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wHotPEPt92.

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Motor Vehicle Air Pollution

Public Health Impact and Control Measures

Editedby David Mage and Olivier Zali

Division of EnvironmentalHealth EcotoxicologyService


World HealthOrganization Departmentof PublicHealth
Geneva,Switzedand Republicand Cantonof Geneva
Geneva,Switzerland
@ World HealthOrganization
andECOTOX,lgg2

This documentis not issuedto the generalpublic, and all rights are reservedby
the World HealthOrganization(WHO) andthe Serviceof Ecotoxicology
(ECOTOX)of the Departmentof PublicHealth,Geneva.The documentmay be
reviewed,abstracted, quoted,reproducedor translated,in part or in whole, with
the prior written permissionof WHO or ECOTOX. Partsof this documentmay
be storedin a retrievalsystemor transmittedin any form or by any means-
electronic,mechanicalor other- with the prior written permissionof WHO or
ECOTOX. The views expressed in the documentby namedauthorsare solelythe
responsibilityof thoseauthors.

The geographical designationsemployedandthe presentation of materialin this


documentdo not imply the expression of any opinionwhatsoeveron the part of
WHO concerningthe legal statusof any country,territory, city or areaof its
authorities,or concerningthe delimitationof its frontiersor boundaries.

Credits:coverphotographof Genevaby E.J. Aldag @.J. Press),Geneva;cover


photographof Mexico City by ASL, Lausanne;stampdesign,copyrightSweden
PostStamps.
MOTOR VEHICLE AIR POLLUTION

PTJBLICHEALTII IMPACT AND CONTROLMEASURES

Contents Page

Foreword- Wilfried Kreiseland Guy-OlivierSegond v

Executivesummary vii

1.Introduction.... 1

2. Review of the health effectsof motor vehicle traffic . 13

- Part I. Epidemiologicalstudiesof the healtheffectsof air


pollutiondueto motorvehicles- IsabelleRomieu 13

- Part II. Effectson humansof environmental


noiseparticutarly
from road traffic - RagnarRylander 63

3. Humanexposureto motor vehicleair pollutants-


PeterG. Flachsbart 85

4. Reviewof motor vehicleemissioncontrolmqNures


- MichaelP. Walsh
andtheir effectiveness 115

5. Casestudiesof motor vehiclepollutionin cities


aroundthe world - MichaelP. WalshandDavid T. Mage l3g

6. Casestudyof motor vehiclepollutionand its


controlin Geneva- FranqoisCupelinandOlivier Zali . . 173

7. Summaryandconclusions. . . 219

8. Appendices
Fundingfor this reporthasbeenprovidedby the World HealthOrganization,the
Departmentof Public Health of the Republicand Cantonof Geneva,and the
Governmentof Norwav.

The editorswould like to thankthe following peoplefor their help in the review
andpreparationof this document:

D. Calkins G. Ozolins
N. Florio J. Rabinowitz
A. Katz A. Rougemont
T. Kjellstrdm A. Stroumza
J.-Cl. Landry J. Somers

The Division of EnvironmentalHealth(EHE) of the World HealthOrganization


(WHO) consistsof units for Preventionof EnvironmentalPollution @EP)and
CommunityWater Supply and Sanitation(CWS) and it is closely allied with the
Programmeon ChemicalSafety@CS).PEP is responsibleinter alia for the
WHOruNEP GlobalEnvironmentMonitoringSystem(GEMS)Air Pollution
MonitoringNetwork (GEMS/Air),Water QualityMonitoringNetwork
(GEMSAMater)and RadiationMonitoring Network (GERMON). The Programme
for EnvironmentalHealth in Rural and Urban Developmentand Housing GUD),
alsolocatedin PEP, is responsiblefor the HealthyCitiesProgramme.

The EcotoxicologyService@COTOX)belongsto the Departmentof Public


Healft of the RepublicandCantonof Geneva.It is the expertlaboratoryfor all
environmental concernsin the area. Fifty peopleare working at ECOTOX. The
fields of activity includeair (indoor,outdoor,industrialemissionscontrols,
occupational exposure),water(biological,bacteriologicalandphysical-chemical
controlsof lakes,rivers andswimmingpools),soils andtoxic substances analysis,
ecotoxicological testingandenvironmental noise. ECOTOX is alsoinvolvedin
forensic analysis,in emergencyinterventionsin casesof environmentalhazardand
in evaluationof environmentalimpact assessments.
FOREWORD

In almostall the large citiesof the world, air andnoisepollutionfrom motor


vehiclesare, or are fast becoming,majorproblemsfor the physicaland mental
healthof the people. The industrializedcountries,where86Voof the world's
vehiclesareto be found,havea long standingand extensiveexperienceof the
problem. In the developingcountries,rapid industrialgrowth andpopulation
increasecoupledwith rising standards of living are likely to leadto patternsof
motorizationthat resemblethoseof the industrializedcountries. Sincethe 1960s,
the world's motor vehiclefleet hasbeengrowingfasterthan its population. The
problemsare acutein certaincitiesin boththe developingandthe industrialized
world andunlesscontrolsare appliedor strengthened immediately,the damageto
publichealthwill becomevery serious.

The World HealttrOrganization(WHO) andthe UnitedNationsEnvironment


Programme(UNEP)havea long standingprojectwithin the GlobalEnvironment
MonitoringSystem(GEMS)to monitorthe air qualityof urbanareasof the world
in this periodof rapid changeduring which nationsstrive to achievea sustainable
economywithoutdegradation of the environment.

The Republicand Cantonof Genevain Switzerland,hasdevelopeda


comprehensive air pollutioncontrolprogrammedesignedto meet
and sophisticated
SwissFederalair qualitystandards
regardingpollutantsderivedfrom motor
vehicleemissions.

In recognitionof ttre importanceof the problemof motor vehicleair pollution


worldwide,WHO andthe EcotoxicologyServiceof the Departmentof Public
Healthof Genevahavejointly producedthis reporton the globaltrendsof motor
vehicleair pollution,is effectson public healthandthe availablecontrol
measures.

Our report is intendedto provideessentialinformationandencouragement to all


countriesin their effortsto dealwith the problemscreatedby the intense
motorizationprocess. Casestudies(includingan in-depthreportof the air
pollutionmanagement plan of Geneva)areprovidedof the situationin various
citiesin developingand industrializedcountriesandthe motor vehicleemission
controlstrategiesthat havebeenusedor proposed.
Throughthe sharingof experience,countriesmay be ableto avoidmistakesmade
in the past and introduceeffectivemeasures in the nearfutureto reduceor limit
damagettrathasalreadybeen incurred. Many countrieswill needto begin
planningor applyingmore strictly, a progressivemotor vehicleemissioncontrol
strategythat is feasibleand affordableandthat will alleviatettre immediateair
pollutionproblems.

This reportis beingpublishedto coincidewith the United NationsConferenceon


EnvironmentandDevelopment,Rio de Janeiro,June1992,in supportof our
commongoalsof eliminatingthe impactsof environmental hazardson the health
of the peopleandattaininga stateof sustainabledevelopment for the future. We
'Think GloballyandAct Locally" our planet canregainits
believethat if we all
can
healthandour environment be saved.

Dr Wilfried Kreisel,Director, Guy-Olivier Minister,


Division of EnvironmentalHeal&, Departmentof Public Health,
World HealthOrganization, Geneva,Switzerland
Geneva.Switzerland

vl
EXECUTTVE SI]MMARY

This report addresses the problemsof air pollutioncreatedby the growth of motor
vehicletraffic in the developedanddevelopingcountriesof the world. The
problemis viewedwittrin the contextof sustainable development in which the
protectionof healthandof the environmentarepriority concerns.The
conclusionsandrecommendations of this reportare intendedto provideguidance
to countriesas they go throughvariousstagesof development, in the formulation
and implementation of sound policies to preventserious air pollutionproblems
ftom occurringor worsening.

The reportbeginswith a comprehensive reviewof the healthproblemscausedby


motor vehiclepollutionwith referenceto the pollutantsozone,carbonmonoxide,
lead, nitrogendioxide,sulfur dioxideand suspended particulatematter. The
secondpart of this chaptersoversthe healtheffectsof motor vehiclenoise. This
is followedby a descriptionof how peopleare exposedto motor vehicleair
pollutantsand an estimateof the numbersof peoplewho are exposedto them in
traffic, alongsidebusyroadsand in residentialareasof high traffrc density. Motor
vehiclecontrolsare reviewedin termsof the effortsmadeto reduceemissions
(g/km) andto reducevehicleusage(km/yr).

Motor vehiclesarethe major sourceof the following air pollutantsaffectingtle


healthof populations:carbonmonoxide(CO), nitrogendioxide(NOt,
photochemicallyreactivehydrocarbons which reactwith NOr to form ozone(Or)
and suspendedparticulatematter(SPM)which containslead @b).

At least90% of the carbonmonoxidein urbanenvironments comesfrom mobile


areas(20 to 30 mg/m3)can
sources.The high levelsfound in traffrc congested
leadto levelsof 3% carboxyhemoglobin (COHB)which produceadverse
cardiovascularandneurobehavioral effectsandseriouslyaggravate ttre conditionof
individuaiswith ischemicheartdisease.

Nitrogendioxide,the brownish-redgasresponsiblefor the classicsmoghazeof


pollutedcitiescancauserespiratoryproblemsin sensitiveindividuals,for example
asthmaticsandyoungchildren. An extensivemeta-analysis of availablestudies

vll
showsan approximate20% inqeasein risk of respiratoryillnessfor childrenwho
havean increaseof 30 y.glm3exposureover a periodof weeks(e.g. children
living in homesusingnaturalgasfor cookingas comparedto childrenliving in
homesusing electricity). Wherehigh annuallevelsof NO, of the order of
100pglm3are producedby motor vehicles,as in Los Angiles, this is a major
causeof concern.

Ozoneis producedfrom the photochemical reactionsofhydrocarbonsand oxides


of nitrogenwhich in urbanatmospheres areprimarily of motorvehicleorigin (60 -
80%). At levelsof ozoneof 200 - 400 pglnf , which fall abovethe WHO
guidelinerangeof 150- 200 pglm3for a l-hr average,peopleexperiencelung
inflammation,decrements in pulmonaryfunctionanddecreasein resistance to
pulmonaryinfections. Areaswith high traffic densityandpoor dispersionsuchas
Los Angelesand Mexico City experience03 of the order of 600 - 7N pglrrif
which seriouslydamages the healthof people,especiallysensitiveindividuals.This
is the major rqson why developingcountriesmustplan for emissioncontrols
now, beforetheir development leadsto similar conditions.

Suspended particulatematter(SPM), includingsulfuricacid aerosolis producedby


the combustionof motor fuel, especiallydieselfuel. Theseemissioncomponents
are thoughtto be the main causeof the excessmortallty that was observedduring
the Londonand New York smogepisodesofthe 1950sand 1960s. These
pollutantswere generatedfrom coal combustionso their chemicalconstituentsare
somewhatdifferentfrom thoseof motor vehicleSPM but it is believedthat the
respirablefraction(PMro)of urbanSPM from non-coalcombustionprocesses will
havesimilar effects. Motor vehiclesproducea relativelysmallerproportionof
SPM in the urbanenvironmentthanthey do of CO andNO.. However,vehicle
and urban SPM combinedare relatedto observedadversehealth effectsin the
populationsexposed.Excessmortalrtyfor exposures to thesepollutantsis
estimatedto be 1 in 10,000for currentlevelsof PMls in Los Angeles,andthe
sameeffectsmay be expectedin metropolitanarqs of other countrieswith similar
exposures.

Exposureto high levelsof motor vehiclepollutantsoccursessentiallyin three


situations:a) while insidevehicles(from the immediatelysurroundingtraffic) b)
while working in, or walkingalongsidecongested streets,and c) throughresidence
in urbanneighborhoods with high motor vehicletraffic pollution (andfor ozone,
in urban areasdownwind from the city center). Human exposurein these
categoriesare reviewedand an estimateis madeof the numbersof peopleexposed
in eachcategory. It is estimatedthat globally,3.4 billion urbanvehicletrips are
takendaily andthat at least 120million peoplespenda considerable part of their
working day in roadsidesettings(for examplestreetvendorsandworkersin shops
fronting onto busystreets).

The controlmeasurqsnecessary to containthe problemof largenumbersofpeople


beingexposedto high levelsof pollutantsare presentedand evaluated.With the

viii
economicdevelopment andmotorizationexpectedover the next decades,this
problemwill becomeevengreater. The controlsdescribedare eithervehicle-
based,to reducethe massof pollutantsper kilometerof travel G/km) or driver-
based,to reducethe numberof kilometersof motor vehicletravel per day. The
hardwarecontrolson emissions(catalyst,enginedesign,inspectionand
maintenance etc.) are costlyanddriver incentivesto re<lucevehicleuseare not
popular. Developingcountrieswithouthigh capitalresourceswill be facedwith
challengingproblemsto developcontrolstrategiesthat are acceptable both
economicallyandsocially.

Casestudiesof motorvehiclepollutionin variouscitiesin the devclopingworld


(Bangkok,Mmila, Mexico City, SurabayaandTaipei)andthe developedworld
(Los Angelesand Geneva)are presented.The traffic congestionanduncontrolled
emissionsof developingcountriesprovidea markedcontrastto developed
countrieswhereemissioncontrolsare mandatoryandfundingis availablefor
public transportsystems.Examplesareprovidedof situationsin which the
potentialfor seriousair pollutionepisodesis very greatand situationsin which
uncontrolledgrowth of emissionsis taking place and where massivelyexpensive
and controversialcontrolsmustbe instdled in order to preventtheseperiodic
episodes.

A detailedreportof motor vehiclepollutionand its controlin Genevais presented


to providea broadoutlineto authoritiesof the sortsof activitie.sthat mustbe
consideredin order to evaluatetheir situation,estimatefuture growth anddevelop
a stagedsequence of controlmeasures to the public and
that are acceptable
economically feasiblein the given situation.

The most importantfindings of the report are set out in the summaryand
conclusions. It hasbeencleuly demonstratedthat motor vehicle air pollution can
haveseriousadversehealtheffectson the population. Theseproblemsare likely
to be particularlyacutein the rapidly growingcitiesof the developingworld if
uncontrolledgrowthof the vehiclefleet is allowedto takeplace. It is concluded
ttratplanningmustbeginnow to providefor alternatives to the motor vehicleand
to reduceemissionsof the vehiclefleetsthat the growingpopulationswill demand
astheir economicstatusimproves. It is hopedtlat this reportwill providea
rationalbasisfor administrators who are responsible for air qualitymanagement
planningto developappropriatecontrolstrategiesas they striveto achievea state
of sustainabledevelopment that doesnot adverselyaffectthe healthof the people.

lx
Chapter1

INTR.ODUCTIONl

In their effortsto achievesustainable politiciansand administrators


development,
worldwideare facinga growingproblemof motor vehicletraffic emissionsand
their effectson health.

This book examinesthreeaspectsof the problemof air pollutioncausedby motor


vehicletraffic: the effectsof traffic emissionson health,waysof limiting personal
exposureto the emittedpollutantsandwaysof limiting the emissionsthemselves.'

Only thoseissuesrelatingdirectlyto motor vehiclesare considered here. Those


mostnotably,the contributionof
that are indirectlylinked are not discussed,
motor vehiclesto globalCO2production,the relatedgreenhouse effect,the role of
infrastructure (road networkconstructionanddesign)and land use planning. A
brief bibliographyon the more general aspectsof air pollutionhasbeen prepared
for the interestedreaderand is to be found at the endof this chapter.

Noisefrom motor vehicles,in termsof its effectson health,is consideredbut


engineeringcontrolsto limit this form of pollutioniue not. Traffic accidents,
which representa seriouspublic healthproblemare alsobeyondthe scopeof this
report. It shouldbe notedhowever,that constraintson the numberof vehicleson
the road will improveroad safetyandreducethe rateof trafftc accidentsin
additionto reducingair pollution.

The purposeof this reportis to providea basisfor informeddecisionmakingon


how to controlautomotiveair pollutionin both developingand developed
countries. The importanceof contextis emphasized throughoutanddescriptions
of the situationin a varietyof citiesof widely differentcharacter,areprovided.

Where we stand today

Acrossthe entireglobe,motor vehicleusagehasincreasedtremendously.In


1950,therewere about53 million carson the world's roads;only four decades

I The editors thank Michael P. Walsh for his assistanceon this chap0er.

2 A complementarydocument for the use of this material in training coursesat


university and pre-universitylevels is under preparationand will be publishedin 1993.
Motor vehicleair pollution

later, t}te globalautomobilefleet is over 430 million, morethan an eight-fold


increase.on average,the fleet hasgrown by about9.5 million automobiles per
year over this period. Simultaneously, as illustratedin Figure 1, the truck and bus
fleet hasbeengrowingby about3.6 million vehiclesper year (Motor Vehicle
Manufacturers'Associationof the UnitedStates,Inc., 1991). While the growth
ratehasslowedin the highly industrializedcountries,populationgrowth and
increasedurbanizationand industrialization are acceleratingthe useof motor
vehicleselsewhere.If the approximately100million two-wheeledvehiclqsaround
the wodd are includedfurowingat about4 million vehiclesper yearover the past
decade),the globalmotor fleet is now approximately675 million. As Figure 2
shows,the growthof motorizationexceedsthe growthof population.

Looking at the globalvehiclepopulationtoday, it is clearthat thereare wide


disparitiesbetweenregionsof the world andvehiclemodes. Figure 3 showsthe
distributionof the vehiclepopulationin variousregionsof the world. Seventy-
threepercentof the world's vehiclesareto be found in the OECD (organization
for EconomicCooperationandDevelopment) countries. In the poorestcountries
of the world where57% of the world's populationlive, are to be found only 1.7%
of the world's vehicles. Most of the world's peoplestill live and work largely
without motorizedtransport.

Table 1 showsthe enormousvariationin motorizationbetweencountriesand


regions,rangingfrom lessthan 1 to morethan600 vehiclesper 1000inhabitants.
If the developingcountriesreachratesof ownershipcomparableto thosefor
Europeand NorttrAmericanow, the problemsrelatedto massiveconcentrationsof
populationin urbanareaswill be greatlyexacerbated.

