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INDIAN FARMERS FERTILIZERS

CO-OPERATIVE LIMITED
AONLA Unit (U.P.)
TRAINING REPORT

STEAM & POWER GENERATION PLANT

DURATION

10th June 2018 to 24th July 2018


Submitted to:

Training & Placement Section,

IFFCO AONLA UNIT, U.P.

Submitted by:

VIKRAM JEET SINGH

1508240172
Mechanical engineering

Moradabad Institute of Technology


Moradabad

IFFCO AONLA Page 1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is my great pleasure to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. G. K.
Gautam Sr. General Manager IFFCO, Aonla Unit for his deep
interest profile inspiration, valuable advice during the entire
course of industrial training.

I am highly thankful tov Dr. Manish chabra for taking interest and
guidance in my endeavour to get opportunity to work at IFFCO.

I am also thankful to staff of IFFCO, Aonla for their help and


assistance during my training period.

VIKRAM JEET SINGH

B.TECH.(FINAL YEAR)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Moradabad Institute of Technology

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 2


CONTENTS
 Company Profile 4

 Abstract 7

 Urea 10

 Introduction 13

 Brief Description of S.G.P.G. (Steam & Power


Generation Plant) 15

 Various parts of S.G.P.G.


 Quality of steam 24

 Condenser 27

 Deaerator 29

 Fuel System 30

 Combustion Air System 35

 Boiler make up water treatment plant 37


 H.R.S.G. (Heat Recovery Steam Generation) 38

 Gas turbine 40

 Industrial Gas turbine 43

 Conclusion 45
 References 46
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COMPANY PROFILE

IFFCO has 40,000 member cooperatives. IFFCO has been ranked#37 in


top companies in India in 2011 by Fortune India 500 list.

Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-operative Limited (IFFCO) was registered


on November 3, 1967 as a Multi-unit Co-operative Society. On the
enactment of the Multistate Cooperative Societies act 1984 & 2002, the
Society is deemed to be registered as a Multistate Cooperative Society.
The Society is primarily engaged in production and distribution of
fertilizers. The byelaws of the Society provide a broad frame work for the
activities of IFFCO as a Cooperative Society.

IFFCO commissioned an ammonia - urea complex at Kalol and the


NPK/DAP plant at Kandla both in the state of Gujarat in 1975. Another
ammonia - urea complex was set up at Phulpur in the state of Uttar
Pradesh in 1981. The ammonia - urea unit at Aonla was commissioned in
1988.

In 1993, IFFCO had drawn up a major expansion programme of all the


four plants under overall aegis of IFFCO VISION 2000. The expansion
projects at Aonla, Kalol, Phulpur and Kandla have been completed on
schedule. Thus all the projects conceived as part of Vision 2000 have
been realized without time or cost overruns. All the production units of
IFFCO have established a reputation for excellence and quality. A new
growth path has been chalked out to realize newer dreams and greater
heights through Vision 2010.

which is presently under implementation. As part of the new vision,


IFFCO has acquired fertilizer unit at Paradeep in Orissa in September
2005.

IFFCO has made strategic investments in several joint ventures. Godavari


Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd (GFCL) & Indian Potash Ltd (IPL) in India,
Industries Chimiques du Senegal (ICS) in Senegal and Oman India
IFFCO AONLA Page 4
Fertilizer Company (OMIFCO) in Oman are important fertilizer joint
ventures. Indo Egyptian Fertilizer Co (IEFC) in Egypt is under
implementation. As part of strategic diversification, IFFCO has entered
into several key sectors. IFFCO-Tokyo General Insurance Ltd (ITGI) is a
foray into general insurance sector. Through ITGI, IFFCO has formulated
new services of benefit to farmers. 'Sankat Haran Bima Yojana' provides
free insurance cover to farmers along with each bag of IFFCO fertilizer
purchased. To take the benefits of emerging concepts like agricultural
commodity trading, IFFCO has taken equity in National Commodity and
Derivative Exchange (NCDEX) and National Collateral Management
Services Ltd (NCMSL). IFFCO Chhattisgarh Power Ltd (ICPL) which is
under implementation is yet another foray to move into core area of
power. IFFCO is also behind several other companies with the sole
intention of benefitting farmers.

The distribution of IFFCO's fertilizer is undertaken through over 38155 co-


operative societies. The entire activities of Distribution, Sales and
Promotion are co-ordinate by Marketing Central Office (MKCO) at New
Delhi assisted by the Marketing offices in the field. In addition, essential
agro-inputs for crop production are made available to the farmers through a
chain of 158 Farmers Service Centre (FSC). IFFCO has promoted several
institutions and organizations to work for the welfare of farmers,
strengthening cooperative movement, improve Indian agriculture. Indian
Farm Forestry Development Cooperative Ltd (IFFDC), Cooperative Rural
Development Trust (CORDET), IFFCO Foundation, Kisan Sewa Trust
belong to this category. An ambitious project 'ICT Initiatives for Farmers
and Cooperatives' is launched to promote e-culture in rural India. IFFCO
obsessively nurtures its relations with farmers and undertakes a large
number of agricultural extension activities for their benefit every year.

