seen typically increasingly dominate the setup mass is greater than 2, you
years. This has spanned boils around taking a given of the car. As a rough rule of need to have an aero testing
a career as a data and race start setup and making small thumb, if you are dealing with programme. To assist you in
engineer, vehicle dynamicist, adjustments to it. There’s a CLA of 2.0 or greater and the getting a feel for the downforce
instructor and business owner. nothing wrong with this, mass of the car is less than, to expect I’ve quoted some
I’ve had the privilege of working particularly if the spec formula say, 1250kg, then aero testing typical CLA numbers below.
on a wide variety of racecars, maker has done a good job.
spanning open wheelers, The problem is that they rarely
Table 1: typical CLA and CDA numbers for various
sports prototypes, touring do so. Consequently if you
racing cars
cars and GT cars. Yet despite find something with the car,
all this I have never seen a it’s generally more by luck Car CLA CDA
comprehensive guide on what to than design. So how can we Touring car 0.5 – 1.4 0.9 – 1.3
do when you have a brand new make this process deliberate FIA GT3 – GT2 1.7 – 2 (configuration dependant) 0.9 – 1.3
car and you don’t where to start. and draw on our knowledge of
In a world increasingly vehicle dynamics? F3 or equivalent 1.5 – 2.7 (configuration dependant) 0.7 – 1.1
dominated by spec formula Our first port of call, not F3000 2.4 – 2.7 (configuration dependant) 1.2 – 1.3
and tightly controlled testing, surprisingly, is to figure out Champ Car 4.5 – 5 (configuration dependant) 1.6 – 1.8
your initial testing programme how much downforce we are
LMP2 3.5 – 5 (configuration dependant) 1.3 – 1.6
becomes very important. A lot running. This has a lot of impact

April 2013 • 77


Table 2: suggested aero test procedure Table 3: tests to pin down hot running tyre pressures
Run No Setup Test No Setup What to record
1 frh0 and rrh0 + baseline rear wing 1 Base Setup Tyre Pressures + data
2 frh0 and rrh0 + d_rrh + baseline rear wing 2 Base Setup + Fnt TP -2psi Tyre Pressures + data
3 frh0 and rrh0 + 2*d_rrh + baseline rear wing 3 Base Setup + Fnt TP -1psi Tyre Pressures + data
4 frh0 and rrh0 + 3*d_rrh + baseline rear wing 4 Base Setup + Fnt TP +1psi Tyre Pressures + data
5 frh0 – d_rrh and rrh0 + baseline rear wing 5 Base Setup + Fnt TP +2psi Tyre Pressures + data
6 frh0 + d_rrh and rrh0 + baseline rear wing 6 Base Setup + Rear TP -2psi Tyre Pressures + data
7 frh0 and rrh0 + baseline rear wing 7 Base Setup + Rear TP -1psi Tyre Pressures + data
8 frh0 and rrh0 + baseline rear wing + 2 holes 8 Base Setup + Rear TP +1psi Tyre Pressures + data
9 frh0 and rrh0 + baseline rear wing + 3 holes 9 Base Setup + Rear TP +2psi Tyre Pressures + data

Figure 1: thin sliver of the aeromap

Believe it or not, validating the aeromaps I’ve seen looked be in the order of 5mm. As a This is actually very important,
or running an aero test is not as though they came from rough rule of thumb, choose because unless our tyres are
as difficult as you might think. Hogwarts School of magic as the delta where you know it will up to temperature and we can
The first port of call is to run opposed to a wind tunnel. have an effect on the car. The maintain temperature you might
the car with the base standard If the pitch sensitivity maps goal of tests 1–6 is to establish as well pack up and go home – it's
setup and then validate it using don’t add up, or you simply don’t the pitch sensitivity map. The always wise to review some
simulation. If you're extremely have them, constructing them goal of tests 7–9 is to assess basic tyre mechanics. From the
lucky, it will work first time. In the from race data is not as hard the variation in downforce research that Michelin did in
vast majority of cases, however, as you might think. Start from levels. You can do these tests constructing the TameTire model,
the aero is not going to add up. If the baseline setup provided very quickly – they just need the overall friction of the tyre is
this is the case, there’s no need with the car and implement to be in/out laps or one flying given by Equation 1:
to panic. This is the procedure a test programme that looks lap on a circuit with a long
you need to follow: like Table 2. Just to clarify the straight. The goal is to log each µ = fn(PL ,Vs , TINT )
nomenclature we have: test individually.
1. Hand Calc the aero at the end What you get from each test  
of the main straight. frh0 = baseline front ride is a thin sliver of the aeromap.
2. Adjust your global downforce height as specified in This represents what you’ll see u = co-efficient of
the starting setup
and drag multipliers until illustrated in Figure 1 above. friction of the tyre
rrh0 = baseline front ride
these match up. I can’t speak The whole idea is that if you PL = local tyre pressure
height as specified in the
for other simulation packages get enough of these thin slivers, applied at the tyre
starting setup
but in ChassisSim you do this d_rrh = delta rear ride height constructing an aeromap is Vs = sliding velocity of
by clicking on the rear wing d_frh = delta front ride height child’s play. Tests 7–9 (above) the tyre
and adjusting the maximum allow you to scale the downforce, TINT = core temperature
CLA and CDA values and aero The deltas you choose will drag and aero balance for of the tyre
balance offsets. depend on what the racecar is, various wing changes.
and it is sensitive too. As an Once we have a picture, This, combined with the
Once you have done this, example, with an open wheeler/ we need to nail down the hot contact pressure, will have
rerun the simulation. What you Sportscar these might only tyre pressures we need to be a significant effect on the
want to be looking at is the pitch be in the order of 2mm. For a running at. A lot of you might be tyre forces and you ignore it
correlation. If you find it’s pretty touring car these deltas might wondering – why tyre pressures? at your peril.
good everywhere, all you need to The test procedure for this
do is just scale the CLA and CDA
parameters and you are pretty
“Some aeromaps I've seen look as is very straightforward. You
start with manufacturer setup,
much done. It gives me great
regret, however, to say this is the
though they came from Hogwarts and you sweep tyre pressures.
The test procedure is illustrated
exception to the rule. Some of as opposed to a wind tunnel” above in Table 3.

April 2013 • 79


• When shaker rig testing, it

truly is horses for courses.
If mechanical grip dominates,
tune for CPL. However, if
you are running high
downforce your results will
be biased to body control.
• Pay attention to what
the guys on the rig tell
you, but ultimately make
your own judgments.
• Learn everything you can
about damping ratios.

