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IoT and Smart Buildings

CS 6910
Project Documentation
For Partial Fulfilment of
Master’s Degree in Computer Science

Students:
Kavya Aramalla

Academic Supervisor:
Dr. Hassan Rajaei

Fall 2018

Department of Computer Science


Bowling Green State University, Ohio
IoT and Smart Buildings
Student:
Kavya Aramalla
Supervisor: Dr. Rajaei
Dept. of Computer Science
Bowling Green State University, Ohio
Reporting date: 11/30/2018

Abstract

The existing buildings where people live or work in are mostly operated manually and has
lot of dependency on human effort. Smart building technologies are driving towards
automation and help individuals to choose the best living standards. Adapting to the new
technologies is not being considered actively which is risking the occupant’s safety and
comfort and building’s quality. This leads to the adoption of Smart buildings infrastructure
and the merits that include in it. A lot of research has been done in this area yet only few
represented the state-of-art on fault tolerance and hazardous conditions that might occur in
times of an adversity. And the areas where QoS, efficient energy usage, safety of the
buildings are to be considered and given more importance.
The research paper gives an insight on these topics and finds a better solution in utilizing
more IoT based systems and devices in the building. By making automation and intelligent
systems as the key in the buildings, can improve the current state of the smart buildings
making them more interactive.
By drawing information from real-time experience and industrial literature, this paper
shows a fine scope on Smart buildings/Smart homes for a safer and environment friendly
habitat. Smart buildings with IoT shows a way to benefit the humankind providing greater
flexibility and maximized home security.
The research work focuses on the improved energy efficiency in tall smart buildings along
with smart homes, QoS and reliablity in the smart buildings in times of network outage,
machine learning techniques that assists the persons living in the smart homes for their
comfort and response and evacuation using improvised techniques in case of emergencies.

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1
Goals and Objectives ...................................................................................................... 2
Overview of the Topic .................................................................................................... 2
Research Questions ......................................................................................................... 2
Expected Results ............................................................................................................. 3
2. Related work ........................................................................................................... 3
2.1. Summary of Reviewed Work.................................................................................. 3
2.2. Analysis and Discussions ........................................................................................ 5
What has been done? How good it has been done? ........................................................ 6
What has not been done? What needs to be completed? ................................................ 6
What differentiates current work from related work? ..................................................... 6
2.3. Highlights of Current Contribution......................................................................... 6
3. What Makes Buildings Smart? ............................................................................... 6
3.1. Smart Building Characteristics: .............................................................................. 7
3.2. Architecture & Frameworks ................................................................................. 10
3.3. Data Collection and Monitoring ........................................................................... 12
3.4. Data Processing ..................................................................................................... 14
3.5. Security ................................................................................................................. 15
3.6. Future Impacts ...................................................................................................... 18
3.7. Discussions ........................................................................................................... 19
4. IoT Fundamentals and three phases ...................................................................... 19
4.1. Architecture and Key features .............................................................................. 20
4.2. IoT in Smart buildings/Smart homes .................................................................... 22
4.3. IoT in Data Analytics ............................................................................................ 23
4.4. Mobile Edge Computing ....................................................................................... 25
4.5. Discussions ........................................................................................................... 29
4.6. Broader Impact of Smart App on Society ............................................................. 29
4.7. Strengths and Limitations ..................................................................................... 29
4.8. Evaluation and Analysis ....................................................................................... 30
5. Failure and Recovery ............................................................................................ 30
6. Case Studies, Examples, and Analysis ................................................................. 55
7. Project Steps.......................................................................................................... 61
7.1. Phases and Efforts ................................................................................................. 61
7.2. Research Methods used by the Project ................................................................. 61
7.3. Project Strengths and Limitations ......................................................................... 61
7.4. Lessons Learned.................................................................................................... 61
8. Proposal for Future Work ..................................................................................... 61
9. Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 61
10. References ............................................................................................................. 62

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1. Introduction

People spend about 87% of their time [6] with in the buildings and believe to have comfort,
protection and spend minimum costs on energy. Since we lived in the buildings that need
continuous monitoring and rely on the factors like lighting, HVAC on their own, it came to point
where it needs to be checked on energy consumption, usage and cost-effectiveness of the buildings.
The buildings we live in should be able to change according to the occupant’s comfort and adapt
to their living conditions with help of controls in the system [7, 8]. To utilize a standardized living,
a building should understand the needs of the people depending on their age, young or old. A new
era is promised with the technological improvements in the building environments, where an
efficient system is built by connecting devices together to reduce operational costs and increase
safety and provide better quality of life to all the residents.

Internet of Things (IoT) is referred as a common platform with connected devices to make use of
the sensors, actuators and other devices/objects that are physically connected to internet either
through wired or wireless connections [7]. IoT is the growing technology and it is reaching every
sector of the modern world. The term IoT is first introduced by Kevin Ashton in 1999 [9]. IoT has
been in the limelight ever since and gained lot of attention from both academic and industrial
organizations. With respect to numerous connected devices growing rapidly, IoT is seen as a
revolution in technology which strives towards computing, connectivity and cost-savings [10].
These 3 C’s are help benefit the users by increasing the impact on operations and builds customer
satisfaction. There are many applications of IoT that include healthcare, smart cities, homes,
traffic, agriculture, automobiles, education etc., This article focuses on the automation of buildings
and homes commonly referred as “Smart homes and Smart buildings”.

Enough research has been conducted in IoT aiming majorly on smart environments that include
smart buildings, smart healthcare, smart cities, traffic, grid etc., A research made by Ericsson has
shown that the devices that are connected over internet would raise more than 50 billion by 2020
[8]. IoT can sense and transmit the data simultaneously, this gives a greater scope for its existence
in the future and faces challenges at the same time. Smart buildings are deployed with lot of devices
with sensors are connected through IoT and are to be monitored regularly to maintain the building
safe and store the data on a server. This data that is collected is analysed and visualized using
certain patterns and overall energy consumption of the building is reduced. Around 40% of the
energy consumption in U.S. is due to buildings and this can be reduced to 28% with smart HVAC
systems implemented in the buildings [6]. The purpose for smart buildings is to make the occupants
feel comfortable and secure at the same time by enhancing the quality of living standards and by
supporting the technological advancements and adapting to the change to have a safer living
environment in the buildings.

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Goals and Objectives
Smart buildings today are looking forward for the intelligent technologies in the building
environment. Interactive and response-based simulations are conducted and are implemented in
the newly constructed smart buildings. Some of the main objectives include:
 Economic smart buildings, where the costs are lowered in regarding to both maintenance
and operations.
 Environmental smart buildings, where the energy efficiency is maintained by optimizing
the usage and sustainability.
Smart buildings with increased occupant comfort, satisfaction, safety and have control over the
living conditions in the building.

Overview of the Topic


Internet of Things (IoT) technology made everything easy by giving control over all the electronic
smart devices in the Smart buildings. All electronic devices in home can be controlled at home
without physical existence of user in home. Smart home makes all devices in home to act smart
which provides more convenience for day to day activities. Smart home technology reduces the
workload of users, utilizes the energy in an effective way and provides security. Smart homes or
buildings have a closed environment which induce wireless networks with sensor power implanted
in them. Some of the devices in smart home are air conditioning and heating, ventilation, lighting,
hardware and security systems.

Research Questions
RQ1: How to improve fault tolerance of the smart buildings?

1. Fire
2. Network outage
RQ2: How to make better response and evacuation in case of fire and other emergency cases in
high rise buildings?

RQ3: How machine learning can improve smartness in the buildings?


1. Ambient Assisted Living
2. Occupancy Comfort of residents
RQ4: How to improve energy efficiency with smart technology in the smart buildings?

1. Residential building
2. Industrial building

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Expected Results
In Smart buildings by using better methods and frameworks to detect and mitigate fire related
problems and in cases of adveristy due to high flaming fires, evacuation plans to the occupants in
the buildings. In network outage, to mitigate the issue to an extent where loss of data or any
valuable information can be preserved. In high-rise buildings to calculate the fire invested floors
and evacuate based on the affected area. Thus, improving the fault tolerance in the smart buildings
with IoT based sensors and devices.

2. Related work
In this section, literature review based on the research that is made by other authors that help find
solutions to the research made in this project is reflected.

2.1. Summary of Reviewed Work

In the article, “Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Smart Buildings: State of the Art, Trends and
Challenges” [1] by S. Lazarova-Molnar, H. R. Shaker, N. Mohamed, and B. N. Jorgensen says the
impact of faults caused in smart buildings due to energy consumption. An estimated amount of
energy wastage due to HVAC and lighting were calculated to be 20% and 18% respectively in
smart builings. They proposed a several methods liked called model-based, signal-based,
knowledge-based and active FDD methods to diagonise and find the root cause and severity. With
IoT, diagnosis of the faulty systems by integrating the devices and finding a solution collectively
can keep the buildings safer. This article gives state-of-art on the key challenges and diagnostic
techniques and is helpful to enquire RQ1.

The article, “Improving Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort of Smart Buildings with HVAC
Systems in the Presence of Sensor Faults” [2] by Volkan Gunes, Steffen Peter, and Tony Givargis
gives a profound information on the HVAC systems induced in the smart buildings that are
equipped with faulty sensor deployments. The paper discusses about the approaches that could be
taken to mitigate the problems that occur due to the data of sensors faults. These approaches are
examined on multi-room smart buildings using CPS (Cyber-physical systems) with a reusable
model in hand. With this proposed solution 38% reduction in energy wastege in total and about
75% impovement is observed in thermal comfort. These techniques can be used to improve fault
tolerance in smart buildings and is useful in RQ4.

In the article, “Designing CPS/IoT applications for smart buildings and cities” [3] by Chi-Sheng
Shih, Jyun-Jhe Chou, Niels Reijers, Tei-Wei Kuo discusses the application of IoT and CPS to
Smart buildings and cities. In this article the authors discuss briefly about how IoT helps in
maintaining the sanity of the buildings by monitoring the fault conditions or anomalies that are
detected and later are serviced during the process of fault recovery. Certain measurements are
taken in first place while monitoring like using a central controller and deployed based on the

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polling system. Also, scalability issues regarding the polling are taken care. Clustering, loop
handling is some of the mitigations that can be implemented to maintain a better fault free system.
This paper gives a great insight in IoT devices induced smart buildings and gives insight for RQ1.

The article, “How to Improve Fault Tolerance in Disaster Predictions: A Case Study about Flash
Floods Using IoT, ML and Real Data” [4] by Gustavo Furquim, Geraldo P. R. Filho, Roozbeh
Jalali, Gustavo Pessin, Richard W. Pazzi and Jó Ueyama proposes a faul-tolerant system in case
of disasterous situations. To forecast these conditions earlier WSN using ML techniques were
implemented. With recent advancements in technology, weather forecasting and monitoring are
being carried out by IP-based sensors that are monitored using IoT patterns. These patterns follow
the WSN and the nodes that are connected to the nearby internet and thus form a path of
communication. Technologies like cloud computing are also used to communicate with similar
information propagating sites. This paper focuses on the evaluating and assessing the fault-
tolerance in times of natural disasters based on IoT patterns. These techniques can also be applied
to smart buildings in case of network outage or during disastors and alert the residents, can be a
good reference for RQ1.

The article, “Smart Apparatus for Fire Evacuation - An IoT based fire emergency monitoring and
evacuation system” [5] by Swarnadeep Majumder et al. discusses about the technology for fire
safety in the smart buildings using IoT. The motive is safe evacuation of the occupants with the
help of real time data, also provide this data to inform the emergency services. They propose
informing the people and the first responders about the locations of the direction in which fire is
spreading. The idea is that a central hub receives the data from all the sensor nodes and that data
is processed to give an interactive dynamic map to the occupiers and emergency service people to
get the information about the safe evacuation paths, the number of occupants in the building on
each floor and area in which fire is spreading. This article gives a brief insight in cases of fire
evacuation and a good reference for RQ2.

