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In education, the meaning of scientific tendency is to include and give a prominent place to
scientific subjects. The protagonists of this tendency believe that only by the study of scientific
subjects, an individual can lead a full and complete life.


 This tendency revolutionised the mode of thinking of people is general. A section of people
began to insist for the inclusion of scientific subjects in the curriculum.
 Farradey laid great stress upon scientific researches and on the importance of scientific
subjects. But the greatest credit to popularize the scientific tendency in the field of education
goes to Herbart Spencer who by his lectures and writings established the importance of
scientific subject for complete living.


Sense Realism - this ideology had some roots of the modern education of today. It's
protagonists uphold that knowledge primarily comes through the senses, not from words. Truths
can only be gained by observation and contacts between senses and external objects.
Through the efforts and criticisms by the Sense Realists of the prevalent educational system,
new changes and revolutionary transformations affected the system of education. Some of
them are:
1.Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction,
2.More importance in observation of Nature and study of scientific subjects in place of
languages, literature and humanities,
3.More emphasis on useful and practical education,
4.Help from psychological findings and researches
5.Deductive method more important than inductive method.


 Mulcaster (1530-1611)
-According to him, "The end of education and training
is to help nature of her perfection." He advocated the aims of education as physical and
mental development of children and achieve fullest development of child's nature.
-He emphasised that education should be child-centred and must be imparted through the
medium of mother tongue.
 Francis Bacon (1562-1623)
-Bacon advocated that education which makes a child useful for society.
-Bacon introduced inductive method of teaching.
 Ratke (1571-1625)
-Education is a process of development and it develops the child according to his nature. He
called the senses as gateways of knowledge and advocated some maxims of teaching
namely, (1) One thing at a time,(2) Follow Nature, (3) Repetition, (4) The medium of education
should be mother tongue, (5) Nothing should be learnt by rote, (6) No repression, (7) First things,
then words, (8) Knowledge through senses, (9) Knowledge through experiences and (10)
Uniformity of all things.
 John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) is the chief advocate of "Sense Realism" and main
protagonist of scientific tendency.
 His Life
He is the prophet of modern education, philosopher, educator, and textbook writer. He was
born at Nivnitz, a village of Moravia, in 1592. He lost his parents while he was very young. While
he was sixteen years he could see the serious defects in the teaching of Latin to young
children.He believed that all children are born to become men, and so they must be
 Comenius' Educational Psychology
-Sense Comenius regarded the five senses as the gateways to man's soul.
-Imagination Comenius regarded imagination as an inner sense.
-Memory Comenius believes that memory could be developed through practice, but he has
also stated that before anything is memorized there must be clear and firm impression on the
-Reason Comenius thinks that reason helps one to measure and determine as to what, where
and how anything should be sought after or avoided.
-Emotions and Will Comenius recognized the importance of emotions of children in education.
Comenius believes that desires influence the will and determine the nature of the character.
-Differences in Children Comenius has recognised some individual differences in children and
has discussed how to deal with them in a tactful manner.
-Education according to the Stage of Development Comenius wants to give education to the
child according to his stage of development.
 Aim of Education
Knowledge, virtue and piety summarise the Comenius' educational aim as the following words
indicate: "They will learn, not for the school, but for life so that the youths shall go forth
energetic, ready for everything, apt, industrious and worthy of being entrusted with any of the
duties of life, and this all the more if they have added to virtue a sweet conversation, and have
crowned all with the fear and love of God. They will go forth capable of expression and
 Organization of Education
-The School System
The four stages of school system as indicated by Comenius are as follows:
1.The mothers knee or the Mother School for infancy to exist in every house.
2.The vernacular school for childhood to exist in every hamlet and village.
3.The Gymnasium or Latin school—for boyhood to exist in every city.
4.The university and travel—for youth. A university should exist in every kingdom or in every
-Special Teacher and Separate Room
A special teacher should be appointed for each class, and each class should be in a separate
-Working Time
Comenius does not like that young children should be required to work for six or eight
continuous hours. He wants that younger children should work for four hours a day and older
ones for six hours a day. No home work should be given.
-Class Instruction
Before Comenius the system of class instruction was not in vogue.
He wanted that each pupil should have his own copy of the text.
-The Curriculum
Comenius wants to make the curriculum encyclopaedic in scope.
-The Methods of Instruction
Certain rules of teaching:
1.Natural interests of children should receive the primary consideration.
2.Nothing should be taught to them which is not in any way related with their spontaneous
3.Whatever is to be taught must be presented directly before the child. No round about
explanation should be used.
4.It is after explaining the general principles that the details should be considered.
5.The teacher should not proceed further unless the topic in hand is thoroughly mastered by
the pupils.
6.Interrelations and distinctions should be pointed out so that the knowledge may be clear.
7.Things of practical application in life should be given primary place in education.
8.Things should be taught in due succession, and only one thing should be taught at a time.
9.The teacher should proceed from the known to the unknown.
10.Senses, imagination, understanding and memory should be exercised daily in conjunction.
11.Children must be encouraged to learn to do by doing.
12.Order positions, and connection of objects should be studied.
13.Instruction to be given should be within reach of the comprehension power of the child.
14.Words must not be repeated.
15.Objects, things and actions should be associated with the vernacular words.
16.Whatever is learned should be told by one pupil to another so that no knowledge may
remain unused.
17.Materials learned should be properly combined and integrated.
 Herbart Spencer (1820-1903) is rightly recognised as the chief protagonist of scientific
 An Educator Before a Philosopher
Herbart was a skilled teacher as well as a profound philosopher. It was his problems pertaining
to education that led to the formulation of his speculative theories.
 Educational Views of Spencer
Categories for a complete living:
a. Criticism of Literary Education
b. Emphasis on Science Education
c. Five Types of Activities for Complete Living
- Those Which Directly Minister of Self Preservation
-Those Which Indirectly Minister of Self Preservation
- Those Which Have for their End the Raring and Discipline of the Offsprings
- Those Which are Involved in the Maintenance of Proper Social and Political Relations
- Those Which Make up Leisure Life, Devoted to the Glorification of Tastes and Feelings
 Herbart's Theory of Ideas
-Simply elements of consciousness are ideas. Similar, disparate and contrary—the three
-Theory of Apperception and Education
-Absorption and assimilation the two mental processes.
-Formal Steps of Herbart
 Aim of Education According to Spencer
- To Prepare the Individual for Complete Living
- Ethical pupils should possess strong moral character
- Morality subordinated to aesthetic judgment
- Many sided Interests
- Co-relation of studies
- Interest and Education
- Herbart's Conception of Discipline

