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D1 All the same? Specials

M W 1 Match the words to their descriptions.


p ?
If living things have enough
t u similar features, they belong
variations
^ _ to the same …
UG LP

TN These are differences


reproduce between living things.

Members of the same


species
species can mate and …

2 Look at the picture of a dog and a cat.

Write true or false for each sentence.


a Dogs and cats have different numbers of legs. .........................

b Dogs and cats are different species. .........................

c Dogs can mate with other dogs because they are the
same species. .........................

d Cats can mate with dogs. .........................

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D1 All the same? (continued) Specials

M W
3 Dogs all belong to the same species.
p ? Look at these pictures of dogs.
t u
A B
^ _
UG LP
C
TN

ears spots big paws


nose
tail ed
pattern small
Some of
fur short these words
long may help
you.
a What is different about dog A and dog B?
Dog A has .........................................................................................................................................................................
But dog B has ..............................................................................................................................................................

b What is the same about dog A and dog B?


Dog A and dog B both have .....................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

c What is different about dog C and dog D?


Dog C has ..........................................................................................................................................................................
But dog D has ...............................................................................................................................................................
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D2 Differences count Specials

M W
1 You inherit some features from your parents and this
p ? helps to make you who you are. The way you are
brought up also has a lot to do with who you are.
t u

^ _ Here is a list of features that a person has.


UG LP
hair style natural hair colour
TN

size of ear lobes


eye colour

language spoken
pierced ears

left or right handed


thin

fitness boy or girl

skin colour

a Which features has this girl inherited from her


parents? Colour them in red.
b Which features depend on how she was brought
up? Colour them in blue.
c Can you think of any other features you inherit from
your parents? Make a list here.
......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

d Can you think of any other features that depend on


how you are brought up? Make a list here.
......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

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D2 Differences count (continued) Specials

M W
2 Here are some sentences about reproduction in animals.
p ? Use these words to fill in the gaps.
t u t
egg ce
ll sperm differen half
^ _
UG LP
The male sex cell from the father is called a ............................................ .
TN
The female sex cell from the mother is called an ............................................ .
Each sex cell contains ............................................ the instructions
needed to make a new person.
Because every egg cell and sperm contains slightly ............................................
instructions, we look different from our parents.

3 Look at these features of plants and animals.

fur colour

shape of leaves

number of peas
in pod length of
neck

colour of
length of flowers
grass scar on leg
Circle the features that have been passed on in the
sex cells. These are inherited features.
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D3 Sorting living things Specials

M W 1 Use these words to fill in the gaps.


plants
p ? bigger
similar different groups
t u smaller
sets
^ _
s
UG LP
fungi animal classificatio
n isms
microorgan
TN

a We can put living things into .................................................. .


All of the living things in a group have .................................................. features.

b Each group can be sorted into .................................................. groups.


Sorting living things into groups is called .................................................. .

c There are four groups of living things called .................................................. ,


.................................................. , .................................................. and .................................................. .

The first one is


2 Tick the living thing that has each feature. done for you.

Feature Animals Plants Microorganisms Fungi


eat plants or

other animals
make their own
food
must move
around
too tiny to see
without a
microscope
green
feed on rotting
material
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D4 More animal groups (continued) Specials

M W 2 Use these words to fill in the gaps in the table.


p ?
als fish vertebrates amphibians
t u mamm
^ _
birds invertebrat
UG LP es reptiles
TN
Description Name of group

Animals with backbones.

Animals without
backbones.

Have feathers and wings.


Lay hard shelled eggs.

Live in water. Have gills,


scales and fins.

Hairy skin. Babies grow


inside mother’s body.
The mother makes milk
to feed them.

Scaly skin. Breathe air.


Live and lay eggs on land.

Smooth, moist skin.


Breathe air. Live partly on
land but lay eggs in water.

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D5 No bones about it Specials

M W
1 There are six groups of invertebrates without legs, and
p ? one group with legs.
t u Match the groups to their descriptions.
^ _
UG LP Have a s y
oft thin
o f t m u s cular bod
TN
round b
ody. Have a s
foot.
with one hard she
ll.
h a v e a
Most

molluscs
flatworms arthropods

Have a soft
ringed body.
Have
as
leaf-sh oft flat
aped
body.
roundworms

a
l e g s and
e j o inted sections.
Hav a de of
m
body
jellyfish
starfish
Hav
e
shap a hard
ed b st
a v e a soft . ody ar-
H
i k e b ody .
jelly- l

segmented worms

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D5 No bones about it (continued) Specials

M W
2 The group of arthropods can be split into four smaller
p ? groups: crustaceans, centipedes and millipedes, spiders
and insects.
t u

^ _ Write a description for each group below its picture.


Use words from this list to help you.
UG LP

TN 6 legs hard shell wings 3 body par


ts

lots of legs ts 8 legs


2 body par
The
lots of legs first one is
y
long thin bod done for
you.

Crustaceans Centipedes and millipedes

Description Description

Spiders Insects

Description Description

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D6 The right size Specials

M W 1 Tick the boxes to show the right answers.


p ? a The Inuit people live close to the Arctic Circle.
t u Here it is:
^ _ very hot
UG LP
warm
TN
cool
very cold.

b Inuit people have short, compact bodies.


They have this body shape to help them:
keep cool
hide from polar bears
keep warm.

2 What kinds of things can have an effect on your body


shape? Colour them in.

what th
e season
food like whe s are
re you l
ive

exercise

television
programs
e of p arents
body shap

illness pe of friends
body sha

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D6 The right size (continued) Specials

M W
3 Scientists measured the heights of 150 Inuit children
p ? aged 12 months. They compared these with the
heights of 150 American children also aged 12
t u
months.
^ _
They could have measured the heights of just 10
UG LP
children. They measured 150 children because:
TN
it made the scientists work harder
it gave a better idea of the
range of the children’s heights
it took longer to do
it was not as accurate.

4 This graph shows the average heights of the American


children and Inuit children at different ages.