Also just remember that

this process can be circular.
Remember tyre pressures,
springs and dampers are
ultimately inter-related.
Consequently our procedures of
working through tyre pressures,
Figure 2: traction circle radius vs load characteristics springs and bars and dampers
might become a bit samey.
It hopefully goes without thing about the test matrix and That’s perfectly OK, because
saying that it is critical for Equation 2 is that it allows us Fy ⋅ rc f you’ll learn a lot about the car
Ft =
every run where you are to readily nail down the hot tyre t in the process and it will allow
recording the hot tyre pressures. pressures we need to be at. you to make the best use of your
You’ll also note I’ve indicated The next step is to nail down
where: simulation software.
a sweep of +/- 1 psi. In reality springs and bars and roll and One of the things that
this is going to be dictated by pitch centres. The key thing Ft = force being applied I haven’t touched upon is
your running experience and is once again to take the base straight to the tyre (N) differential setup. If you have
what the car wants. setup, and sweep springs, bars Fy = The applied lateral the ability to play with a diff,
The critical thing to be and roll centres sequentially force (N) you would be mad not to look
paying attention to here is and sensibly. Our goal is to t = the horizontal distance at it seriously. Most diffs should
the lateral acceleration data, run a series of, say, two to from the tyre to the centre be set to open under brakes and
lap times and what the driver three flying laps, record our of gravity (m) locking under power. The locking
tells you. Due to the nature tyre pressures and get data. rcf = force based roll centre/ ratio and ramps will be a function
of this test, if there is a change As you tabulate this data you’ll force application point of tyres and engine power. As
it’s very easy to isolate what build a database where you height from the ground (m) per dampers, this is the cherry
caused it – the change can can populate the traction circle on top, but again, is a book in its
be readily quantified. For radius vs load curve. This is This applies for both roll own right. It’s also the thing you
example, if we are dealing illustrated in Figure 2. centres and pitch centres. This do at the end. That being said,
with a front tyre pressure This, combined with the is a very powerful tool, so you I’ve seen an F3 race weekend
change, the delta FFact will knowledge we gained from the would be mad not to consider it. ruined because the braking and
look like Equation 2 below: tyre pressure testing, puts us in But don’t overdo it! power ramps were installed back
the box seat to truly understand The final step in the process to front and I was at an F3000
a y _ cur − a y _ ref what the car is doing. is to nail down what you event when one of the teams
ΔFFFACT = At this point it would be want to do with the damping. discovered a tweak with the
wdf ⋅ a y _ ref wise to add an observation Once you have nailed down diff that made us all look silly.
  about roll and pitch centres. where you need to be on If you can play with it, take the
Here we have: They are actually one of your springs and bars, this is where differential seriously.
most powerful go-to tools for tools such as ChassisSim In closing, figuring out a test
ΔFFFACT = change in Force generating temperature in the transient simulation, and shaker program is a very simple affair.
factor tyre. This is due to the fact rig testing, really makes its The first step is to classify the
ay_cur = measured lateral that due to the nature of force presence felt. It’s that cherry aero. Once the aero is done, nail
acceleration for the application points, the lateral on top, but it can make such down your hot tyre pressures.
change and horizontal loads are being a difference. Damper testing Once we have this, we sweep
ay_ref = measured lateral driven straight into the tyre. and refinement is a book on springs, bars, roll centres and
acceleration for the Mathematically we can quantify its own, but let me give you pitch centres to get to these
base setup this by Equation 3: some rough rules of thumb: hot tyre pressures. Then there's
wdf = weight distribution the damping. Yes, you might
at the front need to loop through pressures/

So, if you're measuring a

“If you have the ability to play springs and damping a few
times. However you are doing
change at the rear, you simply with the diff, you would be mad this in a sequential manner
substitute the wdf with weight and you will learn so much
distribution at the rear. The great not to look at it seriously” about your car.

80 • April 2013

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After a season of adjustments in the boardrooms
of the rule-makers, Ferrari has taken steps to
make its GTE car even better for 2013


he GTE category is
something of an enigma.
It often provides
the best racing in an
endurance racing field, has the
support of Ferrari, Porsche, Aston
Martin, General Motors and BMW,
with others waiting to join in, yet
the ACO has long insisted that
costs are rising out of control, and
need to be curbed.
As the category goes The main update for the 458 is aerodynamic. The Ferrari has a wider front cross section compared to the Porsche,
through a process of adjustment, and has a lower top speed, which had to be increased without compromising fuel consumption
manufacturers are piling on the
pressure to maintain the status Ferrari, meanwhile, having Timing is important – the FIA five litres more fuel, while the
quo. Porsche will this year develop produced a winning car in regulations permit one evolution Ferrari’s capacity was reduced by
the 991 in competition in the 2012 with its 458, victorious per period of two years, rather five litres, which took away its
World Endurance Championship. at Le Mans and in the WEC, has than one per year, so Ferrari has ability to do a six-hour race on
In October 2012, General Motors updated the 458 in 2013, with to get this right in the face of fewer stops than the rest of the
unveiled the C7, which will an emphasis on aerodynamic increasing competition. GTE pack, though the 458 was
eventually replace the C6, while development to reduce the Ferrari's drivers have long felt given a 15kg weight reduction.
in February, BMW unveiled the Z4 effect of having a wider nose that the balance of performance The 458, which features a direct
that replaces the old M3. McLaren than its rivals, and to negate a measures were working against injection engine, has worked on
will not race a GTE version of the reduction in fuel tank size mid- them. Aston Martin, for example, the electronics to improve fuel
MP4-12C this year, but there is way through 2012, placing the did not have to run a Gurney economy and try to get back
little doubt that one is coming. emphasis on fuel economy. flap at Le Mans, and ran with some of the lost performance.

82 • April 2013

"The Ferrari's fuel tank was
reduced by five litres, effectively
taking away their ability to do a
six-hour race on fewer stops"

Ferrari's drivers reported that

the Porsche, with its faster
speed on the straights, was able
to reach the braking zone ahead
of the LMP2s more easily than
the Italian factory's cars

The splitter has also been

redesigned, a second dive
plane has been added to
each side, the openings of
the bonnet have been reduced,
while the wheel arches are
more rounded.
In order to make the car less
sensitive to the variation of
the ground clearance, a small
channel has been opened up
At the rear, the bumper has been redesigned to improve the extraction of the air and to make the diffuser more on the central lower part of the
efficient. The wing now has a different profile and features the mandatory 25mm Gurney flap front bumper (in the middle of
the splitter), which reduces the
During 2012, Ferrari drivers The FIA changed the snout than the Porsche or Aston pitch sensitivity. For the same
complained that their cornering bodywork regulations for 2012, Martin, and consequently had an reason, the suspension has
speed, a strength over their and increased the permitted aero disadvantage. The aero work been slightly modified, but the
rivals with a mid-engine layout width of the GTE cars by 15cm was aimed at making the car geometry is unchanged.
compared to the front-engine across the front wheel arch to more stable, less sensitive to the At the rear, the bumper
for the BMW, Corvette and Aston accommodate a larger front tyre, variation of the ground clearance has been also redesigned to
Martin, was being compromised and also increased the size of the to take maximum advantage of improve the extraction of
by the LMP2 cars, which could rear wheel arches. The overall its already very good downforce. the air and to make the diffuser
more easily pass just ahead of the width, not including the rear-view In order to reduce the drag, more efficient. The wing
braking areas, but badly driven mirrors, is 205cm, which was Ferrari has redesigned the has a different profile and
ones were slower in the corners not necessarily a bonus for the bumper, which is now closed features the mandatory 25mm
and tripped up the 458s. Ferrari, which already had a larger immediately over the splitter. Gurney flap.

April 2013 • 83


Emirates signs multi-million

dollar deal to sponsor F1
mirates Airline has been sports partnerships across
signed up as a global the world, said Sheik Ahmed.
partner to Formula 1 in a ‘With the addition of this global
five-year deal worth in excess partnership with the Formula 1
of $50m, as the Gulf countries group, we are continuing
continue to vie for prominence in to expand our sponsorship
the motorsport market place. portfolio, which I’m sure will
The branding of the airline, be appreciated by sports fans.
which is ultimately owned by Today’s Formula 1 partnership
the Dubai state, will now be follows on from our recent
displayed on Formula 1 circuit sporting announcements such
bridges, around the tracks as re-signing a multi-year
and in the paddocks, the deal sponsorship agreement with
beginning at the Malaysian Arsenal Football Club, being a
Grand Prix in March. sponsorship partner of the 2014
Emirates chairman Sheikh Emirates branding will be highly visible in F1 starting from race 2 in Malaysia Commonwealth Games and
Ahmed bin Saeed al-Maktoum becoming the Official Airline of
announced the deal alongside involving Gulf governments, that the airline’s total sports the ATP World Tour.’
Formula 1 commercial boss Bernie with Qatar and Abu Dhabi now sponsorship now stood at 1bn Emirates Airline is an
Ecclestone in Dubai. According to involved as title sponsors in dirhams (around $272m) this enormously successful operation,
sources in Dubai, Sheikh Ahmed the WRC (with Citroën and year. In November, Emirates running a fleet of 191 jets,
said the five-year agreement had M-Sport Ford respectively) agreed a new $239m sponsorship and raking in revenues of
an annual value of more than while Bahrain and Abu Dhabi deal with Arsenal that extends its around AED 62bn ($17bn) in
$10m a year, although some UK host well-established grands prix. shirt partnership with the north the financial year 2011–12,
news outlets have valued it as Dubai is also extremely keen London football club to the end of which represented an increase of
much as $200m in total. to increase its profile globally the 2018/19 season. approximately 15 per cent over
The deal comes in the wake and Sheikh Ahmed, an uncle of ‘For many years, Emirates the previous year’s revenues of
of a flurry of motorsport tie-ups the ruler of Dubai, told reporters has been at the forefront of AED 54bn ($14.5bn).