At IFFCO, the thirst for ever improving the services to farmers and member
co-operatives is insatiable, commitment to quality is insurmountable and
harnessing of mother earths' bounty to drive hunger away from India in an
ecologically sustainable manner is the prime mission. All that IFFCO
cherishes in exchange is an everlasting smile on

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the face of Indian Farmer who form the moving spirit behind this mission.

IFFCO, today, is a leading player in India's fertilizer industry and is


making substantial contribution to the efforts of Indian Government to
increase food grain production in the country.

IFFCO AONLA Page 6


Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 7
For efficient and uninterrupted running of a fertilizer plant a reliable source
of power is very much essential. All the major rotating equipments of
Ammonia and Urea plant are driven by electrical motor. To meet the
demand of high pressure steam and dependable electrical power, the steam
and power generators have been installed. The steam generator of Aonla
unit will supply high pressure steam to process plants and Gas turbine
generators will meet the power requirement of the plant. There are two Gas
Turbine Generators (GTG), one Steam Generator (SG) and two Heat
Recovery Steam Generating units (HRSG).

The GTG have been designed to operate on natural gas (NG), high speed
diesel (HSD) or Naptha fuels.

The exhaust of GT at about 500 deg C is used in HRSG to generate steam


at high pressure.

Two HRSG units each having capacity to generate 80 T/hr at 116 atm and
515O C is manufactured by M/s Kawasaki heavy industries , Japan. HRSG is
a packed type boiler having bank tubes, a set of super heaters, De-super
heaters and economizer.

The SG unit is a water tube double drum, natural circulation, oil (low
sulphur high start, LSHS) or natural gas fired boiler manufactured by
M/s Mitsui Engg. Co. Japan.

The capacity of the SG unit is 150 tonns/hr of super heated steam at


apressure of 116 atm and temp 515 deg C. The SG is designed to use NG or
LSHS fuel for regular firing. For initial light up of the SG, HSD will be
used.

The SG is pressurized furnace with no induced F.D. fan. Two F.D. fans,
one turbine driven and other motor driven have been provided to supply
combustion air.

A direct spray type De-super heater has been provided between primary
and secondary super heater to control steam temperature.

Super heater is of convection type, counter flow, drainable, inverted U-

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looped tubes with spiral fins. Super heater section is located in the
highest gas temp zone and materials are designed to satisfy the
requirement of opearation conditions. Super heater elements are bottom
supported by lower header holding plates.

The MD type boiler is provided with a steam drum and a water drum.
Both of the drum have a main hole on each end for maintenance and
inspection. The steam drum is equipped with sets of steam purifiers
inside to obtain the required steam purity.

The furnace has an ample volume to secure complete combustion of


specified fuel. The furnace walls are of welded longitudinal fin tubes
panels to form a completely gas tight enclosure. The furnace floor is
covered with a layer of refractory bricks so as to shield the tubes from
radiant heat to secure a good circulation of water.

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IFFCO's Urea is not merely a source of 46% of nutrient nitrogen for
crops, but it is an integral part of millions of farmers in India. A bag of
IFFCO's urea is a constant source of confidence and is a trusted
companion for Indian farmer.

When farmers buy IFFCO's urea, they know that what they get is not
just a product but a complete package of services, ably supported by a
dedicated team of qualified personnel. More importantly, they are
aware that it is their own urea, produced and supplied by a cooperative
society owned by themselves.

IFFCO AONLA Page 10


IFFCO AONLA Page 11
Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 12
INDIAN FARMERS FERILIZERS
COOPERATIVE LIMITED
INTRODUCTION

Iffco Aonla complex is one of the giant cooperative fetilizer


manufacturing industries in India.

The Iffco complex at Aonla consists of two Ammonia units of 1350


MT/day capacity and two Urea units of 1100 MT/day each capacity with
the required offsite facilities.

For efficient and uninterrupted running of a fertilizer plant a reliable source


of power is very much essential. All the major rotating equipments of
Ammonia and Urea plant are driven by electrical motor. To meet the
demand of high pressure steam and dependable electrical power, the steam
and power generators have been installed. The steam generator of Aonla
unit will supply high pressure steam to process plants and Gas turbine
generators will meet the power requirement of the plant. There are two Gas
Turbine Generators (GTG), one Steam Generator (SG) and

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two Heat Recovery Steam Generating units (HRSG). One GTG will be in
line while the other is stand by. The stand by unit can come on full load
in 13 minutes.