100
90
80

Height 70
in cm 60

50 Average height:
40 Inuits
Americans
30
0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Age in months Cross out
the wrong words.
a At birth (0 months old), there is a big /no difference Underline the
right words.
in the height of the American and Inuit children.
b As they get older, the Inuit children grow
taller / less tall than the American children.
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D Variation and classification Specials answers

M D1 All the same? 3 a


j b s n a i l f d
1 variations – These are differences between living
p ? things.
s e a r w i g r o

reproduce – Members of the same species can y e l a h w i o g


t u mate and ... i x m l v b a o d
species – If living things have enough similar
^ _ features, they belong to the same ...
c k o c y w r s d
2 a false b true c true d false f r n d y f o i p
UG 3 a Correct differences, for example:
b l a c k b i r d
Dog A has long fur/small pointed ears/short
tail. v l e b g u l s m
But dog B has short fur/floppy ears/long thin e y t a c y l f h
tail.
b Correct similarities, for example: b Vertebrates – blackbird, cat, dog, frog,
Dog A and dog B both have four legs/two ears/ salmon, whale.
two eyes/tail/nose. c Invertebrates – crab, earwig, flea, fly,
c Correct differences, for example: jellyfish, ladybird, slug, snail, wasp, worm.
Dog C has small ears/long tail.
But dog D has very long ears/short tail.
D4 More animal groups
1 birds – Have feathers and wings. Lay hard
D2 Differences count shelled eggs. Often look after their young.
1 a natural hair colour, eye colour, size of ear mammals – Have hairy skin. Babies grow inside
lobes, boy or girl, skin colour, left or right the mother’s body. The mother makes milk to
handed feed them.
b language spoken, fitness, thin, pierced ears, amphibians – Have a smooth moist skin.
hair style Breathe air. Live partly on land but lay eggs in
c Any suitable inherited features. water.
d Any suitable environmental factors. fish – Live in water. Have gills, fins and scales.
2 sperm, egg cell, half, different reptiles – Have a scaly skin. Breathe air. Live
3 Inherited features – fur colour, shape of leaves, mainly on land. Lay eggs on land.
length of neck, number of peas in pod, length 2 Name of group, from top to bottom –
of grass, colour of flowers. vertebrates, invertebrates, birds, fish, mammals,
reptiles, amphibians.
D3 Sorting living things
1 a groups, similar b smaller, classification D5 No bones about it
b plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms – in 1 flatworms – Have a soft flat leaf shaped body.
any order arthropods – Have jointed legs and a body made
2 of sections.
Feature Animals Plants Microorganisms Fungi
molluscs – Have a soft muscular body with one
eat plants or
 foot. Most have a hard shell.
other animals roundworms – Have a soft thin round body.
make their starfish – Have a hard star-shaped body.

own food jellyfish – Have a soft jelly-like body.
must move segmented worms – Have a soft ringed body.
 2 Centipedes and millipedes – lots of legs, long
around
too tiny to see thin body.
without a  Spiders – 8 legs, 2 body parts.
microscope Insects – 6 legs, wings, 3 body parts.
green 
feed on rotting
D6 The right size
 1 a very cold b keep warm
material
2 food, what the seasons are like where you live,
exercise, body shape of parents
3 it gave a better idea of the range of the
children’s heights
4 a no difference b less tall
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D1 All the same? Homework

M W HELP
p ?
1 The table below lists pairs of living things. Copy and complete the
table by adding one feature that is different and one feature that is
t u
similar for each pair. The different and similar features must be
^ _ ones that you can see.
UG LP
Living things Different features Similar features
TN dog and cat
chicken and parrot
frog and lizard
snail and crab
wasp and bee

2 Look at the picture of three dogs.

‘show’ poodle ‘normal’ poodle Great Dane

a List four features that all three dogs have.


b List two ways in which a ‘normal’ poodle is different from a
‘show’ poodle.
c List two ways in which a ‘normal’ poodle is different from a
Great Dane.

3 What does the word ‘variation’ mean?

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D1 All the same? (continued) Homework

M W CORE
p ? 4 All dogs belong to the same species. Explain what is meant by the
term ‘species’.
t u

^ _ 5 The pictures opposite show a garden slug and a garden snail.


UG LP a Which features suggest that slugs and snails are members of the
same species?
TN
b Which features suggest that slugs and snails are two different
species?
c What information would you need in order to say whether slugs
and snails are the same species or not?

6 The pictures below show five types of bird. Similar types can be
grouped into a family. For example, herring gulls and black-
headed gulls all belong to the gull family because each one is a
different species of gull.
Look at the pictures carefully. Three of them are members of the
thrush family.

a How many different bird families do you think are represented


in the five pictures?
b If A is a song thrush, which other two pictures do you think are
also members of the thrush family?
c Explain why you think these three birds are all types of thrush.
d Describe two differences between these three birds that show
they are not all the same type of thrush.

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D2 Differences count (continued) Homework

M W CORE
p ? 3 List five features found in humans and say whether each one is
inherited or affected by the environment. You could make a table
t u
with two columns headed ‘Feature’ and ‘Cause’.
^ _
4 Read the information below.
UG LP
Jimmy, Jonny and Joe are all aged 35 and they all support Catalyst United.
TN
They are all completely bald.
Jimmy went bald between the ages of 30 and 34, just like his dad.
Jonny has gone bald because he has been ill and the drugs he was given made
all his hair fall out. (This is a rare side-effect of a few powerful drugs).
Joe has no hair because his idol, the goalkeeper, has no hair so Joe shaves his
head three times a week.

Copy and complete this table to show whether the causes of


baldness are inherited or environmental, and explain the reason
for your choice.

Name Cause of baldness Reason


Jimmy
Jonny
Joe

EXTENSION
5 Hannah had black hair when she was born, just like her mum.
Aged 15, her hair has become brown, having changed colour
slowly over the last fourteen years. She has just been on holiday
for three weeks of hot, sunny weather. Her hair is now very fair but
it will darken again over the winter. Her dad has quite fair hair.
a Suggest why Hannah had black hair when she was born.
b What information in the passage above suggests that her hair
turning brown between the ages of 1 and 15 was due to
inheritance?
c Give one other way in which her hair could have become
brown when she was fifteen.
d i What is likely to have caused the lightening of her hair while
she was on holiday?
ii Is this an inherited or an environmental factor?
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D3 Sorting living things Homework

M W HELP
p ? 1 Pictures of ten living things are shown below.
t u

^ _
UG LP

TN B
C
A

D E F

G H I J
Make a table like the one below. Complete it by writing the letter
for each living thing in the correct group.

