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CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSAL

IMPROVING STUDENTS SKILL IN READING COMPREHENSION


THROUGH COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING (CSR)

(A Classroom Action Research at The tenth Grade of SMK KP Baros Arjasari in the
Academic Year of 2018/2019)

By
Riki Mulyana
18020815710053

PENDIDIKAN PROFESI GURU DALAM JABATAN TAHAP 2


UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN INDONESIA
2018
A. BACKGROUND
Reading has an important role in teaching and learning success at all education
stages. According to Grabe (2009:5) reading is “a process when readers learn
something from what they read and involve it in an academic context as a part of
education”. So reading in teaching and learning process has to be understood well by
all English learners. It is because most of the materials of teaching and learning are in
written form. It means that the students need to improve their reading skill in order to
understand the teaching and learning materials. The students will be on the road to
academic failure, if they could not read and understand the main idea of the reading.
However, based on the researcher’s experience on the teaching practice, there
are still some problems appear in the reading at my school, such as they have
difficulties to comprehend the content of the reading text, some students the students
have low motivation to read a text. Moreover, reading was an activity that the students
disliked much. They are not interested in the reading activity, such as doing assignment
and homework. The students also do not master vocabulary well. As a consequence,
they have difficulty in interpreting the meanings of the difficult words.
Due to the fact and explanation above, the researcher needs to improve teaching
and learning process by improving teacher’s skill in teaching reading through an
effective strategy, it will make the students be more creative while learning. In this
research, the researcher will try to use Collaborative Strategic Learning (CSR) as one
of effective way in teaching reading. CSR is defined by Klinger and Vaughn (1996) as
“a method of teaching reading comprehension strategies originally designed for
teacher-led small groups of students in special education whose first language is not
English. It was later adapted to cooperative learning and peer-led small group
instruction in general education classes”. From the explanation above, it can be
assumed that CSR is a reading comprehension strategy which engages students of
various reading and achievement levels work in small group cooperatively in applying
the four reading strategies which include Preview, Click & Clunk, Get the Gist and
Wrap Up to facilitate reading comprehension for students with reading, learning, and
behavior problems included in general education classrooms.
Based on those facts above, the researcher conducted Classroom Action Research
entitle Improving students’ Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Strategic
Learning (CSR) (A Classroom Action Research at The tenth Grade of SMK KP Baros
Arjasari in the Academic Year of 2018/2019)
1. Research Problem
This research is aimed to find the answer to the following research question:
How does Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) strategy improve the
students’ skill in comprehending a reading text?

2. Research Purpose
According to the research question above, the purpose of this research is to
investigate how Collaborative Strategic Reading can improve students' reading
comprehension.

3. Research Benefit
The benefits of this research are expected to provide some advantages for
English teaching and learning process. The benefits of this research are:
1. For the teachers in the school, it was expected that the teachers could
improve their technique of reading interestingly and effectively so that the
students would enjoy the study
2. For the students as the subjects of the research, it was expected that the
students would take the advantages of the research. They could learn how
to improve their skills of reading.

B. LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Definition of Reading
Reading is a process when readers learn something from what they read and
involve it in an academic context as a part of education (Grabe, 2009: 5). In the
classroom, some teachers often use texts or books as media to deliver material of a
subject. Furthermore, the teacher asks the students to read the texts to grab
information in order that they could understand the material.
2. General Concept of Reading
Reading is useful for language acquisition, provided that students more or
less understand what they read, the more they read the better they get at it. Reading
is one of the main four skills that the students need to master in order to ensure
success in learning. According to Grabe and Stoller (2002), there are many
purposes for reading, they are:
1) Reading to search for simple information is a common reading ability through
a text either to search for a specific piece of information or to get an initial
impression of whether the text is suitable for a given purposes.
2) Reading to skim quickly is combination of strategies for guessing where
important information might be in the text, and then using basic reading
comprehension skill on those segments of the text until a general idea is
formed.
3) Reading to learn from texts is usually occurs in academic and professional
context in which a person needs to learn a considerable amount of
information from a text.
4) Reading to integrate information requires critical evaluation of the
information being read so that the reader can decide what information to
integrate and how to integrate it for reader’s goal.
5) Reading for general comprehension is the process of understanding and
constructing meaning from a piece of text connected text is any written
material involving multiple words that forms coherent thoughts.
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that reading is very important for
human being. Meaning, learning, and pleasure are the ultimate goals of learning to
read. Knowing how to read words has ultimately little value if the student is unable
to construct meaning from text.
3. Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is the process of constructing meaning by
coordinating a number of complex processes that include word reading, world
knowledge, and fluency. According to Hornby (1998) states that reading
comprehension is not just reading with a loudly voice but reading is established to
understand the meaning of words, sentences, and paragraph senses relationship
among the ideas. If the students just read and cannot understand the content of the
text, it means that they fail in comprehension. Furthermore, Smith and Johnson,
(1978: 56) states that reading comprehension means the understanding, evaluating,
utilizing of the information and gaining through an interaction between reader and
author. Reading comprehension is such as a kind of dialogue between an author
and reader in which the written language becomes the medium.