IndyCar dishes out million dollar-plus grants to all entries

IndyCar has announced that Circle member is assured a on top of this IndyCar has The series has also revealed
it’s to award all 22 of its minimum of $1m for the 19-race opted to fill the three open details of its prize structure,
expected entries for the 2013 season, providing the entrant positions based on the confirming that non-Leaders
championship with its Leaders successfully qualifies for the remaining order of 2012 Circle entrants will compete
Circle contracts this year. Indianapolis 500. entrant point standings – this for payouts awarded to the top
The Leaders Circle programme The 19 confirmed returning means that single entries three finishers. In each race
was established in 2002 to entries that finished within from Sarah Fisher Hartman aside from the Indianapolis 500,
provide incentives to teams the top 22 places in the Racing, HVM Racing and Dragon the highest-finishing non-
that participate full-time in the 2012 championship have all Racing were each awarded Leaders Circle entrant will
IndyCar Series. Each Leaders been awarded contracts, but Leaders Circle positions. receive $40,000, followed by
IndyCar CEO Jeff Belskus $35,000 and $30,000.
said: ‘While the Leaders Circle Meanwhile, all entrants will
programme was designed continue to compete for bonuses
to ensure the quality of on- of $35,000 for first place,
track competition was balanced $25,000 for second, $20,000
throughout the field, we felt for third, $15,000 for fourth and
it was important to extend $10,000 for fifth place at each
Leaders Circle benefits to all IndyCar Series race except for
returning full-time entrants the Indianapolis 500.
from last season. The IndyCar Series champion
‘Including all 22 entrants for and championship entrant
2013 allows the IZOD IndyCar will share a $1m bonus,
Series to continue to build upon with second through fifth in
the foundation the programme the standings sharing bonuses
has laid over the last several of $250,000, $175,000,
The IndyCar Series champion and championship entrant will share a $1m bonus years,’ Belskus added. $125,000 and $75,000.

84 • April 2013

Drastic ‘Three’ surgery saves premier
UK single-seater championship
A move to slash the British 12 to 15 cars, and that’s only
Formula 3 Championship calendar [as things stand] today.’
looks to have gone some way Three of the big four British
to saving the series, while its regular teams – Fortec, RR and
promoter has not ruled out Carlin – have said they will race
regulation changes next year as in the championship, while also
it strives to cut costs in order to pursuing European campaigns,
secure the championship’s future. with only T-Sport doubtful about
British F3 struggled to attract competing. ‘For us the drivers
entries early this year – largely wanted to compete in the FIA
as a result of huge interest championship,’ said T-Sport boss
in the burgeoning European Russell Eacott, ‘and obviously
Championship – so promoter SRO you have to go where your The British F3 International Series at Donington Park last September
took the bold decision to cut drivers want to be.’
it down to just four three-race Among other teams to be so that it represents much better with the same cars [running spec
events: Silverstone, Spa, Brands attracted to the new look series value for money,’ said Wills. ‘The Toyota engines] for €350,000.’
Hatch (GP) and Nürburgring. is West-Tec, which will be making problems with the championship Franassovici says that looking
Series manager Benjamin a return to the championship were that its cost controls had at a spec engine model was not
Franassovici told Racecar: ‘We in the National Class this year totally gone out of proportion, beyond the bounds of possibility
had some interest, but we knew with its European F3 Open and now that the FIA were and that many other cost cutting
it was not going to be enough for Championship cars, which are trying to force it to become a avenues are also currently being
it to be stable, so we went down now eligible. West-Tec boss domestic series, the product was explored: ‘It’s on my shortlist
to a slimline version and it’s been Gavin Wills believes that if the inappropriate for its marketplace. of things which need to be
very well received. For Silverstone championship is to have a future, ‘I understand that in past investigated. You need to look at
and Spa I think we’re looking it may have to take a leaf out of years, to do British F3 in a way what’s surrounding you, what’s
at decent entries. For Spa we’ll the Open Series’ book. that some of the teams have attractive and what’s economically
definitely attract over 20. ‘I just think that it needs to be wanted to, cost €1m. And we do viable. But what we don’t want to
For Silverstone I think we will get more appropriately constructed, the European Open Championship do is set the bar too low.’

Williams scoops top green SEEN: BMW Z4 GTE

award for Hybrid tech
Williams Hybrid Power has been been adapted for public transport
lauded at the UK’s Low Carbon applications and for use in other
Champion Awards, where it was areas of motorsport, such as
honoured in the category of with Audi in the World Endurance
‘Innovation by an SME’ for its Championship and at Le Mans.
partnership with Go-Ahead Group, Frank Thorpe, head of Bus
one of the country’s top public Systems for Williams Hybrid
transport operators. Power, said: ‘Our partnership is
The awards are an initiative truly unique and is seeing two
of the Low Carbon Vehicle leading British companies come
Partnership (LowCVP) and they together and share their resources
celebrate outstanding and in a bid to reduce carbon emissions
innovative practice in reducing on Britain’s roads. This award is
road transport emissions. Williams a great honour and validates the
Hybrid Power established a hard work of both companies to
partnership with Go-Ahead Group produce a number of hybrid buses.
in March 2012 and it was this Energy efficiency is an important
tie-up that it submitted as a case issue for Williams, and initiatives
study for the category of Low such as this demonstrates how BMW has unveiled its new American Le Mans Series challenger.
Carbon Innovation by an SME. Formula 1-based technology can The Z4 GTE, which was developed at BMW Motorsport in Munich,
The collaboration has seen the play a key role in helping to tackle replaces the M3 GT, which won the GT class two years ago. Another
companies develop a number of an important global issue.’ notable change is a switch from Dunlop to Michelin rubber, but the
hybrid buses that utilise Williams The technology appealed to car will still be run by the same Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing
Hybrid Power’s electromechanical the judging panel because of the squad that was responsible for the M3.
flywheel energy storage 20 per cent fuel efficiency savings BMW Motorsport boss Jens Marquardt said: ‘We are setting out
technology. Initially developed on offer and attractive installation on a development year, but are very confident we have once again
for the 2009 Williams Formula costs, a combination which has developed a car that has the potential to win races and titles.’
1 car, this technology has since the potential to see mass market.

April 2013 • 85


NASCAR sponsorship market to get Sportscar

tougher as NBA shirt deals introduced scene healthy
A top NASCAR sponsorship and marketing for Evernham very well, they’re building these – but numbers
down in LMP1
expert has told Racecar that Motorsports, and also a well- soccer-specific stadiums that are
$100m of possible backing could known sponsor hunter in NASCAR doing really well, and they have
be sucked from the sport if plans circles, told us that this is likely sponsors on their chests, so now
to allow shirt sponsorship in the to make finding sponsorship for there are sponsorships going for
NBA come to fruition. motorsport far more difficult. millions of dollars, and we’re Entry lists for the WEC, ELMS
The NBA (National Basketball ‘You are competing with other competing against them.’ and the Le Mans 24 Hours show
Association) looks set to introduce sports,’ Jessey said. ‘American The experience of sponsor that the endurance racing sector
shirt sponsorship – still relatively motorsports was the only major hunters in the UK when soccer is in robust condition, although
rare in mainstream US sports – this sport that you could put a logo on shirt sponsorship was seen on a the flagship LMP1 class is
year, although on a small scale the field; you could be on the car, wide scale in the 80s, following worryingly short of non-works
to begin with, allowing just small you could be on the driver. Just a Liverpool’s link-up with Hitachi entries at Le Mans and in the
patches on the shoulder area. few years ago that was it. in 1979, seems to bear this World Championship.
But David Jessey, executive ‘But now the NBA looks like out. Former driver and F3 team The WEC boasts 32 entries this
vice president at Fuel SMG and they’re about to approve sponsor owner, and boss of Speedsports year, with six LMP1, 12 LMP2 and
a former vice-president of sales logos on their uniforms. That will Promotions, Mike O’Brien, a 14 GT cars (across two classes),
take over $100m out of man well-known for his ability
the market. That will be to put a deal together, told us:
big money, and we will ‘I think that the advent of soccer
be competing against shirt sponsorship did have an
them. It will definitely effect, and when I was based
make things tougher in Luton I remember feeling
when it comes to finding that the better Luton Town
sponsorship.’ did, the harder it would be for
Jessey added that me to compete and get
the sport is already sponsorship in that area.
seeing brisk competition ‘I think any really mainstream while at Le Mans there are just
for backing from Major sport which offers sponsorship eight LMP1s listed, 21 LMP2
League Soccer in the possibilities that weren’t and 25 GTs. A late withdrawal
US, which already allows previously available will damage of entries from JRM and OAK has
shirt sponsorship: ‘MLS motorsport sponsorship to affected the LMP1 entry – which
Experts say NASCAR deals could be hit hard is on a nice roll, it’s doing some extent.’ now consists of three Audis and
two Toyotas – and has left the
race with just three privateers