In the paper, “Energy Management in a Smart Residential Building” by Tasdighi et. al. [8]. The
article briefly gives information about energy management in smart residential building.
According to the research, energy can be managed effectively using efficient operations without
changing the infrastructure of the building and hardware configuration of the energy system in
the building. Authors assumed that smart building (micro grid) should have various power
sources like main grid, battery, PV and CHP. The microgrid is attached to the main grid where it
has a capacity to sell/buy the electricity from/to the grid. Author's main aim is to discover the
efficient solution for the effective energy management in smart buildings for the functions such
as scheduling, monitoring etc. Authors proposed a practical model as a mixed integer optimized
problem using the historical data about electrical and thermal demands in smart buildings.

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Finally, authors proved that methods in this paper are very effective energy management in smart
building. This paper gives a good insight on the RQ4.

The paper by Arun et. al. [9], “Intelligent Residential Energy Management System for Dynamic
Demand Response in Smart Buildings” describes how smart residential buildings use renewable
energy to utilize energy in effective way. Authors proposed “an intelligent residential energy
management system (IREMS)” [9] for smart residential buildings and they provided a case study.
The main aim of this paper is to reduce the energy consumption in smart residential building
while performing various actions in a building. IERMS achieves the effective energy usage
during the operations of loads in smart building and it also manages the battery energy storage.
Authors described an optimal resource sizing algorithm which selects the size of RER and storage
of battery to maintain the efficiency of energy utilization from the existing renewable energy.
This paper deals with RQ4.

In the paper, “IoT-based Occupancy Monitoring Techniques for Energy-Efficient Smart


Buildings” by Akkaya et. al. [10] helps us to know about the energy consumption in collecting
the data by the IoT devices such as sensors, RFID, cameras and smartphones in smart buildings.
Authors described the effective utilization of energy in smart building by smart HVAC control
and they have provided challenges in achieving it like data fusion techniques, monitoring in
minimally intrusive way [10] in a smart building. The main goal of this paper is to provide a
framework which helps the future research work for spatio-temporal data collected by the IoT
devices in a smart building. Authors made a comparative analysis on the methods which are used
for energy saving and they provided future challenges in this area. This paper gives a brief
description related to the RQ3.

2.2. Analysis and Discussions


In the literature review, the authors made research in the field of IoT technology that aid in making
Smart Buildings. The researches were made on energy mangement, fault tolerance, occupant
safety, ambient assisted living inside smart buildings using AI and Machine Learning. The authors
came up wth certain frameworks that enhance the living standards and motivate for better
techological improvements. Their work encourages the new researchers to actively conduct
research in this field.
The research papers discuss about the importance of fault tolerant buildings necessary for
tomorrow’s well being, and how AI and Machine Learning, Big Data Analytics are the rising
technologies in IoT and how their integration can create tremendous achievements with IoT.

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What has been done? How good it has been done?
The authors, Volkan Gunes et. al [2] discussed techniques like adaptation algorithms and
MATLAB simulation frameworks to keep the buildings safe by introducing several energy
management models, occupant behavoir control by monitoring individuals 24/7. Also, the
fault tolerant maintenance by adding certain failure detection and diagnostic approaches and
fault trees for better maintenance of the smart buildings. The approaches the authors mention
made a good impact in case of energy management and are implemented in smart buildings
today.
What has not been done? What needs to be completed?
Network or power outages either partially or totally causes severe loss to the commercial
and residential buildings. The authors gave remedies like UPS battery or micro-gid
installation to reduce the affect but couldn’t give solid solutions to get past these situations.
The diagnostic methods and the frameworks designed for finding faults in the buildings in
case of hazardous conditions are yet to be improved to reduce the damage. Failure recovery
mechanisms used to control the faults were left at a marginal scale. There are yet some faults
go un-noticed and are to be addressed.
What differentiates current work from related work?
In the current work, the focus is on the fault tolerance of the smart buildings in case of
hazardous conditions which might threaten the life or cause severe danage of the occupants
like fire hazards, elevator malfunction or even network outages. In this paper, we try to come
with solutions that can best help the occupants to have a blissful life by introducing back-up
strategies and virtual assistance in times of need.

2.3. Highlights of Current Contribution

In this research paper, the fault tolerance of the Smart buildings is addressed with modern concepts
like IoT and 5G. The recovery techniques that can be used to mitigate immediately when a failure
occurs are discussed profoundly. Hazardous elements to human life like fire is elaborately
mentioned and preventive analysis is given. Network and power outage have been a serious
problem when un-noticed and can save a huge amount of operational costs. The role of machine
learning in tall Smart building, energy utilization and its efficiency in residential as well as
commercial buildings are mentioned in this paper.

3. What Makes Buildings Smart?

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In a digital world we live in, an engineer faces daily challenges to meet the expectations of the
growing needs of the urban population who spend most of their time in the buildings, from living
in to work. The buildings that were built earlier served the purpose to secure the people, heat and
cool the living space, but there is an urge from the future to allow the equipment within the building
to communicate on a machine-to-machine level to help cut the costs on energy and better optimize
the occupant’s productivity. This is possible with the sensors connected through IoT which analyze
the incoming data by managing and optimizing the operations. [5]

3.1. Smart Building Characteristics:

Smart buildings integrate and optimize, control and communications of the building, with
intelligence power to make the building adaptable and help in efficient energy management,
enhance occupant comforts and their satisfaction and increase longevity [4]. The smart buildings
checks and maintains the individual’s adaptability to the environment providing efficient energy,
comfort, good life span and occupant satisfaction. Infrastructure plays a prime role in building
construction, providing various essential components like HVAC systems with good efficiency,
utilities monitoring, electricity consumption and automated security systems [4, 5]. With IoT at
par with smart buildings, sensors are implanted to read the data to maintain, optimize energy
consuption and operability.

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Figure 1: Smart building features [21]

The other features that contribute to the Smart building are:


1. Fault tolerance:
 Disaster recovery startegies and Back-up strategies
 Data Validation
 Redundancy
 Distributed System Architecture
 Virtual platforms enabled
2. Scalability:
 Distributed System Architecture and Distributed Video Architecture
 Connects stations remotely
 Dedicated and professional station interface for simultaneous connections
3. Cloud Connectivity:
 Remote monitoring and Tuning
 Mass notification
4. Mobility and Remote Access:
 Smart phones and Tablets
 Unlimited mobile connections

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In a business point of view, vendors, utilities and customers form the dynamics of a smart building.
These three sectors solve the who, what, how of building a smart platform. The vendors make the
strategic marketing, develops the products and manages the execution. The components from the
technological aspects are transformed to solutions of the platforms. Vendors maintain a critical
relationship with the domain expertise to build the strength of the system [5]. Smart buildings
value grows with the input of new business models and stronger margins in the corporate industry.

The utilities are managed by taking care of marketing, education and managers who rule the
programs. These people provide customer satisfaction by enhancing the energy supply and offer
transformation opportunities. These are provided using white-label technology with integrated
energy efficiency provision to the connected devices thereby increasing the performance quotient.
This creates a way into new industrial era and cause downfall to the traditional models.

The customers are the end users who own the buildings, manage its facilities and sustainability.
They maintain a strategy to include the strategy for data driven technologies like
Capital/Operational Expenditures (CAPEX/OPEX) for risk management and reporting the
regulatory information. These are maintained by some IoT based energy retrofits and through
deployment of SaaS and other advisory commissions. These result in customer’s cost savings over
energy, revenue energy transactions and the asset values are re-estimated and valued [5].

Figure 1: Dynamics of the smart building [5]

Many of the technologies that are in use today make what it is possible for human comforts. All
these start with data: Sensor data, Contextual data, User input data. Sensor data is the output data
that is retrieved from any input source of a physical system like sensors in a refrigerator,
thermostats etc. in smart buildings. This data can be used to process the information or given as an
input to other sources. Contextual data is the provision of information based on context to any
person or event like alerting the owner or occupant about an incident with in the smart home, tv is

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left on for several hours etc. This information gives an insight for a broader perception of the
incidents taking place in a similar environment. User input data is the data fed to the CPUs for
storing the basic information.

The data collected is transmitted to data center or to cloud where the data is analyzed and
transmitted into actionable insight. Smart building applications are built on open, secure, scalable
and manageable platform to respond, adapt and optimize the living conditions. Building operations
into the smart technology make the smart buildings, smarter and more efficient. Smarter than its
components are isolated today.

3.2. Architecture & Frameworks

The high-level layered architecture of a Smart Building system is shown in Figure 2 [16].
Physical Systems: The bottom layer, which sense data around them. This layer typically has
HVAC systems, Control systems for lighting, Building’s fire and security system and real time
location system. The data that is collected is transformed into a standard form for transmission.
System Integration: This layer acts as a bridge to the systems and processes in the building. This
layer handles high-speed data archiving, correlation, integration and optimization of resources. All
these help in creating a framework for sensor data processing.
Process Integration layer: This layer is responsible for process orchestration and automation
services. An enterprise bus runs through all these processes connecting all components of the
building architecture.
Business Integration: This layer provides optimization in business rules and decision support to
the user interface and information about building’s performance and security. Visualization is an
important aspect of the Business Integration layer.

Figure 2: Layered Architecture of Smart Building Control System [16]

Figure 2 gives the insight on the architecture of the Smart Building and the functionalities within.
Any building should meet the basic requirements like being dynamic and energy efficient to the

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situations. The architecture shown in Figure 3, provides a view on high-level design of the smart
building considering Edge computing. The edge node is placed at near to the sensor nodes at the
edge of network so that they could attain low latency and high throughput. These nodes are taken
and sent for pre-processing to the cloud. The cloud node within the data clusters support storage
capacities that can accommodate larger lot and help in faster and complex computations.

Figure 3: Smart building High Level Design [16]

Smart Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS) simulation conceptual framework:


This framework is the aggregation of BEMS and real-time weather responsive control systems
much needed for a smart building system. The designs that help energy control in the buildings
are formed with the collaborating changes in weather data. In a Smart building, with any sudden
changes in weather, a HVAC system could dynamically modify the control systems that save
daylight energy to electrical lightings.
In Figure 4, a flowchart representing the smart building’s framework with daylight monitoring and
simulation is shown in a blue box and workflow on AC conditions are represented by the red box.
Room temperatures and the thermal conditions parameters with the lighting equipments are
estimated in the workflows. Weather data is received and estimated from through online weather
stations frequently. Simulated framework shown in Figure 4, is represented as a reference design
model to assess the energy efficiency in a Smart Building [29]. This design model responds
promptly to the operational functionalities and sustains the well being of the building.

Figure 4: Smart BEMS Conceptual Framework [29]

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3.3. Data Collection and Monitoring
Data collection plays the prime role in acquiring information from sensors and other widely used
techniques like beacons and WiFi triangulaions today. The data collected is stored in a database
that it be accessed and visualized. The collected data is stored and used when required to make the
tenant life comfortable in the smart buildings.

Smart buildings unlike operating on a single IP network works on multiple control systems under
many individual networks. These networks have controls like Fire safety, video surveillance in
buildings, intrusion detection units, HVAC maintenance, lighting, elevator performance and
occupants sensing and communications through voice inputs. The contol networks stores data that
is collected from the input information and used in future for similar situations. Users can view
the functionalities of these controls like surveillance, but the data stored can help in maintaining
the occupant safety.

The video and audio surveillance require continuous connectivity to internet and thereby collects
huge amounts of data. Elevators usually use diesel power for generation and electricity to maintain
their core functionalities, lately, elevators are video powered, fire safety cautions and emergency
calls are included providing more safety and internet connected to know the live connectivity. The
central monitoring and control system check the availability and maintain the well being of the
smart buildings. Figure 5 shows multiple control environments under a central monitoring system.