Animals Plants Microorganisms Fungi

2 Look at the descriptions below. Some describe only animals, some


describe only plants and some describe both animals and plants.
Copy and complete the table by putting each description in the
correct column. You may use each one once, more than once or
not at all.

grow e
respire reproduc

eat Plants can Animals can


d
make foo

to place
move from place

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D3 Sorting living things (continued) Homework

M W CORE
p ?
3 The British Entomological Society
studies insects. Here is a group of
t u
beetles they found on an expedition
^ _ to Patagonia.
UG LP a Draw a table that puts these beetles A B C

TN into groups by looking at the pattern


on their back. Think about how many
columns you will need and what
heading you should write for each
column.
b Draw another table to group the D E
beetles by their head pattern.
c i There is another feature that
differs from beetle to beetle.
What is the feature?
ii Draw a third table to group
them by this feature. F G H
d There are some identical pairs of beetles in the sample.
Write down the pairs that are identical.
e Animals are classified into two groups according to the type of
skeleton they have. To which group do beetles belong?

EXTENSION
4 This question refers to the beetles shown in question 3.
a The research team named beetle A the catalyst beetle. Do you
think that beetle B is a variation on the catalyst beetle, or a
completely different species? Give a reason for your answer.
b The team named beetle C the tyre beetle because they thought
the pattern on its back looked like the tread on a car tyre.
i Which other beetles are tyre beetles?
ii Are tyre beetles all identical? Explain your answer.
c Design and draw a key to identify each of the beetles shown.
Use letters, not names, for the beetles and remember that some
of them are identical.

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D4 More animal groups Homework

M W HELP
p ? 1 The paragraphs below all have a mistake in them. Rewrite them,
correcting the mistakes. Do not change the underlined part.
t u
a The elephant is a mammal. We know this because it lays its
^ _
eggs on land.
UG LP
b Amphibians, like grass snakes, have a dry scaly skin and live
TN mostly on land.
c The ostrich cannot fly and looks after its young. It sounds as
though it might be a mammal but it isn’t one because it has
hair.
d Salamanders go back to the water in the spring. This tells us
they are reptiles.
e The flying fish is not a bird. Although it can glide through the
air, it breathes under water using its lungs.

CORE
2 The nightjar is a member of the
animal kingdom. Some facts about Other name: goatsucker
the nightjar are given opposite. Habits: nocturnal flying animal
Reproduction: lays eggs on land
Food: carnivorous; feeds on
insects
Other data: covered with feathers

a Which piece or pieces of data, on their own, might suggest


that:
i the nightjar could be a mammal?
ii it could be a reptile?
b Which piece of data suggests it is probably a bird?
c If the nightjar is a bird, what might you expect to find out if
you researched where it lays its eggs?
d Suggest three visible features you would expect to see on a
nightjar’s body, if it is a bird. Think about features such as its
mouth, number of eyes, etc.

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D4 More animal groups (continued) Homework

M W EXTENSION
p ? 3 Write a paragraph to compare the similarities and differences
between amphibians and reptiles.
t u

^ _ 4 Here is some information about the duck-billed platypus, which is


found in Australian rivers.
UG LP

TN he re it feeds on aq
uatic
esh w ater w
s in muddy fr ck-like bill.
duck-b illed platypus live catc he s th es e in its soft, du
T he
ally insect larv
ae . It air into
ebra tes, es pe ci at er an d it ne eds to breathe
invert through the w
d feet propel it
Strong, webbe .
a short, flat tail into young,
its lungs. It has eg gs in a ne st. These hatch
us lays
ck-billed platyp
The female du onths.
s for several m
which it suckle

a Which features of the duck-billed platypus suggest that it is a


bird?
b Which feature suggests that it is not a fish?
c Which feature suggests that it is a mammal?
d If it were a mammal, what would you expect to find covering
its body?
e The duck-billed platypus is usually described as an egg-laying
mammal. Why do you think that scientists argue about which
animal group it fits into?

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D5 No bones about it Homework

M W HELP
p ? 1 Stick down the wordsearch. Find seven words about animals with no
backbones. The words are in the list below. (Some of the words in the
t u
list are not in the wordsearch.)
^ _
jellyfish invertebra rm insect
UG LP te roundwo arthropod

TN
mollusc
spider flatworm starfish crustacean

CORE
2 Here is a picture of an earthworm. earthworm
It does not belong to any of the
groups in the list below.

jellyfish roundwo insect


rm
spider
arthropod flatworm starfish
mollusc crustacean

a To which invertebrate group does the earthworm belong?


b What feature tells you that it belongs to this group?

3 a Write down one way in which you can tell the difference
between a spider and a centipede.
b Copy and complete these sentences.

I have a soft, jelly-like body. I am a ...................................... .

I am a roundworm with a soft, thin, round body. If I were

a flatworm my body would be ...................................... .

EXTENSION
4 Imagine that you are writing a reference book about animal
groups, for people of your own age. You are worried that your
readers will not really understand how or why animals are grouped.
Write two or three paragraphs as an introduction to the arthropods
section of the book, explaining why arthropods are different from
other invertebrates and how they are divided into groups.
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Homework
D1 All the same? mark scheme

M W HELP
p ? Question Answer Mark
1 One mark for each table row containing a correct difference and similarity,
t u e.g. a cat has sharp claws but a dog does not; both dogs and cats have four legs. 5
2 a One mark for each correct feature common to all three dogs up to four,
^ _ e.g. four legs, two ears, tail, fur. 4
UG LP b One mark for each correct difference up to two, e.g. the ‘show’ poodle has
pom-poms on its ankles but the ‘normal’ one does not; the ‘show’ poodle
HM has very short hair on its thighs but the ‘normal’ one does not. 2
c One mark for each correct difference up to two, e.g. the poodle is smaller than
the Great Dane; the poodle has floppy ears but the Great Dane has pointed ears. 2
3 Differences between living things or between members of a species 1
Total for Help 14

CORE
Question Answer Mark
4 A group of organisms that are very similar or that can reproduce 1
Accept equivalent answers.
5 a One mark for each correct feature up to two, e.g. slide on a ‘foot’, have wet bodies,
are herbivores, have two long ‘horns’. 2
b One mark for a correct feature, e.g. a snail has a shell but a slug does not. 1
c You would need to know whether they can reproduce together. 1
6 a Three 1
b B and E 1
Both are needed for the mark.
c One mark for each correct similar feature up to two, e.g. they have the same body
shape, the same shaped tail, the same beak, the same type of feet. 2
d One mark for each correct difference up to two, e.g. E has a white band round its
throat but the others do not; B has a stripe over its eyes but the others do not. 2
Total for Core 11