Comprehensive dataare not availableon air pollutionemissionsfrom


transportationandotheractivities,for all countries. For the twenty-fourOECD
countries,however,availabledatashowsthat motor vehiclesare the main source
of emissionsof carbonmonoxide(co), oxidesof nitrogen(No), andvolatile
organiccompoundsCrable2). ln urbanareaswherepollutionlevelstendto be
highest,the motor vehiclecontributiontendsto be evenhigher. Usually,over
90% of the co in city centerscomesfrom vehiclesand it is cornmonto find 50 to
60% of the hydrocarbons (HC) and NO, comingfrom this source.

Future trends in motor vehicleregistrationsand emissions

As illustratedin Figure2, worldwide,the numberof motor vehiclesis growingfar


fasterthanthe globalpopulation- 5.2Voper yearbetween1960and 1989,
comparedto 2.r% per year, respectively.Analysisof the trendsin globalmotor

2
Introduction

vehicleregistrationsrevealsthat the globalfleet hasbeengrowinglinearly since


before 1970andthat eachyearfor two decadesan additional16 million motor
vehicles,not includingtwo-wheeledvehicles,havebeenaddedto the world fleet.

Worldwideregistrationshavebeengrowingby about1.8 carsper 1000personsor


2.3 vehicles(carsplus trucksandbuses)per 1000persons(Figure4) Motorcycles
per capitaover the lastdecadehavebeenstable. If this trend wereto continue
until 2010, therewould be 154motor vehiclesper 1000persons(excluding
motorcycles)comparedwith 112 in 1990. As illustratedin Figure5, per capita
vehiclegrowth is universalalthoughstill overwhelminglydominatedby the OECD
countries. The contributionof Africa andlargeareasof Asia to this growth is
minimal, althoughair pollutionfrom motor vehiclesis alreadya problemin the
large citiesof theseregions,wherethe per capitavehiclegrowth is concentrated.

Projectionsof the future vehiclepopulationhavebeenmade,taking into account


populationgrowthand economicdevelopment, which arethe major factors
influencingvehiclegrowth. Estimatesof cars,trucksandbuses,andmotorcycles
for the next forty yqus are summarizedin Figure6. In makingtheseestimates,it
was assumed that vehiclesaturation,increasedcongestionand increasingpolicy
interventionsby governments would restrainfuture growth, especiallyin highly
industrializedareas. In spiteof thesefactors,vehiclesper capitaare estimatedto
rise in all areasof the world. It shouldbe emphasized that withoutpolicy
interventions,the growth is likely to be muchhigher.

As notedearlier,the globalvehiclefleet hastendedto be dominatedby the highly


industrializedareasof North AmericaandWesternEurope. This patternis
graduallychangingnot because theseareashavestoppedgrowingbut because
growth ratesare acceleratingin otherareas. By early next century,basedon
currenttrends,the rapidly developingareasof the world (especiallyAsia, Eastern
EuropeandLatin America)andthe OECD Pacificregionwill haveas many
vehiclesas North AmericaandWesternEurope(Figure7) althoughper capita
rateswill remainsubstantiallylower.

Decisionshaveto be takenconcerningland-useplanning,masstransitconstruction
andfuel characteristics.Thesechoiceswill stronglyinfluencedevelopment over
the next 20 to 50 years. In orderto minimizefuture costsin termsof healthand
clean-up,solutionsto air pollutionproblemsneedto be found and implemented
immediately.We hopethe informationcontainedin this reportwill contributeto
thesevital initiatives.
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lntroduction

Pollutant Total Emissions Motorvehicleemissions 7o vehicles


(1000tons) (1000tons)

Nox 36,019 17,012 47%

HC 33,869 t3,239 39 Vo

co 119,148 78,227 66%

(1000tons, 1980).
Table2. Motor vehicleshareof OECDpollutantemissions

Source: OECD EnvironmentalData, Organizationfor EconomicCooperationand


Developement,
Paris, 1987.

REFEREI\CES
Motor VehiclesManufacturers'Associationof the UnitedStates,Inc. WorldMotor
VehiclesData, 1991edition.

InternationalRoadFederation.WorldRoad Staistics1986-190.
Geneva/lVashingtonD.C., 1991.

Organizationfor EconomicCooperationand Development. OECD Environnuntal


Data. Puis. 1987-

t1
Motor vehicle air pollution

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barde,J.-P. and Butlon, K. (Eds) Transportpoliq and the enviromvnt. Six


casestudies. EarthscanPublicationsLtd., London(1990).

Cohn, F. and McVoy G.R. Envirownentalanalysisof transponaion sysrcms.


Wiley-Interscience
New York (1982).

ECMT. Transpoftgrowh in question. l2th InternationalSymposiumon Theory


andPracticein TransportEconomics.Sub-Topic5 Environment,Globaland
Local Effects. (3 papers),Lisbon@4May 1992).

Faiz, A. et al. Automativeair pollwion: issucsand optionsfor developing


countries. WPS492, World Bank, WashingtonDC (August1990).

Kageson,P. Internalising social costsof transporl. preliminary Study. The


EuropeanFederationFor Transportand Environment(January1992).

Kumares,s. et al. Environmcntaland ecologicatconsiderabns in land transport:


a resourceguide. world Bank, Policy Planningand Researchstaff, Infrastructure
andUrbanDevelopmentDepartmentReportINU41 (March, 1989).

NSIEM. Health risls resultinglrom exposureto motor vehicleexhaust. National


SwedishInstituteof EnvironmentalMedicine,Stockholm(1983).

PublicHealthAlliance. Healthon thc move. policiesfor Healthpromoting


Jransport. The Policy statementof rhe Transportand Health study Group,
London(1989).

Rijkeboer, R.c. Technologies


for controlling emissionsof air poilwants from
mobilesources. UNRCE, Brussels(1989).

WHO. Our planet our health. Reportof the World Health Organization
Commissionon HealthandEnvironment,Geneva(1992).

wHo. Potential health effeas of climatic change. Reportof a world Health


OrganizationTask Group,WHOiPEP/90.10,Geneva(1990).

t2
Chapter2
Part I

EPIDEIVIOLOGICAL STT]DIESOF THE HEALTH EFTT,CTS

OF AIR FOLLUTION DTIE TO MOTOR VEHICLES

IsabelleRomieu'

Introduction

Severalmajor classesof air pollutantshavethe potentialto affectthe healthof


populations(ATS, 1978). Thesepollutantsresulteitherftom primary emissions
or atmospheric transformation.Motor vehiclesare the major sourceof a number
of thesepollutants,in particularcarbonmonoxide,nitrogenoxides,unburnt
hydrocarbons, ozoneandotherphotochemical oxidantsand leadand, in smaller
proportions,total suspended particulate,sulfur dioxideandvolatile organic
compounds(t{EI, 1988). With growingurbanizationandvehicledensrty,andthe
greatexpenseof pollutioncontrol,urbanair pollutionhasbecomea crucial
problem and it is now urgentto undertakerisk assessments in order to evaluate
andprioritize controlstrategies.In this chapter,the epidemiological evidenceof
the healtheffectsof pollutantsthat havea director indirectsourcerelationshipto
automotiveemissionsis reviewed. Individualsexposedto a high concentration of
air pollutionresultingfrom roadtraffic are at the sametime exposedto high noise
levels;the healtheffectsof the latter will be discussedin Part II.

IsabelleRomieu,M.D., Dr.Sc. MedicalEpidemiologist,


World Health
Organization,Mexico City, Mexico.

13
Motor vehicleair pollution

Factors conditioning the toxic effect of pollutants

Motor vehicleexhaustis a complexmixture,the compositionof which dependson


the fuel, type andoperatingconditionof the engineandthe useof any emission
controldevice. Pollutantsandtheir derivativescancauseadversehealtheffectsby
interactingwittr, and impairing,moleculescrucialto the biochemicalor
physiologicalprocesses of the humanbody. Threefactorsconditionthe risk of
toxic injury from thesesubstances: their chemicalandphysicalproperties,the dose
of the materialthat reachescritical tissuesites,andthe responsiveness of these
sitesto the substance.The physicalform andproperties(e.g. solubility)of
airbornecontaminants will influencetheir distributionboth in the atmosphere and
in biologicaltissues,andthereforethe dosedeliveredto the target-site.This dose
is very difficult to determinein epidemiological studiesandthereforesurrogate
measurements areusedrangingfrom atmospheric concentration to dose
determinationin blood or more accessible body tissues(for example,hair). For
somepollutants,mathematical modelsof the relationshipbetweenexposureand
dosecan alsobe usedto developsurrogatemqnures. The interactionof pollutants
with biologicalmolecules(or receptors)triggersthe mechanism of toxic response
that may act by direct stimulationor by a cascade of molecularand cellularevents
that ultimatelydamagetissue(HEI, 1988). The differentpathwaysfrom pollutant
sourses,from exposurethroughinhalationto toxic effectsare shownin Figure 1.

Pollutantseffectsmay alsovary acrosspopulationgroups;in particular,the young


andthe elderlymay be especiallysusceptible
to deleteriouseffect;personswith
asthmaor otherpreexistingrespiratoryor cardiacdiseasesmay experience
aggravated symptomsuponexposure(HEI, 1988).

Health effects of specific pollutants

Substancesmainly affecting the airways

Amongthe extremelylargenumberof substances in the exhaustof motor vehicles,


severalexertirritant inflammatoryeffectson the respiratoryorgans. The main
onesare nitrogenoxides,ozoneandotherphotochemical oxidants,as well as
sulfur oxidesandparticulatematter.

Nitrogen oxides

Nitrogendioxide(NO) is an irritatinggasthat is absorbedinto the mucosaof the


respiratorytract. Upon inhalation80-90%of NO2canbe absorbed,althoughthis
proportionvariesaccordingto nasalor oral breathing. The maximaldoseto the
lung tissueis at thejunction of the conductingairway andthe gasexchange
region. BecauseNO2 is not very solublein aqueoussurfaces,the upperairways

l4
Health effects of air pollution

Figure1. Pathwaystfrompollutantsourcesto toxiceffects.

Fuel
Engine
characteristics
Emission
controls

GENETICAND Doseto
ENVIRONMENTAL pulmonarytissues
MODIFIERS

Cellularand
o;
molecularcascade
s

. Onlyexposure inhalation
through is shown.
Source:
HEl.19BB

15
Motor vehicle air pollution

retainonly small amountsof inhalednitrogenox-ides.Nitric and nitrousacidsor


their saltscanbe observedin the blood andurine after exposureto Nq (WHO,
1987a).

Levelsof exposureto nirogen dioxidethat shouldnot be exceeded(WHO


guidelinaslevels)are respectively4gg p,gtrr31O.Ztpatrsper million [ppm]) for t-
hour and 150pglm3 (0.08ppm) for 24-hours(WHO, 1987a).

In certainoccupations, workersare intermittentlyexposedto high concentrations


of oxidesof nitrogen,particularlyNo and No2. The spectrumof pathological
effectsin the lung resultingfrom occupational
exposureto nitrogenoxidesrange
from mild inflammatoryresponsein the mucosaof the tracheobronchial tree at
low concentrations, to bronchitis,bronchopneumonia,andacutepulmonary
oedemaat high concentrations (WHO, 1977).

Most of the epidemiologicalresearchstudiesat the communitylevel havefocused


on the acuteeffectsof shortterm exposureto high levelsof Ne, andthereare
few dataon long term effectsof low-levelor repeatedexposureat peaklevels.
Morrow (1984)hasshownthat No, canbe toxic in certainbiologicalsystems,and
acuteexposureto No2 has beenreportedto affect both the cellular and humoral
immunesystems.other authors@amji andRichters,1989)havereporteda
reductionof r-lymphocytesubpopulations following acuteexposureto Ne, which
may reflect a functionalimpairmentof the immuneresponse.

Therehavebeennumerouscontrolledstudiesof the effectof nitrogendioxideon


the lung functionsof healthyindividuals,aswell as asthmaticsandsubjectswith
chronicbronchitis@PA, 1982a). Shortexposure(10-15minutes)to concentration
of No2 exceeding1300pglm3 (0.7 ppm) causedfunctionalchangesin healthy
subjects,particularlyan increasedairwayresistance.Recentcontrolledstudies
show conflicting resultsconcerningrespiratoryeffectsin asthmaticsand healthy
individualsat nitrogendioxideconcentration in the rangeof 190-7250pglm3 10.t-
4.0 ppm). The lowestobservedlevel to affectlung functionconsistentlywas a
30-minuteexposurewith intermittentexercise,to a nitrogendioxideconcentration
pglm3 (0.: ppm). Asthmaricsappearto be moreiesponsiveto Ne and
9f 560
their lung functionsmay be affectedby a level of 940 pglm3 (0.5 ppm). Nitrogen
dioxidealsoincreases reactivityto pharmacological bronchoconstrictor
agentsand
a greaterresponseto theseagentsis observedin asthmatics(WHO, 1997a).

Few communityepidemiological studiesof outdoorNO. exposurehave


demonstrated an associationbetweenambientair levelsof No* compoundsand
measurablehealtheffects. However,methodological problems,suchaspresence
of mixtureof pollutants,lack of controlfor parentalsmokingor indoorsourcesof
No2 (speizeret al., 1980),with all of the studiesprecludeacceptance
of any of

16
Health effects of air pollution

the resultsas clearevidencefor increasein acuterespiratoryillnessdueto NO*


exposures.Thesestudieshavebeenextensivelyreviewed(EPA, 1982). More
recentstudieshavetakenthe opportunityof comparinggroupsexposedto NQ
emittedfrom the combustionof gasinsidebuildings. Speizeret al. (1980)
investigated the effectof indoorNQ concentration dueto gas-stoveuseand
reportedan averagerate differencebetweenexposedand non-exposedchildren of
32.5 per 1000childrenfor respiratoryinfectionbeforeagetwo. Theseresults
were not confirmedby other studieswhich could not find a significant effect of
the useof gas-combustion appliances (WHO, 198?a). SametandUtell (1990)
have pointed out the limitations of these epidemiologicalstudies. Anotherstudy
conductedamongschoolchildrenaged7 to ll yearsin six US citiesover a 5 year
period(1983-1938)showedthat a 28.6 pglm3 10.0t5ppm) increasein the
householdannualNO2 meanwas associatedwith an increasedcumulative
incidenceof lower respiratorysymptoms[oddsratio (OR;= 1.4; 95Voconfidence
interval(C1) 1.1-1.71.Therewas no consistenteffectof NQ on pulmonary
functionmeasuremen8 (Neaset al., 1991). A meta-analysis of 11 epidemiological
studies giving quantitative estimatesof effectsshowed increases of respiratory
illness in children of less than 12 years of age,associated with long-term exposure
to high concentrations of NQ (gas stoves)compared to children exposed to low
concentrations of this pollutant:a differencein exposureof 30 pglmr resultingin
an increaseof about20% in the oddsof respiratoryillness(oddsratio 1.2; 95%
confidence limis:1.1-1.3). This becomes a publichealthconcernsincerecurrent
childhoodrespiratoryillnassmay be a risk factor for later susceptibilityto
damagedlungs. Thereis howeverinsuffrcientepidemiological evidenceto draw
any conclusionregardingthe short-or long-termeffectsof NQ on pulmonary
function (Hasselbladet al., 1992).

In summary,in spiteof decadesof laboratory,clinical and epidemiological


research,tle humanhealtheffectsof NQ exposurehavenot beenfully
characterized.The toxicologicalevidencehasindicatedhypotheses to be testedin
human populations
(table 1) but limitationsof the clinical and epidemiological
studieshaveprecludeddefinitivetestingofthese hypotheses (Sametet al., 1990).

Ozoneand otherphotochemicaloxidants

The primary targetorganfor 03 is the lung. 03 exposureproducescellularand


structural changes,the overall effect of which is a decreasein the ability of the
lung to perform normalfunctions. CiliatedandType 1 cells are the mostsensitive
to ozoneexposure(ciliatedcellsfunctionto clearthe airwayof inhaledforeign
material). Proliferationof non-ciliatedbronchiolarandtype 2 alveolarcells
occursas a resultof damageanddeathof ciliatedandtype I cells. The lung
airspacelocationwhereozoneexposures causea major lesionis the centriacinar
area,which includesthe endof the terminalbronchiolesandthe first few

17
Motor vehicleair pollution

Table 1. Potentialhumanhealtheffectsof NO2

Health Effect Mechanism


Increasedincidenceof respiratory infections Reducedeffrcacyoflung defenses

Increasedseverity of respiratory infections Reducedefficacy of lung defenses

Respiratorysymptoms Airways injury

Reducedlung function Airways and alveolar (?) injury

Worsening of tle clinical statusof personswith asthma,


chronic obstructivepulmonary diseaseor other chronic
respiratory conditions Airways injury

Source:Sametand Utell, l99O

generationsof eitherrespiratorybronchiolesor alveolarducts(depending on the


species)(Lippmann,1989a). Thus effrciencyof gasexchangecanbe
compromised in the affectedarea. Levelsof exposurethat shouldnot be exceeded
(WHO guideline)are 150-200pglm3 (0.076{.1 ppm) for t-hour exposure,and
100-120pglm3 (0.054.06 ppm) for an 8-houre*posure(WHO, lgSlb).

The observedhealtheffectsofphotochemicaloxidantsexposurecannotbe
attributedonly to oxidantsbecausephotochemicalsmogtypically consistsof e,
No2, acid sulfateand otherreactiveagents. Thesepollutantsmay haveadditive
or synergisticeffectson humanhealth, but ozoneappearsto be the most
biologicallyactive(WHO, 1987b).