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Figure 5: Realization of Smart Intelligent Buildings with Central Monitoring System [13]

Figure 6 depicts exponential increase of data in zettabytes over a period of 10 years, produced by
a range of sensors, smart and connected devices in the smart buildings ranging from 2010 to 2020.

Figure 6: Data Volume generated and predictions for 2010-2020 [4]

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In Smart buildings, data collected can be stored and transfered through a wide range of sensors
and devices. Some of them are:
 Sensors that sense environment elements like humidity, dust, temperature, moisture,
lighting etc.
 Sensor devices that detect fire, smoke and gas emissions.
 Smart meters that measure electricity, gas, water.
 HVAC devices for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning.
 Detection of opening/closing the doors and switching on/off electrical equipment.

Monitoring:
Data is collected in huge volumes on daily basis in Smart buildings. This data is to be monitored
to utilize it for purposes useful to the people in the buildings. Usually people monitor the buildings
manually, make decisions and manage them. Decision making is important to make buildings
smart and ultimately have make them close to real time scenarios. Appropriate decisions are made
with suitable data to investigate and perform certain strategies and retrieve information and
perform analytics.

Decisions are made after monitoring based on the faults found like alarm trigger, smoke/fire
recognition, faulty pattern identification, indoor air polution without manual intervention to be set
right. To have an optimized, efficient and long-living sustainable buildings are the goals to future.

3.4. Data Processing

Smart Building’s data handling is challenging, and data processing has a major role in IoT. Without
the data process, vital information cannot be analyzed and fed to the required outputs. The sensors
transfer the information that is collected to a central hub with vast storage in the databases with
the raw data on which algorithms can be applied to determine the patterns and help making
decisions. Memoori Smart Building Research say Software and services based out of cloud and
big data in Smart Buildings will grow at a rate of 33.2% CAGR to nearly $30 Billion by 2020. [9]
Big data technologies techniques and its potential is undeniable. Currently Apache Hadoop
ecosystem provides the ability to collect, store and process this huge amount of data which is
produced so fast and help process the data parallelly. Big data and technologies have been there
for a long time now and are trusted. It is now a must that a dedicated system for sensors data
storage and processing is included. It is crucial to that now the data be deployed on cloud with
High Throughput Computing along with Hadoop/MapReduce. Cloud provides a centralized place
provisioning virtualization of resources and the other hand Hadoop system is a distributed file
system where different tasks are subdivided and run parallelly reducing the load on a single worker.

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There is different process that big data technologies perform after the data is transmitted over the
network i.e. Data Acquisition and Data Analysis. Data Acquisition includes, data collection, data
transmission and preprocessing. [11]
 There various data collection sources like log files, sensors, crawlers, mobile devices from
which various big data technologies can collect data. Log files are like record files which
record activities in defined data formats and are generated by the data source automatically.
 There are multiple big data technologies like Apache flume which are used to transfer the
collected data to the correct big data storages (NoSQL databases).
 The raw data that is collected is dirty and unstructured and a lot of time redundant. This
stage is used to filter out the redundant and useless data which unnecessarily occupy space
in database and affect the further data analysis. The preprocess also includes cleansing the
data for the final processing and analysis.

3.5. Security

Building automation systems (BAS) allows to monitor and control the smart building operations.
The operations in a smart building are lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning etc. IoT
devices connected to the cloud to have immediate access and have less physical storage but, this
also leads to quite many vulnerabilities.
 Poor privacy protection:
Unauthorized intrusions are common now-a-days in IoT based systems. The data stored
can be corrupted by the hackers or intruders bypassing malicious data and compromising
the privacy of the authorized persons. For example, attacker takes control of the smart clock
and make false alarms which is misleading [16].

Figure 7: Remote access attack [6]

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 Exploitation of Software:
Malware effects the IoT devices and they are many ways to do. Some of them are device
acquisition, firmware upgrade, trusted boot, apps and services [8].

 Device acquisition: IoT devices which are bought by the user are already affected.
For instance, seller could inject malware into IoT devices before selling them to
users.
 Firmware upgrade: Firmware of the IoT device might be infected before by the
seller before selling it to the customer.
 Apps and services: Hacker could inject malware into the smartphone of the user
where smartphone contains all the applications.

 Eavesdropping:
Unauthorized user might observe the user’s information when IoT device is connected to
the network. There are some tools and techniques which are used by the hacker to observe
the user’s data. At 1,2,4 points in the below diagram hacker has a chance to monitor the
data when there is a communication between smart hub the IoT devices. some of those
tools are Wireshark, tcpdump which are used to monitor the user’s data [11].

Figure 8: Architecture of a Smart Home [11]

 Botnet enslaving:
Lot of IoT devices are have insecure user interface and default login credentials and hackers
might use password attack to attack those devices. Unauthorized user could try to login
into the devices using brute force method where unauthorised person could get user data
and control over that device. If there are more attempts to login into IoT device, then that
device should be locked to avoid brute force method [36]. If the device is hacked then that
device might be used for the criminal activities, Bitcoin mining and spam mails.

Internet of Thing devices equipped smart buildings are growing enormously today and also raising
vulnerabilities risks in operability of the buildings. A Building Automation System (BAS) called
Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) analyses the security threats and
their countermeasures. BAS helps in providing the building’s ability to manage and control in a
remote environment like HVAC systems. The issues related to the security and the threats with all

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the integrated devices in IoT based Smart buildings would try to overcome with some
countermeasures using the BEMOSS architecture.

BEMOSS Security Software Architecture:

BEMOSS architecture is build on open source software and is accepted by the U.S. Department of
Energy and is working on the control and sensing of HVAC systems in a small-scale commercial
building. BEMOSS has promised so many buildings in the past with its efficient consumption of
energy and a good interaction with the users and the IoT devices induced in the Smart buildings
[9]. The BEMOSS software architecture has four layers, which interact with databases and time
series information.

UI layer provides the graphic user interface and maintain the management of the users. Web
browser helps maintain an interactive platform with the sensors and load controllers. Security is
assured by providing authentication and authorization facilities.
Application Layer handles the control applications that fit in the intelligent systems. Some of the
applications are behavior patterns, load management, fault-detection, scheduling and planning are
few of them.

Figure 9: BEMOSS security software architecture [12]

Operating System and Agent Layer is the most important layer, as the communications are based
on the low-level and provides high-level application development. A one-to-one interaction is
established between the agent and the device for controlling and monitoring.
API Translator Layer allows the interactions between the BEMOSS and the IoT devices that
include all kinds of sensors and controllers. APIs communicate through their specified protocols
for establishing a connection and hence allows BEMOSS to manage the connected devices
irrespective of API.

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BEMOSS database, contain the information of other devices namely metadata and other database
for time series.

BEMOSS architectures maintains the security of the smart building based on CIA (Confidentiality,
Integrity, Availability) measurements. It maintains redundancy management and failure recovery
for storage of data and operations at the system level. As the applications frequently communicate
over the network with sensors and controllers, they are highly vulnerable to attacks. Hence, certain
security measurements were taken care in BEMOSS.
 Biometric protection: Some attacks basically try to break the usernames, passwords to
attain the access. For this the attackers, repeatedly try to intrude thereby reducing the
performance as the server memory is heavily used. BEMOSS, uses biometric systems to
preserve the security in the smart buildings ensuring privacy related concerns.
 Secured Communication: SSL encryption helps in non-compromise over user credentials
and sessions. BEMOSS implements this encryption technique and owns a CA
(Certification authority) for end-to-end encryptions. AES encryptions are made between
the server and the clients. This allows the server to be started and function in an encrypted
level.
 Security in Web Sockets: The web sockets are encrypted with SSL, which secures from
man-in-middle attacks and helps in securing the web sockets avoiding any requests or
responses from the web server. The client requests are validated before being sent to server
and validation occurs at the server end as well. Thus, BEMOSS secures the web sockets
and from the cross-origin servers to secure the system.
 Role-based management: The users are categorized based on their roles to maintain
security.
o Administrator: Has complete authorization and monitors, controls the devices for
building the operations.
o Zonal-manager: Has authorization over the zones allotted.
o Tenant/Occupant: Has only read access to most of the system. Any requests sent
over the web are verified.

3.6. Future Impacts

The future of the Smart Buildings is to make smart communities and then smart cities and smart
nations. All of these are possible with the new technologies that interact and work together. IoT
has brought changes and evolution that would last a longer period and with 5G that can be used in
both commercial and domestic purposes with cellular power can make things easier and faster.
Security is one of the main concerns in a growing technological world. There will be increased
protection and privacy to all the devices connected making a normal individual impossible to barge
in private properties.

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3.7. Discussions

Smart Buildings are evolving at a fast pace, as we are living in a smart world where everything is
being connected to each other. There is a lot of scope for improvement at this stage, making
buildings the most livable structures for human beings. Smart buildings are the epitome of
continuous improvement to the smart world with all connected devices. With IoT and 5G,
buildings and operations can be much efficient and productive to the users.

4. IoT Fundamentals and three phases

Internet of Things (IoT) refers to some billions of real-world or physical objects that are connected
over internet which collects the data from these devices, processes and communicates with each
other without any human interactions. There was an estimate of 8.4 billion devices used by IoT in
the year 2017, which is 31% higher compared to 2016 and likely to rise to 20.4 billion connected
devices by 2020 according to Gartner [6].

IoT envisions in creating a brighter future to mankind, by allowing the physical objects like
sensors, actuators, entities etc., around us to talk with each other and act based on the interests of
the individual without any manual instructions [4]. IoT devices while sensing the data from the
machine collect huge amount of data which gives a great scope for the big data analysts to create
and store large data sets and further analyses them. The data collected is used to observe the
behavior patterns on a real-world situation and make any progressions through these sensors for
an efficient maintenance of the connected world. Cisco calculated that about half of 27.1 billion
total devices that would be connected by IoT in 2021 which interact through machine-to-machine
connections interferes with 5% of total IP traffic globally [7].

IoT is shaking hands with many technologies and making the world smarter and intelligent. The
companies that run the applications on IoT after collecting huge data from the sensors, choose to
process the data in cloud rather than building an in-house access. This saves a lot of physical
storage and reduces the costs to maintain the data [45]. Several tech companies like Microsoft,
Amazon and Google are providing wide range of services for IoT through their cloud-based
services. Another technology that utilizes the data collected from the IoT devices is Artificial
Intelligence. Companies are using this data to make predictions, which in case AI with the help of
few thousands of sensors pull the data and feeds it to deep neural networks and predicts the possible
scenarios and how they affect the energy consumption in future [5]. Google with machine learning
and AI made its data centers more efficient using IoT to cool them and proposed that it would
show similar results in other industrial areas.

There is rapid growth in IoT because of its services, applications and fast development in low-cost
manufacturing, embedded systems, actuators, communication protocols and hardware materials

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[4]. Few evolutions are brought up in IoT, related to network and services infrastructure. A vertical
approach, Silo, in which, applications does not share any features which increases the redundancy
and cost. Thereby a new developed approach has been introduced for IoT applications, called the
horizontal approach which is flexible compared to vertical approach as it has the common platform
which handles services and network [7].

Figure 10: Horizontal representation of IoT applications [4]

This horizontal approach has three phases as shown in Figure 1, collection phase, transmission
phase and processing, managing and utilization phase. In collection phase, devices that are used
for sensing collect data like RFID etc., Transmission phase, has some methods that transfer the
collected data from previous phase to applications and servers. Processing, managing and
utilization phase, analyzes the data that has been collected and feedback is given to the applications
that handle responsibilities like data aggregation, information utilization, device management, data
filtering and device discovery [7].
Applications were initially built over certain dedicated devices where there was no interaction with
other applications and services over the network. This approach, vertical silo method created a
problem of redundancy in application services. This approach was not suitable for IoT Smart
buildings and came up with a better solution acquiring a horizontal approach where network and
services were managed on a common platform. This was formulated with three phases where the
physical components interact with the connected systems. The three phases of IoT are sensing,
transmission and processing.