 Curriculum According to Spencer

The ff. subjects should be included in the curriculum to suit the five types of activities:
a. Those Which Directly Minister to Self preservation— (1) Physiology, (2) Hygiene, (3) Physics
and (4) Chemistry.
b. Those Which Indirectly Minister to Self preservation— (1) Math, (2) Biology, (3) Sociology, (4)
c. Those Which Have for Their End The Raring and Discipline of Offsprings—(1) Physiology, (2)
Domestic Science, and (3) Psychology.
4. Those Which Are Involved in the Maintenance of Proper Social and Political Relations—(1)
History, (2) Political Science, and (3) Economics.
5. Those Which Make up Leisure Life, Devoted to the Glorification of Tastes and Feelings—(1)
Art, (2) Music, and (3) Poetry.
 Methods of Teaching According to Spencer
A teacher should provide education to suit the mental make up and age of the child as well as
his inherent tendencies.
 Views of Spencer about Moral Education
According to Spencer a child is not morally developed since birth. The primary task of
education is to reform and sublimate these raw tendencies and thus develop the child morally.
 Views of Spencer About Physical Education
Emphasizing upon an effective scheme of physical education, Spencer has advocated the
following principles for this purpose:
1.Children should be provided with health education.
2Their clothes should be neat and clean.
3.Ample opportunities for physical exercises should be provided.
4.There should be no scolding or pulling up when children eat their food.
5.Children should be provided with balanced diet.
6.There should be no uniformity in items of food, but variety.

Characteristics of Scientific Tendency

1. Opposition to Literary Education
2. Importance of Science in Curriculum
3. Emphasis on Curriculum
4. Freedom in the Selection of Subjects
5. Knowledge of Nature through Science
6. Importance of Inductive Method
7. Need of Love and sympathy
8. Meaning of Liberal Education
9. Importance of Concrete and Direct Objects
10. Development of Scientific Attitude

Reference: Philosophical Foundation of Education by K.K. Shrivastava

Prepared by: Ronilo J. Estremos
Babern Mae B. Magrelos
Submitted to: Alan S. Compe, Ed.D. / Course Instructor – Philo-Socio Foundation of Education