Most of the studieson the healtheffectsof e havefocusedon short-term(1-2


hour) exposureand have indicateda numberof acuteeffectsof 03 and other
photochemical oxidants(rable 2). This literaturehasbeenextensivelyreviewed
(EPA, 1986). studiesof hospitaladmissions in relationto e exposurereported
an increasein hospital-admissionratesfor respiratorydiseases @atesandSitzo,
1983)and asthmaattacls (whittemoreandKorn, 1980;white and Etzel, 1991).
However,due to methodological limitations,thesestudiescannotdemonstrate an
associationbetweenozoneexposureandrespiratoryillness. Different authors
haveinvestigatedsymptomsrelatedto 03 exposure.In a clinical study,Avol et
al. (1987)studiedthe occurrenceof symptomsin subjecsexposedto e

18
Health effects of air pollution

Table 2. Humanresponseto single Q exposure

Response Subjects Exoosureconditions


t10t Ms de@6t ia FEB hd.lthy yohg md l8O ppb with inEmiu.nt hevy Gl@iro for 2 br€3 in
puif&d tir
100 ppb vith mo&e *rcirc for 6.6 hro3 in purified .n
100 ppb with vcry hqvy cHi.o fo. 0.5hro, in mbid rir
helthy childm 100 ppb-&od iumcr mp ppgnnq in rs$imt.ir
Is€&d@ugh belhy youag mcn f20 ppb with inEmittat bqvy @i6€ ior 2 br43 itr
purficd .ir
helthy you8 run tO ppb modc* crcrcirc for 6,6 tuO! ir pu.ifcd .ir
hellhy yout m6 ud wmcn l2Ol30 ppb hovy Gi@irc foi 162t Ein€! in puritrcd air
Rcducod ethlaio pcforrc helthy young md IEO ppb with creisc d VE of 54 Umin for 30 nin, 120
Umia for 30 mh43 ia purifiod rir
h€8lthy youg M rnd sm6 l2Gl30 ppb with creLo.t VE of 3G12O Umb fo. 1628
mh43 in puri.fiod eir
lloE&d siMy nsrivity helthy youg tM 80 ppb wilh modcntc q@ire for 6.5 brO3 i! pu.ifiod rir
halhy yosg .duL tM with 180 ppb with lF.yy Miro for 2 hr43 in purifed rir
lllcrgi: fiinitit
IlcMod riMy pmcrbility hc.lthy yowS m6 aOOppb with intomit&'t hc.W ffiirc tor 2 hlO3 itr
purifcd rn
tacurodeimy intlmutio helthy youtrt M 80 ppb with mo&rE rerci& tor 6.6 brOr h purificd rir
Aoc.hcr.d tdrhaborcbid Fnbb heltb), youog m 200 ppb wid| int mitht lighl *rciio for 2 hrOt in
d@ purificd rir

'lppb =
2pgtf

Source:Lippmann, 1989b

level rangingfrom 0 to 640 pglfir3. Symptomswere classifiedasupper


respiratory(nasalcongestionor dischargeandthroat irritation), lower respiratory
(substernalirritation, cough,sputumproduction,dyspnea,wheezeand chest
tightness)and non-respiratorysymptoms(headache,fatigue and eye irritation).
Scoreswerethencalculated,basedon the intensityof the symptomspresented.
Resultsshoweda dose-response relationshipbetweeneffectivedoseof Or (O:
concentration . time . ventilationrate)and symptomscores(Figure2). Imai et
al. (1985)reportedsignificantsymptomincreasein adultsduringperiodsof
increasedambient03 exposurein Japan. Ostroet al. (1988)analyzingdata
collectedfor 6 years(NationalHealthInterviewSurvey,1976-1981)showedthat
ambient03 levelswere associated with restricteddaysof activity dueto
respiratoryillnessin the working population. It canbe derivedfrom this analysis

t9
Motor vehicle air pollution

Figure2. Effectof ozoneon respiratory


symptoms.

100
u o UpperRespiratory
Symptoms
5
o
so r NonRespiralory
Symptoms
o a LowerRsspiratorySymptoms
>80
F

970
2"o
Hso
8+o
fl.0
F

s20
8ro d

E
0L
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
EFFECTIVE03DOSE(microgramsdeliveredin 2 hr)

Keinmanet al, 1989

that the changein the numberof an individual'sminor restrictedactivity dayson a


givenday (i) for a givenpopulation(i) (MRADJ;) is equalto the changein the
daily high 03 hour in ppm on a given day (dOi), multipliedby the population
exposed(APOP), multipliedby a coefficient(0.077assumingan averagenumber
of minor restrictedactivitydaysin a yearof 7.8 days[dMRADij = 0.077 . dOii
'APOPT) (Kleinman,1989). In sum, effectswhich havebeeniissociated -
with
hourly iverageoxidantlevelsbeginningat about200 pgtnf (0.10 ppm) include:
eye,noseandthroatirritation, cough,throatdryness,thoracicpain, increased
mucousproduction,rales,chesttightness,substernalpain, lassitude,malaiseand
nausea.

Ozonelike NO2 caninduceincreasednon-specificairwaysensitivityto inhalation


challengetestingwith bronchoconstrictive agents(HEI, 1988). Recentresearch
has shownthat effectscan be producedby exposuresas short as 5 minutes,and
that variouseffectsbecomeprogressivelylarger as exposures at a given
concentrationare extendedin time up to 6.6 hours. However,repeatedexposures
to a given concentration
(6.6 hoursto 0.08, 0.10 and0.12 ppm) on several
consecutivedaysresult in attenuationof functional changesbut persistenceof
airwayhyperresponsiveness. This suggestsongoingactionof 03 on the lung
(Folinsbee,1991). Althoughsmokersand subjectswith preexistingpulmonary
diseasedo not appearto be more sensitivethan othersto Q, within the apparently
normalpopulationthereis a rangeof responsiveness to 03 that is reproducible
(wHo, 1987b).

20
Health effects of air pollution

The inhalationof 03 causesconcentrationdependent decreases in the averagelung


volumesand flow ratesduring expiratory manoeuvre,and meandecrements
increasewith increasingdepthof breathing(Lippmann,1989a). Decreasein lung
functionsin healthychildrenand youngadultshavebeen_ reportedat hourly
average03 concenlrations in the rangeof 160-300 pglm3 10.084.150 ppm) (see
Table3). Basedon estimates from Spektor et al. (1988)moderate physical
activity for a range of exposure from 38 to 226 pglm3 (0.019to 0. 113 PPq) for I
hour could lead to a decrement of 0.5 ml/pglm3 for FVC1 and 0.7 ml/pglm3 for
FEV12;this would result in a decrementof 180 ml for FVC and 250 ml for FEVI
for a concentration of 400 pglm3 (0.2 ppm) 03 (l-hour average).From these
data,averagedecrement in FVC, FEVI andPEFR3of 4.9%,7.7Voand17%
respectiveltwerepredictedfor the curientEPA standardfor 03 2aOFgtnf
(0.12ppm).

In a studyconductedin Mexico City amongschoolchildren,Castillejoset al.


(1991)reportedan acuteandsubacuteeffectof 03 on lung functions. However
the decrements were smallerthanthat expectedfrom the regressionslopeof
Spektor et al. (0.8% for FVC and0.8% for FEVI with a ma:rimum03 level of
2a0 y"glnr3(0.12ppm) at 24 hoursprior !o testing. The mean03 exposure48
hoursand 168hours(7 days)werethe moresignificantin predictingFEVI and
FEF2s-?s4. Theseauthorssuggestthat childrenchronicallyexposedto O, may
presenta phenomenon of "tolerance". This finding is in agreement with the fact
that repetitiveexposures tendto producelessof a response(Ilackrcy, 19771,
Folinsbee,1991). Thepotentialadverseeffectof such"tolerance"isnotknown.
Asthmaticsare not more sensitiveto 03 as shownby their FEVI response,
however03 may exacerbate this diseaseby facilitatingthe entry of allergensor
becauseof the inflammationit induces. Thereis someevidencethat 03 may act
synergisticallywith other pollutants,such as sulfate and NOr (Kleinman, 1990).
Koenig et al. (1989)showedthat inhalinglow concentration of 03 may potentiate
the bronchialhyperresponsiveness of people with asthma !o sulfur dioxide
exposure.

I FVC= ForcedVital Capacity

2 FEV, = ForcedExpiratoryVolumein one second

3 PEFR= PeakExpiratoryFlow Rate

a FEFrr-rr= ForcedExpiratoryFlow from 25% to 75Voof the ForcedVital


Capacity
a7
LL
Motor vehicle air pollution

Table3. Meanfunctionalchanges per ppb* 03 in aduttsandchildrenafterexercise.Comparison


of-
resultsftom field andchamberexposurestudieswith q.

Expo{F M6 nb of frstioill ch.iuc


. No. of Activity lcvcl (oxcrciF) o,
gDJ@! | (oitr.Y?d.) titr
FVC FEVr PEFR FEFUS
Ssdy &od!r A8c nltc 0ibn) (do) (PPb)
(nyppb) (ouppb) (oUdppb) (0Urppb)

ADULTS
Foli!$edd t988 l0M tE-33 Modcn& 3e5 O00) t2ff -3.t 4.5 -5.0
(40)

Gibbo0 & A&o 1984 t0F n.91.2.5' Hi8h 50 (60) r50a -t.l -t.0 {.6
(55)

AYol d d 1984 42M,tF 26.4*6.9' High 60 (60) l53b -1.2 -t.3


(57) l60t
-1.5 -t.5

McDo@|l 4 d I9t3 DM 22.3x3.t' High r20 (60) J.4 -1.3 -2,9


r2ff
(65)

20M B.3ri.2' Hi8h 120(60) -l.t -1.6 -3.0


(65)
l80a

Kull6 ct .l l9tj 20M 25.3*1.t' HiSh r20 (60) 4.5 4.2 -2.1
(6r) l50t

Liu 4 d 1986 24M l8-33 HiSh 120(60) 4.1 {.6 -l.l -t.l
(6r) l60t

Spoth d d l98t 20M, l0F 2214 Vricd 29.3*9,2' -1.,f -9.2 {.0
or.6134.o il-l-j,.4b
7M,3F 22-$ (64.5*10.o 26.7xt.f -3.0 -t3.1 -9.7
2t-t240
CHII-DR.EN
Lioy d d l9t5 l7 M,22F Iaw 15G550 {.1 {.3 -3.0 4.6
}Ul45b
Kimcy ct d 1988 94M,60F tut2 I.w 1440 4.9 .1.0p 1.9
7-78b
Lippum d .l 1983 34M,24 F t-13 ModcdE 15G550 4.t
,16-llob
Spckor ct d 53M,38F Modcntc 15G550 -t.0 -1.,1 {.t -2.5
l9-ll3b
Avol c d 1988 33M,33F E-tt Modcnta 60 (60) 4.3 4.4
Q2) ll3b
Avol .t .l 1985 il6 M, 13F t2-t5 High 60 (60) -0.E -t.6 4.7
Q2) l5oa
MoDo@[ ct d 1965 23M t-ll Vcry High 150(60) -0.3 {.5 -tt 4.6
oe) 12cE

'Mean
* S.D
r Ozone concentration within purified
air.
b Ozone concentration
within ambient mixturs.
o FEV0.75

+1ppb=2p.ghf

Source: Lippmann, 1989a

22
Healtheffectsof air pollution

Experimentalstudiesin animalsandhumanshaveshownthat O, increases airway


permeabilityandparticleclearance,causesairway inflammationanddecreases in
bactericidalcapacity,as well as structurealterationin the lung (Lippmann,
1989b). It is not yet knownwhetherrepetitiveinflammationhaslong term
consequences.

The long-termexposureeffectsof O, are still unclear,but thereis goodreasonfor


concernthat repeatedinsultscouldleadto chronicimpairmentof lung
development andfunctions. Animal studieshavedemonstrated progressive
epithelialdamageand inflammatorychangesthat appearto be cumulativeand
persistent,evenin animalsthat haveadaptedto exposurein termsof respiratory
mechanics(fepper et al., 1987),at concentrations slightly higherthanthosethat
produceeffectsin humans. Furthermore,for somechroniceffects,intermittent
exposures(i.e. alternatemonths)canproducegreatereffectsthanthoseproduced
by continuousexposureregimes(all periods)to the sameatmosphere that resultin
a highercumulativeexposure.Theseresultssuggestthat diseasepathogenesis
dependson the effectsproducedby lung defensiveresponses to the direct damage
to epithelialcells causedby O:, as well ason the direct effectsthemselves
(Lippmann,1989a). Epidemiologicalstudieson populationsliving in Southern
Californiasuggestthat chronicoxidantexposures affectbaselinerespiratory
function. Comparingtwo communitiesfrom this area,Detelset al. (1987)found
that baselinelung functionswerelower andthat therewas a greaterrateof decline
in lung functionover 5 yearsin the high oxidantcommunity. Howeverthis study
hasbeencriticizedfor severalpitfall (poor exposuremeasurements, lack of
adjustmentfor potentialconfoundingfactorssuchas indoorair pollution,and
occupational exposure).Similarly,Kilburn et al. (submitted,1991)comparedthe
lung functionsof 1,093Los Angelesschoolchildrenand 1,805Houstonschool
childrenin the secondandfifth grades. Los Angeleschildrenhad 6% Lower
baselinevaluesfor FEVI and 15% lower FEF25_zs. Aerosoladministration of
metaproterenol to Los AngeleschildrenimprovedFEVI by l% andFEF25_75 by
6.6%, but expiratoryflows were still below Houstonchildren'svalues,suggesting
that impairmentwas not reversible. Repeated measurements of lung functions
among106Mexican-American Los Angeleschildrenshowedthat FEV, was 2.0
percentlower thanthe predictedvalueandFEF25-?' was7.0 percentlower than
the predictedvaluein 1987comparedto 1984. FVC remainedunchanged.The
authorsconcludedthat the worseningof airwaysobstructionin thesechildrenis
probablydueto air pollution(Kilburn,submitted1991).

Euler et al. (1988)evaluatedthe risk of chronicobstructivepulmonarydiseasedue


to long-termexposureto ambientlevelsof total oxidantsand NQ in a cohortof
7445SeventhDay Adventistsnon-smokers, who had both residedin Californiafor
at least11 years,andwere agedat least25. The resultssuggesta significant
association betweenchronicsymptomsandtotal oxidans above200 pglm3

23
Motor vehicle air pollution

(0.10ppm). Howeverwhencumulativeexposureto TSP was enteredin the


model,only TSP exposureabove200 pglm3showedstatisticalsignificance.
Sherwinet al. (1990)conductedan autopsystudyamong107youngnon-smoker
aduls aged14 to 25 years,who died of non-respiratory traumaticcausesin Los
Angelescounty. They found that 29 of themhad lungswith severerespiratory
bronchiolitis,of the kind first describedin youngsmokers(Niewohneret al.,
1974). Moderatechangeswerepresentin a further 51 cases. This datamay be
the first to showthat current03 exposures are causingthe samelesionsttrathave
beenobservedin monkeysexposedto Q @ustiset al., 1981).

In summary,the transienteffectsof 03 seemto be more closelyrelatedto


cumulativedaily exposurethanto onehour peakconcentrations.Severalstudies
providedsufficientinformationto allow a quantitativeevaluationof the potential
impactof shortterm exposureto 03 on populationsubgroups.Kleinmanet al.
(1989)summarizingdatafrom differentstudiesderiveda dose-response
relationshipbetweenchangein FEVI andeffectivedoseof 03 @roductof
concentrationof 03 . time . ventilationrate) (Figure3). Theseauthorsalso
calculateddose-response functionsto determinethe changein the percentage of the
populationaffectedby specificsymptomsaccordingto 03 ambientlevel. The
modelfitted well dataderivedfrom clinicalstudies. Finally, the work of Ostroet
al. (1988)canbe usedto determinethe changein restrictedactivity days
associatedwith changesin ambient03. Howeverthesemodelscanonly provide
an approximationsincethe effectsof O, may be potentiatedby the presenceof
other environmental variablessuchas acid aerosols.

The effectsof long term chronicexposureto O, remainpoorly defined,but recent


epidemiological and animalinhalationstudiessuggestthat currentambientlevels
(closeto 240 pglm3or 0.12 ppm) are suffrcientto causeprematurelung aging
(Lippmann,1989b). More researchis neededon the chroniceffectsof 03 on lung
structure,diseasepathogenesis factors.
and interactionwith otherenvironmental

Sulfur Dioxide and Paniculate Matter

Sulfur dioxideandparticulatematterrepresentonly a minimalpart


of automotiveemission,however,thesepollutantsreactandmay havea
synergisticeffectwith otherpollutantsemittedby vehicles. Thereforethe
discussionin this sectionis limited to the mostimportantpoints.

Inhaledsulfur dioxideis highly solublein aqueoussurfacesof the respiratory


tract. It is thereforeabsorbedin the noseandthe upperairwayswhereit exertsits
irritant effectas well; little of it reachesthe lungs. In additionto irritation of the
upperairways,high concentrations cancauselaryngotracheal andpulmonary
oedema.From the respiratorytract, sulfur dioxideentersthe blood. Elimination

24
Health effects of air pollution

Figure3. Effectof ozoneon pulmonaryfunction.

a 0.1ppm
r 0.2ppm
o 0.3ppm
o 0.4ppm
15
LeastSquaresFit
s
-
tJ.t
u-10
z
tJl
z
I
<)5

o
3
0 500 1000 1500 2oo0 2so0 3ooo 3500 4ooo 4500 5000
EFFECTIVEOZONEDOSE(micrograms)

Source:Kleinmanet al. 1989

occursmostlyby the urinary route (afterbiotransformation to sulfatein the liver).


The depositionof particulatematterdependsmainly on the breathingpatternand
the particlesize. Largerparticlesare mainly depositedin the extrathoracicpart of
tlre respiratorytract (> 10 pm) and mostof the particles5-10 pm arc depositedin
proximity to the fine airwayswith normalnasalbreathing. With mouthbreathing
the proportionof tracheobronchial andpulmonarydepositionincreases (WHO,
1987c). Ambientlevelsof sulfur dioxideandparticulatematterthat shouldnot be
exceeded(uS- EPA guidelineslevels)are respectively80 pglm3 (0.03ppm) for
annualaverageand 365 pglnf (0.14ppm) for 24-hoursaverage,and75 pglnf for
annualaverageand260 pglm3for 24-hour(EPA, 1982b).

Althoughcontrolledexposures to differentconcentrations haveshowndifferent


effectson respiratoryfunctions,epidemiologicalstudieshaveprovidedmuchof the
informationconcerningthe effecs of exposureto realisticconcentrationsof sulfur
dioxideandsuspended particulatematter. Variationsin the 24-houraverageof
sulfur dioxide(SO) andtotal suspended particulatematter(fSP) havebeen
associated with increasedmortalityand morbidity,and reductionsin lung
functions.