4.1. Architecture and Key features

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There are lot of architectures proposed in IoT, but very few of the frameworks are recognized.
Some of them portray the concepts and relationships in a higher level and some based on the most
relevant applications used in the technological improvements of everyday world. The International
Telecommunication Union’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector introduced ITU-T
Y.2060 model. This standard identifies IoT’s functional characteristics, high-level requirements
and reference model [12]. These functional characteristics include interconnectivity, services,
heterogeneity, dynamic changes in the application areas of IoT and scaling capabilities. High-level
requirements as mentioned include identity related connectivity, interoperability, location-based
capabilities, security and privacy, services that provide high quality and secure human-body issues.

The reference model has the terms “device”, “thing” and “Internet of Things” as their core concepts
dealing with the connectivity of various devices on IoT, with a detailed focus on several models.
In Figure 2, the four layers mentioned are application, service support and application support,
network, and device layers respectively. It says about the management capabilities and security
capabilities in each individual layer [8].

Figure 11: ITU-T Y.2060 architecture overview [8].

Security is classified as generic and specific security capabilities. Specific capabilities are based
on the application requirements and the generic capabilities are independent of the applications
and are separately defined in each layer.
Authentication and Authorization are the capabilities that are specifically defined at all the
application, network and device layers.
The application layer has the data confidentiality and integrity protection, privacy protection,
security audit and anti-virus capabilities. The network layer shows the data confidentiality and
signal integrity protection. The device layer at the bottom possess device integrity validation,
access control, data confidentiality and integrity protection capabilities.

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The architecture that has significance in providing safety and security to IoT applications is the
three-tier architecture which is proposed to look after the requirements and better opportunities
under the IoT platform. This architecture consists of edge, platform and enterprise tiers which are
connected through access providing network services. The network here is a combination of wired
and wireless technologies like Cellular, ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, Ethernet etc., [8].

In Figure 16, as shown the edge tier with the help of proximity network collects data from edge
nodes at the base level. The collected data is forwarded to the platform tier through the access
network. This processes data from the edge tier on sending to the enterprise tier and processing
control commands from the enterprise tier are sent back to edge tier. This sending backing and
forth is done over the access network. The platform tier communicates with the enterprise tier
through the service network. Platform tier also provides end user interfaces, commands and
domain-specific applications [9].

Figure 12: Three-tier architecture pattern [8]

4.2. IoT in Smart buildings/Smart homes

The Internet of Things (IoT) is most talked technology with operational values in many industries.
The applications include Smart buildings, smart cities, smart homes, smart traffic, smart health,
smart grids, physical security, management in various sectors etc., For example, smart buildings
are conceptualized in many countries with enhanced device control, surveillance and infrastructure
monitoring, power meter reading, analysis on operational costs and other optimised processes.
This is the most cost-effective user-level IoT application in today’s world [33].

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The proper utiliation of building space can enhance the features like comfort, security, energy and
power management, user accessability to equipments like elevators in an efficient manner. PoE
(Power Over Ethernet) has the capability to maintain the connectivity within the building’s vicinity
in a better and disruptive way ever seen before and probably one of the best solutions in near future
on account of IoT.

Figure 16: IoT equipped Smart Building [33]

However, several deployment-limiting issues currently impact the scope of IoT utilization,
including lack of comprehensive end-to-end standards, fragmented cybersecurity solutions, and a
relative dearth of fully-developed vertical applications.

4.3. IoT in Data Analytics

IoT today, is dealing with unparalleled amounts of data irrespective of domain, location and other
sensitivities. IoT platforms that serve them and the systems the applications run are experiencing
tremendous growth in the end-points and the sensors that connect them in edge environments.
Several architectures are proposed in where the data is collected and analyzed [11]. Higher
abstraction layers are required for all devices that acquire data. IoT systems exhibit heterogeneity
in their actions, as a result collecting the data causes several problems in obtaining data from
various sources [10].

The data generated from the IoT devices and systems are huge and there are specific issues that
have raised related data collection, storage and retrieval. IoT systems struggle with what kind of
data must be collected and stored. Data storage is proposed to be on the edge to retrieve the data
that is not processed which has no significance on the applications on a platform level. The users
always request for data from sources and provide no enthusiasm to aggregate the same data on the
edge. This results in flooding of the data over the connection pipelines in some IoT devices [11].

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In Figure 3, we see the data collection and aggregation mechanisms with the help of local event
processing which adds in optimizing the data flow in the edge networks. This data streaming
pattern over the edge help in building several collection-related capabilities [9].
 Scalability on the IoT edge can be in billions of connected devices globally in metros.
 The data collected will be secure as validation, authentication and inspection are performed
before processing.

Figure 17: Data collection and aggregation [11]

 Efficient and low-latency is over the bandwidth is provided for real-time events and system
scalability.
 Cloud IoT platforms, provides processing at the edge on the local area if it is needed.
 The data can be accessed and exchanged, providing needed revenue insight [10].

The sensors and systems in today’s IoT produce very large amounts of data. Normal processing
techniques are not enough for these data. IoT data processing and analytics are dealing with
transforming and predictively analyzing this voluminous sensor data. Transmitting this data
requires tremendous bandwidth and the raw data collected is not necessary. This results in the
desire of data analytics at the edge and more feasible it they are on the physical devices [13]. Due
to this complexity raises areas like data management and operational control. An important issue
addressed with analytics on the physical device or at the edge is the data is crowdsourced across
multiple edges and systems would be lost.

Another issue is the lack of time synchronization between sensors. This results in unordered
delivery of messages and need better time synchronization techniques. The data available for
advanced analytics systems is quite not useful, like corrupted data, data missed, wrong data as it
has not been designed for the new approaches to predictive analytics in today’s IoT. Although

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machine generated data is generally of high quality, within today’s IoT, data generated by edge
computing lacks appropriate quality, as edge data continues to suffer corruption and incorrect
semantic and contextual understanding. In addition, IoT systems are attempting to use data not
originally designed for the purpose for which they are using it [9]. This causes both syntactic and
semantic difficulties, which results in very small intersection of useful data between and among
IoT systems. IoT analytics systems are also just beginning to deal with next-generation concepts
such as using social and crowdsourcing data [11].

Figure 18: IoT Data processing [12]

The wireless sensor networks in the IoT systems are connected to each other and data is transmitted
from one another as they communicate. The data is collected and processed in the networks, this
data is stored in the processing units. For the processing to be done and analyzed with low latency
and high bandwidth, the devices are to be located at the edge of the networks for better
communication and computation capability. In smart buildings there are millions of sensors,
sensing data every minute within their respective clusters and communicate with the head clusters.
The raw data that is sensed from these sensors are processed at the edge locations for better
performance and scalability.

4.4. Mobile Edge Computing

Mobile edge computing (MEC) is the network architecture which reduces the network delay
between computing resources and end devices by bringing storage resources and computing from

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the remote data centers to the edge of cellular network. QoS of IoT applications can be improved
by integrating IoT with MEC. MEC provides a service with low latency, high bandwidth and
access to real time data from the network. Figure4, depicts the MEC ecosystem and the
combination of MEC servers into edge of mobile network [15].

Figure 19: Mobile-edge Computing overview [15]

There are several challenges that Mobile-edge Computing face and they are

 Openness of the network


 Multi – service and Operations
 Robustness and Resilience
 Security and Privacy [14]
The main part of the Mobile-edge Computing is the Mobile-edge Computing IT server which is
combined with RAN. MEC IT server makes various combination of applications more efficient
over the multi-vendor platforms in the RAN [15].

Figure5, shows IoT based Mobile Edge Computing architecture which depend on the Software
defined Functions. The architecture has several layers each holding certain responsibilities []:
 Device layer consists of identification and communication technologies that collects the
data from the IoT devices using RFID, Wireless sensors, Bluetooth, Zigbee and transmit
data to the local base stations on the edge network.
 Network layer is considered the most important layer, receives data from the device layer
and manages tasks such as interoperability between different protocols, provides gateway
services, data storage, packets forwarding, traffic prioritization and maintains the
connectivity among IoT applications.
 Control layer takes care of computations and communicates with the application layer. This
layer has the central control of the data. Some of the examples of the controllers are Onyx,
ONOS, Open Daylight [14].

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 In application layer the processed data is used for utilization and visualization. Data can be
retrieved from various IoT applications and used for individual purposes.

Cloud provides different types of services and unlimited virtual resources to the users which is
leaded to different cloud-based applications like smart building, smart grid, smart health care etc.
Some of the problems faced by the cloud-based applications are delay in communication, mobility
support, high latency, more energy usage etc. Edge paradigm plays an important role to overcome
some of those issues by proving those resources at the edge of the network [5].
The advantages of edge computing are:
 Utility Maximization
 Carbon Footprint Minimization
 Number of Executed Tasks Maximization
 Backhaul Traffic Reduction
 Latency Minimization
Lets us consider some of the examples to understand the importance mobile edge computing [5].
 Finding the environment conditions of smart building: Assume an airport contains different
smart buildings (each terminal has a smart building). Person shifts from one terminal to
other terminal which are long through local train. While travelling in train person should
know the detailed information about the journey about how much time he would reach the
destination smart building, and environment of the destination smart building. So, edge
server plays an important role by providing cloud services to the user.
 Energy load balancing applications in smart building: In a smart building there are several
devices like smart meter and micro grids which maintains the energy efficiency by shifting
to the alternative energies like solar and wind energy if they are available. If the cloud is
not near to the smart building then load balancing applications cannot access the
information from the cloud in fast, so here edge server plays an important role which
provides that information with low latency. The temporary data generated by those
applications is stored at edge server and the semi-permanent data is stored at cloud.

Figure 6: Edge servers in smart buildings [5].

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 Real-Time Big Data Analytics: In smart building environment sensors monitor the smart
building and collect the large amount of data and local data is mined at the edge servers
which reduces network traffic and work load on server. Edge server is responded with in
less time which helps in emergency cases. Important data is sent to the cloud and analysis
is performed on that data in cloud. Edge computing-based big data analytics plays an
important role in smart building where large amount of data is collected by the sensors.
There are two types of interactions in a smart building. They are:
 Application-initiated interactions: Applications which are running on the MEC node could
interact with many smart devices. For instance, application is an alarm which controls the
actuator based on the pressure monitored by the sensor in the smart building. Initially,
application sends a request to the sensor to send the pressure value and then based on that
value application sends push request to the actuator to activate alarm. Here smart devices
act as a CoAP servers and application acts as a CoAP client.
 Device-initiated interactions: Smart devices initiate the communication with other smart
devices directly. For instance, to utilize the energy in an effective way, smart devices could
interact with the energy monitoring device and then based on the value of present energy
consumption for an operation it would postpone the high energy consumption operation to
later when there is less energy consumption by the other devices in smart building [5].

Figure 7: Machine to machine interactions [8]

Sensors collect the data from the smart building and that data is sent through the network. There
are wired and wireless transmissions and among the wired transmission are ethernet and xDLs and
the transmission medium are twisted pair, copper wire, coaxial cable and optical fiber. Wireless
technologies have a flexibility, so it is the main communication in smart building, but it has a
constraint regarding the limited spectrum. the different types of wireless technologies are Wi-Fi,
Wimax, cellular and satellite. PLC is another technology and the transmission medium is Electrical
power system [8].

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4.5. Discussions

IoT analytics and Mobile Edge Computing technologies correlate with each other and are the future
of the smart society. They will revolutionize the systems and the daily lives around us. We will
see a future of wireless cellular networks with 5G with the connected smart devices and systems
of Internet of Things. MEC (Mobile Edge Computing) is a gateway that will make IoT perform
highly and with enhanced capabilities. Intelligent automatic decisions with the help of Big Data
Analytics and Artificial Intelligence will be prevalent. We will also see durability and safety in the
IoT systems leading to prevention of any kind of accidents.