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
7 a i Discontinuous 1
ii Continuous 1
b i Discontinuous 1
Inherited 1
ii Discontinuous 1
Affected by surroundings 1
iii Continuous 1
Affected by surroundings or affected by both inheritance and surroundings 1
Total for Extension 8

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Homework
D2 Differences count mark scheme

M W HELP
p ? Question Answer Mark
1 Dogs inherit different features because each sperm from the father 1
t u and each egg from the mother is different. 1
Underscores show answers; other text copied by pupils.
^ _ 2 Features that are definitely inherited: colour of eyes, long tail, floppy ears
UG LP Features that are definitely not inherited: sits up and begs when told to, wears
a tartan jacket when out for a walk 5
HM One mark for each correct answer.
Total for Help 7

CORE
Question Answer Mark
3 One mark for each feature with a correct cause up to five, e.g. eye colour, natural
hair colour, skin colour, male or female are all inherited; clothing, pierced
ears, scars, weightlifter’s muscles are affected by the environment. 5
4 Jimmy: inherited; the same happened to his dad. 1
Jonny: environmetal; caused by drugs. 1
Joe: environmental; if he stopped shaving it would grow back. 1
Accept equivalent answers.
Total for Core 8

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
5 a She inherited it from her mother. 1
b Her father has fair hair. 1
c She could have dyed it. 1
d i It was bleached by the sun. 1
ii Environmental 1
Total for Extension 5

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Homework
D3 Sorting living things mark scheme

M W HELP
p ? Question Answer Mark
1 Animals: B, D, F, J
t u Plants: A, E, I, G
Microorganisms: C
^ _ Fungi: H
All correct, six marks; deduct one mark for each error up to six. 6
UG LP
2 Plants can: respire, grow, reproduce, make food.
HM Animals can: respire, grow, reproduce, eat, move from place to place.
All correct, four marks; deduct one mark for each error up to four. 4
Total for Help 10

CORE
Question Answer Mark
3 a Zig-zags: C, D, E 1
Six spots: A, B, F 1
Four spots: G, H 1
b Banded: A, D, F 1
Not banded: B, C, E, G, H 1
c i (Length of) antennae or feelers 1
ii Long antennae: A, C, D, F
Short antennae: B, E, G, H 1
d A and F 1
G and H 1
e Invertebrates 1
Total for Core 10

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
4 a It is a catalyst beetle because it has six spots, and antennae and banded heads
are just a variation; or
It is not a catalyst beetle because the only similarity is the number of spots.
Award two marks for relevant points that support the choice, and one mark for
coherence and quality of communication of ideas. 3
b i D and E 1
ii They are not identical: they show variation or their heads and/or antennae
show differences. 1
c Award marks for the key as follows:
separates spots from zig-zags; 1
separates banded head from non-banded head; 1
separates short from long antennae; 1
separates four spots from six spots; 1
quality of presentation of the key. 1
Total for Extension 10

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Homework
D4 More animal groups mark scheme

M W HELP
p ? Question Answer Mark
1 a The elephant is a mammal. We know this because the babies develop inside
t u the mother’s body or the mother feeds the young on milk or it has hairy skin. 1
b Reptiles, like grass snakes, have a dry scaly skin and live mostly on land. 1
^ _ c The ostrich cannot fly and looks after its young. It sounds as though it might
UG LP be a mammal but it isn’t one because it has feathers. 1
d Salamanders go back to the water in the spring. This tells us they are
HM amphibians. 1
e The flying fish is not a bird. Although it can glide through the air, it breathes
under water using its gills. 1
Underscores show answers; other text copied by pupils.
Total for Help 5

CORE
Question Answer Mark
2 a i It is a nocturnal flying animal. 1
It is carnivorous/feeds on insects. 1
ii It lays eggs on land. 1
b It is covered with feathers. 1
c It lays eggs in a nest. 1
d One mark for each correct feature up to three, e.g. (two) wings, two eyes, two legs,
claws on feet, beak, tail. 3
Total for Core 8

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
3 One mark for each correct comparison up to four, e.g. some reptiles and amphibians
look similar, such as salamanders and lizards; reptiles have a dry scaly skin
but amphibians have a smooth moist skin; reptiles lay eggs on land but
amphibians lay eggs in water; reptiles’ eggs have a leathery shell but
amphibians’ eggs are like jelly; reptiles live mainly on land but amphibians
live partly on land and partly in water. 5
One mark for good quality of communication.
4 a Duck-like bill 1
Webbed feet 1
Lays eggs in a nest 1
b It breathes air using lungs. 1
c It suckles its young. 1
d Hair 1
e It does not really fit any group very well. 1
Accept equivalent answers.
Total for Extension 12

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Homework
D5 No bones about it mark scheme

M W HELP
p ? Question Answer Mark
1
t u A J P R O D E M O A X G B
L E S F D O P O R H T R A
^ _
L L T T R E E I B R A K E
UG LP K L E A N Y Q N Z V I T M

HM O Y D H R P W S Q U I D R
U F C F U B P E C T U M O
D I M S I D E C V Y I S W
C S U L L O M T U I E T T
L H X Y D E T M R P D H A
Q F G E Y J M D R E R R L
D N G T H K S D G H V M F
N R C R U S T A C E A N E
A F G J N F E T U K G F I

All correct, seven marks; deduct one mark for each missing word up to seven. 7
Total for Help 7

CORE
Question Answer Mark
2 a Segmented worms 1
b It has a soft, ringed body. 1
3 a Spiders have a two-part body but centipedes have a long body or
spiders have eight legs but centipedes have lots of legs. 1
Accept suitable alternatives.
b I have a soft, jelly-like body. I am a jellyfish. 1
I am a roundworm with a soft, thin, round body. If I were a flatworm my body
would be flat or leaf-shaped. 1
Total for Core 5

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
4 Award marks for the introduction as follows:
arthropods have jointed legs but other invertebrates do not; 1
four named arthropod groups; 1
indication of the differences between the groups; 2
good quality of communication. 1
Total for Extension 5

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D Variation and classification Transition quiz

M 1 See if you can identify the bugs using the key below.

p ? A Bug has large wings. Go to B


Bug has short wings. Go to D
t u
B Bug has spots. Go to C
^ _
Bug has stripes. Bug ......................................
UG
C Wings have veins. Bug ......................................
TN Wings do not have veins. Bug ......................................