During the first half of this centuryepisodesof markedair stagnationhave


resultedin well-documented excessmortalityin areaswherefossil-fuelcombustion
producedvery high levelsof SO2andTSP (EPA, 1982). In one notableepisode

25
Motor vehicleair pollution

in Donora,Pennsylvania in October1948,43% of the populationof approximately


10,000were adverselyaffected. A similar eventoccurredlater in Londonwhere
concentrations of SO2andsmokeroseabove500 pglm3. The peopleprimarily
affectedwerethosewith preexistingheartand lung disease,andthe elderly,
althoughwith closerexaminationof thesedata,it seemsthat childrenunder5
yearsold were alsoseverelyaffected(LondonMinistry of Health, 1954).
Followingthesemajor episodes,attentionwasturnedto studieson more moderate
day-todayvariationsin mortalitywithin large citiesin relationto pollutants.
Theseacutemortalitystudiesof SO2andparticulatemattersuggested a dose-
responserelationshipbetween24-hourlevelsof thesepollutantsand excess
mortality,particularlyat valuesover 500 p1lni. However,new analysisof the
LondonWinter data1958-1959to 197l-1972,controllingfor important
confoundingvariablessuchastemperatureandhumidity indicatesthe absenceof a
thresholdlevel for the adverseeffectof British smoke,and a statistically
significantpollutanteffecton mortalitybelow 150pglm3was observedio.tro,
1984). Similarresultswerereportedby otherauthors(SchwaruandMarcus,
1990;Schwartz,1991). Evanset al. (1984)summarized datafrom 23 original
cross-sectionalmortalitystudiesandderiveda dose-response functionto assessthe
impacton mortalityof changein particulatelevels. More recentlySchwartzand
Dockery(1992),reportedan association betweenTSP anddaily mortalityin
Steubenville,Ohio, US. An increasein 100pglm3in the daily particulatemean
was associated with a 4Voincreasein mortalitythe next day. The relationship
appeared to hold at levelswell below the currentnationalair qualitystandard(ISP
24-hourmean= 250 pglm3).

Shortterm peakconcentrations of SO2andparticulatemattermay also increase


morbidity, especiallyin individualswith highersensitivitythanthe general
population,suchas thosewith asthmaand chronicbronchitis. Basedon
epidemiological studies:rmongthesepopulations,a minimumlevel of black smoke
and SO2of 250 pglm3 is estimatedto be neededto produceeffects,including
exacerbationof symptomsand asthmaattacks,althougheffectsmay be observedat
lower levelsamonghighly-sensitivebronchitispatientsWHO, 1987c). Results
from studiesof hospitalization @ates,1983)aridemergencyroom visits alsotend
to supportthis association (Samet,1981). More recentstudiesconductedcloseto
a steelmill in Utah wherePM,s (particulatematter < 10 pm) wasthe only
significantpollutant,havepointedout the adverseeffectsof PMto on hospital
admissions for respiratorydisease@ope,1989),and on mortalityfor respiratory
relatedcauses(Archer, 1990). Using datafrom the HealthInterviewSurvey
(HIS), collectedover a 6 yearperiod(1976-1981),Ostro(1989)calculatedthat an
increasein the annualmeanof t pglnr3in fine pafiiculates(< 2.5 pm) couldbe
associated with a3.2% increasein acuterespiratorydiseases in adultsaged18{5
years.

26
Health effects of air pollution

In somestudies,observeddeviationsin lung functionlevelsof childrenhavebeen


associatedwith short-termfluctuationsin particulateconcentration (WHO, 1987c).
From datacollectedby Dockeryet d. (1982)during air pollutionepisodasit can
be calculatedthat in the mostsensitivechildren(approximately 25% of his study
population),therewas a deficit in lung functionat least4 timesgreaterthan in
thoseof averagesensitivity,corresponding to a decrease in FEVI of 0.39 ml per
eachincreaseof L y,glnf of exposureGSP). The minimumlevel for effectwas
judgedto be 180pglm3TSP. In a studyconductedamongasthmatics,inhalable
particulatematter(3 = 10 pm) was associated with reductionsin PEFRand
increasedsymptomsandmedicationuse (Pope,submitted1990).

Studieson long-termhealtheffectshaverelatedannualmeansofSQ and


particulatematterto mortalityandmorbidity. Ecologicalstudiesof the
relationshipbetweensulfur dioxide-and-particulatelevelsand mortalityftom
cardiorespiratory diseaseshaveusuallyindicatedthat this complexof SO2andTSP
accountsfor approximately 4% of the variationin deathratesbetweencities
(WHO, 1987c). Many factors,suchiui differencesin smokinghabits,occupation
or socialconditionsmay contributeto the disparitiesin deathratesattributedto
SO, andparticulate,but the resultsof studiescarriedout in differentpartsof the
world imply a relativelyconsistentassociationbetweenlong-termresidencein
morepollutedcommunitiesand increasedmortalityrates. Recently,a study
comparingdifferentareasof Rio de Janeiro,Brazil found a significantdifference
in infant mortality from pneumoniaassociatedwith averageannuallevel of
particulate@ennaandDuchiade,l99l).

Community-based studiesconductedamongadultsand children have indicateda


detectableincreasein the frequencyof respiralorysymptornsand illne.sses in
communitieswhere annualmeanconcentrationsof both black smokeand SO,
exceed100pglm3. Severalstudiesinvestigated the relationshipbetween
respiratoryillnessand symptomrates,andpollutantlevels. In a studyconducted
amonga preadolescent populationaged6-9 years,living in six US cities(Ware
et al., 1986),frequencyof chroniccoughwassignificantlyassociated with the
annualaverageconcentration ofthese air pollutantsCISP,TSO4,and SO) during
the yearprecedingthe examination(Figure4). The maximumlevel observed
were 114 pglm3for TSP, 68 pglm3for SO2and 18 p"glrrf for total sulfates
(ISO+). Ratesof bronchitisandcompositemeasureof respiratoryillnesswere
significantlyassociatedwith averageparticulateconcentration.Similarresults
havebeeneonfirmedin a secondcross-sectional surveyof Lhesamepopulation
@ockeryet d., 1989). A subsetwith asthmaandpermanentwheezeexperienced
a higherrateof pulmonarysymplomsin relationto increasedpollutants. There
was no evidenceof impairedlung functionassociated with pollutantlevels. Other
studiesconductedover a periodof yearshaveshownan association betweenthe

27
Motor vehicleair pollution

Figure4. Plotof adjustedfrequencyof chroniccough


againsttotalparticulate
levels.
175

150

H R
125
-. T 1L
7 R

3 1oo p
KL
o ltilK

.K
3ru
E
TT
-
50 W

s
s
0 25 50 75 100 125 150
MEANTSP (pg/m3)
. The plotincludes27 region-cohorts
againstmeanTSP concentration
duringthe previousyear,with between-cities
regressionequation.
(P=Portage,T=Topeka;W=Watertown;C=Carondolet;L=otherSt Louis;
R= Steubenville Valley;K=Kingston;
Ridge;V- Steubenville H=Harriman)

Source'.Ware et al 1986

magnitudeof lung functionchangesandthe level of pollution(WHO, 1987c),


howeverthereis no firm conclusiongiven the lack of accurateexposure
measurement.In many cities of Latin America, particulatelevels greatly exceed
the standardguidelinesfor this pollutant@omieuet al., 1991). In a study
conductedin Chile (SERPLAC,1989),comparingSantiago(whereparticulate
levelsare high) and a controlcity, resultssuggestan association between
respiratorysymptomsand lower respiratoryfunctionparameters,andPMls levels.
However the lack of air pollutant measurements in the control city limits the
interpretationof the data.

Thereis somegrowingevidencethat chronicexposureto smokemay play an


importantrole in the genesisof chroniclung disease.In a studyconductedamong
adultBritish residents,Lambertet al. (1970)found a higherprevalencerate of
chronicbronchitisin residentsof areaswith heavierair pollution, independently
of
cigarettesmoking,althoughan interactingeffectwasalsopresent. Resultsfrom

28
Health effects of air pollution

other correlationstudiestendedto suggestthat areaswith higherpollutionlevels


are associatedwith higherlevelsof chronicbronchitis,althoughthe interpretation
of theseresultsis limited by the crudeexposuremqsurement. In developing
countries,prevalenceratesof chronicbronchitisoften appearto be muchhigher
than in industrializedcountriesandto havesexratiostendingto 1, which cannot
be explainedsolelyby cigarettesmoking@umgartnerand Speizer,1991).
Althoughexposureto multiplerisk in developingcountriesmay be muchhigher
than in developedcountriestheseresults suggestthat exposureto indoor smoke
pollution,which is muchmore commonamongwomen,may largelyaccountfor
the differences.

Most of the healtheffectsdescribedabovereferredto coal and industrialemission


particulates.It is importantto notethat the compositionof particulatesdue to
vehicleemissionwill havea distinctcompositionandthereforepotentiallya
slightly differenthealthimpact. However,thereis very limited dataon this topic.

Effectsof exposureto dieselengineexhauston the lung havebeenreviewedby


Calabrese et al. (1981). Decreasein pulmonaryfunctions(FEV, andFVC) in
workersexposedto dieselenginefumeshavebeenobserved,howeverthe
decrementwas reversibleafter a few dayswithout exposure.Thereare conflicting
resultson the possibleeffecton the lung of chronicoccupational exposureto
dieselengineexhaust. Somestudiesshoweddecrements in lung functionsand
increasedprevalenceof respiratorysymptorns(IARC, 1989). A follow-up study
amongworkersin heavyconstructionequipmentshoweda highly significant
overallexcessof deathsfrom emphysema (116observed,70.2expected) andthis
excesswashigheramongmenwith longermembershipin the union. However,
there was no dataon smokinghabis and the authornotedthat they were unableto
estimatethe degreeto which exposureto dieselemissions(asdistinctfrom other
occupational factors,suchas exposureto dust)might havecontributedto the
excessmortalityfrom emphysema (Wonget al., 1985). Otherstudieson exposure
to dieselparticulatehaveemphasized the risk of pulmonarycancerin animals
(Adler and Carey, 1989). At the communitylevel, automotiveemissionscannot
be consideredin isolationespeciallybecauseof their synergisticchemicaland
physical interactionswith emissionsfrom stationarysourcesand vegetation,giving
rise to secondarychemicalproductssuchas acid aerosols(HEI, 1988).

In summary,WHO (1987c)hasdeterminedthe lowest-observed-effect level for


short-terrnandlong-termaverageair pcllution measurements (fables 4:5);
however,recentfindingssuggestthat adversehealtheffectsmay occurat lower
concentrations.SeveralstudiesprovidesufFrcient informationto allow a
quantitativeevaluationof the healthimpactof particulatematterandhavebeen
usedfor risk assessment (Kleinmanet al., 1989;Ostroet al., 1990;Romieuet al.,
1990). However,theseestimatesare only approximatebecauseseveralfactors

29
Motor vehicleair pollution

Table4. Summaryof effectson humanhealthof lowest-observed-effectlevelsof


sulfur dioxideandparticulatematter(short-termexposure).

24-hourmeanexposureto:

total
Soz smoke suspended thoracic
Effect particulates particles
(pglm3) 0rglm3) @eh'f) Qtgtm3)
Excessmoftality 500 500

Increasedacute
respiratorymorbidity 250 250
(adults)

Decrementsin lung r80 110


function(children)

Source:WHO, 1987c

Table5. levelsof
Summaryof effectson humanhealthof lowest-observed-effect
sulfur dioxideandparticulatematter(long-termexposure).

Annualmeanexposureto:

total
Soz smoke suspended
Effect particulates
0.g/rn3) @elt13) @gkrr3)
Increasedrespiratory 100 100
symptomsor illness

Decrementsin lung i80


function

Source:WHO, 1987c

30
Health effects of air pollution

may interactin particulatecomposition,andbecausesynergywith otherpollutants


may haveoccurred. Also, it is not clearwhetherlong-termeffectscanbe related
simplyto annualmeanvaluesor to repeatedexposureto peakvalues.

Aci.daerosols

Becauseof their small size(fine particles),acid ambientaerosolstendto depositin


the distallung airway and airspace.Someneutralizationof the dropletscanoccur
beforedeposition,due to normalexcretionof endogenous ammoniainto the
airways. Depositedfree H+ reactswith components of the mucusof the
respiratorytract changingits viscosity;the unreactedpart diffrrsesinto the tissues
(WHO, 1987c).

Beginningin 1986,direct measurements of sulfuricacid aerosolsandnitric acid


vaporhavebeenmadein differentlocationsin North America. Thesedatahave
shownthat in the summer,usuallywhenthe 03 is elevatedandthe humidity is
high, peaksofthese acidsare occurringat groundlevel, lastingfor severalhours
@ates,1991). Few measurements havebeenmadein otherpartsof the world,
thereforeit is difficult to know the extentof the problem.

It is well established
in animalexperiments and controlledhumanstudiesthat acid
aerosolshavea deleteriouseffecton respiratoryhealth. Lippmann(1989c)
reviewedrecentlythe stateof knowledgeof theseeffects. Alterationof lung
functions,particularlyincreasein pulmonaryflow resistance occursafter acute
exposure.Sulfuricacid (H2SOa)appqusto be morepotentthan any of the sulfate
saltsin term of increasedairway irritancy(WHO, 1987c). Acid aerosolshave
alsobeenshownto modify particleclearancealthoughthe mechanismis not yet
well established (Folinsbee,1989).

Basedon the epidemiological datacollectedduringthe London-smogepisodes,it


hasbeenestablished that excessmortality in Londonwasmore closelya.ssociated
with British smoke(reflectance data)thanwith SO2. A reanalysisof the London-
Smogmortalitydatain relationto exposureto acid aerosolssuggeststhat the SOo-
wasthe componentof greaterhealthsignificance(Ihurston et al., 1989). Also,
peaksof acid aerosolsobservedin Canadaduringthe summercouldhavebeen
responsible for the association observedbetweensulfatelevelsand acutehospital
admissions, to the extentthat sulfateconstitutes
a surrogatemeasurement for
su!furicacid aerosols@ate-s and Sitzo, 1987).

Changesin lung functionin relationto acid aerosolsexposurehavebeenstudiedin


children. Raizenneet al. (1989)reporta 3.5 to 1Vodecrementfor FEVt and
PEFRassociated with air pollutionepisodeswith maximumvaluesof 286 p,gllin.-"
(0.143ppm) of C,3,47.7 pglm3HrSOaand550 nmole/m3of H+. Asthmaticsare

3I
Motor vehicle air pollution

more sensitivein termsof changesin lung functionsthanhealthypeople,and


vigorousexercisepotentiates healtheffectsat a given concentration.The lowest
demonstrated effectlevel for sulfuric acid was 100pglm3with mouthpiece
inhalationandintermittentexercise(Hackney,1989). A preliminaryanalysisof
datafrom Koeniget al. (1989)collectedamongallergicchildren,showedthat
exposureto HrSo4 aloneor in association with So2 causedsignificantchangesin
lung functionswhereasexposureto relativelycleanair or Se in the absenceof
acid aerosoldid not. Recentstudiesby ostro et al. (1991)in Denverhave
producedevidencethat aerosolH+ levelswere associated with worseningasthma.

Acid aerosolsseemto act synergisticallywith 03. stern et al. (19s9)investigated


respiratoryhealtheffectsassociated with ambientsulfatesand 03 in two rural
canadiancommunitiesin 1983-1984.Respiratoryhealthwasasiessedby the
measurement of lung functionsandby evaluationof the child's respiratory
symptomsand illnessusinga parent-completed questionnaire.Therewas a
significantdifferencein the level of Se, SOo-and NO, betweenthe two
communities.children living in the communitywith the highestlevelsof
contaminants, had a significantdecrementin lung functionspiuameterse% fot
FVC, and L.lVofor FEVr).

In summary,it seemsthat the role of secondaryproductssuchas acid sulfateare


stronglyinvolvedin the adverseeffectsor oe SQlparticulatecomplex(Spengler
et al., 1990). Betterspecificationof theseeffectsare needed,especiallyon the
genesisand evolutionof chronicpulmonarydiseases.

substancespreent in exhaustgas that producetoxic systemiceffects.

CarbonMonoxide

carbon monoxideis rapidly absorbedin the lungsand is takenup in the blood,


whereit is boundto haemoglobin(rIB) with the formationof carboxyhemoglobin
(coHB) thus impairingthe oxygencarryingcapacityof blood; the dissociationof
oxyhemoglobinis alsoaltereddueto the presenceof coHB in the bloodthereby
further impairingthe oxygensupplyto the tissues(theaffinity of haemoglobinfor
Co is about240 timesthat of oxygen). The main factorsconditioningthe uptake
of co are its concentration in the inhaledair, the endogenous productionof co,
the intensity of physicaleffort, body size,the conditionof the lungs,andthe
barometricpressure.Table6 presentsthe expectedcoHB levelsafter exposureto
co concentrations from 11.5to 115mg/m3during differenttypesof phyJical
activity. In absence of co exposure,coHB concentrations are approximately
0.5%, andone-packper day cigarettesmokersmay achievecoHB saturationof 4
to 7 percent(wHo, 1979). To preventcarboxyhemoglobin levelsexceeding
2.5%-3voin non smokingpopulations,the following guidelinesareproposed:a

32
Health effects of air pollution

Table6. levelsfor subjectsengagedin


Predictedcarboxyhemoglobin
differenttypesof work.

Carbonmonoxide PredictedCOHb level


concentration for thoseengagedin:
Exposure
time sedentary light heavy
ppm mg/m3 work work work

100 115 15 minutes t.2 2.0 2.8


50 57 30 minutes 1.1 1.9 2.6
25 29 t hour 1.1 1.7 2.2
10 11.5 8 hours 1.5 1.7 1.7

Source:WHO, 1987d

maximumpermittedexposureof 100mg/m3for ( 15 minutes;60 mg/m3


(50 ppm) for < 30 minutes;30 mg/m3(25 ppm) for 3 t hour; 10 mg/m3
(9 ppm) for 8 hours(WHO, 1987d).

the oxygentransportto the tissues. The


The main effectof CO is to decrease
organsdependent on a largeoxygensupplyare mostat risk, and in particularthe
heart and the centralnervoussystem,as well as the foetus.