4.6. Broader Impact of Smart App on Society

 Making People Smart: hopefully its psychogeography power will allow city-citizens to
move, think, cooperate and work smarter with high productivity
 Time is money, helps increase productivity and maintain energy of the people.
 Help reduce climate changes, environmental degradation and emissions of greenhouse
gases
 Makes life easier, comfortable and more pleasant, with less stress, healthy environment.
 Easy maintenance, efficient audits and monitoring
 Redesign space because the population is increasing. So, smarter residential and industrial
buildings are required which smartly handle space too.

4.7. Strengths and Limitations


Strengths of Smart buildings in the paper:
1. Survivals routes to escape from fire accidents are explained using big data analytics in a
productive approach seeking the safety of the occupants.
2. Ambient assistant intelligent techniques for the comfort of the residents and helping the
elderly in assisting their daily activities through behavior patterns are observed.
3. Security is ensured to the extent of safeguarding individual’s life in a smart building
proposed by several architectural schemes.
4. Efficient energy management in residential and commercial smart buildings are
distinguished and argued for maintenance of a better household.
Limitations of Smart buildings in the paper:
1. Privacy of the individuals can be compromised by any individual personal, through guests
in house or attackers, there are solutions that are yet to be found to eliminate security issues.
2. Intelligent systems implementation into smart buildings causes high energy consumptions.

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4.8. Evaluation and Analysis

Smart technology is the growing feature in today’s technological environment. Amongst them,
smart buildings are most featured and accepted by the people. Fault tolerance and failure recovery
play a major role when taken on a bigger note. Paper discusses various hazardous situations like
fire and network outages in smart buildings. Machine learning usage in smart buildings with their
domestic purposes and ambient intelligence are also discussed profoundly. Energy is one important
factor in the smart buildings. In this project, explored the energy consumption of IoT devices in
the smart buildings. Discussed some of the technologies like ZigBee, wireless communication
through antennas which reduces the energy consumption in smart buidings. Security and privacy
issues are one of the major issues in smart buildings today. Some of the security and privacy risks
and mitigaton mechanisms are addressed.

5. Failure and Recovery

5.1 Failure:

Failure in smart buildings refers to total or partial damage of the systems that include all the
operational and infrastructural parts of the building. A simple fault can cause severe affects if it is
left un-noticed or no remedies were taken after its discovery. Usually these lead to disturbances in
the building normal conditions or occupant’s daily life, like faulty HVAC systems, lighting and
water management, sewer management etc. Few of the conditions even may lead to dangerous
affects when fire alarm system or elevator functions go bad and cause severe injuries or death.

Risks that take place are high if the systems are not equipped with fault tolerant devices that detect
the events before-hand. Most of the buildings now-a-days are multi storeyed tall buildings and
occupy several hundreds of people in each of them. Being negligent or over-looking a single failure
cause disaster to the normal standard of living. Risks can be observed even taken utmost care and
protection, but the concept of reliability comes in order when these risks are taken down to
minimum account.

To reduce the failure count or faults that may occur while building the tall buildings or even those
occur after few decades, these structures must ensure reliability. This single aspect counts for the
quality of living in the buildings. The components such as sensors, actuators, hardware, processors,
microchips, wired and wireless connections along with other integral parts such as communication
system, data processing system needs to be accurate and must be able to provide reliable services
to the occupants. Another important factor to consider when evaluating the reliability of the above-
mentioned components is its ability to prevent failures. A system that can prevent a failure can

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ensure services that are best provided to the residents to keep them safe and return is the goal of
smart buildings.

It is comfortable to the engineers and builders to assume the facility is immune to disasters and
other emergencies, as most of the buildings never been affected by a large-scale adverse events in
the past. But there is a high chance that every building is in some sort of harm. Understanding the
risks and accepting them will go a long way toward keeping the occupants safe and minimizing
damage to the building operations. Some of the vulnerable disaster types that affect the buildings
well being is:
 Natural: Natural disasters are likely familiar, you know if your building is located near a
beach or Tornado area. This could possibly be due to weather conditions or diseases that
may come after the affect.
 Man-made: Man-made disasters can be either accidental or known. Terrorism is a man-
made disaster which leads to a destructive behavior.
 Technological: Technological disasters can be a combination of natural and man-made
hazards. For instance, power outages may lead to behavior outbreak and cause severe
disaster leading further and have to be solve instantly [14].

Leaving these disastrous conditions without having a track of them can cause severe damage to
the human life. The value of preparation for an emergency can be seen here with an example: On
March 17, 2000 [15], lightning struck a high-voltage electricity line in Albuquerque, NM, started
a fire at a Royal Philips Electronics manufacturing plant. Philips technicians put the fire out in
short span, but the materials to make chips for several thousands of cell phones were destroyed.
These situations can drag the companies into great economic downfall costing loss of billions of
dollars to the company.

5.2 Fire

A commercial fire protection system needs basic requirements like regular inspections,
maintenance and testing to make sure of occupant’s safety in case of emergencies. Fire safety
technology continues to advance at a rapid pace in the world of smart. Thee has been a lot of
technological advancement when we consider the case of smart buildings. Smart buildings consist
several sensors in them that incorporate a wide range of technologies. During the design phase of
the structures, architects/engineers should make sure they are designing for safety features and not
just adding convenience and entertainment options to the residential and commercial buildings.
The leading and most beneficial innovation that has been considered regarding the smart buildings
is the fire safety technology.

The traditional way of dealing with fires continues to cause far too many injuries, deaths, and a
substantial amount of property damage. According to the statistics from 2013 [16], show fire

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departments around the United States responded to 487,500 structure fires. These fires lead to 9.5$
billion in damages, injuries to 14,075 civilians and 30,000 fire fighters. With the introduction of
IoT technologies into commercial and residential buildings can decrease these numbers to a great
extent.

Figure 8: Statistics of fire accidents in buildings [17]

Figure 9: Fire accidents due to smoke alarm performance [17]

The above Figure 8, 9 show the statistics of fire accidents that were involved due to various causes
of origin in buildings and the injury and death rate respectively. In case of tall buildings for fire
safety, research is done to reduce the fire-based accidents with IoT equipped buildings.

IoT helps in monitoring situations in case of emergency like fire, natural hazards, theft etc. in smart
buildings. A fire detection model with monitoring and faster way of evacuation for the high-rise
buildings with Data Analytics is shown [20]. This part helps in answering RQ 1.
Big Data and IoT can help in Fire Safety based on:
 Data Collection from sensor rich environment
 Ability to analyze and process the collected data
 Deliver the real time analysis to the building owners, occupants, emergency responders,
and all other participants in the building

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Figure 10: Multiple fires depicting the percentage of fires in different kinds of building and their impact on different floors [20]

In buildings with IoT implementation, there are 420 deaths, 1370 injuries and $1.4 billion every
year in direct property damage due to fire in high-rise building [22]. Fire companies and building
owners say that all data is collected but not use. There is huge historic data available on the reasons
why fire started the point of starting of fire, there are available static emergency exit plans.
Researches have been happening and monitoring systems have been created for monitoring fire in
the buildings.
With Data Analytics and decision making we should be able to answer questions in case of fire
like:
 What is the Smoke/Fire direction of spread and intensity?
 What resources can be used to manage/minimize fire?
 Is there a need to deploy the fire services in case of fire?
 People’s movement in the smart building?
 Real time evacuation/exit plans on fingertips of the occupants in the smart building?
There is Smart apparatus for fire evacuation (S.A.F.E.) framework [19] making using of like Mesh
Sensor Network and Central Hub and Path Planning. Use of technologies like S.A.F.E. can change
the perception of IoT fire safety in smart building. They used mesh sensor network to sense the
smoke/fire, which was created using nRF24L01 transceivers (2.4GHz) instead of Zigbee
transceivers.

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Figure 11: Using Mesh Sensor Network [4]

The transceiver then sends the data wirelessly to the network along with its sender and destination
information, through router nodes to a central hub. This way the location information of the fire is
available to the first responders. Further the analysis is performed on the real time fire status.
MATLAB was used to perform path planning algorithm to find all possible exit paths from each
room and each floor out of the building [19].

Figure 12: Find all possible exit paths from each room [19]

Time is very critical, so the proposed system where operators should information at their fingertips:

 IoT based Smoke/ Fire Detection sensors collect the data and beyond threshold trigger the
alarm.
 The monitoring system picks up the alarm and sends out notifications to all the personnel
in the building and intimates the first responders.

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 The monitoring system then should be able to provide the real time analysis of the situation
in the building to the first responders or the rescue team.
 The fire data analysis should have algorithms where it should be able to tell 2 most
important things:
1. The number of occupants in the building and the prediction of where and how
largely the fire is spreading and in which direction.
2. The real time indoor location of all the occupants and the building plan with all
possible exits.
 Occupants in the building can be shared the real time evacuation and exit plans on the go
giving them direction on their mobile phones.
Proposed Solutions:
 IoT is an enabler in the Smart Building to shift its focus from detection, suppression, and
evacuation to incident prevention. The technology should focus on prevention of the
incident itself.
 If the fire incident occurs, then it needs to be considered that the evacuation strategies need
to be different depending on the kind of occupants. The evacuation strategies should
include all kinds of evacuation use cases, full building evacuation, floor evacuation,
selective occupant evacuation, etc.
 Use of Drones can be used to identify thermal anomalies in smart buildings.
 Having virtual reality scenarios for evacuation is a leading research in fire and life safety.
 Use Voice based evacuation plans which completely depend on app interfaces.
Ultimately everything comes down to the historical static data about the occupants, floor plans and
the real time data on the fire and the activities of the occupants in the building can give the first
responders a better analysis on how to perform the evacuation and minimize the human and
property loss. Integration of fire safety in smart buildings will help prioritize, determines resources
and allow appropriate actions and resources to be considered.

5.3 Network Outage


Network outage or downtime is the breakdown of networks or servers for a certain period of time
or a total shutdown where the systems fails in responding or performing its usual functionality. It
is said to be the time the system is unavailable. Unavailability is the state of which the system is
offline which is caused due to the failed functionality due to an event that has not been planned or
maintenance issue. These system failures or communication failures lead to network outages.

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Figure 13: Traditional power [34]

Figure 14: Smart power [34]

In Smart buildings, every device is connected over network and needs power for its function. So
there has a lot of dependency on the availability of power in smart homes and buildings. Usually
in the buildings, loss of power causes great inconvenience in everyday activities mainly in
hospitals or in any essential facilities can also be a threat to the life. A solution that is widely
accepted during any emergencies when power is needed the most is provision of UPS
(Uninterruptible Power Supply) and in some cases a generator. Both can also be used in certain
conditions. These two power supplies are available in the market and can be used according to
building codes.

Figure 15: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) [32] Figure 16: Generator Supply [33]

The emergency power through these sources are powered by battery via inverter or diesel
generators like in Figure 16. These were used in the past and can be seen used in the future. Some
of the advantages and disadvantages that accompany this power source are:

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Pros:
 Supports large emergency loads for prolonged periods of time, limited only by the fuel
supply.
 Readily available and well documented by the building codes.
Cons:
 Requires a significant amount of space in a building.
 Extensive infrastructure is required to support the combustion.
 Only used during power outages else left unused.
 In static state, constantly requires power to keep generator at optimal temperature to start.

The UPS systems are used for a short-term power outage or with generators supported by diesel.
There are significant number of pros and cons that are to be considered.

Pros:
 Provides immediate continuity of power and power conditioning.
 Readily available.
 Scalable in isolation.
 Well documented by the building codes.
 Requires minimal infrastructure.

Cons:
 Requires routine maintenance.
 Uses power in a static state.
 Heavy if in large scale.
 They are temperature sensitive.
 Only used during power outages else left unused.

