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Affirmative/Negative/

Tenses Question Use Signal words


-action in the present taking always, every …, never,
place regularly, never or several normally, often, seldom,
times sometimes, usually
A: He speaks. if sentences type I (If
N: He does not speak. -facts Italk, …)
Present Simple Q: Does he speak? -actions taking place one after
another
-action set by a timetable or
schedule

-action taking place in the at the moment, just, just


moment of speaking now, Listen!, Look!, now,
Present A: He is speaking. right now
N: He is not speaking. -action taking place only for a
Progressive Q: Is he speaking? limited period of time
-action arranged for the future

-action in the past taking yesterday, 2 minutes ago,


place once, never or several in 1990, the other day, last
times Friday
Past Simple A: He spoke. if sentence type II (If
N: He did not speak. -actions taking place one after Italked, …)
Q: Did he speak? another
-action taking place in the middle
of another action

-action going on at a certain time while, as long as


in the past
A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking. -actions taking place at the same
Past Progressive Q: Was he speaking? time
-action in the past that is
interrupted by another action

-putting emphasis on the result already, ever, just, never,


not yet, so far, till now, up
-action that is still going on to now
Present Perfect A: He has spoken. -action that stopped recently
N: He has not spoken. -finished action that has an
Simple Q: Has he spoken? influence on the present
-action that has taken place once,
never or several times before the
moment of speaking

-putting emphasis on the course all day, for 4 years, since


or duration (not the result) 1993, how long?, the
A: He has been speaking. whole week
N: He has not been speaking. -action that recently stopped or
Present Perfect Q: Has he been speaking? still going on
Progressive -finished action that influenced
the present

-action taking place before a already, just, never, not


certain time in the past yet, once, until that day
A: He had spoken. if sentence type III (If Ihad
N: He had not spoken. -sometimes interchangeable with talked, …)
Past Perfect Q: Had he spoken? past perfect progressive
Simple -putting emphasis only on
the fact (not the duration)

-action taking place before a for, since, the whole day,


certain time in the past all day
Past Perfect A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking. -sometimes interchangeable
Progressive Q: Had he been speaking? with past perfect simple
-putting emphasis on
the duration or course of
an action
-action in the future that in a year, next …,
cannot be influenced tomorrow
A: He will speak. If I (If you ask her, she will
N: He will not speak. -spontaneous decision help you.)
Future I Simple Q: Will he speak? -assumption with regard to the assumption: I think,
future probably, perhaps

-decision made for the future in one year, next week,


A: He is going to speak. tomorrow
Future I Simple N: He is not going to speak. -conclusion with regard to the
Q: Is he going to speak? future
(going to)

-action that is going on at a in one year, next week,


A: He will be speaking. certain time in the future tomorrow
Future I N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking? -action that is sure to happen
Progressive in the near future

A: He will have spoken. -action that will be finished at by Monday, in a week


N: He will not have spoken. a certain time in the future
Future II Simple Q: Will he have spoken?