The GTG, manufactured by M/S Hitachi limited, Japan has a capacity to


generate 25.280 MW at ISO base rating (means atmosphere temperature
15deg C & 60% humidity at sea level) or 18.320 MW power output at the site
conditions. The GTG have been designed to operate on natural gas (NG),
high speed diesel (HSD) or Naptha fuels. The exhaust of GT at about 500
deg C will be used in HRSG to generate steam at high pressure. There is a
provision to by pass the GT exhaust in case it is not required due to shut
down of the respective HRSG. In this case exhaust will be vented to
atmosphere. Two HRSG units each having capacity to generate 80 T/hr at
O
116 atm and 515 C is manufactured by M/s Kawasaki heavy industries ,
Japan. HRSG is a packed type boiler having bank tubes, a set of super
heaters, De-super heaters and economizer. The temp of exhaust gas from
GTG is increased by supplementary firing. The exhaust of GTG is having
sufficient quantity of excess air which is utilized for combustion of
supplement fuel and so no separate Forced draft (F.D.) fan has been
provided. For steam temp control, direct water spray type attemperator has
been provided between primary and secondary super heaters.

The SG unit is a water tube double drum, natural circulation, oil (low
sulphur high start, LSHS) or natural gas fired boiler manufactured by
M/s Mitsui Engg. Co. Japan. The capacity of the SG unit is 150 tonns/hr
of super heated steam at apressure of 116 atm and temp 515 deg C. The
SG is designed to use NG or LSHS fuel for regular firing. For initial light
up of the SG, HSD will be used. The SG is pressurized furnace with no
induced F.D. fan. Two F.D. fans, one turbine driven and other motor
driven have been provided to supply combustion air. A direct spray type
De-super heater has been provided between primary and secondary
super heater to control steam temperature.

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GAS TURBINE GENERATOR (GTG) PRINCIPLE
The gas turbine like any other heat engine is a device of converting part
of fuel's chemical energy into useful available mechanical power.

It does this in the manner similarily in, many ways to the system used by
four stroke cycle reciprocating internal combustion engine. Air is drawn
into the compressor, usually through an air filter situated in a "Filter house"
to remove any harmful solid particle from the air stream. This air is then
compressed to a designed figure by a multi stage axial compressor. The hot
compressor air is then fed to the combustion system where it is mixed with
injected fuel. Here the fuel burns and add its energy to the air.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
STEAM GENRATION
The Mitsui MD (middle to semi large industrial boiler) type steam
generator is of outdoor use, self standing natural circulation type. The
steam generator is designed to fire HSD, LSHS/FO, and NG with four set
of oil and gas combination burners

The steam generator comprises a water cooled furnace, a convection


bank, steam and water drum, headers for collecting and distributing
water and steam, primary and secondary super heater, framed, casing
insulation etc.

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DRUM AND INTERNALS:
The MD type boiler is provided with a steam drum and a water drum.
Both of the drum have a main hole on each end for maintenance and
inspection. The steam drum is equipped with sets of steam purifiers
inside to obtain the required steam purity.

The steam drum is equipped with internal pipes for feed water, chemical
and continous blow-down as well as stream purifier. The internal pipes are
arranged so as to ensure good distribution of feed water and chemicals in
the drum and to collect relatively highly concentrated boiler water for blow
down. The nozzles for feed water and chemicals are of double pipe type so
as to reduce thermal stresses due to the temp differences.

Finally the steam passes through the scrubbers. This comprises a


number of corrugated metal plates. When the steam flows through it,
any remaining water particles are efficiently removed. This occurs due to
sharp change in the flow direction.

FURNACE:
The furnace has an ample volume to secure complete combustion of
specified fuel. The furnace walls are of welded longitudinal fin tubes
panels to form a completely gas tight enclosure. The furnace floor is
covered with a layer of refractory bricks so as to shield the tubes from
radiant heat to secure a good circulation of water. The front wall is
equipped with burner in two rows. The rear wall forms a partition wall
dividing the convection section from the furnace. The rear tubes form a
nose baffle to provide a superheater space at the upper part of the
furnace. The side walls are provided with lower and upper header which
is connected to water and steam drums with connection pipes. Sufficient
number of observation holes are provided on the front side walls to
check the firing conditon and for maintenance.

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SUPER HEATER:
The super heater is provided with two stages of super heaters. In primary
and secondary super heater both of then are of convection and pendant
type. The primary super heater is located at the lower gas temp part while
the secondary is at the higher temp part. The steam flows, contour to gas in
the primary super heater and parallel in the secondary heat.

The super heater tubes are hung to super heater headers which are
mounted on the furnace header. Therefore, thermal, expansion of the
tubes are hung to the super heater headers which are mounted on the
furnace header. Therefore, thermal expansion of the tubes and headers is
free, which avoids excessive stresses.

Retractable soot blowers and access doors are provided between the
primary and secondary super heater for cleaning and maintenance.

DE-SUPER HEATER:
A de-super heater is also provided on the connecting pipe between the
primary and secondary super heaters to control the final steam pressure.

Feed water is sprayed in the steam flow through a spray nozzle which
reduces the steam temp. Immediately downstream of the nozzle, a
thermal sleeve is furnished so as to provide direct contact of sprayed
water to the connecting pipe wall.