With the change in the technological trends, smart buildings are exposed to few safe and powered
solutions that make the efficient and effective usage in case of power outage. Nevertheless, the
need of traditional power supply will always be there. Some such power solutions proposed for
the Smart buildings are Micro grids, fuel cells.

Micro Grids:

A Microgrid from the U.S. Department of Energy Microgrid Exchange Group [3] states a group
of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources (DERs) within clearly defined electrical
boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. A microgrid can connect
and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or island-mode.

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It typically consists of energy storage like batteries coupled with an inverter, a power source, and
a control system to manage the charge and discharge cycle. Thus, the ability to manage the charge
and discharge allows for better utilization of renewable power, as the generation cycle may not
match the load cycle. Microgrids also can operate independently of the grid, in an “island mode”.
It is the island mode that makes them suitable to help support emergency loads, if properly
configured [28]. The other advantage of applying a microgrid for an emergency power source, is
the continuous utilization. Unlike the traditional sources, this asset is constantly being utilized, not
just when there is a power outage, as with a standby generator or UPS. In the event of power loss,
it can then provide instantaneous power, acting like a large uninterruptible power supply.

Figure 17: Microgrids [29]

Although there are few code and listing challenges, microgrids provide a good solution to the
emergency supply challenge. One example scenario is at Mazzetti [29], a microgrid is being used
to form part of the emergency system of a California Hospital and to integrate more of the
technologies into upcoming projects. This project is being delivered in close collaboration with
the State of California, who are actively supporting this technology as part of the State’s aggressive
climate change initiatives.

Fuel Cells:

Fuel cells produce power by converting typically natural gas into electrical energy.

Pros:
 Production of cleaner energy and a minimized carbon footprint overall.
 On-site generation to provide distributed power for reliability.
 Limited infrastructure needs to be in place to host fuel cells.

With all the code issues and other inherent challenges, exclusively using alternate power
generation methods, including fuel cells, remains difficult.

So how do we get to cleaner, uninterrupted energy in smart buildings?

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With increasing demand for reliable power to perform even the basic functions in the building
environment, the need to comply with evolving codes, and the compounding pressure from climate
change, the solution is a work-in-progress. But, we must not get away with this.

With the recent advancement PoE (Power over Ethernet) has become much popular with the power
to smart the buildings. PoE as the cabling technology used in information technology that transmits
both data and power using a standard Ethernet cable [28]. PoE gives users the ability to deploy
powered devices at any location, regardless if electrical outlets are present. It is this characteristic
that makes Ethernet the ideal cabling medium that may connect the smart building of the future.

One of the main advantages in utilizing Ethernet as the main cabling technology is its ability to
give each connected device its own IP address. Utilizing the universal cabling medium simplifies
the management, configuration and maintenance of the connected devices. With Ethernet, network
administrators and system integrators can rely on the universal language of TCP/IP to troubleshoot
devices helping maintain operational costs low. PoE can deliver power to low-voltage devices, up
to 30 watts of power under the current highest-powered standard, 802.3at. Currently IEEE has a
new PoE standard, 802.3bt, which delivers between 60-100 watts of power [34].

With Ethernet, smart building can utilize a single cabling medium and utilize PoE to power
wireless access points, IP surveillance cameras, VoIP networks, PoE lighting, thin clients, and
mobile clients for example. These powered devices rely on switches or other similar power
sourcing equipment (PSE) to receive low-voltage power [29]. Switches are particularly adept at
converting AC to DC power and they provide less power loss than when using traditional
electricity. These units offer a centralized management location that facilitates the troubleshooting
of powered devices.

Though there are many smart devices designed for smart buildings, utilizing Ethernet eliminates
the need to settle on one connectivity standard. Enterprises can re-use their existing network
switches to power a PoE Lighting system for example. Smart buildings combine energy efficiency
and technological innovation to create a dynamic networking environment of interconnected
devices that offer remote control. With Ethernet, many of the components that communicate with
the internet gives users the ability to customize their preferred settings through mobile apps.

This solves the major problems that revolve around non-major network outages and reduces the
unexpected costs faced every year to more than half.

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Figure 18: Cost for total and partial downtimes. [31]

Figure 19: Average power outage time with System Average Interruption Duration Index [35]

In 2017, 36.7 million people were affected by 3,526 reported power outages, according to the
report by Eaton Study [25]. While the number of outages represents a slight decrease from 2016,
the number of people affected skyrocketed. This is more than twice the 17.9 million that were
affected in 2016. The average power outage in 2017 lasted approximately 81 minutes.

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Figure 20: Average number of power outages with non-major outages [36]

5.4 Recovery

Recovery from the failures in the smart buildings can be defined as: recovering and restoring from
a fault as soon as possible with minimal or no effect on the rest of the normal functioning of the
buildings. Recovery is not only about how to return to normal operation but also how fast it can
recover. It is possible that a device in a smart building is recoverable but may take several days or
a certain amount of time to recover. Such kind of recovery is not feasible for the occupants in the
buildings. In a smart building we need recovery management which can handle the failure of any
component without affecting the rest of the functions of the building, at the same time taking
negligible amount of time to recover from it.

There are always huge amounts of risks that is associated when sending information over the
internet. The same risk concerns the developers of a smart building. For example, it is very
important that in a healthcare system the information of the patient under monitor are available to
only to the health center and no one can intercept with it. But with the man in the middle attack
the information can be compromised. Similarly, the DDOS attacks can be used to affect the
availability of the components.

Also, component failures are inevitable with the structural buildings. All the devices that are
installed in the smart buildings have certain amount of limitation associated with them. No
hardware device can function without any error forever. For example, sensors can run out of
battery or due to unforeseen weather it gets destroyed etc. We will focus on the component failure
in smart buildings which is one of the most important aspect.

Failure Recovery is very important for ensuring the availability and security of the whole smart
building. There are multiple security and failure recovery models for finding out different kinds of
faults that can occur during any kind of operation of any IoT parameters in the smart building.
ATA-based technique (Attack Tree Analysis) and tool helps to determine the security parameters
based on which the fault can be detected and prevented at an earlier stage [8]. The TAA based
model also helps in identifying the weakness and vulnerabilities in the building. ATA based
Markov models provides values of probabilities of occurrence of faults. An example model of
Zigbee is provided

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Figure 12: ATA Model of Zigbee [8]

There are different security, reliability and failure parameters taken into consideration for failure
recovery using ATA models. These parameters include both software as well hardware parameters
for failure detection and recovery. A few are list down in the figure 13 [15]:

Parameter Failure/recovery rates

ƛPH Physical operation failure (hardware)

𝞵PH Physical operation failure (hardware/repair)

ƛ PHr Physical failure operation (softerror)

𝞵PHr Physical operation failure (softhardware error/restart)

ƛPHc Physical manufacture failure (hardware)

𝞵PHc Manufacture failure (hardware/changing design)

ƛINS Intrusion failure (soft hardware vulnerability)

𝞵INS Intrusion failure (soft hardware vulnerability /restart)

ƛINSc Intrusion failure (severe hardwarevulnerability)

𝞵INSc Intrusion failure (severe hardwarevulnerability/changing design)

ƛSD Failure caused by design fault (software)

𝞵SD Soft error caused by design fault (software/restart)

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ƛSDc Failure caused by design fault(software)

𝞵SDc Failure caused by design fault (software/changingcode)

ƛINSD Intrusion failure (soft software vulnerability)

𝞵INSD Intrusion failure (soft software vulnerability/restart)

ƛINSDc Intrusion failure (severe software vulnerability)

𝞵INSDc Intrusion failure (severe software vulnerability/changingcode)


Figure 13: Description of parameters [15]

The issue for interoperability and data standardization is still being worked upon and have not been
solved yet. It is important to have compatibility and standards for the Interoperability between all
the paradigms of IoT for smart buildings. The smart buildings are now moving from hardware
centered to data and context centered which help in standardization and interoperability of IoT. To
have a seamless integration of home comfort and building automation services, we need IoT
models which can be shared across the different applications of the smart buildings.
It has now become the most important issue to be solved so that the wide use of interoperability
solutions can be encouraged which will ultimately lead the future to the full integrated IoT system
and smart building. There are many researches going on towards standardizing the data formats
which are necessary to ensure interoperability with the help of which we will in a few decades
realise the full potential of IoT in smart buildings.

5.5 Response and Evacuation in emergency cases in high rise buildings

High-rise buildings can hold tens of thousands of occupants at once, resulting in a lot of problems
when building evacuation is necessary. First, many occupants may have difficulty getting down
all the stairs, as descending a 30-story building is physically demanding and can not be done by
everyone. When we consider high population and the complexity of such buildings it is clear to
see that performing a rapid and safe evacuation seems hard and human being does not have good
memories in case of such disasters like world trade center 9/11. Therefore, it is very important to
design knowledge based realtime interactive evacuation methods instead of classical strategies
which lack of flexibility.

This is one reason why fire systems are so crucial for high-rise buildings, and automatic fire
protection is designed to control a fire to limit the number of occupants who need to evacuate. In

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many situations, the floor where the fire started, along with the floors immediately above and
below, should evacuate via exit stars to several floors below and await further instructions.
Fire is also one of the most important threat for the high-rise complex buildings of today's world
with thousands of occupants inside. But, "What is high-rise building?". According to NFPA
(National Fire Protection Association) [31], high-rise building is a building more than 75 feet (23
meters) in height, measured from the lowest level of fire department vehicle access to the floor of
the highest story to be occupied. A 75 feet tall buildings occupy 7 storey building approximately.
The chances of fire being a danger to a high-rise building comes with a set of predomination like:
 The existence of multiple, occupied floors, one on top of another usually means a higher
concentration of occupants and greater potential fuel load of the building.
 The probability of a large uncontrolled fire moving upward is of concern in a high-rise
building because of its vertical nature.
 Evacuation of occupants when an emergency occurs is hampered by the fact that large
number of people cannot all leave the structure at once via elevators or emergency exit
stairwells.
 Delivery of fire personnel and their equipment to the fire may be blocked by very hazardous
falling glass which may cut hose lines and injure personnel.
 The effect of wind, internal air circulation and difference in the temperature increase the
effect of smoke and hot air.
The points discussed above gives an idea to consider about the difficulties for rapid and safe
evacuation of high-rise buildings and the need for an intelligent system that will provide
understandable and clear information to all users in real time and resolve concerns of them during
evacuation processes.

5.5.1 Fire-Response Performance


The assessment of the capacity to move out of the building has usually been based on mobility of
the occupants. However, fire response performance has to be considered in case of fire [28]
emergencies. Fire response performance is an individual’s ability to perceive and interpret signs
of danger and carry out decisions aimed at surviving a fire. There are generally three factors
determine the degree of fire response performance in the event of fire in a building.

 Fire characteristics.
 Human behavior.
 Building characteristics. [30]

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The first factor that has direct influence on the degree of fire response performance is the nature
of fire itself. Human behavior is affected by the fire hazards and its effects on escape constitute
the type of danger involved. Fire growth rate represents the heat release rate of the fire over time
(kW/s). Fire growth rate is an important factor in determining fire fatality since many fatal
incidents are characterized by rapid fire development after its initial discovery. A fire of form

is observed in the fatal areas as researched by Heskestad in 1972 [31], where, Q = the rate of heat
release (kW) c = fire intensity coefficient (kW/sn) t = time (sn).
It was shown that for most flaming fires, n=2, the so-called T-squared growth rate. A set of specific
T-squared fires labelled slow, medium, fast and ultra-fast with fire intensity coefficients such that
the fires reached 1055 KW in 600, 300, 150 and 75 seconds.

Figure 18: Fire growth rate curves [31]

Temperature effect varies with the length of exposure, humidity and breathability. Intense illness
may occur with temperatures as low as 50 ºC and above 65 ºC causes deformation. Temperatures
above 100 ºC will cause death, like in figure 19. Besides the risk of fire, human factor also
influences the fire response performance which is related to how people behave during fire.