4. Collaborative Strategic Reading


In Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), students read and discuss text
through a combination of teacher-led activities and student-led cooperative group
work. According to Klingner and Vaughn (1998), CSR utilizes four strategies: 1).
Preview (students brainstorm about the topic and predict what will be learned;
occurs before reading); 2). Click and Clunk (students identify parts of a passage
that are hard to understand, then using four “fix-up” strategies); 3). Get the Gist
(students identify the most important information in a passage); 4). Wrap Up
(students ask and answer questions that demonstrate understanding; review what
was learned) Students are also taught to use the following cooperative group roles:
Leader (determines next steps for the group; Clunk Expert (reminds group of
steps); Gist Expert (guides the group through getting the gist); Announcer (asks
group members to carry out activities); Encourager ( gives encouragement to
group members) (Klingner and Vaughn, 1998).
In accordance to the teacher’s role in CSR, the teacher’s initial role is to
teach each of the strategies and students role to the entire class prior to reading.
This activity may take place over several days and includes identifying in advance
the vocabulary words from the reading materials which students will probably not
be able to figure out through the group process. Once the students are ready to
implement the CSR process, the teacher introduces the materials to be read to the
entire class. Then, taking on the role of facilitator, the teacher monitors small group
process. After each day’s reading assignment is completed, the teacher leads a
wrap-up involving the entire class (Klingner and Vaughn,1998).

C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. Method
This research employs a classroom action research. Classroom action
research is defined by Kemmis (1988) as “a form of self-reflective inquiry
conducted by participants in social interaction situation (including education) in
order to improve educational practice by group or participants and by mean of
own reflection upon effect of these actions”. The research generally follows the
pattern of cycles. Each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and
reflection. As the name suggests the classroom action research is carried with the
purpose in mind to obtain improvement in the teaching and learning practices. In
this context teacher function not only as the teacher teaching the classroom but
also as the researching who carry out research in the classroom.

2. Design
An outlined by the classroom action research (CAR) method, the research is
designed to go according to cycles. It is planned to finish in two cycles where in
each cycle there will be several meetings, The first cycle will be held in three
meetings, one meeting for conducting the pre-test and two meetings for
conducting the teaching-learning process and posttest. The second cycle consisted
of two meetings, first meeting for conducting teaching-learning process and one
meeting for conducting the last post-test, thus it is projected to complete 5
meetings in total. With each week completing 1 meeting, so the program will
require 5 weeks to end.

3. Model
1. Research Design
The researcher used Kemmis and McTaggart‟s model in this research as
discussed in the beginning point of this chapter. There were three steps in a
cycle. They were planning, observation, and reflection.
In planning stage of the cycle concerned with teaching preparations
designed by the researcher. It includes the lesson plan containing the
instructional objectives to be achieved, the material to be taught, the teaching
media used, and the task given to the students as the evaluation of the applied
technique. It deals with making observation sheets and field note use to collect
the data during the learning teaching process as well as designing the criteria of
success used in this study.
Following this stage, in act and observe stage, the researcher will
manage the distribution of task, running the classroom activities, observing the
students' learning, and writing journals.
Finally, reflection follows action and observation. In this process, the
researcher reflects on evaluate and describe the effect of the action in order to
determine what the researcher has to do in the further cycles of action research.