ECONOMISER:
Economiser is furnished downstream the convection bank to recover
waste heat from flue gases.

The economiser comprises a number of spiral wound finned tubes, inlet


and outlet headers and sufficient frames and casing. It is supported by the

IFFCO AONLA Page 17


steel structure using slide shoes to cater with horizontal thermal
expansion.

Reciprocating type soot blower with multiple nozzles is furnished to


effectively clean the heating surfaces.

BOILER FEED WATER SYSTEM:


The requirement of water for the boiler is met from the water treatment
plant. In the water treatment plant, DM water temp is raised to 60 deg C
by passing it through return condensate cooler before sending to steam
generation plant. In deaerator dissolve gases O2 and CO2 are removed
up to less than 0.005 ppm by raising the wter temp to 126 deg C and
stripping at a pressure of 1.44 kg/cm sq. By steam in deaerator storage
tank, Cyclohexamine and Hydrazine are dosed to raise the pH of water to
8.5-9.5 and further chemical treatment of the boiler water to remove the
remaining oxygen to nil.

Boiler feed water pump takes suction from deaerator. The pump
discharge at pressure of 162 kf/cm sq g and temp 126 deg C through
economiser it enters the boiler drum. There is boiler feed water
preheater located between pump discharge and economizer to raise the
BFW temp from 126 deg C to 140 deg C in case the boiler is on LSHS
firing. This rise in temp is essential to avoid condensation of oxides of
sulphur on coil surface and to prevent corrosion.

The outlet of BFW preheater is divided into two branches, the small
branch leads to the De-super heaters of the SG and HRSG units to
control the steam temp and other leads water to SG and HRSG units
through respective economiser. In economiser, feed water utilises the
waste heat from the flue gases and temp of water raised to 190 to 310 deg
C respectively.

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DEAERATING HEATER:
Deaerator is very important in the boiler feed water system. Its basic
function is to remove O2 and CO2 dissolved in water to a considerable
extent and store water for supplying to boiler feed pumps.

DEAERATOR:
The deaerator functions on heat and mass transfer process. In deaerator
the nozzles and trays have been provided, through which water is
sprayed and distribute into fine droplets to increase the surface area of
the water. The process removes the dissolved gases upto some extent.
Then the stream is mixed with water in mixed box named scrubber. This
process also removes the dissolved gases. By the above process, in water,
O2 contents get reduced to 0.005 ppm.

STORAGE TANK:
This is for storing of the feed water which is deaerated. The storage tank
is designed to prevent subsequent penetration of oxygen during the
feeding water process after the necessary deaeration. The temp of the
water is also kept constant inside the storage tank by covering the tank
with insulating material.

COMBUSTION AIR SYSTEM:


The air required for the combustion of air in steam generator is meeting by
two centrifugal types forced draft fan (F.D. fan). One fan is driven by
electrical motor while other by steam turbine. During the startup of the
SG, motor driven fan is taken in service in case steam is not available to
driven fan is taken in service in case steam is not available to drive the

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turbine.

The FD fan sucks the air from the atmosphere and discharge to the
furnace at a pressure of 90mm-500mm water gauge. The quantity of air is
controlled by the vane provided at the suction side of FD fan. Two air
heaters have been provided in the discharge duct of FD fans, which are
known as steam oil heater and gas air heater. These air heaters raise the
temp to 145 deg C.

DESCRIPTION OF HRSG:
GENERAL:
The boiler consists of and arranged in the same casing as follows:

 Super heater

 Evaporator with steam drum

 Economiser

All tubes are spiral finned and are arranged in vertical rows with staggered
tube arrangement to horizontal gas flow. All tubes circuits originate from
inlet header and discharge to outlet header, and besides tubes and its
header and discharge to outlet header, and besides tubes and its header are
arranged so that all tube bank sections are fully drainable. Whole boiler is
supported with the bottom casing on the foundation.

STEAM DRUM:
Steam drum is of all welded construction, fabricated from carbon steel
material and equipped with steam purifier of baffle screen type in steam
drum and necessary nozzle and connections. The drum has been
mounted on above the boiler and is supported with down corner pipes.

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EVAPORATOR:
Evaporator section is composed of several components which consist of
number of tube with spiral fin and each inlet and outlet header. Each
component is made up of water circulation circuits separately. Evaporator
elements are bottom supported by lower header holding plates.

WATER CIRCULATION SYSTEM:


The water circulation circuit consists of steam drum, down corner pipes,
down corner headers, supply pipes, steam generating tubes
(evaporators) and riser pipe. The basic system functions are as follows:

Sub cooled water in the steam drum is led to the down corner headers
through heated down corner pipes and is disrtributed to each evaporator
inlet header from down corner headers. The mixture of water and steam
generated by the heat absorption of evaporator flows from evaporator
outlet headers to steam drum through the riser pipes.