PFC releases new V3 disc and effort. As well as offering

convenience, the new V3
in the top division this year. In
the WEC there will be just two

retention ring technology technology is much lighter than

previous designs, making it easier
non-works P1s, one each from
Rebellion and Strakka.
to put on and pull off, and making Within the GT Le Mans
PFC has released new V3 disc The ring means no need the vehicle lighter. entries, the presence of a brace
and hat technology. The advanced for torque wrenches, and the The V3 rotor retention of Dodge Vipers, confirming the
design boasts a retention ring that ability to change a disc quickly method is based on the use manufacturer’s return to the race,
holds the hat and disc together. and efficiently saves time of a two-turn retaining ring, is worth noting. Two GTE Pro class
which is held in a groove in Viper GTS-Rs have been entered
The retention ring offers the the hag that overlaps the disc under by the Riley Technologies-
ability to change discs quickly flanges, effectively locking the run SRT Motorsports team.
without a torque wrench disc to the hat. Meanwhile, the European Le
Mans Series has seemingly come
back from the dead. ELMS, which
does not include a class for LMP1,
has received 29 entries, including
11 LMP2s in its top class.
World Endurance Championship
boss Gérard Neveu says he is
optimistic for this year, but admits
there are still challenges ahead:
‘We will start the new season
with a fantastic grid of 29 cars.
This year is going to be a hard
year and we know we will face
some very exciting challenges,
but this is a good start.’

86 • April 2013

Parking fines
NASCAR has made a move to
discourage teams from running
cars just to collect a share
of the purse by rejigging its
Sprint Cup prize fund. The
change has been made because
some lower order teams have
been known to retire cars
after just a few laps, so-called
‘start and park’, yet still be in a
position to claim prize money.
The prize cash for places 39
Maserati is to re-enter GT3 later this year, thanks involved,’ said Swiss Racing head Guido Bonfiglio. to 43 will be cut by $4000 a
to this development by Swiss Racing, an outfit ‘We are perfectly aware of the difficulties we’ll position, and the money saved
which has already had success with the marque’s face in tackling such an ambitious project, but will be redistributed to those
Quattroporte in the Superstars series. Subject to challenges are the heart of a team’s dynamics, finishing higher up the order.
homologation, the car will be made available for whether on the track or the design table. Our direct
teams competing in a number of GT championships, competitors are manufacturers who, disguised to a Boeing, Boeing, gong!
including the FIA GT Series and the Blancpain greater or lesser degree, participate directly in the Well-known engine company
Endurance Series. ‘We wanted to develop the development of the vehicles and actual racing. We Ilmor has won a 2012 Boeing
Maserati GranTurismo MC GT3 version because we are a small outfit, but we have great hopes of being Performance Excellence
believe it is a winning project, stimulating for all a thorn in the side of these giants of motorsport.’ Award. The company, which is
responsible for the Chevrolet
IndyCar engines, was one of
New cars and enhanced track drying ‘could only 594 suppliers to receive
recognition (either Gold or

boost raceday attendance’ for NASCAR Silver) from the famed aircraft
manufacturer. The company
issues the award annually to
The CEO of the International ‘Based on our experience and the automotive manufacturers and recognise suppliers who have
Speedway Corporation is hoping view of the evolution of modern provide competitive upgrades in achieved superior performance.
the introduction of the new sports facilities, demand for our an effort to improve competition in
Gen-6 NASCAR racers and events depends, in part, on the NASCAR’s Sprint Cup Series.’ Thai track
better track drying equipment, fans’ experience.’ she said. ‘We NASCAR has also invested in Newin Chidchob, president of
plus improvements to the fan are committed to meeting and track drying equipment which, Thai Premier League soccer club
experience, will help arrest a exceeding our fans’ expectations France Kennedy says, will help Buriram United, is said to be
decline in raceday attendances. through ongoing capital avoid wash-out events and the planning a $67m F1-spec track
NASCAR’s track operating arm improvements at our facilities.’ knock-on effect these have on development in his hometown of
recently posted total revenues of France Kennedy also believes future meetings: ‘Weather is one Buriram, Thailand. According to
$612.4m for 2012, that’s down the new generation car will go of our biggest impediments to reports from Bangkok, Chidchob
$17.3m on 2011 ($629.7m), some way to attracting more fans stronger ticket renewals. After a has contacted famed F1 circuit
while the operating income for to the races: ‘Another area of rain delayed or postponed event designer Hermann Tilke in
2012 was $105m, a drop from focus within NASCAR’s Industry due to weather, the following relation to the project, which
$133.3m in 2011. Net income for Action Plan is building product year’s ticket renewals for that is expected to be completed
2012 was $54.6m, down $14.8m relevance. Beginning with this event are negatively impacted. by the end of next year. The
from 2011’s $60.4m. season, NASCAR introduced the NASCAR’s ultimate goal is to see motorsport development will
These results are all the more next generation Sprint Cup car a superspeedway like Daytona also include a racing school and
interesting as ISC can be seen for 2013, what we are calling International Speedway race- motocross track.
as a bellweather for the state “Gen-6”. This programme is the ready in 30 minutes, rather than
of NASCAR as a whole – as the most comprehensive overhaul in two hours, and a short track like Ace of Club
sport is privately-owned it is not the sport since 2007. Its goal is to Martinsville Speedway completed The British Racing Mechanics
obliged to publish financial results. re-establish brand identity among in 15 minutes.’ Club has awarded JRM for its
With that in mind NASCAR might 2012 sportscar exploits. The
be worried about the decline in club, whose awards recognise
revenues from race attendances Log on to our website to read excellence in mechanical
with $136m taken at the gate in Issue 09 • Spring
2013 • www.ra
cecar-e nginee
m/stoc kcar
our special supplement, Stockcar engineering and race
2012, against $144m in 2011. Engineering, which features preparation, presented JRM with
However, ISC chief executive Generation 6
NASCAR steps
into the future
the latest information on the a trophy for its effort at Le Mans,
officer Lesa France Kennedy said Generation 6 cars, as well as the where its Honda HPD ARX-03a –
she was sure that improvements technical background to the 2013 driven by Karun Chandhok, Peter
planned by both NASCAR NASCAR season. Please visit Dumbreck and David Brabham
and ISC to improve the fans’ – came in sixth place overall, the
experience are likely to help stockcar-engineering highest placed British entry.
matters throughout 2013:

April 2013 • 87
SCE Cover 2013.indd


Q. How are you getting on at valvetrain, cranktrain, flexible and cost-effective. In
Swindon? and bearings calculation the future, I see us as keeping
Very good. Swindon was a software; power modelling a reasonable size, because
company with a very good and vehicle straight-line these advantages are things
manufacturing tradition. But simulation, plus access to CFD. we can keep only by managing
perhaps it was lacking a modern On the manufacturing side our size as a company.
vision on the technology side. there’s a Siemens NX (CAM);
I think that – not only myself Millturn crankshaft and Q. How pleased were you to
but the team I have brought in camshaft machine, 5-axis win the MIA Business of the
with me – have brought that, DMGs and a range of more Year award for 2012?
and we’ve really changed the conventional machines. That was fantastic, because it
company: grown it, brought it was recognition in front of the
back to profitability. It’s been Raphaël Caillé (40) is Q. What percentage of your whole industry. We are not a
three incredible years, really. managing director of Swindon work is motorsport related? big company and there we were
Engines, having bought the It’s 50-50. That was really getting an award for business
Q. What are you involved company three years ago. my vision when coming into excellence in front of Red Bull
in on the motorsport side Prior to this he worked at the company. In this day and and Mercedes HPE, the best in
of the business? Triple Eight Race Engineering age it’s actually quite difficult this world of motor racing. It’s
Quite a few things, but the and motorsport engine to develop a company using also good for our employees,
biggest project that we can talk departments in France, motorsport only, because over because they have been really
about is what we do for the including Citroën Sport. the years the margins have pushing hard in the last year
British Touring Car Championship, Swindon was set up by become smaller and smaller. If and it’s great for everybody to
where we have a contract with John Dunn in 1971 and it you look purely at the engine, look at this trophy and think:
TOCA to supply an unbranded remained in the Dunn family, the engines have to last longer ‘yes, that’s what happens when
engine [the NGTC unit]. It’s an working on engines for and longer, even in Formula 1. you work hard’.
engine that we’ve developed, everything from F1 to rallying, But if you want to be
a four-cylinder, direct injection, until January 2010. competitive you have to invest Q. Coming from a team
turbocharged engine, which in the right hardware and background, are you more
we’re supplying to about 12 cars software for your company, so aware of the competitive
this year. This is actually the has been designed, developed you have to find some extra aspects of business?
reason why I ended up buying and manufactured by us. work, you have to diversify. It could be that I have this trait
the company. This contract was more than someone who has
in my mind, we won the bid and Q. What sort of design and Q. What would you say sets not been in a team. I certainly
it’s sort of snowballed. manufacturing facilities the company apart? see it that way. At the end
We’ve also done a lot of work have you in place? We are still a small team, barely of the day the world is full
for Lotus GT cars, such as the On the design side we have 20 people, and so we are good of competitions – and we are
GT4 engine in the Evora, which Catia V5 (CAD) Ansys (FEA), at reacting quickly. We are certainly winning one or two.

Half a billion switched on by WTCC

The World Touring Car These figures are all the more viewers in a year when then there
Championship (WTCC) claims that impressive because they are was so much competition from CAUGHT
over 500 million viewers tuned in actually better than those claimed major sporting events, as Ulrich
to its coverage in 2012. for viewers of F1 in 2012, said to Lacher, managing director of IFM, The Michael Shank Racing-run
The figures, taken from a report be around the 500m mark. explained: ‘Despite the Olympics car that finished third in the
issued by German-based research However, this is not a like- and Euro 2012, WTCC – unlike Daytona 24 Hours has been
firm IFM, amount to a 12 per cent for-like comparison, as an IFM many other series – increased stripped if its $35,000 prize
increase on the viewing figures spokesperson told Racecar: ‘We in audiences and overall impact money and fined an additional
for 2011. IFM says that a total of can confirm this figure, however again. It showed a healthy $15,000 (which will go to
512 million viewers watched the it should be noted that it includes increase, continuing the trend charity) after the Ford/Riley
WTCC on TV last year, while 144 also viewing figures for secondary from previous years. We reckon Daytona prototype was found
TV channels are said to have aired coverage in news programmes that the growing popularity is a to be running with what
at least one of the championship’s and general sports magazine result of the good TV distribution Grand-Am describes as
events, adding up to 1081 hours formats – which usually pull a of the series.’ ‘mechanical adjustments
of broadcasting in total. much higher audience than live Antonios Argyropoulos, head [to the engine] resulting in
race coverage – whereas the F1 of Media Rights Distribution at performance levels outside
figure probably included only live Eurosport Events, said: ‘This documented maximums’. The
race audiences. So the base might proved that WTCC it is not only an team has also been penalised
not be the same and results not entertaining sporting show, but 30 points in the Grand-Am
directly comparable.’ also a powerful communication teams’ championship.
Yet whichever way the platform, thanks to quality FINE: $15,000
figures were compiled, the WTCC programmes and extensive PENALTY: 30 points
has done well to entice extra television coverage.’

88 • April 2013

It has emerged that one-time Ferrari crew chief, the vast majority of those

Jack Cunningham chief designer Rory Byrne is taking

an active part in the design of the
in the Nationwide Series. This is
Pardue’s first job as a Truck crew
Scuderia’s 2014 F1 car. Byrne (69), who chief having been crew chief in the
Despite a relatively short single-seater team, and helping is employed by Ferrari as a consultant Nationwide Series since 1998, winning
involvement in motor racing Jack to bring a respected marque on the road car side of the business, races with such notables at Matt
Cunningham, who died recently back to Le Mans. left the F1 team in 2006, since when Kenseth and Greg Biffle.
at the age of 60, managed to Cunningham came to he’s had a limited input into the
cram in plenty of achievement racing after investing in Hugh racing programme. However, it’s been Former American football star Bill
in the sport, including setting Chamberlain’s sportscar team at confirmed that Byrne is now playing Romanowski, who played for 16
a large part in the design of the 2014 years in the NFL, during which time he
up a race-winning high-level the end of the 1990s – before
car, which will be built to the new started an amazing 243 consecutive
this he had been very successful
turbocharged engine formula. games, has signed on as a minority
in the aviation business and had owner of the new for 2013 Swan
once been an airline pilot. The Toto Wolff is now a shareholder and Racing NASCAR Sprint Cup team.
partnership with Chamberlain executive director of the Mercedes His health supplement company,
subsequently landed the deal to F1 team, where he has taken on Nutrition53, also joins the team as a
run MG’s Lola-developed EX257 the responsibility of managing the primary sponsor for 10 races this year.
LMP675 sport prototype at Le outfit. He has also taken over the
Mans in 2001. Chamberlain management of all the Mercedes-Benz Pete Rondeau has been promoted
Motorsport then became CMS motorsport activities, thereby stepping to director of competition at NASCAR
into the void created by the departure Sprint Cup team Furniture Row Racing.
Motorsport in 2002 and continued
of Norbert Haug. Mercedes GP non- Rondeau was previously crew chief
to run the MGs, and then went on
executive chairman Niki Lauda has on the team, a position he handed
to run GTs in 2003. also bought shares in the F1 team. over to Todd Berrier midway through
In 2005 Cunningham set 2012. Before he joined Furniture
up the Malaysian team for the Simon Rennie is now Mark Webber‘s Row, Rondeau worked at Evernham
then new, now defunct, A1 GP. race engineer for the 2013 season. Motorsports, Dale Earnhardt Inc
The team scored five race wins He takes the place of Ciaron Pilbeam, and Jasper Motorsports, in positions
during the four-season life of the who has left Red Bull Racing that included director of
championship, and he went on to take up the position of research and development
to also run the Indonesian A1 GP chief race engineer at Lotus. and crew chief.
Rennie worked as Kimi
outfit through 2006/07.
Räikkönen’s engineer at Xevi Pujolar, the former
Jack Cunningham 1952-2013
Lotus last season. race engineer for Pastor
Maldonado at Williams,
SPONSORSHIP Christian Horner will has moved into a newly
remain in his post as team Christian Horner created position of chief race
Ferrari has picked up sponsorship from Weichai Power, a Chinese principal at Red Bull Racing engineer within the team.
manufacturer of heavy machinery vehicles and powertrain systems. after extending his contract Andrew Murdoch has moved
Weichai is the Italian F1 team’s first Chinese backer, but the road car with the F1 championship-winning up from within Maldonado’s car crew to
arm of the company has had a presence in the country, which Ferrari team, with Red Bull saying it’s a take Pujolar’s place as the Venezuelan
considers to be one of its most important markets, for over 20 years. multi-year deal. Horner (39) joined driver’s race engineer.
Red Bull in 2005.
Former team owner Richard Redgrave
The Mercedes F1 team has signed a sponsorship deal with BlackBerry.
Dr Ian Roberts is the new Formula 1 has died of cancer at the age of 74.
The new partnership sees the BlackBerry branding featured medical rescue coordinator, replacing Redgrave competed in sportscar
prominently on the chassis and headrest of the F1 W04 racecar, Gary Hartstein in the position. racing in the 60s before setting up
the race suits of the drivers, and on team kit. As the ‘official mobile Roberts, who has previously worked his own team, Redgrave Racing, to
computing partner’, BlackBerry will also be working closely with as chief medical officer for Silverstone run drivers including his own son
Mercedes to develop the team’s use of the BlackBerry 10 platform at and the British GP, will report to the and daughter in the 90s. While the
its headquarters and at the races. FIA’s permanent medical delegate, team was best known for its successes
Professor Jean-Charles Piette. in Formula First and Formula Renault,
Force India has signed a multi-year deal with equipment and support it also competed, and won, in Italian
Former Toro Rosso technical director, Formula 3000.
services supplier Speedy Services. The company, which is involved in
Giorgio Ascanelli, is now the chief
the infrastructure, industrial, construction and the events industries, is
technical officer at F1 brake supplier British rallycross race engineer and
now an official supplier to the team and its branding will be visible on Brembo. Ascanelli was in charge of the driver Ryan Lawford was found dead
the racecar at this year’s British Grand Prix. tech team at Toro Rosso from 2007 at his home in January. Lawford (26)
until the summer of last year. started his career working for Will
NASCAR has signed a multi-year partnership extension with Gollop’s G-Tech outfit and later worked
ExxonMobil. The deal means Mobil 1 synthetic motor oil will continue NASCAR camping World Truck Series for Team Eurotech in the BTCC.
to be the ‘Official Motor Oil of NASCAR’ until the end of 2017. This team NTS Motorsports has hired
season marks the 11th consecutive year of the partnership. veteran crew chief Eddie Pardue for Belgian race and rally legend Marc
this year’s assault on the US pickup Duez has been signed up as race
truck championship. Pardue has worked director for the Euro Racecar NASCAR
Dutch fashion company McGregor has signed up as a sponsor of the
in NASCAR since 1993 but will now Touring Series, for which he will be
Caterham F1 team, its logo now in a prominent position on the new
serve as a crew chief in the Truck Series responsible for driving standards. Duez
CT03 racecar. As part of the tie-up, the company plans to launch a for the first time in his career. He has has victories in both the Nürburgring
‘Caterham by McGregor’ range during this year’s Monaco Grand Prix. chalked up 276 NASCAR races as a and Spa 24 Hour races on his CV.