2. Setting and Subject of the Research


The research is carried out at SMK KP Baros , located in Arjasari Sub
district, Bandung, East Java. The school has 19 classes; 8 classes for the tenth
grade students, 6 classes for the eleventh grade students, and 5 classes for the
twelfth grade students. The average number of the students for each class was
about 30 students.
The subject of this research chosen in the class X-A Perhotelan
consisting of 31 students, the subject consists of 31 students, 25 male and 6
females which had low ability in reading comprehension texts given to them.
With the condition, the researcher decided to hold that class.

3. Procedures of the Research


This classroom action research was conducted in two cycles. Before the
researcher did the cycle, the researcher conducted the preliminary research.
a) Preliminary Research
The researcher conducted the preliminary research by doing observation
during teaching learning process by giving pre-test to the students of
reading comprehension as a reference for the researcher to know the
students reading ability.
b) The First Cycle
In this cycle the researcher used Collaborative Strategic Reading in
teaching reading. The procedure as follow:
1. Planning
The researcher identified the teaching and learning design, such as:
 Arranging lesson plan which used CSR Strategy to teach
reading
 The researcher prepared the teaching material, test, and
observation checklist
2. Action
 The researcher does the teaching and learning activity based
on the lesson plan which has been arranged.
3. Observation
In this stage, the researcher observed students‟ activities in
teaching and learning process by using observation checklist which
has been arranged. The researcher observed students‟ activities,
such as students‟ enthusiasm, participation and teamwork.
4. Reflection
The researcher with the English teacher reflects, evaluate and
discuses all the activities that have been done in teaching and
learning process. The result from observation is prepared to make a
plan for the next cycle.
c) The Second Cycle
After conducted the first cycle, the researcher do the second cycle in
order to overcome the weakness in cycle one. Here are the procedures of
teaching and learning process:
1. Planning
The researcher found a problem in first cycle and identified to
repair it, arranged lesson plan, prepared the media and teaching
material, observation checklist and test.
2. Action
The researcher does the teaching and learning process based on
lesson plan which has been arranged.
3. Observation
In this stage, the researcher observed students‟ activeness during
the teaching and learning process and students‟ understanding
toward the material given.
4. Reflection
In this stage, the researcher and the collaborator discusses about the
teaching and learning process in second cycle and made an
evaluation and conclusion from the teaching and learning process
in second cycle.
4. Data Collection
1. Research Instruments
Instrument is the main important tool to collect the data. The
instruments used in this research are observations and test. The observation is
used in the beginning of the research process, the end of the cycles, and the end
of the research process. The next instrument is test which used to measure the
students’ achievement in reading comprehension after being taught by using
CSR Strategy.
2. Techniques of Data analysis
The collected data found in this research are analyzed qualitatively and
quantitatively. It means that all the data gathered from observation during
teaching learning process is analyzed qualitatively. While the data obtained
from test (pre-test and post-test) are analyzed descriptive qualitatively.
The researcher analyzed the data by using statistical analysis. It used to analyze
the test instrument result (pretest and posttest). The researcher will compute the
individual scores, by using a formula proposed by Arikunto (2006:276):
×
∑= × 100
𝑛
Where:
Σ = standard score
X = sum of correct answer
N = maximum score
100 = fixed score
5. Research Schedule
Week
No Activities
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Preliminary test X
2 Planning X X
3 Observation X X
4 Reflection X X
5 Evaluation X X
6 Discussion and result X X

REFERENCES
Arikunto, S. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: PT
Asdi Mahasatya

Grabe, W. 2009.Reading in a Second Language (Moving from Theory to Practice).


New York: Cambridge University Press.

Grabe, William and Fredricka L. Stoller, Teaching and Researching Reading,


England: Pearson Education, 2002.
Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T. (1987). Learning Together and Alone:
Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning. 3rd ed. Boston in Allyn
and Bacon.

Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. 1988.The Action Research Planner.Victoria: Deakin


University Press.