SUPER HEATER:
Super heater is of convection type, counter flow, drainable, inverted U-
looped tubes with spiral fins. Super heater section is located in the
highest gas temp zone and materials are designed to satisfy the
requirement of opearation conditions. Super heater elements are bottom
supported by lower header holding plates.

ECONOMISER:
Economiser is of counter flow, drainable, vertical tubes with spiral fines.

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Economiser selection is composed of several components which consist
of number of tubes and inlet header (lower) and outlet header (upper).
These components are connected in series with several economiser
tubes. Air vent and drain valve is provided on the upper and lower
header, respectively. Economiser elements are bottom supported by
lower header holding plates.

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The quality of steam for high pressure driven turbines is very much
essential to keep the equipment in proper running condition and achieve
the high efficiency. The quality of steam at Steam Generating Plant shall
be maintained as under:

pH 7.0 to 9.0

SiO2 0.02 ppm

Cond. 1.0 Micromhos/cm

Total dissolved

solids as Na 1.0 ppm

pH of steam is maintained to prevent corrosion of steam pipe line and


return condensate line. The Silica concentration in steam to lower value
prevents the Silica deposition on the turbine blades. If it is not
controlled in long run, this deposition of Silica on the tip of blades
reduces efficiency of the blades, increases back pressure, and at worst it
makes the rotor unbalanced and results in failure.

The analysis of steam for conductivity detects any carry over of salts from
steam drum due to some or other reason. These salts, when carried over
with steam, get deposited on the turbine blades and reduces the
efficiency of the machine.

The total dissolved solids in steam are to be maintained to lower value to


prevent any deposition in Super heater tubes and Turbine blades. The
deposition of solids in Super heater tubes reduces the heat transfer to
steam. This causes the overheating of the tube metal and finally failure
of the tube.

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Steam System
The steam requirement for steam and power generation plant for their
auxiliaries and main consumer plant (Urea) are at different pressures
and temperatures.

The requirements are as under:

1. High pressure steam at 116 Atm and 515°C.

2. Medium pressure steam at 39 Atm and 478°C.

3. Medium pressure steam at 39 Atm and 400°C.

4. Low pressure steam at 4.5 Ata and 225°C.

High Pressure Steam (116 Atm and 515°C)


The high pressure steam is generated in Main Steam Generating unit and
Heat Recovery Steam Generating Units. The outlet of these units is
connected to a header, which is called High Pressure Steam Header. This
header supplies steam at 116 Atm and 515°C to Urea Plant and Auxiliaries
of Steam and power Generating Units through Pressure Reducing and
De-Superheating Station.

The requirement of Medium and Lower Pressure Steam is met through


Pressure Reducing and De-Superheating Stations (PRDS). For this
purpose two PRDS have been provided in Steam Generating Plant. In
PRDS, firstly the pressure is reduced through pressure Control Valve and
then boiler water is sprayed at controlled rate through the nozzles to
bring down the steam temperature at required value. The requirement of
steam for Urea Plant is met from High pressure Header. The High
Pressure Header is charged from Steam Generator and Heat Recovery
Steam Generator outlet.

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Medium Pressure Steam (478°C)
The medium pressure steam at 478°C is required for Boiler Feed Pump
and F.D. drive turbines. This is achieved after reducing the high pressure
steam to 39 Atm pressure by pressure Reducing Station No.1.

Medium Pressure Steam (400°C)


The medium pressure steam at 400°C required for the following
equipment is drawn from Pressure Reducing Station No.1 and further de-
superheated to 400°C by De-Superheating station No. 1.
1. Boiler Feed Water Preheater
2. Atomising Steam Header
3. Soot blowing header for SG and HRSG soot blowers
4. Ammonia Plant Medium steam pressure header
5. Furnace oil bulk storage tank area.
6. Pressure reducing Station No. 2.

Low Pressure Steam (225°C)


The exhaust of Boiler Feed Pump drive turbines at 4.5 Atm and 459°C is
de-superheated to 225°C by De-Superheating Station No.2 and discharge
to L.P. Steam Header. In this header Blow Down tank vent steam and
F.D. or drive turbine exhaust steam is discharged. This Low Pressure
Header supply steam to the following:
1. Fuel Gas Superheater
2. HSD Heater
3. FO/LSHS Heater
4. Steam Air Heater
5. Header for DM Plant
6. Deaerator

The shortfall of steam in L.P. header is met through Pressure Reducing


Station No. 2 which draws steam from Medium Pressure Steam Header.

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Diagram of a typical water-cooled surface condenser.

The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which


cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from
the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted
to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent
diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven
exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side
to maintain vacuum.

For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low
as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the
condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always
o
be kept significantly below 100 C where the vapor pressure of water is
much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works
under vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensible air into the closed loop
must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce
output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer;
unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical
demand for air conditioning.

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The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a
cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through
water from a river, lake or ocean.