D Bug has antennae. Bug ......................................


Bug has no antennae. Bug ......................................

V W X

Y Z

2 Why would the question (Has the bug got big round eyes?) not
be suitable for our key?

...........................................................................................................................................................

3 Can you think of any other suitable questions that could have
been used in the key above?

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

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D Variation and classification (continued) Transition quiz

M 4 Living things all carry out common processes. Look at the four
sets of pictures below and decide which of them is the odd one
p ?
out.
t u
a
^ _
UG

TN

Can you explain your choices?

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

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Transition
D Variation and classification worksheet

M 1 In science, keys can be used to help you work out what


something is. Make a key to identify the scientists shown below.
p ?

t u

^ _
UG

TN Physicist Archaeologist Biologist

Chemist Astronomer Geologist

2 Living things must be capable of doing seven important life


processes. Rearrange the words to name these processes:

GONVIM M .......................... WRINGGO G ..........................


SPRING ERI R .......................... ICEDGONPURR R ..........................
NESSGIN S .......................... CRINGETEX E ..........................
FIDEENG F ..........................

3 We know that a cat is living. It is capable of carrying out all of the


seven processes you have listed above.
The diagram below shows some of these processes. Complete
the diagram.

I g.......................... from a kitten to a cat.

I need f.......................... to stay alive.

I r.......................... away when I see a dog.

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Transition
D Variation and classification (continued) worksheet

M 4 Elsie thinks her cyber pet is alive. Explain why she is wrong.

p ?

t u My cyber pet is living


because it can do lots
^ _ of the processes we have
learnt about in science.
UG

TN

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

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D Variation and classification Test yourself

M 1 Which of these phrases best describes variation? Circle the correct


letter.
p ?
A when two living things are the same as each other
t u
B when two living things are different from each other
^ _
C when two living things are identical to each other
UG
D when two humans are different from each other
TN

2 Write down whether these types of variation have been caused by


inheritance or the environment.
a Eye colour is caused by .......................................... .
b A scratch on the face is caused by .......................................... .
c Pierced ears are caused by .......................................... .
d Whether you are male or female is caused by .......................................... .

3 What is a species? Circle the correct letter.


A A group of living things that have none of their features in
common.
B A group of living things that have half of their features in
common.
C A group of living things that have over half of their features in
common.
D A group of living things that have almost all of their features in
common.

4 What is classification? Underline the correct answer.


A putting things into groups
B taking things out of groups
C changing things between groups
D adding groups together

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D Variation and classification (continued) Test yourself

M 5 Look at the two groups of animals. Which feature was used to classify them?

p ? ......................................................................................................................................................................................

t u

^ _
UG

TN

Group A Group B

6 You can divide living things into lots of groups. The diagram shows how
animals are divided into groups. Complete it using the words below.

fish mammals molluscs insects reptiles

roundworms animals spiders

vertebrates invertebrates

birds amphibians

jellyfish starfish flatworms segmented


worms

arthropods

crustaceans centipedes
and
millipedes
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D Variation and classification (continued) Test yourself

M 7 What is the main difference between animals and plants?


Circle the correct letter.
p ?
A Animals make their own food; plants do not make their own food.
t u
B Plants make their own food; animals do not make their own food.
^ _
C Plants must eat their food, animals must make their food.
UG
D Plants do not need food; animals do need food.
TN

8 Draw lines to match up each animal group with its main features.
Animal group Features
molluscs ● ● feathers, wings, lungs, lay eggs with a shell

amphibians ● ● soft body with one foot and often a shell, live
in water or on land
mammals ●
● hairy skin, lungs, babies develop inside mother,
centipedes babies fed on milk from the mother

and millipedes ● smooth, moist skin, lungs, live in water or on land
birds ● ● long thin body, lots of jointed legs

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Test yourself
Answers
D Variation and classification
M 1 Which of these phrases best describes variation? Circle the correct
letter.
p ?
A when two living things are the same as each other
t u
B when two living things are different from each other
^ _
C when two living things are identical to each other
UG
D when two humans are different from each other
TY

2 Write down whether these types of variation have been caused by


inheritance or the environment.
inheritance .
a Eye colour is caused by ..........................................
environment .
b A scratch on the face is caused by ..........................................
environment .
c Pierced ears are caused by ..........................................
inheritance .
d Whether you are male or female is caused by ..........................................

3 What is a species? Circle the correct letter.


A A group of living things that have none of their features in
common.
B A group of living things that have half of their features in
common.
C A group of living things that have over half of their features in
common.
D A group of living things that have almost all of their features in
common.

4 What is classification? Underline the correct answer.


A putting things into groups
B taking things out of groups
C changing things between groups
D adding groups together

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Test yourself
Variation and classification (continued) Answers
D
M 5 Look at the two groups of animals. Which feature was used to classify them?

p ? Tail. Group A have tails; group B do not have tails.


......................................................................................................................................................................................

t u

^ _
UG

TY

Group A Group B

6 You can divide living things into lots of groups. The diagram shows how
animals are divided into groups. Complete it using the words below.

fish mammals molluscs insects reptiles

roundworms animals spiders

vertebrates invertebrates

birds amphibians
mammals reptiles fish

jellyfish starfish flatworms segmented


roundworms worms
molluscs

arthropods

The order of the groups at


crustaceans centipedes
each level of classification spiders insects
and
is not important.
millipedes
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Test yourself
Variation and classification (continued) Answers
D
M 7 What is the main difference between animals and plants?
Circle the correct letter.
p ?
A Animals make their own food; plants do not make their own food.
t u
B Plants make their own food; animals do not make their own food.
^ _
C Plants must eat their food, animals must make their food.
UG
D Plants do not need food; animals do need food.
TY

8 Draw lines to match up each animal group with its main features.
Animal group Features
molluscs ● ● feathers, wings, lungs, lay eggs with a shell

amphibians ● ● soft body with one foot and often a shell,


live in water or on land
mammals ●
● hairy skin, lungs, babies develop inside mother,
centipedes babies fed on milk from the mother

and millipedes ● smooth, moist skin, lungs, live in water or on land
birds ● ● long thin body, lots of jointed legs