April 2013 • 89








Serving the Motorsports Industry Since 1989 E


AERODINE 1-4 RCE.indd 1 7/1/11 13:51:07



Richard Peacock, the boss of the the championship, for consistently
Phil Remington Anglesey circuit in north Wales, has
been given an Outstanding Contribution
banging in the quickest pit stops
during last year’s races.
The man popularly known as spent 45 years – the second award at the Anglesey Tourism Awards.
‘Mr Fix it’ in US motorsport half of his life. AAR released Michelin has appointed Influence
circles, Phil Remington, has died this tribute to Remington: Carl Sanderson has re-joined Associates to handle PR and
at the age of 92. Remington’s ‘All American Racers is sad to the Doncasters Turbocharger promotional activities across its
involvement in motorsport announce that Phil Remington Components Division, motorsport and high
started before WWII, when he passed away in his sleep where he will act as general performance road car
raced a modified roadster on Saturday morning, February manager of Doncasters operations in the UK and
Trucast Ltd. Sanderson Ireland. Led by Influence
the dry lakes of Southern 9th, just two weeks after his
was formerly operations Associates’ CEO Stuart
California. After the war, in which 92nd birthday. “Rem” joined
manager at Doncasters Dyble, a team of five will
he served as a flight engineer AAR in the fall of 1968 after an
Aerospace Components, but manage the Michelin
in the South Pacific, he returned already stellar career in the motor has more recently worked at account, supporting

to racing, but cut short a career racing world. He was universally Belgian company Fremach, David Hyder marketing, promotional and
as a driver to concentrate on admired and recognised as where he held the post of PR activities at the tyre
engineering after he nearly lost a the greatest fabricator of his general manager. maker’s Stoke-on-Trent UK
leg in a motorbike accident. time. Until his health started headquarters and at motorsport events
The decision proved a happy failing last summer, Phil never Long-serving BTCC media officer around the country.
one for the world of US race missed a day of work, he was an Carl McKellar has stepped down
from the position to take on other Veteran crew chief David Hyder has
engineering, and ace fabricator example both professionally and
work within motorsport, including been hired by Stewart-Haas Racing to
Remington went on to play a part personally to legions of young
a role with new WRC promoter form a test team to aid the now three
in some of the most memorable people who studied under him car NASCAR Sprint Cup operation with
Red Bull Media House. McKellar’s
American motorsport adventures, and who worked by his side. place in the BTCC press office has development of the new Generation
including Lance Reventlow’s ‘It will be difficult for us been taken by former MotorSport 6 car. Hyder worked previously JTG
Scarab F1 project and Carroll to walk by his old wooden Vision man Simon Melluish. Daugherty Racing, Wood Bros, Kevin
Shelby’s legendary Cobra and workbench on the shop floor Harvick Inc and Michael Waltrip Racing.
GT40 Le Mans assaults. and not hear the sound of his Two V8 Supercars event organisers,
Yet he will always be most hammer or see a smile break Northern Territory major events Former Furniture Row Racing crew chief
closely associated with Dan out on his face having just general manager Paul Cattermole Pete Rondeau, has been promoted to
and Adelaide’s Clipsal 500 event the competition director position for
Gurney’s All American Racers finished his latest masterpiece.’
manager Brian Gleeson, have the Denver Colorado NASCAR Sprint
(AAR) organisation, where he Phil Remington 1921-2013
picked up awards in the annual Cup operation. Rondeau will report to
Australia Day Honours. Mark McArdle, the team’s executive
director of competition. McArdle also
DC Electronics hosts Larry Perkins has retired from
motorsport, shutting down his
serves as director of racing operations
at Richard Childress Racing, the two
Formula Student workshops Australian V8 Supercar team.
The former F1 and Le Mans driver,
operations sharing an engineering
and technical alliance. RCR’s recently
Well-known motorsport of whom generously supplied who scored three of his six hired competition director Dr Eric
wiring wizard DC Electronics has practice materials for the students. Bathurst 1000 victories Warren and McArdle
at the wheel of his own worked together for nine
hosted a pair of Formula Student David Cunliffe, director of DC
car, has now sold his years at the now shuttered
workshops, where students Electronics, said: ‘Formula Student
two ‘Racing Entitlement Evernham Motorsports.
were given the opportunity to provides an excellent opportunity
Contracts’ to Kelly Racing.
get hands on experience while for budding motorsport International Speedway
learning about the industry. professionals to gain valuable David Coe, the founding Corp, that owns and operates

Nearly 30 students attended experience, while benefitting from chairman of Australian Daytona International
Larry Perkins
the events, where they were an insight into our experience company Sports & Speedway and 12 other
taught how to design and build in the industry. The workshop Entertainment Ltd (SEL) US tracks, generated a net
a bespoke wiring harness, and has helped attendees develop has passed away. Coe, whose company profit of $54.6m for its fiscal year,
even got to take home the important skills which will aid played an important part in the success which ended 30 November, down from
of the V8 Supercars series in Australia $69.4m in the fiscal year of 2011. A
practice looms they built. their future career development.’
after securing the rights to the fourth-quarter net profit of $24.7m
The students – from a number DC Electronics is based in
sport in 1996, died suddenly while was down from $26.5m the same
of top universities in the UK and Maldon, UK and is one of the period the previous year. Its revenues
on holiday in the USA.
Europe, including Birmingham, motorsport industry’s leading totalled $612.3m in 2012, down from
Newcastle, Brunel and Glasgow manufacturers of custom The Audi Sport Team Abt Sportsline $629.7m in 2011, and in the fourth
– were also taught how to plan electrical systems, with over 15 DTM pit crew has been recognised quarter it generated $189.4m in sales,
and layout wiring looms, how to years’ experience in the industry. as the best wheel changers of 2012 down from $191.9m the same period
choose the correct materials, as It also has a production facility by Hankook, the tyre supplier to the previous year.
well as being given instruction in Mooresville, North Carolina.
on splicing, crimping, soldering Products designed and built by
and contra-winding cable looms. the company have been used in n Moving to a great new job in motorsport and want the world to
DC hosted the two separate championships across the globe, know about it? Or has your motorsport company recently taken on
half-day wiring loom workshops including NASCAR, Formula 1, an exciting new prospect? Then send an email with all the relevant
information to Mike Breslin at
in partnership with Deutsch World Rally, Superbike and even
Autosport and IS Motorsport – both F1 Powerboats.