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Diagram of boiler feed water deaerator (with vertical, domed aeration section and
horizontal water storage section.
A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be
devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in
order to avoid corrosion of the metal.
Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air
and other dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater. A deaerator typically
includes a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a
horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler
feedwater storage tank.

There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary
from one manufacturer to another. The adjacent diagram depicts a
typical conventional trayed deaerator. If operated properly, most
deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated
water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm³/L).

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 29


The fuels used in Steam Generator & Heat Recovery Steam Generating
units are HSD, Furnace Oil/Low Sulphur Heavy Stock (FO/LSHS) and
Natural Gas.

The liquid fuels are stored in two Day Oil Tanks located near Steam
Generating Units The Day Oil Tanks have a storage capacity of 80 tons
and 175 tons of HSD and FO/LSHS respectively. The HSD in day tank will
be transferred directly from the oil tanker received from Indian Oil
Corporation and FO/LSHS will be transferred from Bulk Storage Tanks
located in Naphtha Storage Tanks area.

H.S.D.
H.S.D. is required for warming up guns while starting the steam
Generator from cold condition when steam is not available for heating
FO/LSHS. HSD has the advantage of being less viscous at ambient
temperatures, requires no heating and has low sulphur contents. The low
sulphur reduces the chances of low temperature corrosion in the Air
Heater area, which arises due to condensation of sulphur trioxide in the
flue gas in low temperature regions. Having negligible carbon residual,
HSD burns completely in a cold furnace and leaves no soot deposits on
the colder heat transfer surfaces.

Specification of H.S.D.

GCV K.cal/kg - 10000

H Hv K.cal/kg - 9500
Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 30
Sulphur Wt% - 1.0 (Max)

Pour Point - 6 °C (max)

The HSD pump draws oil from day tank through strainer and delivers the
oil to Steam Generator. The oil pressure at pump discharge is controlled
at about 20 kg/cm2 through a pressure control valve automatically. The
outlet of the pressure control valve leads to day oil tank. The HSD flow at
20 kg/cm2 is controlled through a flow control valve to achieve the
required oil flow for the Furnace and thus pressure reduces to 6-10
kg/cm2

After flow control valve a Trip Valve has been provided which cut off the
HSD supply to furnace in unwanted condition. This trip va]ve operates
through a Signal received from Burner Management System. The HSD line
after Trip Valve gets divided into two branches and supply HSD only two
lower tier burners. Trip valves have been provided in each HSD burner line.
The HSD burner valve operates through a signal from Burner Management
System. The HSD oil in burner gets atomised automatically due to high oil
pressure and burns in the furnace.

L.P. Gas Ignitors


To ignite the HSD and F.O. burners, the L.P. Gas Igniters have been
provided with each burner. The L.P. gas stored in cylinders is led to
ignitors located near F.O./HSD burners. The L.P. Gas pressure in the line
is controlled through a self pressure control valve. The gas line is divided
into four branches, lead to each ignitor. In each gas ignitor line, a Trip
valve has been provided which cut off the gas supply when not required.
The signal to operate the Trip valve is received from Burner Management
System.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 31


FO/LSHS
FO/LSHS is required for oil guns to generate steam, Preheating of this
oil is necessary to reduce the viscosity for easy transportation and better
atomisation.

Specification of F.O. and LSHS

F.O. LSHS

GCV K.Cal/kg 10,000 10,000

LHV K.Cal/kg 9,500 9,500

Sulphur Wt% 4.5 1.0

Pour point °C 37 72

Sp. Gravity at 15°C 0.95 0.93

Viscosity 170 Cst 23.87 Cst

at 50°C at 95°C

Furnace oil/LSHS from storage tank is led to the oil pump located near day
oil tanks at a temperature of 50°C to 6.0°C. This temperature is achieved by
using a steam coil heater located in the bottom of the oil tank. The
F0/LSHS oil passes through the oil strainer on the suction side of the high
pressure gear pump and gets pressurized to about 12 kg/cm2 required for
atomization. The pressure control valve, connected to the delivery side of
the pump controls the oil header pressure automatically
and leads to the day tank. FO/LSHS from the delivery side of the pump
Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 32
enters the oil heater where it is heated from pumping temperature to about
110°C. The outlet temperature of this oil from the oil heater is automatically
maintained at a constant value by automatic temperature regulating valve
mounted on the steam supply line to the heater. The temperature
regulating valve controls the quantity of steam to heater to maintain the
heater outlet oil temperature. The flow of FD/LSHS at 110deg C is
controlled through a flow control valve. The oil pressure after flow control
valve reduces to 6-8.5 kg/cm2. The flow control valve operates through a
signal fed from Automatic Combustion Control System. After this flow
control valve there is a Trip valve, which cut off the oil supply to the furnace
in unwanted conditions. This valve is operated through a signal from
Burner Management System. The main oil header divided into four
branches to supply Fuel oil to four branches. In each burner oil line, one
Trip Valve has been provided, which cut off the Fuel oil supply to the
individual burner, when required. This Trip valve operates through a signal
received from Burner Management System. After this Trip valve oil flows to
burner, where it gets automised with medium pressure steam and burns in
furnace.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 33


Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 34
The air is required for combustion of fuel in Steam Generating Unit. To
meet this requirement of air in Steam Generator two centrifugal type
forced Draft Fans (F.D. fan) have been provided. One fan is driven by
electrical motor while other by steam turbine. During the startup of the
SG, motor driven fan is taken in service in case steam is not available to
drive the turbine.