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Figure 19: Physiological effects of heat on humans [31] Figure 20: Walking speeds depending on the crowd density [31]

While people move or remain within the building, they may be exposed to smoke and toxic
products of combustion. The exposure is generally quantified in terms of a Fractional Effective
Dose (FED) [30]. FED depends on the concentration of toxins within fire gases and the duration
of exposure. In the smoky environment, stamina limits depend on the concentration of a
combustion product or smoke optical density since these prevent escape when the critical value is
reached.
Another individual factor is speed of movement and this varies by several individual properties.
Young adults walk faster than elderly people or children and men walk faster than women [31].
Like in Figure 20, distribution of people inside building is also an important factor which affects
speed of movement. In crowded conditions, people can walk unimpeded, however, as the crowd
density increases, movement slows down and at some point, effectively stops.

5.5.2 Intelligent Evacuation Model


Traditional fire evacuation systems having components such as smoke, heat, radiation-sensitive
sensors, alarm systems and emergency warning lights are quite insufficient for today's modern
buildings due to their lack of flexibility. Evacuation systems which are prepared in accordance
with pre-defined evacuation scenarios are not capable of routing according to the knowledge of
what is inside the building during and after the occurrence. This may lead to direct people to the
paths which are closed or have gas leaks.
Increasing human needs, constantly changing and evolving comfort conditions, efforts to
improve energy efficiency and to create a high level of fire safety in high rise, complex and
crowded buildings has given birth to the need for the establishment of systems with variety of
disciplines and this has put forward the concept of Intelligent Building [31]. In recent years, the

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strengthening of fire alarm systems with intelligent control techniques and the development of
wireless sensor network technology have helped achievement of more intelligent and powerful fire
safety systems which is one of the subsystems of intelligent buildings. To be able to control all
subsystems of a smart building by Building Management Systems within the framework of a
common communication protocol has led to create the technological infrastructure that allows
developing more flexible, dynamic and mobile interactive evacuation models than traditional ones.
Emergency situations are not static events but rather dynamic and uncertain. An ideal
evacuation and routing system should be capable of considering and evaluate the status of users or
user groups and produce special evacuation instructions according to these users or user groups.
The stage in which people spend most of time in case of emergency is not reacting or acting but
rather the stage of realizing the event before starting to move. Uncertainty at the time of the
emergency and the lack of clear information about the incident are factors in delaying the
evacuation of the building.

Figure 21: Components of intelligent evacuation system [31]

Therefore, a system that can provide understandable and clear information to all users in real time
and resolve concerns of them will surely shorten the evacuation process. Such an ideal system is a
smart evacuation system that should avoid congestion by sharing people in different paths or guide
people to areas of risk (smoky and dangerous) to be taken in cases of necessity without the need
for the user to determine the route and allow them to progress rapidly without hesitation as shown
in Figure 21.
To realize an ideal intelligent indoor evacuation system, several main functionalities should be
addressed. These functionalities are a spatial database for the management of large spatial datasets,
3D GIS based routing engine centralized in an appropriate host [31]. Mobile based navigation
software for passing user related data to the host and present routing instructions clearly to the
user. An accurate 3D indoor positioning system and a well-organized wireless communication and
sensor network architectures inside building.

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5.6 Role of Machine learning in Smart buildings:

Applying machine learning to smart buildings has the potential to completely change our
relationship to the built environment. Machine Learning has very high barriers to entry, in terms
of the data. These factors make ML impractical for most Commercial & Industrial applications
today, including Smart Building edge analytics. You can start by structuring all building design,
construction, operations and maintenance activities around the concept of an IoT Platform that
supports unobstructed data flow and simple feedback loops. The main building blocks will be edge
controllers, cloud services and a library of powerful data analytics apps.

The Business Implications of Machine Learning, Data Strategist Drew Breunig [37] makes the
point this way: “Machine Learning is only as good as its training data.” And training data as “Data
which has been tagged, categorized, or otherwise sorted by humans.” he says the universal
framework for understanding the ML-transformed tech landscape of today with hardware,
software and data implications.
1) There is not enough of the Commons creating training data to feed ML algorithms for
optimizing typical commercial buildings.
2) because each building needs to be uniquely modeled for ML, there is not enough money to be
made in the effort.

Figure 20: Role of Machine Learning in Smart Buildings [37]

Machine Learning becomes a reality in the buildings when computers, rather than engineers, start
making decisions. For example, today data analytics programs regularly crunch building
operational data looking for faults and anomalies and generating alerts and alarms. An engineer
looks at that data, makes some decisions about it, and possibly takes some actions, like replacing
a chiller.

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Machine Learning Applications in Home Automation

Although Smart Home solutions aren’t likely to master context-based decision making in the
foreseeable future, machine learning can make connected homes a lot smarter.

Face Recognition: Many Smart Home security systems incorporate the face recognition
technology into connected video cameras. The neural networks identify facial landmarks – for
instance, eyes, cheekbones, nose and chin – in a person’s photo and compare the data to the
imagery produced by cameras. An AI-based security system can successfully identify the faces of
a home’s residents and send notifications about suspicious activity to a home owner’s smartphone.

Biometric Access Control: Biometric door locks such as August, Kwikset (News - Alert) Kevo
and Samsung can be seamlessly integrated into Amazon, Google or Samsung Smart Home
ecosystems. They usually take photos of a user’s fingertips via optical scanners and store them for
matching (once again, a computer vision is required) or use two-factor authentication (fingerprints
and passwords).

Natural Language Processing: Home Automation solutions in many cases will rely on voice
recognition technology and NLP tools like Amazon Transcribe and Azure Custom Speech Service
or intelligent personal assistants like Siri, Alexa or Google (News - Alert) Home. The system
isolates a person’s voice from background noises, converts the audio to a digital file and sends it
to the cloud for NLP analysis. The cloud-based server then mines the meaning from other
resources, as well as the Smart Home’s own database, and triggers an appropriate action.

5.6.1 Ambient Assisted Living


Internet of things allows to integrate the capabilities of computations in the enhancement of the
technology in our everyday life [36]. This does not stop our pondering and inventing new
integrated intelligent systems in a connected environment. Smart buildings are a great place to
initiate a whole new possibility. Unlike the regular household buildings, smart buildings put in a
lot more effort to bring the efficiency and standard of living to the people.
Ambient Intelligence:
To build a smart building today takes a little more than smart, along with the sensory backups and
the computations that make them alive, intelligent systems are to be included to the architectures
of smart buildings. According to Intelligent Building Management System (IBMS), a building that
is equipped with smart devices should be able to make their own decisions and act upon the
situations when needed for the maintaining efficiency and reliability of the whole building. So,
preserve the sanity and the intelligence of the building, Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is being
employed into the current smart buildings that allow support the occupants with various appliances

49
and applications that deal with the healthcare. AAL provides several services like procedures
automation, assisted training, vitals track for the occupants etc., [38]
Several architectures were proposed for the Ambient Intelligence to be integrated in the smart
applications with AAL. With all the intelligent systems at bay, one wishes to foresee an
environment that is capable of trust and reliability of data in its applications.

Example scenario 1:
Consider an example, A person who is being diagnosed by dementia is assisted when to take
his/her medicine and its quantity, when he got his doctor check-ups/appointments, his glasses or
keys place in the house etc., This person can be given some wearable tracking device for his
tracking of motion and for the medical care. These details will be monitored every minute with the
doctor prescribed or ideal medical situation for that patient using machine learning algorithms like
context managing and then based on them predictive analysis is made in case of any abnormal
conditions like high blood pressure, or mismatched heart rates etc., and the case will be sent to the
attending physician/hospital. Along with the wearable devices there can be some motion or
behavior sensitive sensors, cameras etc., can be installed in the smart house, tracking the activities
of the occupants and using RFIDs, to extract data and analyze the consistent behavior patterns of
the individuals and warn them beforehand.
Example 2:
AAL can assist people who are mentally disturbed or going through a bad phase in life by
innovative trackers that can calculate the brain functionality. These intelligent assistants may
understand the individual’s stress depressors by analyzing and tracking the previous records of
that person’s history of videos watched or activities performed and suggest him/her to participate.
They can motivate the person by playing a video in his nearby monitor in any of the smart device.

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It may suggest the person to drink coffee or take a chocolate to compress the agony or his
breakdown. All these changes can be brought into intelligence with several millions of instructions
feed and knowledge transfer to the intelligent systems. We look forward to a day where a society
is smarter and artificial intelligence is innovative, empathetic and make our things much easier for
a better living.
As mentioned in the above example, in AAL several automated procedures are vital to observe
and learn from the unusual activities and then adapt to the change. This pattern identification helps
to build a healthy atmosphere in the smart buildings. AAL systems helps in maintaining a healthy
living in independent conditions through thorough assessments of the health on a continuous basis
and calculating the cognitive conditions of the occupants.
Efficiency calculation
Some of the factors to consider the efficiency calculation can be:
1. Considering the device condition is optimal, it provides timely and accurate information to
the occupants to assist them.
2. False alarms, malicious or malfunctioning devices etc., determine the level of trust to the
users and may affect the decision mechanisms in the smart living.
3. Incorporating the intelligence in daily activities increases the potential standard of
functionalities [36].

5.6.2 Occupancy Comfort of Residents

Comfort of the occupant, health in the smart buildings is measured based on the optimal
environment within the building. The basic comfort factors are thermal, visual and air quality to
the occupants. To maintain the optimal conditions, there should a constant supervising control and
manage HVAC systems. Temperature and lightning factors also come into consideration, based
on the building type: residential, commercial, single family, industrial etc., The smart buildings
are integrated with the occupant’s preferences within these limits.

5.7 Enhancing Energy efficiency in Smart Buildings with Smart Technology:

In modern days, energy consumption became the one of the important issues in smart buildings.
Energy management in an effective way is one if the important factor in smart building. There are
different types of smart buildings like residential, commercial buildings etc. use different types of

51
architectures to minimize the amount of energy consumption for operations in a building. Research
related to the energy consumption is one of the good areas because every device in smart
environment consumes energy. There is more possibility of users accepting smart building because
of the comfort given by the smart buildings which requires large amount energy handle all the
smart devices in the upcoming smart society. So, energy utilization by the smart devices in smart
environment should be effectively maintained.
Zigbee installed smart building
Smart building is constructed with different network topologies to improve the functionality of
sub networks and individual smart devices which are connected to it. Main wireless
communication methods in smart buildings are Zigbee, Wi-Fi___33, and Bluetooth. In a WSN,
sensors and IoT devices are present and these devices has low bandwidth and consume less energy
using Zigbee. If there are a greater number of nodes in transmission from sender to gateway, then
each node consumes some energy during transmission. So, number of nodes should be reduced in
transmission to effectively utilize the energy.

Figure 21: Network installed with ZigBee [46]

User Activity Recognition for Energy Saving in Smart Environment [44]:


In smart building like residential, industrial and commercial sectors there is a lot of energy
consumption. Rocha et. al [44] proposed a technique to effectively utilize the energy consumption
based on the user activity in smart building. User activity is recognized by the sensors and machine
algorithms are used to analyze those activities. Ranking algorithm is used to make a relationship
between the user activity and smart appliances. Activity-Appliance-Energy Consumption (AAEC)
method gives recommendations to the appliances based on user activity to reduce the energy
consumption.

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Figure 22: Power consumption with and without the AAEC method [44].