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End of unit test
D Variation and classification Green

M 1 Look at these pictures.

p ? a Which are plants? 1 mark

t u b Which are animals? 1 mark


D
^ _ E
UG SS
F
MS ET
H
C
A
B G I J

2 Marie has a lot of pet cats. She needs to be able to tell them apart.
Look at these two cats.
a Write down two ways in
which they are similar. 1 mark
b Write down two ways in
which they are different. 1 mark

3 Last week, an alien landed in your


back garden. It saw you, and began What a strange creature I can
to describe you on a piece of paper. see. Its body stands on two long
Just as it finished writing, something ________ , and it has ________
scared it, it dropped the paper and
covering the top of its head.
ran inside its spaceship.
Copy and complete the
alien’s description opposite. 2 marks

4 A student has been asked to put group 1 group 2


some plants into groups. She chose
to put them into two groups.
a Which feature do plants
in group 1 have which
plants in group 2
do not have? 1 mark A B C D E F
b Use a different feature to divide the plants into two groups.
Write down the feature you have used, and the two groups. 1 mark

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End of unit test
D Variation and classification (continued) Green

M 5 John works for the local


council. His job is to get rid
p ?
of rats from people’s houses.
t u Rats like to live in drains, but
he often finds frogs, worms
^ _
and snails in the drains as well.
UG SS

MS ET

a Name one of these animals which is an invertebrate. 1 mark


b Which of these animals is an amphibian? 1 mark
c Write down two features that all amphibians have. 2 marks
One day, John found a millipede in the drains. He picked it up in
his hands, but it tickled him when it moved, and he dropped it.
d Explain why the millipede made John so ticklish. 1 mark
e Is a millipede a vertebrate or an invertebrate? 1 mark

6 Marline is famous throughout southern Africa for picking up


snakes, however poisonous they are. She has studied snakes for
a long time and she knows how they will behave.
a A snake is a reptile. Write down two features that all reptiles
have. 2 marks
In the nineteenth century, explorers in Africa used to find new
species of animals and plants all the time. They always gave each
animal an English name and a Latin name.
b What is a species? 1 mark
c Write down one reason why scientists classify animals and
plants. 1 mark

7 Ling and Jess are sisters. Ling has black hair, Jess has black hair and
their parents have black hair.
a Using this evidence, do you think that hair colour is an example
of inherited or environmental variation? 1 mark
b Ling dyes her hair bright red. Explain how this may change the
way you describe variation in hair colour. 1 mark
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End of unit test
D Variation and classification (continued) Green

M 8 Romi collected some data


Name Eye colour Gender Hair colour Age
about the pupils in her class,
p ? Andrew blue m blond 11
shown opposite.
t u Becky green f red 12
a Choose the word
Daisy blue f blond 12
^ _ that best describes
this record of the David brown m brown 12
UG SS
data. 1 mark Emily green f red 11
MS ET Emma brown f blond 12
chart graph
Glen hazel m brown 12
Hugh brown m brown 11
table results
Jack brown m brown 11
James blue m blond 11
b How many pupils John blue m blond 11
had blue eyes? 1 mark
Katie blue f blond 11
Katie brown f black 11
Kim blue f brown 12
Kirsten brown f brown 11
Romi brown f brown 12
Sam brown f brown 11
Sarah brown f brown 11
Scott blue m blond 12
Look at the graphs below. Sophie blue f brown 12

Eye colour in our class


5% Eye colour in our class
10% 10
9
40% 8 Eye colour in our class
7
6 hazel
5 green
4
45% 3 brown
2
blue brown 1 blue
green hazel 0
0 2 4 6 0 5 10
graph A graph B graph C

c i Which graph best shows how many children had each


eye colour? 1 mark
ii What is the correct name for the type of graph you have
chosen? 1 mark
d Using graphs A and C, what percentage of the class had
brown eyes? 1 mark
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End of unit test
D Variation and classification Red

M 1 A student has been asked to put group 1 group 2


some plants into groups. She chose
p ?
to put them into two groups.
t u
a Which feature do plants
^ _ in group 1 have which
plants in group 2
UG SS
do not have? 1 mark A B C D E F
MS ET
b Use a different feature to divide
the plants into two groups.
Write down the feature you have
used, and the two groups. 1 mark

2 John works for the local


council. His job is to get rid
of rats from people’s houses.
Rats like to live in drains, but
he often finds frogs, worms
and snails in the drains as well.

a Name one of these animals which is an invertebrate. 1 mark


b Which of these animals is an amphibian? 1 mark
c Write down two features that all amphibians have. 2 marks
One day, John found a millipede in the drains. He picked it up in
his hands, but it tickled him when it moved, and he dropped it.
d Explain why the millipede made John so ticklish. 1 mark
e Is a millipede a vertebrate or an invertebrate? 1 mark

3 Marline is famous for picking up snakes, however poisonous they


are. She has studied snakes for a long time and knows how they
will behave.
a A snake is a reptile. Write down two features that all reptiles have. 2 marks
In the nineteenth century, explorers often used to find new species
of animals and plants. They gave each one an English name and
a Latin name.
b What is a species? 1 mark
c Write down one reason why scientists classify animals and plants 1 mark
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End of unit test
D Variation and classification (continued) Red

M 4 Ling and Jess are sisters. Ling has black hair, Jess has black hair
and their parents have black hair.
p ?
a Using this evidence, do you think that hair colour is an example
t u
of inherited or environmental variation? 1 mark
^ _ b Can you think of one way in which hair colour can also be
UG SS affected by the environment? 1 mark
MS ET
5 Some features are caused only by inheritance, some by the
environment and some by both. Jane has decided to run the
London Marathon. She is standing with the other runners, and
looks around her at their faces.
a Which of these human features is caused only by inheritance?
Write the correct letter. 1 mark
A hair length
B eye colour
C height
D intelligence
E skin colour
Half way round the course, she sees the son of a famous athlete
and overtakes him. She was quite surprised. ‘He should be near
the front,’ she thought to herself.
b Explain why she thought the athlete’s son should be further up
the field. 1 mark
c What could the athlete’s son do, if he wanted to try to be a
better runner? 1 mark