Four types of health effectsare reportedto be associatedwith CO exposure:


neurobehavioral effects,cardiovasculareffects,fibrinolysiseffects,andperinatal
effects. Carbonmonoxideleadsto a decreased oxygenuptakecapacitywith a
decreased work capacityunder maximal exercise conditions. Accordingto
availabledata,the COHB level requiredto inducetheseeffectsis approximately
5% (WHO, 1979). Someauthors(BeardandWertheim,1967)havereportedan
impairmentin the ability to judge correctlyslightdifferencesin successiveshort
time intervalsat lower COHB levelsof 3.2 to 4.2%. At this level, subjectsmay
misssignalsthey wouid not havemissedwhenstartinga task.

Subjecawith previouscardiovascular disease(chronicanginapatients)seemto be


the most sensitivegroupto CO exposure.In a recentstudy,Allred et al. (1989)
the effectsof CO exposureon myocardialischemiaduring exercisein
investigated
63 men with documented coronaryarterydisease.Resultsshoweda decreasing

33
Motor vehicle air pollution

dose-response relationshipbetweenthe lengthof time to the onsetof anginaand


coHB level. The lengthof time to the onsetof anginawasreducedby 4.2% for
coHB levelsof 2vo andby 7.lvo at 3.9vocoHB level. This studyshowsthat
COHB levelsas low as 2% canexacerbate myocardialischemiaduring exercisein
subjectswith coronaryarterydisease.Similar effectshavebeendemonstrated in
patientswith intermittentclaudicationfrom peripheralvasculardisease(Aronow,
1974). A retrospectivecohortstudyconductedamongbridgeandtunneloffrcers
(n=5,529) exposedto CO showeda 35% excessrisk of arteriosclerotic heart
diseasemortality amongtunnelofficerswhencomparedto the New york City
population. Two factorscontributedto this excessrisk: the exposure(current)to
CO of tunnelsoffrcersandthe movementinto a critical higheragegroup. There
was a reductionof mortalityafter decreaseof exposure(moreventilationin the
tunnel)(Stern,1988). Table7 summarizes studiesrelatinghumanhealtheffectsto
differentlow{evel exposures to carbonmonoxide.

The classicsymptonNof co poisoningareheadacheanddizzinessat coHB levels


between10 and 30vo andsevereheadache,cardiovascular
symptoms,and malaise
over about30%. Above about40%thereis considerablerisk of comaand death.

co exposuremay alsoaffectthe foetusdirectlythroughoxygendeficit without


elevationof coHB level in the fetal blood. Dlring to high co levels
the mother'sHB lessreadilygivesup its oxygen,with "iposuiJ
consequent loweringof the
oxygenpressurein the placenta,andhencealsothe foetalblood. Researchhas
mainly focusedon the effectof cigarettesmokingduringpregnancy.The main
effectsare reducedbirth weight(Mathaiet al., 1990;Ash et al., 19g9;Hebelet
al., 1988)andretardedpostnataldevelopment (Campbellet al., l98g).

In summary,averagecarboxyhemoglobin levelsin the generalpopulationare


aroundL.2-l.5Vo(in cigareuesmokersaround34%). Below 10%COHB,it is
mainly cardiovascular and neurobehavioral effectsthat havebeenevaluated.The
aggravationof symptomsin anginapectorispatients,which is a major public
healthconcern,may occurat levelsas low as 2% coHB. Decreased work
capacityandneurobehavioral functionhavemostlybeenobserveduound 5%.
Low birthweighthasbeenrelatedto cigarettesmokingduringpregnancywith the
hypothesisthat increasedmother'scoHB couldhavea role in this adverseeffect,
howeverthereis no estimationof the impactof specificcoHB level on the
decreasein birth weight. Basedon ambientco concentration, time of exposure,
andphysicalactivity type, the expectedlevel of coHB canbe derlr'ed(fable 6),
andusedto determinethe healthimpacton the populationof specific
CO exposure.

34
Health effects of air pollution

Table 1. Humanhealtheffectsassociatedwith lowleve! carbonmonoxide


levels
exposure: lowest-observed-effect

Carboxyhemoglobin
concenEation(%) Effects

2.3- 4.3 StatisticallysignificantdecreaseQ-7%) ia tle relation


betweenwork time and exhaustionin exercisingyoung
healthymen

2.9- 4.5 Statisticallysignificantdecreasein exercisecapacity


(i.e. shorteneddurationof exercisebeforeonsetof
pain) in patientswith anginapectoris and increasein
duration of anginaattacks

5-5.5 Statisticallysignificantdecreasein maximaloxygen


consumptionand exercisetime in young healthy men
during strenuousexercise

<5 No statisticallysignificantvigilancedecrementsafter
exposureto carbonmonoxide

5 -7.6 Statisticallysignificantimpairmentof vigilancetasksin


healthyexperimentalsubjects

5-17 Statisticallysignificantdiminutionof visualperception,


manualdexterity,ability to learn, or performancein
complexsensorimotortask (e.g. driving)

7 -20 Statisticallysignificantdecreasein maximaloxygen


consumptionduring strenuousexercisein young
healthymen

Source:WHO,1987d

lzad

The contributionof alkyl lead additivesin motor fuels accountsfor the maior part
of all inorganicleademissions.An estimated80-90Vo of lead in ambientair
derivesfrom the combustionof leadedpetrol. The degreeof pollutionfrom this
sourcediffers from countryto country,dependingon motor vehicledensityand
efficiencyof effortsto reducethe leadcontentof petrol (WHO, 1987e). About
l% of thelead in petrol is emittedunchanged astetraalkyllead(organiclead).
Thereis in addition,someevaporationof organicleadfrom the engineand fuel
tank. Concentration of tetraalkylleadamountingto morethan 10%of the total
lead contentof ambientair hasbeenmeasuredin the immediatevicinity of service
stations(NSIEM, 1983). The WHO guidelinevaluefor long-termexposure(e.g
annualaverage)to leadin the air is 0.5-1.0pglm3(WttO, 1987e).

35
Motor vehicle air pollution

Most of the lead in ambientair is on fine particles(< 10 pm). For adultsthe


retentionratesof airborneparticulatesrangefrom 20Voand60%. Young children
inhaleproportionatelyhigherdaily air volumeper unit measure(weight,body
area)than do adults@arltrop, 19'12). It was estimatedthat children have a lung
depositionrateof leadthat canbe up to 2.7 fold higherthan adultson a unit body
massbasis. The proportionof leadabsorbedfrom the gastrointestinal tract is
about10%to 15% @abinowitzet al., 1980)in adults,whereaslevelsof 44-50%
havebeenreportedin children(Ziegleret d., 1978). It is influencedby dietary
intake. Fasting,dietswittr low levelsof calcium,vitaminD, iron, andzinc
(Mahaffey,1990)havebeenshownto increaseleadabsorption.The nonexcreted
fractionof absorbedleadis distributedamongthreecompartments: blood, soft
tissues,and mineralizingtissues(bones,teeth). About91% of the leadbody-
burdenin adultsis locatedin the bones,comparedwith about70Von children.
Nonabsorbed lead is excretedin the faeces. Of the absorbedfraction50 to 60% is
removedby renalandbiliary excretion. The concentration oflead in deciduous
teethprovidesa usefullong-termrecordof leadexposurein children. Organic
leadcompounds,(tetraalkyllead and its metabolites),arevolatile andliposoluble
and are mainly takenup via the respiratorytract. The absorptionby the lung is
rapid andpracticallycomplete. Absorptionthroughthe skin is alsoimportant.
Tetraalkylleadis metabolizedin the liver andothertissuesto trialkyllead,which
is the mosttoxic metabolite(NSIEM, 1983).

Animal and epidemiological studieshavedemonstrated that leadexposuremay act


on differentsystems,principallyhemebiosynthesis, the nervoussystem,andother
systemssuchasthe cardiovascular system(bloodpressure).Infantsandyoung
childrenlessthan five yearsold are particularlysensitiveto lead exposurebecause
of its potentialeffecton neurologicaldevelopment.

The effectof leadon hemebiosynthesis anderythropoiesis is mainly at the level of


threeenzymes:it stimulatesthe mitochondrialenzymedelta-aminolaevulinic
synthetase (ALAS); it inhibitsthe activity of the cytoplasmicenzymedelta-
aminolaewlinicacid dehydrase(ALAD) which resultsin an accumulation of its
substrateALA (this interference with hemesynthesismay occurat levels ( 100
y"gll); it interfereswith the functioningof intramitochondrial ferrochelatase,
responsiblefor the insertionof iron into the protoporphyrinring, therefore
resultingin an increaseof erythrocyteprotoporphyrinor zinc protoporphyrinin
blood (Figure5). Anemiais a frequentoutcomeof chroniclead intoxication.
Apart from this hematologiceffect, lead also exertsan adverseeffect on the
endocrinesystemincludingthe gonadalandreproductivesystems@ohnet al.,
1982),it depresses thyroid function(Iuppurainenet al., 1988),and impairs
hepaticmetabolismof cortisol(Saengeret al., 1984). In youngchildren,lead

36
Health effects of air pollution

Figure5. Effectsof leadon hemebiosynthesis.

MITOCHONDRION

HEME
APb

{1
",J,5?lS
tv

AMINOLEVULINIC
ACID
(ALA)

ALA I COPBOPORPHYRIN
DEHYDRASEF- pb (INCREASE)
(DEoREASE)
|
Y .
PORPHOBILINOGEN

Source:EPA. 1986
ffiosxts

exposureis alsoassociated
wittr a decrease of
in the biosynthesis
l,25{ihydroxyvitamin D, an importantmetaboliteof vitaminD (Mahaffeyet al.,
1982).

The centralneryoussystemis the primarytargetorganfor leadtoxicity in


children. Exposureto high concentrationsof lead can result in an encephalopathy
which is more frequentin childhoodleadpoisoningthan in adultpoisoning. The
r&Nonmay be dueto the easewith which leadcrossesthe blood-brainbarrier in
children. Encephalopathy hasoccurredin childrenat bloodleadlevelsin excess
of 800 to 1000pgll (NAS, 1972). The brain seemsmore sensitiveto alkyl lead
exposure(NSIEM, 1983).

Exposureof childrento lower concentrationsof leadmay produceneuro-


physiologicaldisorders,includingimpairmentof learningability, behavior,
intelligenceandfine motor coordination.This work hasbeenrecentlyreviewed
(GrantandDavis, 1990;Davis and Svendsgaard, 1987;ATSDR, 1988).
Needlemanand colleagues (1979),in a communitybasedstudyof childrenin
Bostonin whom previousexposureto leadwas estimatedfrom examinations of
deciduousteeth,reportedevidenceof lead-related neuropsychologicaldeficits.
This negativeassociationbetweentooth-leadlevel andmentaldevelopment was
reportedin subsequent studies(Winnekeet al., 1983,1984). However,in other
studies(Smithet al., 1983;Harveyet al., 1984),correctingfor socialenvironment

37
Motor vehicleair pollution

greatlyattenuated this inverseassociation.More recently,someauthors(Hawk


et al., 1986;Fulton et al., 1987)reporteda significantinverselinear association
betweencognitiveability andblood lead,with no evidentthresholdlevel of
exposure.The meanblood leadlevel of the highestleadgroup in the studyof
Fulton et al. (1987)was221pglI, suggesting that IQ deficia are relatedto lead
exposureof <250 1tgll. In agreement with thesefindings,a recentstudy
conductedin Mexico city amongschoolchildren,from low to mediumsocial
statusand aged9 to 12 years,showeda strongnegativecorrelationbetweenblood
leadlevel and intellectualcoefficientsandteachergradingwithout evidenceof
thresholdlevel (Munozet al., submitted).Althoughnoneof the abovestudiescan
providedefiniteevidencethat low-levelleadexposureis linked to reduced
cognitiveperformancein children,the overallpatternof findingssupportsthe
conclusionthat low-levelleadexposureis relatedto neurobehavioral dysfunction
in children. In addition,a follow-up investigationof the childrenpreviously
studiedby Needleman,showedthat, l1 yearslater, high-leadchildrenwere
significantlymore likely to drop out of high schoolandhavea readingdisability
(Needleman et d., 1990). This studyhasbeencriticizedbecauseof potentialbias
(Good, 1991),howeverthe resultssuggestthat early lead exposuremay resultin
long-termneurobehavioral impairment.

Basedon this body of datathe lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level


hasbeen
definedas possibly< 100pgll (ATSDR, 1990).

Lead is transportedto the foetusacrossthe placentasincethereis no metabolic


barrier to fetal lead uptake. Furthermorethe amountof lead maternally
circulatingfor fetal uptakemay actuallybe higherthanusualsincepart ofthe lead
storedin boneis reabsorbed into bloodduringthe pregnancy.Prenatalexposure
to lead,producestoxic effectson the humanfetusincludingreductionsin
gestationalage,birthweight,andmentaldevelopment.Theseeffectsoccur at
relativelylow bloodleadlevels. An inverseassociation betweenmaternal(or
cord)blood leadlevelsandgestationalagewas reportedby differentauthors
(McMichaelet al., 1986;Dietrich et al., 1986,19S7b).Basedon risk esrimates
of McMichaelet al. (1986),the risk of prematuredeliveryincreases by
approximatelyfour fold as cord or maternalblood leadlevel increasesfrom 3 80
to > 140p"gll. Datafrom the Cincinnatistudysuggestan inverserelationshipof
prenatalmaternalblood leadlevel andbirthweightandpostnatalgrowth rates
@ietrich et al., 1987a;Shulkaet al., 1987). Otherstudiesalsosupportthis
inverseassociation @ellingeret al., 1984;Ward et al., 1987).

A numberof longitudinalstudiescurrentlyunderwayhaveinvestigated the effect


of early leadexposureand developmentaleffects. Bellingeret al. (1987, 1989),in
Boston,studiedthe relationshipbetweenumbilicalcord blood lead andearly
cognitivedevelopment between6 and24 monthsof age. Lead concentrations

38
Health effects of air pollution

were measuredin249 umbilicalcord blood s:rmplesof infantsborn to middle and


upper-middleclassparents. Cord blood leadlevelswere categorr,edas low
(mean=180pgll), mid (mean=650p.elDandhigh (mean=1460y.gll). After
accountingfor factorsrelatedto infant developmentsuchas, mother'sage, race,
IQ, education,caregiving environment,socialclass,andinfant's sex, birthweight,
birth order andgestationalage,therewas a significantinverserelationof
performanceon the BayletMentaldevelopment Index (MDI) at 6, L2 urd 24
monthsand cord bloodlevel (Figure6).

Figure6. Meanmentaldevelopment indexscores


at fouragesin infantsaccordingto the
leadlevelin umbilical-cord
blood.

Cord-bloodlead group
Groupe de plomb6miecordale
120 a--O Low-Faible mean = 146 uo/l
A - l! lvledium-Moyenne mean = 180 utl
O--.o' High-Elev6e mean = 650 ug/1
.)
0)

3 rre
X
o

;
o I
v
dt tz
o
q,

o
o
6
5 108
f
104

s
6121824
Age at testing (months) -

" Scoresare least-squaresmeansobtainableby regressing


MentalDevelopment indexscoreson the cord-bloodleadgroup
and l2 variablesconsideredto be potentialconfounders.
Error
barsrepresent1 SD. For clarity,barsextendonlyin one direction.

Source:Bellingeret al, 1987

39
Motor vehicle air pollution

The MDI is a compositescaleto assess sensory-perceptualacuities,memory,


learningability, verbalcommunication andother cognitivefunctions(Shy, 1990).
The deficit in MDI betweenthe low- andhigh-exposure groupswasbetween4 and
7 points. Postnatalblood-leadlevelsshowedno association with MDI deficit.
Children in the lower socioeconomic stratumwere adverselyaffectedat lower
levelsof prenatalexposure(Needleman,1989). Thesefindingsare supportedby
other studies@ietrichet al., 1987a,Erhnartet al., 1987). Anothermajor
prospectivestudyis beingconductedin Port-Pirie,SouthAustraliaamonga cohort
of 537 childrenbornduring1979to 1982to womenliving neara leadsmelter
(McMichaelet al., 1988). Bloodsamples werecollectedfrom the mother,
antenatallyand at delivery,from the umbilicalcord and at age6, 15,24 months
and every yearsthereafter. At the ageof two, the meanblood lead concentration
was 212 y"gll with a rangeof 49 pgll to 566 p.g/|. The developmental statusof
eachchild wastestedusingthe McCarthyScaleof Children'sAbilities(MSCA).
Maternalintelligence,caregiving environmentwere alsoevaluated.The blood
lead concentrationat eachage,particularlyat two andthreeyearsand integrated
postnatalaverageconcentration wereinverselyrelatedto developmentat the ageof
four. Independently from otherfactorsthat may affectchild development,subjects
with an average postnatal
bloodleadconcentration of 308.7 pgllhad a cognitive
score7.2 pcrintslowerthanthosewith an averageconcentration of 102.9p,gll
(Figure7).

Figure7. Linearrelationbetweenthe integratedpostnatalaverage


bicod lead concentrationand the generalcognitiveindex

lineof bestfit

r'o
.
Cnanoe = |
l--
M e a ns c o r e= 1 0 7 . 1
7.2 u"nits ,ou
|
I

100

51.7 103.3 206.6 309.9 516.5


I Changein PbB I
Antilogbloodleadconcentration
(pgn)
"Generalcognitiveindex

Source:Mcvichael et al, 19BB

40
Health effects of air pollution

Similar deficit occurredin the perceptual performanceandmemory score. There


was no evidencethat cognitivefunctionat age4 was more influencedby recent
than earlierpostnatalblood leadlevels. Within the rangeof exposurestudied,
therewas no evidenceof a thresholddosefor an effectof lead. Theseresults
suggestthat insreasedexposureto leadresultsin developmental deficit, not just
developmental delay. Althoughthe cognitiveandneurosensory effectsof low-
level blood lead are particularlydifficult to studymainly becauseof the variety of
testsused,and the numberof differentfactorsthat may affect child development,
thereis an impressiveconvergence of animalandhumanstudies(Shy, 1990).
Grant andDavis (1987)concludedthat neurobehavioral deficits and reductionin
gestationalageand birth weightareassociated with prenatalinternalexposure
levels,indexedby maternalor cordbloodleadconcentration of 100to 150pgll
andpossiblylower.