The F.D. fan sucks the air from atmosphere and discharge to the furnace
at a pressure of 90 mm- 550 mm water gauge. The quantity of air is
controlled by the vane provided at the suction side of the F.D. fan. Two
air heaters have been provided in the discharge duct of F.D. fans, which
are known as Steam Coil Heater and Gas Air Heater. These Air Heaters
raise the air temperature to 145°C. The hot air helps in proper
combustion of fuel.

The Forced Draft fans supply cold atmospheric air through Steam Air
Heater and Gas Air Heater to the furnace for combustion of fuel. The Gas
Air Heater takes up waste heat from the flue gas of Steam Generator and
adds it to the combustion air.

The Counter Current parallel flow of the gas and atmospheric air results in
good transfer of heat, thus bringing coldest metal elements in contact with
less hot flue gas. If metal temperature is too low, there is a chance of
condensation of corrosive gas on the elements of GAH and consequent
corrosion of the heating elements. Generally during cold season and low
load operating condition, such troubles are encountered. To prevent or
reduce chances of this type of corrosion, the inlet temperature of cold air to
Gas Air Heater is controlled by heating it in a steam air heater. The low
Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 35
pressure steam is passed through the heating coils and F.D. fan discharge
air is allowed to flow over it. The steam gives up heat, gets condensed
and the condensate is drained through a trap. The cold atmospheric air
at about 20 to 40°C while passing over the steam coil picks up heat and
gets heated upto about 50°C.

Thus when air of 50°C is allowed at cold end of Gas Air Heater, there is
no condensation of corrosive gases and so chance of chemical corrosion
is reduced.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 36


Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of
condensate to the boiler, losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be
made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam
drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water
system. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist
of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water.
Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube
water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus,
the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a water
demineralising treatment plant (DM). A DM plant generally consists of
cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process
consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the
chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure,
becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere
because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption.

The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts
in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM
plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is
installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler
make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not
affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are
generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement
or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the
tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. DM water make-up is
generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the
vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM
water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the
ejector of the condenser itself.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 37


A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat
exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam
that can be used in a process (cogeneration) or used to drive a steam
turbine (combined cycle).

General usage
A common application for an HRSG is in a combined-cycle power station,
where hot exhaust from a gas turbine is fed to an HRSG to generate steam
which in turn drives a steam turbine. This combination produces electricity
more efficiently than either the gas turbine or steam turbine alone. Another
application for an HRSG is in diesel engine combined cycle power plants,
where hot exhaust from a diesel engine, as primary source of energy, is fed
to an HRSG to generate steam which in turn drives a steam turbine. The
HRSG is also an important component in cogeneration plants.
Cogeneration plants typically have a higher overall efficiency in comparison
to a combined cycle plant. This is due to the loss of energy associated with
the steam turbine.

HRSGs
HRSGs consist of four major components: the economizer, evaporator,
superheater and water preheater. The different components are put
together to meet the operating requirements of the unit.

Modular HRSGs can be categorized by a number of ways such as direction


of exhaust gases flow or number of pressure levels. Based on the flow of
exhaust gases, HRSGs are categorized into vertical and horizontal types. In
horizontal type HRSGs, exhaust gas flows horizontally over vertical tubes
whereas in vertical type HRSGs, exhaust gas flow vertically over horizontal
tubes. Based on pressure levels, HRSGs can be categorized into single
pressure and multi pressure. Single pressure HRSGs have only one steam
drum and steam is generated at single pressure level whereas multi
pressure HRSGs employ two (double pressure) or three (triple pressure)
Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 38
steam drums. As such triple pressure HRSGs consist of three sections: an
LP (low pressure) section, a reheat/IP (intermediate pressure) section,
and an HP (high pressure) section. Each section has a steam drum and
an evaporator section where water is converted to steam. This steam
then passes through superheaters to raise the temperature and pressure
past the saturation point.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 39


A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal
combustion engine. It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a
downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between.

Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor, where fuel is mixed
with air and ignited. In the high pressure environment of the combustor,
combustion of the fuel increases the temperature. The products of the
combustion are forced into the turbine section. There, the high velocity
and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's
blades, spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and, for some
turbines, drives their mechanical output. The energy given up to the
turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature and pressure of the
exhaust gas.

