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Consider the scenario shown in Error! Reference source not found. in which the Elearninglab server is connected to a Router 3 by a 1 Gbps link with a distance of 50 km. This router also is connected to two routers, each over a 100 Mbps link with a distance of 10km. A 50 Mbps link

a) Suppose that Bob is uploading his assignment to the Elearninglab server. Analyze and explain the process that happens to the message at each protocol layer as it gets ready to be transmitted. Illustrate your answer using a diagram.

computer, the application-layer message is passed on to the transport layer which processes the message and encapsulates it with the transport-layer header. The resulting segment is passed to the network layer which does its own processing and encapsulates the segment with the network-layer header (depending on the segment size and the size of the packet, the segment has to be broken down into more than one packet). The resulting packet (or packets) is (are) passed to the data link layer (DLL) which encapsulates it (them) with its header (and sometime trailer, depending on the data link layer protocol being used) into DLL frames. Then the data finally passed to the physical layer (PHY) for transmission.

b) Elearninglab server goes to router2, then to router3, and finally to the server. Suppose that the size of the assignment is 3MB and the server sends ACKs back with the same packet size. Calculate the round-trip delay from when a packet to when it is received by the server

Assume that there are no processing n queuing delay Assume speed of light = 3*10 8 m/s Delay on a link = Transmission Delay + Propagation Delay

Bob -> Router 2 -> Router 3 -> Server Transmission Delay = Size of packet / Data Rate

= 3*10 6 *8 /1*10 9 + 3*10 6 *8/50*10 6 +3*10 6 *8/100*10 6

= 0.744s

Propagation Delay

Delay = 0.744216667s

= d/s =50*10 3 / 3*10 8 + 10*10 3 / 3*10 8 + 5*10 3 / 3*10 8

= 0.000217s

c) Now assume that Alice and Bob are part of a peer-to-peer network. Calculate the end-to- end delay when Alice is sending a message with a size of 20,000 bits to Bob.

Alice -> Router 1 -> Router 3 -> Router 2 -> Bob Transmission Delay = Size of packet / Data Rate

= 20000 /50*10 6 + 20000/100*10 6 + 20000 /50*10 6 + 20000/100*10 6

= 0.4808 s

Propagation Delay

Delay = 0.4809 s

= d/s =10*10 3 / 3*10 8 + 5*10 3 / 3*10 8 + 10*10 3 / 3*10 8 + 5*10 3 / 3*10 8

= 0.0001s