In additionto the aboveassessments of the relationshipof leadto cognitive


functionsand behavior,other aspects of lead-associatedneurotoxicityhavebeen
examined. Hetring thresholdsin childrenappearto be adverselyaffectedby lead.
In the analysisof NHANESII databy SchwartzandOtto (1987),the probability
of elevatedhearingthresholdsincreased with increasingblood levelsacrossthe
entirerangeof levelsstudied( < 40 to > 500pgll).

Exposureto high concentration of leadmay leadto functionaldisordersof the


gastrointestinal
tract; a commonsignof acutepoisoningis colic. Leadmay also
producedamagein the kidneys,whichleadto increased urinaryexcretionof
aminoacids,glucoseandphosphate lFanconisyndrome).After long exposure the
injury may enterinto a chronicstagewith fibrosisand arterioscleroticchangesin
the kidney(ChoieandRichter,1980).

Epidemiological andanimaldataindicatethatleadincreases bloodpressure.In a


studyconducted in the US, systolicanddiastolicbloodpressureweresignificantly
relatedto blood lead in white malesaged20-74years,after adjustingfor potential
confounders(Pirkle et al., 1985). Thesefindingshavebeenconfirmedby another
study(Pococket al., 1988);howeverthe causalrelationshipbetweenblood lead
levelsandblood pressureis still unclear. The lowest-observed-effects
levelsfor
lead-induced healtheffectsin adultsandchildrenare shownin Tables8-9.

In summary,the adverseeffectof leadexposurein the early neurobehavioral


developmentis of primary concern.It occursat levelswell below those
considered"safe" in recentyears. Therecanbe little doubtthat exposureto lead,
evenat bloodlevelsas low as 100-150 y,gll, andpossiblylower, is linkedto
undesirabledevelopmental outcomesin humanfetusesandchildren @avis and
Svendsgaard,1987).The mostclearlyidentifiedeffecthasbeenlower scoreson

4l
Motor vehicle air pollution

Table E. levelsfor key lead-inducedhealth effects in adults.


Summaryof lowest-observed-effect

Lnwestobsrved- Heme syntbesie Reproductivo


effect level @bB)' aad hematological Effets on the functiol Cerdiovarcular
@etdt) effectB Neurological effwtr kidney cffects efrets

100-120 Eocephalopathic Chronic


sigm and symptoms oephropathy

80 Frank anemia

60 Femalo
reproduc$ve
effect6

50 Reduced Overt Altered


hemoglobin mbencephalopatbic testicular
projoctiotr neurological function
symptomg

40 Increased urinry Peripheral nerve


ALA md elevated dysfunction (slowed
coproporphyrins nerve conduction)

30 Elevated bl@d
presre (white
males, aged t10-59)

25-30 Erythrtryte
protoporphyritr
(EP) elevation in
males

t5-20 Erytbrcyte
protoporphyria
@P) elevation in
females

<10 ALA-D itrhibitiotr ,

rPbB = Blmd lead concentrations.

I pg/dl - I0 pgll

Source: ATSDR,1990

42
Health effects of air pollution

Table 9. Summary of lowest-observed-effectlevels for key lead-inducedhealth effecs in children.

Lowest-obs€rved-
effect level (PbB)r Hemc syntbesisaad Neurological and Gastroirtestinal
tpgldl) hematologicaleffects related effects ReDAlsyslem effects effects

80-100 Encephalopathicsignr Chronic nephropathy C.olic and


and symptoms (rnimaciduris, etc.) oth€r overt
gestrointestiral
symptoms
70 Frank anemia

60 Peripheral
neuropatb.ies

50 ?

& Redrced heooglobil Peripberal nervo


synthesis dysfunction (slowed
NCVs)

E!evated CNS cognitive effects


coproporphyrin (IQ deficits, etc.)

Increased urimry ALA

30 Vit.nin D
metabolism
inl,erfemco

l5 Erythnryto Altered CNS


protoporphyrin electrophysiological
elevation resPonsea

10 ALA-D inhibition MDI deficits, reduced ?


gestationalage atrd
birth weight (prenatal
exposure)

Py-S-iS activity ,
inhibitioo

'PbB = Blood lead concentrations.

opy-S-N = Pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase.

lp.gldl = l0 pgll

Source:ATSDR, 1990

43
Motor vehicle air pollution

the Mental DevelopmentIndex (MDI) of the BayletScaleof Infant development,


poor schoolattainmentandlower intellectualcoefficients,reducedgestationalage,
and lower birthweight. In differentstudies,a dose-responsecurvebetweenblood
lead level and neurobehavioralimpacthasbeenderived@ellingeret al., 1987,
I\{cMichaelet al., 1984, 1988),andcanbe usedto estimatethe healthimpactof
lead exposureat the populationlevel. In termsof implicationsfor public health,
an overall 4-point downwardshift in a normaldistributionof BayletMDI scores
would resultin 50% more childrenscoringbelow 80 in this exam.

The useof leadin gasolinehasbeendecliningin variouscountries.This was


responsiblefor a substantialdecrease of blood leadlevelsin the generalpopulation
(Annestet ai., 1983). Many countries, especially
in the developingworld, are
still using leadedfuel. Consideringthat in thesecountries,poor nutritionalstatus
and "homeenvironment"may potentiatethe effectof lead exposurein a great
proportionof children,thereis an urgentneedfor regulationand continued
researchto identify otherpotentialsourcesof leadexposureand interactingfactors
of adverseeffects.andto evaluateinterventions.

Substanceswith potential carcinogeniceffect

The following substancesarecomponents of automotiveemissions.They may


haveother healtheffects,but the sourceof mostconcernis their potential
carcinogeniceffect.

Benzene

Benzeneis a constituentof crudeoii andin Europeis presentin petrol in a


proportionof around5 %, occasionally up to l6Vo, while in the US the benzeneof
gasolinedoesnot exceed1.5to 2%. The majorsourceof benzeneis emissions
from motor vehiclesand evaporation lossesduringhandling,distributionand
storage(WHO, 1987f). Benzeneconcentration in ambientair of residentialareas
generallyrangesfrom 3-30pglm310.0014.01ppm)depending on thetraffic.
The benzeneintakefrom the air may thereforerangefrom 30 to 300 pg. The
daily intakefrom food andwaterhasbeenestimatedto be 100-250pg. People
smoking20 cigarettesper day wouldhavea daily increasedintakeof
approximately600 pg (WHO, 19870.

About 50% of inhaledbenzenein the air is absorbed.Due to its high


liposolubility,benzeneis distributedmainlyto fat rich tissuesuchas adiposetissue
andbonemarrow. Benzeneis oxidizedby the P-45O-dependent oxidasesystem.
Part ofthe absorbedbenzeneis exhaledunchangedin breathand part is eliminated
in the urine after transformation.

44
Healtheffectsof air pollution

The toxic effectsof benzenein humansfollowing inhalationexposureinclude


centralneryoussystem(CNS), hematological andimmunologicaleffects. Toxic
effectshave beenobservedfor exposureto very high levels(morethan 3200
mg/m3or 1000ppm) with the appearance of neurotoxicsyndrome. Acute
poisoningcanleadto deathwith higherexposureassociated with inflammationof
of the lung. Persistentexposureto toxic
the respiratorytract andhaemorrhage
levelsmay causeinjury to the bonemarrow,resultingin pancytopenia.This has
beenobservedin severaloccupationalstudiesin which workerswere exposedto
high benzene levels.

Benzeneis a knownhumancarcinogenclassifiedas Group 15 ldefinite


carcinogen)by the InternationalAgencyfor CancerResearch(IARC, 1982).
Carcinogeniceffecthasbeenreportedin workersexposedto benzenewho are
more likely to developacuteleukemiathanthe generalpopulation. Assessment of
the risks of exposureto benzenehasrecentlybeenreviewedusing mathematical
methodsof extrapolationfrom high to low exposure(Van Raatleet al., 1982).
Using epidemiological data,the differentmathematicalmodelsgive estimatesof
excessleukemiadeathsresultingftom 30 yearsoccupationalexposureto I ppm
benzenerangingfrom 3 to 46 per thousand(IPCS, 1990). Estimatedrisks at
lower exposure@aileret al., 1989)rangefrom 0.08to 10 excessleukemiadeaths
per millionsresultingfrom lifetimeexposure of I pglm3(approximately
0.0003ppm)of benzene.

The Carcinogen ,Assessment Group(CAG, US EPA, 1985)estimated, using


differentmathematical models,thatthe "best-judgement" unit risk was 8.1'10-6.
Thesedatacaube usedto assess humanrisk at low concentration seenin non-
industrialcommunities.Thus,for examplein the Los AngelesBasinwherethe
populationweightedconcentration to benzeneis 0.0147mg/mr (0.0046ppm), the
addedlifetime risk is estimatedto be 101to 780 casesper million peopleexposed
(SCAR, 1984). However,this methodof estimating risk is not universally
acceptedbecausethe mutagenic metabolite
of benzene hasnot beenidentifiedand
becauseDNA repairsystemmay be moreefficientat lower exposureconcentration
@ead, 1990). In a recentstudy,Yin et al. (1989)reporta significantlyincreased
lung cancer,as well as increasedacutemyelogenous leukemia. This suggeststhat
benzenemight be a multisitecarcinogenin humans,ashasbeenindicatedin

5
G-up l: The agent is carcinogenic to humans. This category is used only when there is
sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. That ig a positive relationship has been obsenred
between exposure to the agent and cancer in which chance, bias and confounding could be ruled out
with reasonableconfidence.

45
Motor vehicle air pollution

animalstudies. Thereis no safelevel for airbornebenzeneas benzeneis


for humans(WHO, 1987D.
carcinogenic

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)

Polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons are a groupof chemicalsformedduring the


incompletecombustionof wood andfuel. Exhaustfrom dieselenginescontains
lower concentrationsof somegaseous pollutantsbut higherconcentrations
of
particulatebearingorganicextractsincludingpolycyclicaromatichydrocarbons.
Other main sourcesof PAHs are cokeproductionandheatingwith coal and
cigarettesmokeQrighproportion). Thereare severaihundredPAH; the best-
known is benzo[a]pyrene @AP). Polycyclicaromaticsare absorbedin the lung
and gut. They are metabolizedvia the mixed-functionoxidasesystem;the latter
metabolites:re thoughtto be the ultimatecarcinogens (WHO, 19879).

Evidencefrom experimentalstudiesshowsthat manyof thesePAHs are mutagenic


and carcinogenic.Epidemiologicalstudiesin coke-ovenworkersand coal-gas
workershavesuggested an increasedrisk of lung cancerin relationto PAH
exposure(Steenland,1986). More recentlya case-control studyof deathsamong
United Statesrailway workersshowedthat workersagedunder65 who had been
exposedfor at least20 years,had a smallbut significantlyincreasedrisk of lung
cancer(Garshicket al., 1987). Studiesof populations exposed to dieselhavebeen
inconclusivebecauseof difficultieswith controllingfor smokingandoccupational
exposures(Read,1990). However,two recentstudiesamongworkersexposedto
automotiveemissionsindicatedthat malesusuallyemployedastruck drivers or
delivery men had a statisticallysignificant50% increasein the risk of bladder
cancer(Silvermanet al., 1983,1986). Basedon studieson benzo[a]pyrene as
index compound,it is estimatethat the upper-bound lifetime cancerrisk will be 62
per 100,000exposedpeopleperpg benzenesolublecoke-ovenemissionper m3
ambientair. Assuming a0.71% contentof benzo[a]pyrene in theseemissions,it
canbe estimatedthat 9 out of 100,000peopleexposedto I mg benzo[a]pyrene per
m3 over a lifetime would be at risk of developingcancer. Thereis no safelevel
of PAH due to its carcinogenicity,andno knowncancerthresholdfor
Benzo[a]pyrene (WHO, 19879). Benzo[a]pyrene hasbeenclassifiedas Group
2A,6(probablycarcinogenic)by the IARC (1933).

6 Gro,rp 2A. The agent is probably carcinogenic to humans. There is limited evidence
ofcarcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evideuce ofcarcinogenicity in experimental
animals.

46
Health effects of air pollution

Aldehydes

Aldehydesare absorbedin the respiratoryand gastrointestinal tract and


metabolize<l.Most metabolites are excretedquickly as is boundformaldehyde.In
order to avoiil irritation,the WHO guidelinevalue is fixed to 0.1 mg/m3
(0.083ppm) as a 30 minuteaverage.In the caseof especiallysensitivegroups
that showhypersensibilityreactionwithout immunologicalsigns,formaldehyde
concentrationshouldnot exceed0.01 mg/m'.

Acute irritant effectsof aldehydeson humanvolunteershavebeendocumented.


For formaldehycle, theseeffectsinclude:ocularandolfactory irritation (observed
at 0.06 mg/rn3),irritationof mucousmembranes and alterationin respiration
(observedat0.l2 mg/m3),coughing,nausea anddyspnea(WHO, 1989). Allergic
responses havebeenobservedasasthmaanddermicallergy. Formaldehyde
exposurehas beenassociated with cancerrisk mostly in occupational settings.
The sitesmost frequentlyencountered are nasaland nasopharyngeal (Vaughan
et al., 1986a1986b;OlsenandAsnaes1986),leukemia(Stroupet al., 1984,
1986;Walrath and Fraumeni19831984)brain (Ilarrington and Oakes1984,
Stroupet al., 1984;WalrathandFraumeni,1984). Excesses of cancercasesfrom
other siteshave alsobeendescribed among occupationally exposed individuals.
Formaldehydehasbeenclassifiedasprobablycarcinogenicto humans,(Group
ze6; uy IARC (1987). Humanexposureto formaldehydeshouldbe minimized,
not only for its probablecarcinogenic effect,but alsofor its potentialfor tissue
damage. Epidemiologicalstudieson carcinogenicity that containsomeexposure^
assessment imply thatthresholdfor tissuedamageii about1.0 mg/m3(0.5 mg/m3-
3 mg/m3)(WHO, 1989). Howeverno risk estimateof carcinogenicitycanbe
madebecause of lackof adequate data.

In summary,animaland epidemiological dataconductedin occupational settings


havebeenusedto construct linear models to assess human risk of cancer at low
concentrations seenin non-industrialcommunities.Thesemodelsare availablefor
benzeneand BAP exposurebut not for aldehydes.The InternationalAgencyfor
CancerResearchhasevaluatedthe carcinogenic risk to humansfrom dieseland
gasolineemissions,includingall components in differentexperiments(IARC'
1989). The Agencyconcludesthat dieselexhaustmay be associated with lung and
bladdercancerand it hasbeenclassifiedas "probably"carcinogenig 1s humans(
Group2A). Regardinggasolineexhaust,thereis no evidenceof an association
with a particulzrtype of cancerand it hasbeenclassifiedas "possibly"
carcinogenicto humans(Group287).

7 Group 28: The agentis possiblycarcinogenicto humans.Thereis limited evidence


of carcinogenicity in humansand absenceof sufficient evidencein experimentalanimals.

4'1
Motor vehicle air poilution

4. Conclusions

Epidemiologicalstudieshavebeenwidely usedto shedlight on the effectsof air


pollutantsdueto vehiculartraffic on health. In order to evaluaterisk due to
automotiveemissionsat the genera!populationlevel, severalfactorshaveto be
considered:exposure,dose,biologicaleffects,dose-response relationship,and
proportionof populationexposed.The resultsof somestudiesare difficult to
interpretbercause of a variety of limitations,mostlyregardingexposureassessment
andhandlingof co-factors. orher studiesprovideenoughinformationto derive
dose-response firnctionstlat canbe appliedto ambientlevelsof specificpollutants
in orderto estimateselectedhealtheffects. Thesestudieshavebeenreferredto in
the text. For pollutantsproducedby vehicularemission,suchestimatescanbe
madeto assess the potentialadversehealtheffectsof O., particulate,CO, lead, as
well asfor the carcinogenicrisk of exposureto benzeneand BAp or pAH.

Variouslimitationsof theseestimatesshouldbe mentioned:

l) dose-response functionsare populationspecific,andthereforetheir use in


otherpopulationsmay not be justified, especiallyif derivedfrom only one study.
2) theseestimatesdo not considerthe potentialinteractiveeffectof different
pollutants.
3) they are only mathematicalmodelsand aredependent on differentsetsof
assumptions.
4) extrapolationof the shapeof the curveoutsideof the rangeof observed
valuesmay leadto erroneousresults(for instanceit will be difficult to extrapolate
to low level eff'ectsif there is no knowledgeof the pre.sence
of a thresholdvalue).
5) in somecases,it is difficuit to determine whichis the mostrelevantexposure
measurement for the healtheffectbeingstudied.

However,despitetheselimitations,thesemathematical
modelshavegreat
advantages:

1) they allow a quantitativeevaluationof the healthimpactof pollutantsemitted


by vehicles.
2) they draw the attentionof publichealthofficialsand the generalpublic to the
extentof the problem.
3) they canbe usedfor cost assessments.
4) costeffectiveness analysescanthenbe usedto evaluatealterna-tive eontrol
strategies.

Furtherresearchis neededin order to developmodelsmore adaptedto specific


situationsandto developtechniquesof biologicalmonitoring(biomarkers)as
indicatorsof exposureand early effectsamongthe population.

48
Health effects of air pollution

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Motor vehicle air pollution

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62
Chapter2
Part II

E,FTECTSON IIUMANS OF ET{YIRONMEI'{TAL NOISE

PARTICIJLARLY FROM ROAD TRAFTIC

RagnarRylander"

Introduction

Soundsprovidean essentialcontactbetweenhumansandthe surroundingworld'


Awarenessof familiar sounds- the wavesat sea,footstepsof family membersand
musicinducesreactionsof recognition,pleasureand satisfaction.The harmony
betweennormal soundsand periodsof quietnessis also important, particulady for
music. Other sounds- creakingfloors in an empty house,suddenbangsand
unpleasantmusic - inducealertness,fear and annoyance.Suchsoundsare
generallyreferredto as noise. As this is a subjectiveassessment, it is clearthat
definitions of, as well as adversereactionsto different soundsvary between
individuals due to experience,attitudesand knowledge.