In smart buildings, IoT devices like smartphones, RFIDs and sensors collect large amount of data
and track users in smart building. Akkaya et. al [45] enabled the monitoring capability to improve
the energy efficiency in smart buildings via HVAC control. The major challenges in this process
are monitoring should be achieved in a low intrusive manner (existing infrastructure should be
used to monitor) and by using multiple sources with effective data fusion methods, they should
improve the accuracy monitoring in smart building. Smart HVAC could save 24 %- 32 % of the
energy based on the type of the building [45].
Smart windows allow the light into smart building based on the intensity of the light required by
the user which helps in reducing the load on the HVAC systems. Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory reported that 19%-26% of the energy could save on cooling and 48%-67% of energy
could be saved on heating when they use smart windows in their smart home/building [45].
Residential Smart Buildings:
In smart residential building amount of energy consumption can be minimized by optimizing the
operations. Hardware configuration of energy supply system and structure of building need not to
be changed to reduce the energy consumption. Smart building gets power from different resources
like CHP, PV, battery and main grid. In smart building microgrid is linked with main grid and it
has a capacity to buy or sell the energy from grid [42].
To meet future demands on the power we should use the renewable energy resources (RER) for
power generation. Residential smart buildings would use the RER for power generation. Arun et.
al. [43] proposed an Intelligent residential energy management system (IERMS) for smart
residential building.

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Figure 23: Architecture of IREMS [43].

The main purpose of IREMS is to maintain the power demand for various operations and RER to
lower the electric bills. IERMS schedules the operations based on the availability of RER and the
operational dynamics of non-schedulable loads. When the excess power generated from the RER
it stores that power in battery. Optimal resource sizing algorithm is used to select the amount of
RER and size of battery for the utilization of renewable in an effective way [43].
In Smart factories, they can use the energy generated from the renewable energy sources. There
should a smart device which interacts with weather data to get details about solar and wind energy
and based on that information it should prepare schedule for the operations in a factory. In this
process, operations which require more energy could be scheduled to operate when solar or wind
energy is available. For instance, during summer, lot of solar energy is available, and they could
do operations which consumes a lot of energy on the sunny day so that they can utilize the solar
energy. If they do operations during the noon, then almost they might not consume electricity
which would reduce cost for the smart factory maintenance. Similar way they could use the wind
energy for heavy operations during the windy days.
In industry sector, there is a more rise in energy consumption and cost and to overcome that
problem Maasmann et. al. [44] followed intelligent energy management system with the renewable
energy resources. In this system, internal fleets in a smart factory is replaced with electric vehicles.
The main aim of the author is to use a carbon dioxide to minimize the energy consumption.
Commercial Smart Buildings:

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6. Case Studies, Examples, and Analysis

6.1 Smart Buildings: Fire Evacuation Scenario


This case study illustrates a fire event scenario and subsequent evacuation on a floor of a smart
building based on a simulation conducted by CitySCAPE [40].
An evacuation protocol cell is dynamically modelled, along with an emergency response cell for
fire hazard, on a building story. The program includes a set of embodied evacuation agents that
gather the floor occupants and guide them to safety, fire detection sensing elements, fire control
systems for offices, a CO2 fire control system for an archive space with an agent that dispenses
oxygen masks for the human occupants. This simulation includes three different fire scenarios,
with an interface that displays the transducers and actuators for the fire suppression system, the
human entities, and the embodied agents.

Figure 25: Fire evacuation plan: floor view [40]

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The world model of this application is a floor map comprised of walls, elevators (with suspended
activity due to fire hazard), stairway access and a hallway. Depending on space destination, the
behaviour of the agents involved is particularized, described in what follows.
The fire suppression agent for offices is an emergent cell agent tasked with monitoring fire events
and suppressing flames in office spaces. It is a cell agent that includes several instances of the
same types of lower level agents:
 sensing agents: the fire detection transducers are reactive, singular, embodied, with control
& monitoring goals, communicative and dependent agents
 control agents (not visible in interface): the control algorithms that analyze the information
received from the sensing agents and transmit commands to the acting agents
 acting agents: the fire suppression actuators (sprinklers) are reactive, singular, embodied,
with control & monitoring goals, communicative and dependent agents
 communication inside this cell has been provided by the AOP medium used for
implementation of this application [40]
This agent controls & monitors the fire suppression system for the entire story.
The fire suppression agent for archive and/or server room is an emergent cell agent tasked with
monitoring fire events and suppressing flames in special spaces, like archives and server rooms,
that require fire suppression systems. This agent also transmits information to the evacuation
system and deploys oxygen masks for humans caught inside the archive at the time of fire hazard
event. Thus, an intrinsic connection between this fire emergency protocol cell and the evacuation
cell (as viewed from the eSCAPE perspective) is built, the two cell-type agents working together
to protect human life. This is an illustration of the natural emergent properties of the eSCAPE
system.

Figure 26: Fire evacuation event: simulation [40]

The evacuation agents are embodied agents tasked with gathering human entities and guiding them
to the staircase doors. These agents’ degree of intelligence is in the deliberative-reactive combined

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category. Apart from being embodied (for example a mobile robot type of embodiment), the
evacuation agents of this simulation are singular, with strong social skills, have protection as a
goal and are agents with a mediumto-high degree of autonomy.
Figure 26 presents a screenshot taken during simulation of a fire event inside the office, as well as
inside the archive room. Last, but not least, the fire hazard protection protocols and evacuation
command are generated at the superior Emergency Evacuation Service EESML, that contains, for
example, the entire set of evacuation protocols for that particular floor, as described by the authors
in [40], and can commission, for instance, the evacuation agents with different goals in what
concerns paths taken, staircases used and so on.
Conclusion:
The case study presented in this section implement three evacuation agents and three fire
suppression agents. The architecture is the cell type proposed in this paper, that includes sensing
elements, an inference system (reasoning), acting elements and an internal world model. Thus, the
evacuation agents include the floor plan, position of offices, staircase access etc., and they lead the
human groups toward the evacuation points on the safest routes possible. The fire suppression
systems sense the fire events, deploy oxygen masks when necessary and then activate the
suppression systems. All protocols are included in the Emergency Evacuation Service, the can
generate both low level and medium level requests, commands or behaviours, as much for
evacuation, as for fire suppressions.

6.2 Smart Building Case Study on IoT: Occupant comfort and Operational Efficiency

Intel, in 2016 [32] created its first Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled smart building in Bangalore,
India. The office building is a 10-story, 630,000 sq. ft. structure that was outfitted with
approximately 9,000 sensors used to track and optimize temperature, lighting, energy
consumption, and occupancy in the building. The sensors, of which 70 percent are in the ceiling,
provide 24/7 real-time data. Analytics is run on the data gathered from sensors to generate
actionable insights for Intel’s facilities team.
Challenges
 Reduce resource usage: Typical Intel office buildings use static building management
systems (BMSs) that have limited capabilities to intelligently control energy- and water-
related systems.
 Improve operational efficiency: Intel wanted to move to a mobile cubicle model to
accommodate more employees.
 Increase occupant comfort: Oscillating temperatures in the building typically lead to many
employee complaints about their zone being either too hot or too cold.

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Solutions
 Advanced building analytics: Reduce energy and water usage by better controlling building
systems using automation rules generated from sensor data.
 Space optimization: Increase cubicle utilization rates by employing occupancy sensor data
to help employees find vacant cubicles.
 Machine learning algorithm: Maintain a constant temperature in all building zones by
taking more environmental factors into account.
Impact
 Energy/water savings. The savings is forecasted to be $645,000 per year with a return on
investment (ROI) payback period of less than four years.
 Efficient office space. Intel increased employee capacity by approximately 30 percent.
 Productive workers. Socially driven temperature control can increase worker satisfaction
with workplace thermal comfort by 83 percent.

Occupant Comfort: Example 1


Constant temperature across building zones
Temperature variation through the day is a common complaint of building occupants.
Solution
To maintain a constant temperature across various building zones, Intel implemented a machine
learning algorithm that predicts appropriate set points for the HVAC in the building. The algorithm
not only factors in typical parameters (e.g., return air temperature), it considers many others,
including occupancy and ambient temperature. This algorithm runs every two minutes to keep set-
point predictions current.
Analysis
This use case improves both employee and facilities team efficiency. A study shows a socially
driven HVAC at the Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Phoenix increased worker
satisfaction with workplace thermal comfort by 83 percent,1 which should translate into higher
productivity and fewer tickets the facilities team needs to address related to occupants being too
hot or too cold.

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Figure 27: System interaction diagram for occupant comfort use case [34]

Operational Efficiency: Example 2


Automated demand response
To avoid involuntary service interruptions (i.e., blackouts), utilities implement demand response
programs to entice their customers to lower energy usage during periods when overall demand
may exceed capacity. Customers who participate are typically compensated through lower rates
and credits.
Solution
Intel’s smart building solution controls four energy sources: diesel generation, solar, fuel cells, and
the grid. It enables the facilities team to remotely read energy meters connected to the different
energy sources, and, with the touch of a button, change energy usage throughout the building. Both
energy consumption and generation are monitored and controlled in order to meet an energy load
profile that satisfies the utility’s demand-response requirements. With this capability, Intel’s smart
building can take automated actions to reduce energy consumption when the 90 percent threshold
of the permitted load is exceeded, as shown in the business logic illustrated in Figure 25.
Analysis
This use case promotes the efficient usage of renewable energy sources and avoids financial
penalties for drawing more energy than the sanctioned load from the utility grid. The energy
consumption of major building subsystems, such as lighting, HVAC, and fans, etc., is decreased,
as needed, per their energy profiles. The facilities team can also ramp up fuel cell usage when
demand increases or solar cell energy production dips on cloudy days.

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Figure 28: Logic for Automated Demand Response []

6.3 Network Outage Survey Case Study:


According to Talari Networks located in San Jose, California on September 2016 [39], trusted
software-defined WAN leader, today released survey results focused on the theme of network
outages which found that 89 percent of the respondents have had at least one unplanned outage
this year with 69 percent having encountered two or more unplanned outages in the last twelve
months. Overall, Talari’s survey proves that enterprise outages are common within organizations
across the board, despite having redundant networks or servers. The findings, gathered by
SurveyGizmo, surveyed more than 400 IT professionals.

As critical applications fail, businesses lose money from a productivity and revenue standpoint,
and the longer the application is down, the more money is lost. According to The Cost of Server,
Application, and Network Downtime: North American Enterprise Survey and Calculator report by
IHS, enterprises can experience a loss of more than $1 million with a downed network and large
organizations a loss of $60 million [39]. The Talari survey found that 60 percent of outages had
an average length of more than one hour, while 30 percent of outages came from a (local-area
network) LAN or wide-area network (WAN) issue.

Additional survey highlights include:

60
 More than a third of respondents had no outage tolerance stating that, no downtime was
acceptable.
o More than 25 percent said that only a couple seconds without a critical business
app was acceptable.
 More than 70 percent of respondents had experience at least one unplanned network outage
in the last six months.
 61 percent of respondents said a critical application was impacted during their last outage
 Nearly 25 percent of respondents use redundant networks to protect applications with 30
percent using redundant servers.
o Only 7 percent have multiple internet and WAN providers.
 48 percent of respondents have their critical/private applications hosted on-premises [39].

7. Project Steps

7.1. Phases and Efforts

7.2. Research Methods used by the Project

7.3. Project Strengths and Limitations

7.4. Lessons Learned

8. Proposal for Future Work

For the future work, the project can be extended to the research on smart buildings in case of
environmental hazards like tornados, earthquakes etc., The work can include the how IoT can
help in maintaining a secure place for the residents in such cases and reduce the percentage of
impact occurrence.

9. Conclusions

The research work is focused mostly on the fault tolerance in case of fire hazards and network
outage in a smart building. Various scenarios where the problems exist and can be mitigated are
explained profoundly.

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The other areas of research include ambient assisted living in a smart building using machine
learning techniques like context management and behavior patterns. Efficient energy
management in residential and commercial buildings using wired and wireless technologies.

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Appendix

In this section you normally can add materials such as code, extra info, etc. which you think it
is important but should not be directly in main document.

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