April 2013 • 91



The great leap forward

A look back to 2003 shows the changing business face of Formula 1

s the 2013 season arrives, to what business advantage to the long talked about flotation of The world is now obsessed
the powerful and vital the wider F1 world? New hosts F1 have taken place by 2023, or with the cost of energy and in
importance of Formula 1 bring substantial new fees to will it return to private ownership, saving it – as well as money –
to the global motorsport industry CVC/FOM and income from new with the FIA playing a pivotal role where possible. Motorsport has
takes centre stage. Its reach, broadcasting rights too, but it is in this decision? become expert in the ‘efficient
political influence, financial yet to be proven whether they Each ‘franchise holder’, or F1 use of energy for transportation’
impact on investment and jobs, as add significantly to the already team, must maximise their profits. – securing maximum efficiency
well as its dominance of relevant enormous TV audience of F1. Traditionally they’ve done so from a given amount of energy
sports media, is unsurpassed. However, these regions do bring through effective, efficient team (usually gasoline). This race-
F1 shapes world opinion of increased exposure and so more operation and race performance, proven expertise and capability
motorsport more powerfully value to sponsors, adding income securing the best reward from the is now highly valued by wider
than any other race series. In to F1 teams. FOM prize fund, and attracting the industry, from defence to
Motorsport Valley UK, it is the Since 2003, F1 has lost BMW, most sponsorship at the highest automotive and commercial
top of the ‘spending pyramid’ Ford, Honda and Petronas as rates. However, some 2013 teams transport and is becoming a
and critical to many hundreds of engine suppliers, now relying have changed this operational welcome, new business market
suppliers, particularly in tough solely on just four: Renault, model, a trend set to continue. for F1 teams.
economic times. Ferrari, Mercedes and Cosworth. F1 teams are moving towards Investors will see financial
I wonder where F1 will be in Will the 2014 regulations entice a ‘sporting team franchise’, returns earned by others,
10 years, and have looked back others to join this supply chain, similar to American football improving investor appeal to
on their journey since 2003 for for the next decade? and Premier League soccer, these ‘F1 franchises’, from a more
some perspective. The way in with investors replacing the old secure, investable commercial
which F1 management behave style of personal ownership. No base, moving away from sole
commercially, and the response longer will we have teams of reliance on track performance
of the F1 teams to that, are Messrs Ferrari, Chapman, Dennis, attracting sponsorship.
central to their commercial Williams, Cooper and the like – As long as the F1 spectacle
future – plus the vital ingredient, replaced by Force India, Red Bull, remains entertaining to its
the paying audience, and its Caterham. These new franchise media audience, this F1 team
effect on sponsorship. holders bring a multiplicity of trend can only be positive –
In 2003, there were 10 teams brands and new blood, with good for jobs, ongoing
and 16 races, and in 2013, 11 renewed determination to investments, and capturing new
teams and 19 races – not much succeed on the track, and earn sponsors and investors.
change and perhaps surprisingly, good profits from doing so. I end by asking why not
quite a stable platform of These investors will make join me and visit the real home
businesses. Jaguar, Jordan, BAR, their assets work hard for them. of audience engagement in
Minardi, and Renault have been McLaren are building a substantial motorsport – the USA – between
re-branded Red Bull, Force India, automotive division, and another 17 and 22 May. Each year, we
Mercedes, Toro Rosso, and Testing in Jerez in February which commercialises applied enjoy one of the best NASCAR
Lotus, respectively. Two new technologies, from its F1 races at Charlotte Speedway,
teams, Caterham and Marussia, We can forecast substantial activity. Williams, based on their where 140,000 fans watch a
replace the only one which has changes, over the next decade, investment in KERS, through their ‘Million dollar – winner takes all’
disappeared, Toyota. This recent in the overall management of Advanced Engineering division race. We then go to the Indy
profile demonstrates that new Formula 1, and the constitution supply innovative transport 500, still a stunning experience
investors, brands and sponsors of those who operate, solutions, and have created a in world motorsport. In between
have been attracted to the commercially, within it. visionary research partnership these two great races, we
business of F1, bringing fresh Recently, the shareholding in Qatar. Tony Fernandes has visit race teams in all types of
ideas and ambition – but will this and ownership of FOM has relocated much of his Caterham motorsport – NHRA, NASCAR,
continue over the next decade? moved from being a ‘personal investment to Leafield, retaining Off-Road and Indycar – to
One major change has been investment vehicle’ to one owned their composite business in build new business. There’s
in the countries which host the by the private equity firm, CVC Norfolk, and is planning to exploit so much to learn from our
F1 circus. Gone are San Marino, Capital, free to attract investors all their technology assets across American friends in motorsport
Austria, Canada and France. Ten to share in its success. They other sectors. We will see most entertainment, see www.the-
years ago, the only Gulf states will maximise the ROI for their F1 franchise holders following, for more details.
or Asian hosts were Japan and stakeholders from this sports as a wider and fast-growing Make this the year you enjoy
Malaysia. 2013 will see eight of entertainment investment, and world engages with these R&D- one of the great tours in the
the 19 races in those areas, but will do so dispassionately. Will based suppliers. business of world motorsport.

92 • April 2013

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40,000 Buyers • 1,100 Exhibitors • Over 72 Countries Represented

PRI201 3
December 12–14, 2013 • Indiana USA

Where the Racing Industry
Gets Down to


Jenvey TPS
Throttle body manufacturer plastic track provides durability
Jenvey has released the TP11 and extended life expectancy,
throttle position sensor, based on while the sensor has excellent
the successful range motorsport temperature co-efficiency making
specific sensors produced by Variohm.
The design features a potentiometer
for more stable readings at all
positions. The sensor is sealed to a
Kistler measures up
with multiple fingered wipers to minimum of IP65 specifications. Kistler Instruments has added three new measuring
ensure good electrical contact, even For more details, check out ranges to its KiTorq torque measuring system. The
under severe vibration. A conductive new ranges of 100, 200, and 5000Nm have been
added to the existing ranges of 500, 1000, 2000 or
3000Nm measuring ranges. Rotors of different sizes
FLUID TRANSFER can be combined with same ringless stator, which is
particularly easy to install and allows different items to
New Viper releases be tested without the complete reconstruction of the
test stand. The ringless stator design speeds up the
installation, protects against damage during assembly
operations and facilitates visual observation during the
test process. The KiTorq measuring flange is ideal for
use in test rigs for electric motors, internal combustion
engines, transmissions, pumps and compressors.
See for a full specification sheet