6 Mushrooms are a type of fungus. Many fungi are poisonous,


but mushrooms can be eaten. They have cells which have a
cell wall, but they cannot make their own food and have no
chloroplasts.
a The presence of cell walls in its cells might make you classify a
mushroom as a plant. Name one feature of a mushroom that
might make you classify it as an animal. 1 mark
b If you were asked to classify a mushroom as a plant or an
animal, what would you say? Explain your answer. 2 marks

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End of unit test
D Variation and classification (continued) Red

M 7 Romi collected some data


Name Eye colour Gender Hair colour Age
about the pupils in her class.
p ? Andrew blue m blond 11
Look at these graphs.
t u Becky green f red 12
Eye colour in our class
^ _ 5% Daisy blue f blond 12
10% blue
David brown m brown 12
UG SS brown
green Emily green f red 11
MS ET hazel
Emma brown f blond 12
40% Glen hazel m brown 12
45%
graph A Hugh brown m brown 11
Jack brown m brown 11
Eye colour in our class James blue m blond 11
10
9 John blue m blond 11
8
7 Katie blue f blond 11
6
5 Katie brown f black 11
4
3 Kim blue f brown 12
2
1 Kirsten brown f brown 11
0
0 2 4 6
Romi brown f brown 12
graph B
Sam brown f brown 11
Eye colour in our class Sarah brown f brown 11
hazel Scott blue m blond 12
green
Sophie blue f brown 12
brown
blue
0 5 10
graph C

a i Which graph best shows how many children had each


eye colour? 1 mark
ii What is the correct name for the type of graph you have
chosen? 1 mark
b Using graphs A and C, what percentage of the class had
brown eyes? 1 mark
c Romi said that her results showed that 5% of the children in the
school had hazel eyes. Daisy said that Romi could not conclude
this from the results.
i Why did Daisy say this? 1 mark
ii How could they test to see if Romi is right about the whole
school? 1 mark
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End of unit test
D Variation and classification mark scheme

Green (NC Tier 2–5)


M
Question Answer Mark Level
p ?
1 a A, C, E, F, G 1 2
t u b B, D, H, I, J 1 2
2 a Two from: whisker length; height; leg length; ear size.
^ _ Accept suitable alternatives. 1 3
UG SS b Colour, tail length 1 3
3 What a strange creature I can see. Its body stands on two long legs,
MS ET and it has hair covering the top of its head.
Italics show answers; other text copied by pupils. 2 3
4 a Spiny leaves 1 3
b Stem width; ABF, CDE 1 3
5 a Worm or snail 1 4
b Frog 1 4
c Two from: moist skin; lungs; live partly on land and partly in water;
lay eggs in water; eggs are like jelly 2 4
d It had lots of legs. 1 4
e Invertebrate 1 4
6 a Two from: dry skin; scales; lungs; lay eggs on land; eggs have a
leathery shell 2 4
b A group of living things which have almost all their features in
common and/or can mate together and reproduce 1 4
c One from: to put them in order; to help understand what a living
thing is like; to work out how closely related they are to other living
things; to make it easier for them to tell other scientists about a
living thing 1 5
7 a Inherited 1 5
b Your hair colour can be changed by what happens during your life,
so it can be classed as environmental.
Accept equivalent answers or suitable alternatives. 1 5
8 a Table 1 3
b 8 1 3
c i Graph C 1 4
ii Bar chart or bar graph 1 4
d 45% 1 4

Scores in the range of: NC Level


4–7 2
8–13 3
14–17 4
18–25 5

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End of unit test
D Variation and classification mark scheme

Red (NC Tier 3–6)


M
Question Answer Mark Level
p ?
1 a Spiny leaves 1 3
t u b Stem width, ABF, CDE 1 3
2 a Worm or snail 1 4
^ _ b Frog 1 4
UG SS c Two from: moist skin; lungs; live partly on land and partly in water;
lay eggs in water; eggs are like jelly 2 4
MS ET d It had lots of legs. 1 4
e Invertebrate 1 4
3 a Two from: dry skin; scales; lungs; lay eggs on land; eggs have a
leathery shell 2 4
b A group of living things which have almost all their features in
common and/or can mate together and reproduce 1 4
c One from: to put them in order; to help understand what a living
thing is like; to work out how closely related they are to other living
things; to make it easier for them to tell other scientists about a
living thing 1 5
4 a Inherited 1 5
b Dyeing it or turning grey or bleached by the sun
Accept suitable alternatives. 1 5
5 a B 1 5
b Because she thought he could have inherited his parent’s sporting
ability 1 5
c Do more training 1 5
6 a It cannot make its own food. 1 5
b Neither 1 6
Because it has features of both plants and animals or because it is a
fungus, which is a separate group 1 6
7 a i Graph C 1 4
ii Bar chart or bar graph 1 4
b 45% 1 4
c i They have data only from their class – other classes may have a
different pattern. 1 5
ii Record the eye colour of everyone in the school. 1 5

Scores in the range of: NC Level


4–8 3
9–14 4
15–18 5
19–25 6

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D Variation and classification Book answers