Energy can be extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air or


thrust or any combination of these and used to power aircraft, trains,
ships, generators, or even tanks.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 40


Gases passing through an ideal gas turbine undergo three
thermodynamic processes. These are isentropic compression, isobaric
(constant pressure) combustion and isentropic expansion. Together
these make up the Brayton cycle.

In a practical gas turbine, gases are first accelerated in either a centrifugal


or axial compressor. These gases are then slowed using a diverging nozzle
known as a diffuser; these processes increase the pressure and temperature
of the flow. In an ideal system this is isentropic. However, in practice energy
is lost to heat, due to friction and turbulence. Gases then pass from the
diffuser to a combustion chamber, or similar device, where heat is added. In
an ideal system this occurs at constant pressure (isobaric heat addition). As
there is no change in pressure the specific volume of the gases increases. In
practical situations this process is usually accompanied by a slight loss in
pressure, due to friction. Finally, this larger volume of gases is expanded
and accelerated by nozzle guide vanes before energy is extracted by a
turbine. In an ideal system these are gases expanded isentropically and
leave the turbine at their original pressure. In practice this process is not
isentropic as energy is once again lost to friction and turbulence.

If the device has been designed to power a shaft as with an industrial


generator or a turboprop, the exit pressure will be as close to the entry
pressure as possible. In practice it is necessary that some pressure
remains at the outlet in order to fully expel the exhaust gases. In the case
of a jet engine only enough pressure and energy is extracted from the
flow to drive the compressor and other components. The remaining high
pressure gases are accelerated to provide a jet that can, for example, be
used to propel an aircraft.

As with all cyclic heat engines, higher combustion temperatures can allow
for greater efficiencies. However, temperatures are limited by ability of the
steel, nickel, ceramic, or other materials that make up the engine to

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 41


withstand high temperatures and stresses. To combat this many turbines
feature complex blade cooling systems.

As a general rule, the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of
the shaft(s) must be to maintain tip speed. Blade tip speed determines
the maximum pressure ratios that can be obtained by the turbine and
the compressor. This in turn limits the maximum power and efficiency
that can be obtained by the engine. In order for tip speed to remain
constant, if the diameter of a rotor is reduced by half, the rotational
speed must double. For example large Jet engines operate around 10,000
rpm, while micro turbines spin as fast as 500,000 rpm.

Mechanically, gas turbines can be considerably less complex than


internal combustion piston engines. Simple turbines might have one
moving part: the shaft/compressor/turbine/alternative-rotor assembly
(see image above), not counting the fuel system. However, the required
precision manufacturing for components and temperature resistant
alloys necessary for high efficiency often make the construction of a
simple turbine more complicated than piston engines.

More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines)


may have multiple shafts (spools), hundreds of turbine blades, movable
stator blades, and a vast system of complex piping, combustors and heat
exchangers.

Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design.


Traditionally, they have been hydrodynamic oil bearings, or oil-cooled ball
bearings. These bearings are being surpassed by foil bearings, which have
been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary power units.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 42


Model series 5000, Simple-cycle, Single-shaft, Heavy duty Gas Turbine with Diesel start

Industrial gas turbines differ from aeroderivative in that the frames,


bearings, and blading are of heavier construction. Industrial gas turbines
range in size from truck-mounted mobile plants to enormous, complex
systems. They can be particularly efficient—up to 60%—when waste heat
from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to
power a conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration.
They can also be run in a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used
for space or water heating, or drives an absorption chiller for cooling or
refrigeration. Such engines require a dedicated enclosure, both to protect
the engine from the elements and the operators from the noise.

The construction process for gas turbines can take as little as several
weeks to a few months, compared to years for base load power plants.
Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within
minutes, supplying power during peak demand. Since single cycle (gas

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 43


turbine only) power plants are less efficient than combined cycle plants,
they are usually used as peaking power plants, which operate anywhere
from several hours per day to a few dozen hours per year, depending on the
electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region. In areas with
a shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity or low fuel
costs, a gas turbine power plant may regularly operate during most hours of
the day. A large single cycle gas turbine typically produces 100 to 400
megawatts of power and has 35–40% thermal efficiency.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 44


The study of the Steam & Power Generation Plant at Iffco Aonla was an
interactive as well as practical industrial experience.

The production of power from the fuel, the heat recovery system, boiler
configurations, turbine working, condenser working, and many more
processes were made clear with the visual and practical analysis.

Apart from the theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom, the


industrial exposure was an opportunity to have real life shop-floor
experience.

I express my gratitude to Mr. D. Kalia, D.G.M.(Training), IFFCO AONLA


for his beneficial guidance and, for sharing his precious practical
experience in the field.

I am also very thankful to Rajeev Trehan sir, and Dr. R.K.Garg, for their
supervision and the opportunity provided to us.

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 45



Steam and Power Generation Plant (S.P.G.P.) Manual,
IFFCO Aonla, Technical Library.

www.wikipedia.com

www.iffcoaonla.com

Ashish Lal, I.P.E. 09113009 IFFCO AONLA Page 46