More from Roar

UK-based electronics specialist Roar Performance
has recently released a new gear position and shift
indicator, the GDSLM. The unit consists of an integrated
dot matrix display and a series of eight RBG shift LEDs.
The display can be programmed with a PC, and is fully
configured to accept CAN bus channels for RPM, gear
position and display brightness. Analogue inputs are
also available. The activation of the shift lights can be
configured relative to RPM and gear position and by
Fluid transfer specialists Viper with anti-explosion foam in case of individual colour selection. The brightness settings
Performance has released two new accident, and the fuel pickups are of both the gear display and the shift lights are fully
products to market. First is a new positioned in a cavity at the base of configurable to suit differing ambient light levels.
fuel rail extrusion for custom EFI the tank in a small sump area, which Full details of the unit can be found at
applications. The 6061 aluminium prevents fuel starvation under high
extruded rail has a 16.1mm bore, G-force cornering or braking. The
and is one metre long, ready for the tanks are available in natural metal
user to cut, drill and modify to suit or anodised black and come with a
the required application. The fuel fuel sender unit, anodised aircraft-
rail extrusion is available in gloss style pull-and-twist fuel filler cap,
black or mirror polished surface and mounting brackets. All parts
finishes. Also out is a range of fuel are available as spares.
cells in 5, 10 and 15 gallon capacities. More information can be found at
These aluminium tanks are filled

April 2013 • 95



Simulation modules
unveiled by Cruden
Simulation specialist Cruden maximise valuable simulator
has recently released two time. Additionally, with
new software modules to interfaces to PiToolBox, MoTeC,
compliment their range of Bosch Windarab or Magnetti
simulators; a setup tool and a Marelli Wintax software
telemetry analyser package. available, engineers can analyse
The setup tool allows engineers simulated telemetry channels
to change vehicle settings such as if recorded from the real car
as shock absorbers, dampers, and overlay them with actual
wing settings and throttle data logged on the track.
mapping while the simulator All the new upgrades are
is being driven, avoiding the available as an optional extension
need to stop the test and reset to Cruden’s Racer Pro simulator
it each time. operating software, which is
The just released Telemetry also made available for use
Analyzer allows race engineers, with other simulators. They
racing drivers and driver coaches complement ePhyse, a popular
to evaluate vehicle model extension that allows integration
performance and driving style of external physics packages,
as the simulated run takes and means that Cruden
place, or after the session as simulators are able to seamlessly
a download. Instant feedback integrate with Cruden’s own
from data such as lap and sector Simulink Vehicle Model or with
times, speed, throttle, brakes, Vi-Grade, IPG CarMaker, veDYNA,
steering angles and gears – in CarSim or SIMPACK models.
addition to many other vehicle For further information visit
parameters – can be used to


25 April 2013 | 9am - 5pm | Donington Park, Derby

Learn from our top class, winning race engineers, who will
teach you the key elements of set up, data reading and
telemetry - using LIVE data straight from the track!
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MIA School of Race Engineering Alumni - £400 + VAT | Other Delegates - £450 + VAT

For more information please contact
Zoe Chilton on +44 (0)2476 692600 or email

Pit Crew
The post-Ecclestone problem

Andrew Cotton he sport of soccer is a major topic of conversation despite being castigated for his examples, he’s right.
every morning in the Chelsea Magazine Company. What does the sport actually need, and then, who
Deputy editor
Sam Collins As the fortunes of various supported teams ebb is best to deliver that? In my opinion, the sport needs
and flow, few need to question the loyalties of our own to reach a young audience, which, if left unchecked,
News editor
Mike Breslin managing director, whose coffee mug bears the logo of will rapidly switch off to Formula 1 (and indeed any
Design his favourite team. Let’s just say, it is unlikely that we non-participation activity – witness the rise in audience
Dave Oswald
Chief sub editor will ever leave the Chelsea area of London. figures over the last 10 years for major sporting
Stuart Goodwin
Contributing editors
The team has an impressive history of sacking its events, and music festivals). These are tech-savvy
Paul Van Valkenburgh managers, and few stay in the job for long. Failure to win people who watch events on multiple screens
Technical consultant
Peter Wright is not an option. And in the case of Roberto di Matteo, simultaneously, and hunger for more information.
Contributors winning is also not an option. Jose Mourinho was a tough Few students actually watch Formula 1 events on the
George Bolt jr, Lawrence Butcher,
Ricardo Divila, Gemma Hatton, act to follow, and no one has managed to fill his shoes. television – they watch on the computer.
Simon McBeath, Danny Nowlan,
Mark Ortiz, Peter Wright The current victim is Rafa Benitez, a Spaniard who is The sport needs to remain exclusive, but be
Photography uniformly despised by the fans as he used to manage accessible to all. It is a fine line to tread. There are two
LAT, WRi2, Jakob Ebrey, Igor
Yermilin, Alexey Rogachev Liverpool against the Blues. ways of negotiating this path – one is to try to please
Deputy managing director
Steve Ross Chelsea’s penchant for changing managers has led everyone, the other is to trample all over it in jackboots.
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3730
Email steve.ross@
to a lot of head scratching, but at least it has saved A committee-led approach would end up as a the team from the problems that are looming for collection of individuals who check every single detail
Head of business
development Manchester United, Arsenal, and, incidentally, Formula 1. to ensure nothing offends. This would lead to a bland
Tony Tobias
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3743 Manchester United has a record that is unparalleled sport that turns everyone off. A committee running the
Email tony.tobias@
in British football, and at its sport would have precisely
helm is Sir Alex Ferguson, this, and people with
“Bernie is as much part of the
Advertisement Manager
Lauren Mills
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3740 a 71-year-old who has nonsensical titles running
Email lauren.mills@
Publisher Simon Temlett
managed the team since
1986. Ferguson is currently fabric of F1 as Alex Ferguson ‘the company’.
The other approach

is to Manchester United”
Managing director Paul Dobson
in a position at the club requires an individual, in
Racecar Engineering, Chelsea where he can dictate when this celebrity-obsessed
Magazine Company, Jubilee House,
2 Jubilee Place, London, SW3 3TQ he leaves. Leading the culture, with the charisma
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3700
Premier League, he says that he would never be in the to engage a global audience. They need the support of
Racecar Engineering, Chelsea position of Arsenal, who at time of writing are looking at manufacturers, team owners, promoters and the FIA.
Magazine Company, Jubilee House,
2 Jubilee Place, London, SW3 3TQ an eighth season without a trophy under Arsene Wenger, These credentials are tough to find, but that makes the
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3700
Fax +44 (0) 20 7349 3701 who has been at the helm since 1996. job easier. There aren’t many to choose from.
Subscriptions Manager Under Wenger, the team has concentrated on financial The obvious ones are Luca di Montezemolo and
William Delmont
+44 (0) 20 7349 3710 stability, and while it is a solid team, consistently Flavio Briatore. Both would bring a new atmosphere to
Subscriptions finishing fourth will not suffice. That puts them in a the paddock of Formula 1. For that reason, it would be
Telephone +44 (0) 1858 438443
similar light to Williams, who have not won a World fun to also consider Silvio Berlusconi, although he may
Email racecarengineering@ Championship title since 1997. Williams is different – it’s well become busy running Italy once again following
Frank’s team. Arsenal’s owners publicly back the manager, the summer elections. His knowledge of the media, and
Subscription rates that’s an almost certain death knell for the man. global sport, could be good for Formula 1 and its embrace
UK £66 (12 issues)
USA $135 (12 issues)
Which brings me, finally, to Formula 1. Bernie of the new digital age.
ROW £84 (12 issues) Ecclestone has been in charge of the sport for so long The complication with this is that – with an asset so
News distribution that there is no natural successor for the role. He is now valuable as Formula 1 – would ‘the company’ accept
COMAG, Tavistock Road, West
Drayton, Middx UB7 7QE as much part of the fabric of the category as Ferguson the nomination of an individual, or would it prefer rule
Printed by Wyndeham Heron
Printed in England
is at Manchester United. Except that Bernie is not in by committee?
ISSN No 0961-1096 a position to say when he will go. F1 needs to have a
USPS No 007-969
solution for a post-Bernie era. Who will succeed him?
Bernie has spoken of his admiration for the individual editor
who is able to get things done, and in my opinion, Andrew Cotton

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• Racecar Engineering, incorporating Cars & Car Conversions and Rallysport, is published 12 times per annum and is available on subscription. Although due care has been taken to ensure that the content of this publication is accurate
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98 • April
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