Soundhas particular characteristicswhich distinguishit from other kinds of


environmentalpollutants,suchas chemicalagents. Sound- or noise- is part of
everyday life and is necessuyfor the normalfunctioningof ttrehumanbody.

RagnarRylander,Profqssorin EnvironmentalMedicine,Universityof
Gothenburg,Sweden

63
Motor vehicle air pollution

Personswho are kept under conditionsof completesilencemay developsymptoms


of mentaldisorder - absenceof auditory communicationdue to deaftressmay
indygepersonalitychangesand conditionsof completesilencecanbe experienced
as frightening. As the soundlevelsincreasein intensity,negativeeffectsstartto
dominateandthe ultimateeffectis a directphysicaltraumawhenthe receptor
organis destroyed.Althoughthe positivereactionsafter soundexposureare
important, it is usually the negativeeffectsthat attractattention.

Noisehas alwaysbeenan importantenvironmental problemfor man. In ancient


Rome,ruleswere in existenceasto the noiseemittedfrom the ironedwheelsof
wagonswhich batteredthe stoneson the pavement,causingdisruptionof sleepand
annoyance to the Romans. In MedievalEurope,horsecarriagesandhorseback
riding were not allowedduring night time in certaincitiqsto ensur"a peaceful
night's sleepfor the inhabitants.

However,the noiseproblemsof the pastare incomparable with thoseof modern


society. An immensenumberof carsregularlycrossour citiesandthe
countryside.Thereareheavilyladenlorrieswith dieselengines,badly silenced
both for engineand exhaustnoise,in citiesandon highwaysday andnight.
Aircraft andtrainsaddto the environmental noisescenario.In indust y,
machineryemitshigh noiselevelsandamusement centerandpleasurevehicles
distractleisuretime relaxation.

In comparisonto otherpollutants,the controlof environmental noisehasbeen


hamperedby insufficientknowledgeof ig effectson humansandof dose-response
relationshipsaswell as a lack of definedcriteria. while it hasbeensuggested that
noisepollutionis primarily a "luxurynproblemfor developedcountries,one
cannotignorethat the exposureis oftenhigherin developingcountries,due to bad
planningandpoor constructionof buildings. The effectsof the noisearejust as
widespreadandthe long term consequences for healttrare the same. In this
perspective,practical actionto limit and control the exposureto environmental
noiseare essential.Suchactionmustbe baseduponproperscientificevaluationof
availabledataon effects,andparticularlydose-response ielationships.The basis
for this is the processof risk assessmentas describedbelow.

A
lfjegy employedfor evaluatingthe impactof an exposureto noise, can
suitablyborrow terminologyfrom the field of toxicology. The broadintegrated
processof risk assessment,
is describedby the following elements:
- Dosedescription:the level of the agentmustbe describedin a way that is
appropriatewith regardto the effectsobserved.

&
Health effects of environmental noise

- or
Hazud identification:this is the qualitativeindicationthat a substance
condition may adverselyeffect humanhealth or well being. It may
representa very wide assessment of possiblerisks.

- Hazard assessment:the qualitativeand quantitativeevaluationof the nature


of adverseeffectsandtheir expressionas functionsof exposure(dose).

- Risk estimation:the integrationof hazardassessmentanddosedescription


to quanti! the risk to be acceptedby the community(gpidelines,threshold
values).
nHazard"thussignifiesthe potentialof a specificagentto causeharm, and is an
inherentpropertyof the agentper se, in termsof its toxicity. "Risk" represents
of the probabilityof occurrenceof a definedadverse
the quantitativestatement
effect.

Dose description

Soundis a wavemotionwhich occurswhena soundsourcesetsthe nearest


particlesof air into motion. The movementgraduallyspreadsto air particles
further away from the source. Soundtravelsthrough the air at a speedof
approximately340 m/sec. The physicalmeasuringunit is the soundpressurein
Pascal@a). The audiblesoundcoversa largerangeof intensitiesfrom 0.00002
Pa at the thresholdof hearingto 20 Pa at the thresholdof pain. It would be
impracticalto work with this large rangeof numbersand so an artificial unit has
beencreated. The actualsoundpressureis dividedby that for the thresholdof
audition,followedby a logarithmictransformation.This unit, calledthe Bell @),
is divided into tenthsand d(eci)B is the commonway to describea sound.

Noisefrom differentsourcescombineto producea soundlevel higherthanthat


from any individualsource. Two equallyintensesoundsourcesoperating
together,producea soundlevel which is 3 dB higherthanone aloneand 10
'
sourcesproducea l0 dB highersoundlevel. The dB valuescannotbe directly
addedasthey arelogarithmicquantities.

Apart from the physical intensity, soundcontainmany tonesat different


frequencies.The soundwave'sfrequencyexpresses the numberof vibrationsper
secondin units of Hertz (Hz). Soundexistsover a very wide frequencyrange.
Audible soundfor youngpeoplelies between20 Hz md 20 000 Hz. Soundwith
frequenciesunder 20 Hz (normally inaudible)is called infrasoundand soundover
20 000 Hz, which is alsonormallyinaudible,is calledultrasound.Low frequency
soundsare not strictly defined- generallyone refersto frequenciesfrom 20 to
25H2.

65
Motor vehicleair pollution

when measuringthe intensityof a sound,an instrumentwhich duplicatesthe


varying sensitivity of the ear to the soundof different frequenciesis usually used.
This is achievedby building a filter into the soundintensityrecording instrument,
with a similar frequencyresponseto that of the ear. This is called an A-weighted
filter. Measurementsof soundlevel madewith this filter are called A-weighta:l
soundlevel measurements, andthe unit is dBA. The dBA levelsfor some
conmon noisesin our environmentare shownin Table 1.

Table 1. Approximatenoiselevelsin dBA from commonnoisesources

Sources I.evel

Closeto jet engine 130


Rock drilling machine t20
Pop concert 110
Heavy truck 90
Passengercar 75

Normal conversation 65

Quiet suburbanstreet 55

Thresholdfor sleepdisturbance 45

Very quietroom 30
'Uncomfortably"
quiet 15

Hearing thre,shold 0

In addition to the abovedescribedfrequency-weightedfilter, more complicated


measureshave beendevelopedto describethe humanresponseto a complex
sound. one suchunit is the PerceivedNoiseLevel (pNL) which is basedon
frequency-weighted soundlevelsmeasuredin successive 0.5 secintervalsduring
the occurrenceof a sound. Different soundspectrafor noiserating have also bien
developed.The soundspectrumcurves,NoiseRating(NR) curves,serveas a
frame of referencefor rating noiseenvironments. NR curveswere originally

ffi
Health effects of environnental noise

evolvedfor the rating of outdoor communitynoiseand are presentas an ISO-


recommendation (SO, 1971).

From an acousticalpoint of view, environmentalnoise is often a complex


phenomenon.This is illustratedfor roadtraffic noisein Figure 1. At a specific
site alonga road, the noiselevel varieswith time dependinguponthe type of
vehiclethat passes.With a smallnumberof vehicles,the noiselevel will returnto
backgroundlevelsbetweenpassages, whereasa largernumberof vehicleswill turn
the exposuresituationinto one of almostcontinuousnoise,fluctuatingbefweenthe
levelsgenerated by particularlynoisyvehiclessuchas trucksandthe lower leveis
generated by cars.

This complexacousticalpatternis by traditionexpressed asthe summationof


soundenergyover a certainperiodof time. Variousmethodsof calculatingan
averagehavebeendeveloped,suchasthe noisepollutionlevel, the averageday
and night level and the equivalentsoundlevel for 24-h (L*) or different parts of
the day. Anothermethodis the useof the statisticaldistributionlevel suchas the
Lor, Lro or L5omeasures,which are alsobasedon an averagevalueof eventsand
noiselevels,but wherethe indexrefersto the time that the specificnoiselevel is
reachedeg Lro is the level during l0% of the measuringperiod. For a complete
review of all noiseindicesthe readeris referredto handbooksor criteria
documents(for exampleWHO, 1980).

The conceptof averagelevel hastwo critical features. A few eventswith a high


noiselevel will havethe sameL* as a largenumberof eventsat a lower noise
level. From a biologicalpoint of view, it is unlikely that thesetwo noise
scenarioswill causean equaleffectin the exposedpopulations.

A secondcritical featurefor the averagenoisevaluerelatesto the numberof


events. If the L", value for a certainnumberof cars at a certaindistancefrom the
road is, for example,65 dBA, then at that distancepassingcarswill eachcausea
maximumnoiselevel of 65 dBA andfew noisytruckswill reach75 dBA.

the L.o valuewill graduallyincrease,althoughthe


If the numberof carsincreases,
noiselevel from eachpassingcar is still 65 dBA and75 dBA from a singletruck
remainsthe noisiestevent. Under extremecircumstances, this may evenimply

67
o
q

Y
rH

k
a

c)

bo
Health effects of environmentalnoise

that the L", value of 65 dBA is presentat a site, far away from the road where the
noiselevelsfrom individualvehicles,evenvery noisyones,is very low
@igure2). The critical factor in the situationdascribedaboveis the numberof
events. To what extentthen is the numberof eventsrelatedto the human
perceptionof environmental stimuli?

ffi 75dB(A)
10 000 vehicle" '_
5'^' 65ciB(A)

\ r"c= 65 dB(A)
\

z df,n+ L"q=74 dB(A)


/

Boooo AffiF 75dB(A)


".:"
.ffi 65dB(A)

Figure2. L*and maximumnoiselevelsfrom cars-a #;m two different


numbersof vehicleswith the sameproportionof trucks

Biologicalreceptorsystems(hearing,seeing,feeling,etc) are designedto


discriminatefor variationsin the exposure.At a largenumberof events,
however,the individualeventcanno longerbe discriminated(for instance,
flickering of light or applyingpressureon the skin with high frequency). It is thus
plausiblethat an increasein the numberof noiseeventsabovea certainnumber,
will not lead to an increasedeffect in the exposedpopulation.

Regardingnoiseexposureover a longertime period,Yaniv andvon Gierke(L974)


suggested that the cumulativenoisedose,which an individualor a population
sustainsover a lifetime couldbe usedto describethe biologicallyrelevantnoise
exposure.It is very questionable whetherthis approachis relevant. The concept
of a cumulativedoseis valid only whenthe activeagentaccumulates in the body,
as, for example,doescadmiumor asbestos, or whenthe exposureinflicts
cumulativeand irreparabledamage,suchas ionizingradiationor silicaparticles.

69
Motor vehicleair potrlution

Noisearousesthe receptororgans,not throughthe total amountof energy,but


throughenergydensityper unit of time - intensity- combinedwith frequency
characteristics.Furthermore,the major part of humanreactionsafter exposureto
environmentalnoisestemsfrom the momentaryinterpretationof the noise. An
exampleis tl.e intensefright reactioncausedby noiseof an unknowncharacter-
which canbe of a very low level - occurringat night. On the otherhand, the
comparativelyhigh noiselevel of a passingtrain canbe experienced without any
adversereactionat all.

From a biologicalpoint of view, it is thusunlikelythatthe adequate


humannoise
doseis eitheran averageexposureover a time periodor an accumulationof the
noiseexposure.A biologicallyrelevantdoseshouldbe basedon
neurophysiologicalreceptorprinciplesand thusprobablycomprisescertainof the
noiseevents,excludingotherswithout biologicalsignificance,as well as the level
oftheseevents.

Hazard identification

Noisemay causephysical,physiologicalandpsychological effectsin humans. The


soundwaveswill act physicallyagainstthe eardrum with subsequent risk for
damageor interferencewith other sounds. Theseeffectsmay be referredto as
direct effects.

Throughthe nerveimpulseto the cenualnervoussystem,noisemay induce


physiologicalchangesand may finally registercognitivelyand causepsychological
damage.Theseeffectsare referredto as indirecteffects.

The effectthat vremeasurein the exposedhumanmay be a discretephysiological


reactionor a complexreaction,suchas sleepdisturbance or an effecton
performance.For all effects,ttroseappearingafter a singleor rare exposureas
well as thoseoccurringafterrepeatedexposures (chronicexposure)needto be
considered.

Hazard assessmentand risk estimation

Fhysical efferts

Noiseof a high enoughintensitywiil causetemporaryor permanentdamageto the


hearingorgan. The mechanisms behindtheseinjuriesare well understoodand
dose-rasponse relationships
for continuousaswell as intermittentexposure,.
have
beenpresented.With respectto enyironrnental noiseandroad traffic noise, no
risk for hearingdamageexists. Levelsin the generalenvironmentdo not reach

70
Health effects of environmental noise

thosewhich will inducehearingdamage,evencloseto the traffic alongheavily


congestedstreets.

The interactionof noisefrom roadtraffic with othersoundsin the environmentis


an importanteffectcriterion. Levelscausingspeechinterferenceare oftenpresent
outsideand alsowithin buildingscloseto heavilycongested roads. Vulnerable
groupsin the populationare schoolchildrenin noisy classrooms.Onestudy
(Cohenetal., L973)hasevaluatedthe influenceoftraffrc noise- relatedto speech
interference- on the readingability of childrenin New York. It foundthat
c.hildrenliving on the lower floors - andhenceexposedto more roadtraffic noise
- showedgreaterimpairmentof auditorydiscriminationandreadingachievement
thanchildrenliving on higherfloors.

Peoplewith hearingdeficienciesare alsoa risk group. Anianssonet al. (1983)


studiedspeechinterference,annoyance, and changesin moodin groupsof people
with differentdegrees of hearing deficiencyand exposedthemto 45 dBA and55
dBA traffic noisein a laboratorywhenperformingfour everydayactivities. The
major finding was a higherratingof annoyance amongmenwith noise-induced
hearingloss, as comparedto menwith normalhearing. This wasrelatedto
activitiesin which noiseinterferedwith speech.To achievegoodspeech
intelligibility for personswith impairedhearingdueto ageand/ornoisethe
authorsrecommended that the noiselevel outdoorsshouldnot exceed50 dBA
(AnianssonandPeterson,1983). This valuetook into accountthe reductionof
noiseby about25 dB betweenoutdoorand indoorlevels,generallypresentin
Scandinavian countries.

Physiological effects

The immediateresponse to a noisestimuluscomprisesa startleand a defense


reaction. The startleresponseis a reflex with contractionof musclesaroundthe
eyes,in the limbs andthe eyelids(fhackray, 1972). It causesan attachment of
consciousness to the noiseand its source,often followedup by an orientation
towardsthe noisesourcethroughinvoluntarymuscularmovements.This is a
typical reactionwhich occursafter exposureto unexpected or suddennoises,
irrespectiveof their physicalnoiselevel. After an interpretationof the noisein
the highercentersof the brain, a defenseandfright reactionmay follow. The
startlereflex is a accompanied by an increasein bloodpressureandpulse
frequencyof a very shortduration(up to 30 seconds),and in extremesituations,
an increasedsecretionof stresshormones.

7l
Motor vehicle air pollution

Habituationto the startlereflex is very poor and canbe inducedrepeatedlyboth


over the sameday as well asduringlongertime periods@ylanderet d., 1978).
In environmental noise,suchreactionswill occur if noiselevelsexceedingthe
"normal" level appearfor instancewhena motor cyclewithoutsilencersdrives
down a road, a heavytruck comesthroughin the middleof the night or an
unusuallynoisy aircraftpassesover the house.

Baseduponobservations of an increasein bloodpressureafter acuteexposureto


noise,it hasbeensuggested that long term exposureto noisecould causea
persistentincreasein bloodpressure.

Althougha seriesof experiments on animalssupportsthis concept(M6ller, 1978),


the interpretationof resultsfrom animalsstudiespresentsdifficulties. It is not
surprisingthat rats, which are nocturnalanimalsandvery sensitiveto noise,when
exposedfor 8 hoursdaily to 90 dBA, developpersistentstressreactionswith
elevatedbloodpressure.

Somediffrcultiesin interpretationcouldbe avoidedby usingother animalmodels,


suchas monkeys@etersonet al., 1981). It is still not possibleto determinewhat
kind of abnormalstressfactorthe experimental noiserepresents to the animal. If
humanswere exposedto criesfrom peoplein agonyor nails scratchingover the
surfaceof a blackboardfor severalhourseachday, profoundclinicalreactions
would probablydevelop. The relevanceof sucha finding to exposureto
environmental noise,however,remainsobscure.

To further evaluatethe relationshipbetweennoiseexposureandbloodpressure,


one canexaminethe experience from epidemiological
studies. Suchstudieson
noiseexposedpopulationsarerelativelyfew, andall havebeenprevalencestudies;
no longitudinalinvestigationshavebeenreported. The resultsfrom somestudies
showa slightlyhigherbloodpressure:rmongpeopleliving alongroadswith heavy
traffic as comparedto thoseliving in quietareas(Knipschildand Sall6, 1979).

A review of the cardiovascular effectsof noisereportedthat 55 studieshad


assessed the relationshipbetweennoiseandbloodpressureand about80%
reportedsomeform of positiveassociation @ejoy, 1984). Theseauthorsnoted
that "a paucityof quantitativedata... makesit difficult to assessthe strengthof
association or to derivea dose-response relation". In a studyon the effectsof
industrialnoiseon the prevalenceof hypertension, Yiming et al. (1991)studieda
groupof 1101femaleworkersin a textilemill in Beijing, china. Essentially,the
entiregrouphad workedin differentworkhops in this mill for all their working
lives and all had workedfor at leastfive years. The noiselevelswithin the plant
were assessed and appearto havebeenconstantsince1954,resultingin well
definednoiseexposures for theseworkers. A crosssectionaldesignwasusedin

72
Heglth effects of environmental noise

which bloodpressures were determinedandquestionnaires administered to the


workersover a two monthperiod. As well as demographicinformation,data
weregatheredon personalandfamily historyof hypertension,currentuseof
prescriptiondrugs,alcohol,tobacco,andsalt in the diet. Logisticregression
indicatedthat exposureto noisewas a significantdeterminantof prevalenceof
hypertension,but third in orderof importancebehindfamily history of
hypertensionanduseof salt. Cumulativeexposureto noisewasnot an important
dose-relatedvariable,suggesting that for thosesusceptibleto the effect,
hypertension was manifestedwithin the first five yearsof exposure.