M D1 All the same? d Any one of the four not used in answer to part c.
1 Each individual within a species looks like their
Green
p ? a Fox
parents. But they are not identical to them.
Each sperm and egg has a different set of
b The novelist uses more descriptive and
t u colourful language. The biologist uses brief,
instructions. Differences in the environment
can also cause variation.
technical specific facts and information.
^ _ c Because scientists use the same words.
2 Inherited Environmental
blue eyes tattoo on her arm
d They are all humans.
UG e Some are male and some female.
naturally red hair pierced ears
1 There are differences between living things. Red
These differences are called variation. A group a Members of the Jones family have white skin,
of living things with lots of similarities is blond hair, freckles and a large build.
called a species. b Some are elderly, some young, some have black
2 Mating between different species will not hair, some have grey hair, some are male, some
produce young. are female, some have lots of hair, some have
only a little hair.
Red c Different sets of instructions in the sperm and
a fox egg cells.
b i Field study guide. 1 Inherited Inherited and Environmental
ii Field study guide. environmental
iii Field study guide. small stature pale skin pierced ears
c It is more precise and clear about what is being blue eyes tattoo on her arm
described. naturally red hair
d They are all humans. high IQ
e Some are male and some female. 2 Some leaves were very young and some were
1 Wolves are carnivorous, predators, have short mature; some leaves were in an environment
legs, are less than a metre in height and do not favourable for growth (with sun and moisture)
have antlers, have long bushy tails, are and some were in an environment which was
nocturnal, live in underground dens. unfavourable for growth; variation due to
Reindeer are herbivores, prey, have long legs, inheritance.
are more than a metre in height, have antlers, 3 Rebecca had a healthier diet and did more
short stubby tail, feed in the daylight and live exercise.
above ground 4 No. The greater similarity to one parent rather
2 Polar bears and seals are different species. Polar than to the other is purely a chance variation of
bears and brown bears are the same species. which set of instructions was followed by the
Mating between different species will not developing embryo. Some are those from the
produce offspring. father’s sperm cell and some are from the
3 Mating between these animals does not mother’s egg cell.
produce offspring.
4 Some differences are inherited from our parents
and some differences are caused by our D3 Sorting living things
surroundings. Green
5 Any three from: eye colour, skin colour, height, a Put into groups things that have similar
intelligence, natural hair colour, facial features, features.
etc. b Plants make their own food and stay in one
6 Individual answers. place. Animals feed on other animals or plants
and they move around.
c Seal, cod and arctic tern.
D2 Differences count 1 We can sort most species into groups. All the
Green organisms in a group have similar features.
a Members of the Jones family have white skin, Each bigger group can be sorted into smaller
blond hair, freckles and a large build. groups.
b Some are elderly, some young, some have black 2 Vertebrates Invertebrates
hair, some have grey hair, some are male, some seal starfish
are female, some have lots of hair, some have cod crab
only a little hair. arctic tern octopus
c Any two from: dyeing our hair, wearing 3 Does it have a backbone?
jewellery, eating too much or too little, → Yes → It is a vertebrate
tattooing. → No → It is an invertebrate
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D Book answers

M Red 2 All birds are warm-blooded. They lay eggs with


a Seal – vertebrate, starfish – invertebrate, cod – a hard shell, look after their young after they
p ? vertebrate, octopus – invertebrate, crab – have hatched, have feathers and wings.
invertebrate, arctic tern – vertebrate. 3 Dry and scaly.
t u b He would have compared the size of the 4 Salamanders and all amphibians go back to
elephant’s tooth with the size of the teeth of water to keep their skin moist.
^ _ other animals of similar species. He might have 5 Through gills.
compared it with a tiger or leopard’s tooth and 6 All animals in the birds and reptiles species lay
UG magnified their sizes to what he expected the eggs with shells. Mammals do not lay eggs with
elephant’s skull, legs and size to be. shells and are a different species.
1 All living things are classified by whether or not 7 Birds and reptiles lay eggs with shells to provide
they have backbones. nourishment for the developing fetus and to
2 Plants make their own food and stay in one protect it from harm. Mammals do not lay eggs
place. Animals feed on other animals or plants but keep the developing fetus within their bodies
and move around. until the completion of the fetus’s development.
3 a As an animal it has cytoplasm, nuclear
material, no chloroplasts and no large
vacuoles.
D5 No bones about it
b As a plant it has cytoplasm, a cell wall and Green
nuclear material. a The kind of body they have.
4 Fungi are the only substances which feed on b Segmented worms.
rotting material. c Invertebrates with lots of jointed legs.
5 Robin, toad, rat, snake, bat and squirrel are d Centipedes have lots of legs. Roundworms have
vertebrates. no legs.
6 Does it have a backbone? e Molluscs
→ Yes → It is a vertebrate 1 I have a flat leaf-shaped body and no legs. I am
→ No → It is an invertebrate a flatworm. I have a star-shaped body. I am a
starfish. I have lots of legs and a shell. I am a
crustacean.
D4 More animal groups 2 Insects have 3-part bodies and 6 legs; spiders
Green have 2-part bodies and 8 legs.
a Mammals Red
b Birds have feathers and wings. a Molluscs
c A fish breathes through gills. b Only their shells remain.
d To keep their skin moist. c Crustaceans. Either: they both have hard shells,
e They have scaly, dry skin. or: they both have lots of legs.
1 Vertebrate Features 1 a Body shape.
group b Segmented worms.
mammals have mammary glands, babies develop 2 a Arthropods are invertebrates with lots of
inside mother’s body, have hairy skin. jointed legs.
birds lay eggs with hard shells, have feathers b Centipedes have lots of legs; roundworms
and wings. have no legs.
reptiles lay eggs on land, eggs have a leathery 3 He was unable to see small details like the
shell, breathe air, live mainly on land, number of joints in a body or the number of
have a scaly, dry skin. legs on an insect or spider.
amphibians lay eggs in water, eggs are like jelly, 4 Does it have lots of legs?
breathe air, live partly on land, but have → No → It is not an arthropod
to lay their eggs in water, have a smooth, → Yes → It is an arthropod →
moist skin. Does it have 6 legs?
fish lay eggs, live in water, breathe through → No → It is not an insect
gills, have scales and fins. → Yes → It is an insect
2 on land
3 mammals
D6 The right size
Red Green
1 Mammals. Only mammals have mothers which a Living in arctic surroundings, small bodies lose
feed their young on her milk which she makes less heat, so they keep warmer.
in her body and keep their body temperature b Small samples can give the wrong impression if
constant at 37°C. only one member is much different from the rest.
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M c Choose the sample in the same way that the 1 To see if the trend of smaller Inuits was true for
sample was chosen from the USA. the tallest as well as the shortest.
p ? 1 There is a small difference in the heights of 2 Yes. The Americans were slightly taller than the
the Inuits and American girls when they are Inuits in both groups.
t u 12 months old. As they get older, the gap 3 The growth of the American girls became much
widens. The Inuit girls grew slower than the greater than the growth of the Inuit girls.
^ _ girls in the USA. 4 The data for the boys would probably show an
2 Diet, amount of exercise, etc. To consider what even greater difference after 12 months.
UG effects, if any, were caused by environmental 5 Diet, amount of exercise, etc. To consider what
conditions on their growth. effects, if any, were caused by environmental
conditions on their growth.
Red 6 Yes. People with small bodies will lose heat less
a Living in arctic surroundings, small bodies lose quickly and the data in the graph shows this to
less heat, so they keep warmer. be correct.
b Small samples can give the wrong impression if 7 No. The extrapolation would be too far to be
only one member is much different from the accurate.
rest.
c Choose the sample in the same way that the
sample was chosen from the USA.

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