At present,the informationon the relationshipbetweenenvironmentalnoise


exposureandpersistentbloodpressureelevationis scantyand contradictory.It
canbe arguedthat, althoughstudieson industrialpopulationsare usefulinasmuch
asthey includethe upperpart of the dosescale,they arenot representative
of
noiseexposureconditionsin the generalcommunity,particularlyat homeduring
hourswhenrest andrecreationare required.

The few studieson generalpopulationsthat havebeendone,haveserious


epidemiological shortcomings.This is due in particularto the diffrculty in
controllingfor confoundingfactors. The main risk factorsfor increasedblood
pressureareother environmental conditions,particularlyfood habitsandsmoking,
aswell as geneticfactors. Noiseexposuretherefore,is a low risk agentandthis
makesit difficult to investigatemethodologically.In studieson evaluationof low
risk agents,thereis a needto controlvery preciselyfor the high risk factors,
beforeany certainconclusions regardinglow risk factorscanbe drawn (Wynder,
1987). In noneof the epidemiological studiesso far, hasthis methodological
requirementbeenmet.

If a persistentincreasein bloodpressureis inducedby environmental noise,it is


likely that it is modulatedthroughthe basicreflex functionsdescribedearlier.
This effectcouldnot be large,and it would be diffrcult to distinguishthe influence
of noisefrom otherenvironmental stressfactors,which couldalsoproducea slight
increasein bloodpressure.

Sleepdisturbance

Exposureto noisecaninducedisturbance of sleepin termsof difficultyin falling


asleep,alterationsof sleeprhythmor depth,andbeingwokenup. An objective
recordingof sleepcanbe obtainedby measuringthe electricalactivity of the
brain, the electroencephalogram(EEG). This requiresthat subjectscarry several
electrodes on their headsandthat they are connectedto a recordingdevice,either
directlyor via telemetry.

73
Motor vehicle air pollution

Thereexistsan abundance of informationon EEG-recorded sleepin laboratory


andfield conditions.Thereis a fairly uniform consensus that changesin sleep
depthand sleeppattern are acuteeffectsafter exposureto noiseat levels of 45-50
dBA peaklevels. A goodexampleof a sleepstudyis an investigationfrom
Francein which sleepdisturbance was studiedamonga populationliving neara
railway anda major road (Vernet,1979). Two areaswith similar noise
exposures were selectedandten personsof both sexeswerestudiedin eacharea.
SleeppatternswereregisteredusingEEG andEMG (electromyogram) recordings,
transmittedto a mobilevan outsidethe subjects'homes.

A goodcorrelationwasfoundbetweenEEG definedsleepdisturbanceandpeak
noiselevel, but no correlationwasfoundbetweenthe durationof noiseand sleep
disturbance.The percentage increasedwhenpeaknoiselevels
of responses
increasedabove45 dBA. Subjectswere not wokenup by noisebelow 52 dB peak
level. About25% of noiseeventsat 70 dBA causedsleepinterference.There
werethreetimesas manydisturbances by roadtraffrc noiseas by railway noise
for the sameL* value (meannoiselevel).

Recordingof body movements hasalsobeenusedto studythe effectsof sleepand


goodcorrelationshavebeenfound betweenEEG changesand actimetryreadings
(wrist movements transmittedfrom a sensorto a recordingdevice,aboutthe same
sizeas a largewristwatch).

Availableinformationdemonstrates ttratnoiseexposureinduceschangesin sleep


patternor causesextrabody movements.Considerablylessinformationexistson
the medicalconsequences of disturbedsleep. Long term effectsof noiseinduced
sleepinterruptioncouldbe subjectivefatigue,changesin performanceand
subjectivemoodchanges.In laboratorystudies(Ohrstrdmet al., 1988),the
effectsof truck noiseof maximum60 dBA werestudiedduring a periodof two
weeksin order to illustratehabituationeffectson body movementsand heart rate,
as well as after-effectssuchas subjectivesleepquality, stateof mind and
performance.Two differenttestgroupsconsistingof 24 personsin all - sensitive
and non-sensitive to noise- werestudied. Their sleepwas alsoregisteredin their
homesduringone weekbeforeandone weekafter their stayin the laboratory.
After two nights,sleepqualitywasjust asgoodin the laboratory.

The studyshowedan increasein heartrateby an averageof 1.8 beatsper minute


for sensitiveand 1.1 beatsper minutefor non-sensitive
personsfollowing the noise
events,and aboutthreetimesas manymovements after noisefor sensitivepersons
againstan increaseof 2.5 timesfor non-sensitive
persons.Thesereactionsshowed
no sign of habituation.Subjectivesleepqualitywas impairedfor the sensitive
groupandhad not improvedat the endof the two-weekperiod. Both groups
exhibitedreducedactivity. This impairment(significantfor non-sensitivepersons)

74
Health effects of environmental noise

was still thereat the endof the testperiod. Moreover,an increasein fatigue
(mostlyin the non-sensitive persons)and a reduceddegreeof extroversion(mostly
for the sensitivepersons)couldbe registeredtowardsthe endof the periodof
noiseexposure.Both groupsperformedworsein performance tests,andthis
deteriorationtendedto continuetowardsthe endof the period.

On the basisof experiencefrom thesestudies,a field studywas carriedout close


to a road with heavytraffic (L* approx. 71 dBA) and in a quiet areafar from the
road (L* approx.50 dBA) in order to studythe long-termeffectsof noise
exposureduring sleep(Ohrstr6m,1989). The studycompriseda total of 106
persons,who were interviewedaboutsleepquality,fatigue,mood, andvarious
medicalandpsycho-social symptoms.They werealsoaskedseparatequestions
aboutsleepandmoodon threesuccessive days.

The studyshoweda deteriorationof sleepquality,moodand a higherfrequencyof


othersymptomssuchastiredness,headache andnervousstomachin the areaclose
to the road with heavytraffic. Thosewho describedthemselves
as sensitiveto
noisereportedpoorersleepqualityandmore symptoms.

Amongpersonsliving alongnoisyroads,instantimprovements
in subjectivesleep
quality.havebeenreportedwhenwindowswerenoise-insulated
(Wilkinsonet al.,
1980;OhrstrdmandBj<irkman,1983).

Studieson sleepinterference
dueto noiseagreethat the mostimportantexposure
parameteris peaknoiseduringnight hours. As effectsare generallyreportedat
levelsfrom 45 dBA peaklevel indoors,largepartsofthe populationin our cities
arethus regularlyexposedto noiselevelswhich interferewith their sleep.

ln conclusion,availableevidencesuggeststhat sleepdisturbanceis oneof the


major effectsof environmentalnoiseand that it may haveseriousadverseeffects
on normalfunctioningandhealthin exposedpersons.

Psychologicaleffects

It is commonknowledgethat noisecanbe bothersome andgive rise to


psychologicalandpsychosomatic symptomsin the form of headaches, fatigueand
irritability. Biochemicalreactionsindicatinga generalstresseffectof noisehave
alsobeenreportedfrom animalsandhurnanstudies(Cantre!!,1974).

In view of the informationavailableon the stressreactionoccurringafter noise


exposure,as well as sleepdisturbance,psychiatricsymptolnsor disordershave
receivedparticularattention.'Psychiatriceffectscouldoccurin threedifferent
ways: symptomscoulddevelopamongpreviouslynormalpersons,their

75
Motor vehicle air pollution

development
couldbe accelerated in predisposedpersonsor symptomscould
appeartemporarilyunderparticularconditions.

No dataare availableon psychiatricdiseaseandroadtraffic noise. Somestudies


on aircraftnoisehavebeenpublished.Epidemiologicalevidencefor a relationship
betweenaircraftnoiseexposureandpsychiatricillnesswaspresented by Abey-
Wickramaet al. (1969). They describedan increasedadmissionrateto psychiatric
hospitalsamonga populationliving in an areaexposedto high levelsof aircraft
noise. This observationpromptedadditionalstudieswhich employedmoreprecise
epidemiologicaltechniques.A subsequent studyby GanoniandTarnopolsky
(1973)did not confirm Abey-Wickrama'sfindings. A further studyby Jenkinset
al. (1979)on psychiatrichospitaladmissionratesin the sameareaover a 4-year
periodalsofailed to demonstratea higheradmissionrateamongnoiseexposed
persons.

The latter authorsmadea carefulanalysisof possiblere:xonsfor the contradictory


resultsand convincinglydemonstrated the variousshortcomings in the first study
which couldhaveaccounted for the observedincreasein admissionrateobserved
in noiseexposedareas. It canthusbe statedthat no epidemiological evidenceis at
presentavailablewhich indicatesthat thereis an increasedrisk for psychiatric
disordersamonggeneralpopulationsexposedto noise.

In anotherstudyon the effectof aircraftnoiseon mentalhealth,Tarnopolskyand


Morton-Williams(1980)investigated 6,000personsliving in areaswith different
levelsof aircraftnoiseexposure.The surveycoveredfour areasin Londonwith
differentlevelsof aircraftnoiseexposure,andthe subjectsanswered
questionnairesrelatingto generalhealth,psychiatricillnessand annoyance.Of the
noiserelatedeffects,depression,irritability, awakeningsand diffrculty in falling
asleepwere significantlymorefrequentin the high noisearea. The prevalenceof
symptomswas significantlyhigheramongpersonswho expressed that they were
annoyedby the noise. Therewasno relationshipbetweenthe numberof possible
psychiatriccasesand noiseexposure.No increasein consumption ofpsychotropic
drugsor useof medicalserviceswasfound in the high noisearea.

It couldbe hypothasized accordingto previousstudieson noiseeffecg


(e.g. Ohrstrdm,1989),that physicalandpsycho-social symptomsandreduced
work capacitymay occur as an effect of generalannoyanceand sleepdisturbances
causedby noiseexposure.Thesesymptomsmay, of course,alsobe dependent
uponother circumstances, for examplechronicillness,difficultiesin the family
situationor work conditions.The individualcapacityto handlestressmight also
be of importancein the development of differentsymptoms.

76
Health effects of environmental noise

Ohrstrdm(1991)performeda field surveyin a quietareaand an areaexposedto


an L*-level of 72 dBA to elucidatepossiblepsycho-social effectsof roadtrafhc
noise.-A questionnaire was constructed to evaluatenot only annoyance reactions
andsleepdisturbanceeffectsby noise,but alsomore long-termeffectson psycho-
socialwell-being@SW). PSWwasevaluatedby 26 questionsconcerning
depression,relaxation,activity,passivity,generalwell-beingand social
orientation. The postalquestionnairewas answeredby 151personsin the quiet
areaand 118personsin the noisy areaof which 97 lived in apartments facingthe
streetand21 personsin apartments facingthe courtyard. The resultsshowedthat
a higherproportionof thosewho lived in the noisy areain apartments widl
windowsfacingthe streetfelt depressed.Thosepersonswho had windowsfacing
the courtyard,in the noisy area,however,were not moredepressed thanthose
who lived in the quietarea. Psycho-social well-being(especiallydepressionand
relation)wasrelatedto annoyance aboutnoise.

The resultsavailableso far, do not indicatethat environmental noiseprovokes


psychiatricdisease.Noisemay, however,act as a stressor,inducingsymptonx
amongsensitiveindividuals. The exactconditionsunderwhich theseindividuals
becomevulnerableare not known,but it is conceivable that other environmental
strainscouldact synergisticallywith noise.

Annoyance

Exposureto environmental noisemay interferewith ongoingactivitiesand canbe


experienced asbothersome or annoying. Annoyanceis generallydefinedas a
feelingof displeasureagainsta sourceof pollutionin the environmentwhich the
individualknowsor believeswill adverselyaffecthis healthor well-being. As the
annoyance is a subjectivereaction,it hasto be evaluatedusingquestionnaire
techniques.

Whenthe relationshipbetweennoiselevel andthe degreeof individualannoyance


is evaluated,it is generallyfoundthat the noiseexposurecanexplainonly part of
the total reaction. Onereasonfor this is that the noisedoseof the individualis
not preciselydefined- in socialsurveys,personsliving in a specificareaare
usuallyallottedthe areaexposurevalue. Anotherrquon is variationsin individual
sensitivity.

The inter-individualvariationof an effect- in this case,annoyance


- causedby an
environmentalagentis not surprising. Reactionsto any type of agentvary :rmong
individuals,whetherthe agentbe noiseor a chemicalsubstance.The same
methodologyas is usedin toxicologymustthereforebe applied,i.e. working with
averagereactionsin groupsof persons.

77
Motor vehicle air pollution

A largenumberof studieshasbeenperformedto evaluatethe relationshipbetween


exposureto roadtraffic noiseandthe extentof annoyance in the exposed
populations.Baseduponmethodologyoriginallydevelopedto studythe effectsof
aircraftnoise,large investigationsin roadtraffic noisewereperformedin London
by Langdonet al. (1976),followedby a plethoraof studiesin other countries. It
is not within the scopeof this paperto providea completereviewof all studies
performed. Apart from the noiseexposureprinciples,to be discussed below,
thereis relativelylittle controversy:tsregardsthe importanceof the exposureand
the different effects.

The studiesagreethat exposureto roadtraffic noiseis oneof the mostimportant


sourcesof annoyance in the generalpopulation. The numberof personsaffected
far exceedsthe numberdisturbedbv aircraftnoiseor other environmentalnoise
sources,

Regardingmethodsof expressingexposureto roadtraffic noise,controversystill


existsas mentionedabove. Many studieson roadtraffic noisedemonstrate a faidy
linear correlationbetweenthe equivalentnoiselevel andthe extentof annoyance
(Langdon,1976;Fidel, et al., 1991)but otherstudiesshowa poor correlation
(Rylanderet al., 1986). A betterrelationshipbetweenthe extentof annoyance and
noisewas obtainedif the noiselevelsandnumberof eventsweretreated
separately.An increasingnumberof eventsinitially causedan increasedextentof
annoyance but beyonda certainpoint, a further increasein the numberof events
did not influenceannoyance. The maximumnoiselevel (MNL) determinedthe
extentof annoyance irrespectiveof the numbersof events(Rylanderet al., 1972;
Bjrirkmanet al., 1988).

It is clearthat in conditionsof continuousnoise,thereis very little to distinguish


betweenthe equalenergyconceptandthe MNL concept. This may be one of the
rsuons why severalstudieson roadtraffic noisehavebeenableto showa
statisticallysignificantrelationshipbetweennoiseexposure(asaveragenoise
levels)andthe extentof annoyance.

The few studiesthat havebeenperformedwith the aim of studyingthe importance


of the numberof events,the noiselevelsandthe maximalnoiselevelsas
independent variables,haveall cometo the conclusionthat the relationship
betweenL* for traffic noiseand the effect, whetherthis be annoyanceor sleep
disturbance- in the exposedpopulationis weak.

As an exampleGjestland(1987)re-evaluated datafrom a Danishtraffrc noise


studyandperformeda small laboratoryexperimentin which he exposedsubjects
to traffic noisewith differentlevelsof heavytraffic. The synthesisfrom his work
suggests that the effectsof a reductionin the numberof heavyvehicleswas much

78
Health effects of environmental noise

more effectivethana generalnoiseattenuation.He concludedthat the L". as a


noiseindexoften fails to describeirregularnoisesituations.

The noisiesteventsin roadtraffic are generallyfrom heavyvehicles. Thereare


severalrqsons why the numberof heavyvehiclesshouldbe closelyrelatedto the
extentof annoyance.The noiselevelsfrom heavyvehiclesare cleady
from a backgroundof lower levelsfrom passenger
distinguishable cars. Also, the
noisefrom heavyvehicleshasa differentacousticalcharacter,mostlyin the low
frequencyspectrum.The effectof window attenuation,which in generalis poor
for low frequencies,will give proportionallyhighernoiselevelsindoorsfrom, the
heavyvehicles.

Conclusion

The rangeof effectsinducedby exposureto roadtraffic noiseis wide and covers


simplereflex as well as complexpsycho-social effects. The mostseriousadverse
effectis sleepdisturbance with its long term consequences for healthandwell-
being. Annoyancedueto environmental noiseis widespread,particularlyin built
up arqN and aroundairports. It is an importantcriterionfor noiseexposureand
canbe usedasthe basisfor establishing noisecontrolprograms. Accordingto the
definitionof healthgivenby WHO, subjectiveannoyance shouldbe consideredan
importanthealth effect.

The medicalrationale,thereforefor takingactionagainstnoiseexists. A practical


meansto confrontthe problemis to makethe subjectiveinterpretationof noisethe
primary criterion,andbackthis up with informationon doseresponse
relationshipswhich havebeenestablished.

Noisestandards shouldrelateto the extentof the effecton the population,i.e.


what proportionofthe populationsufferingfrom serioussleepdisturbancecanbe
consideredas acceptable.Accordingto the principlesof risk assessment, the
settingof suchstandardsis not in the handsof scientists- it is the responsibilityof
administratorsto chooseacceptable levels. Medicaleffectdataconstitutethe
necessary backgroundinformationfor the formulationof thesestandards.A long
term goal from a medicalpoint of view is that the proportionof very annoyed
peoplein a population,in built-up areas,shouldnot exceeA SVo.

79
Motor vehicle air pollution

The following are importantresearchquestionsto answerin the future:

- Is therea relationshipbetweenannoyance andphysiological/clinical


effects?
someevidenceindicatesthat this is the casefor psychiatricsymptoms,but more
work is required.

- How doesinterruption of different mentalactivities relateto


physiological/clinical
effectsandto generalannoyance?

- Are activity interference,annoyancereactionsand performanceeffectsall


secondaryreactionsto, or symplomsof, noiseinducedphysiologicalstress?

80
Health effects of environmental noise

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Aniansson,G. et al. Traffrc noiseannoyance
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Aniansson,G. & Peterson,Y. Speechintelligibility of normallistenersand


personswith impairedhearingin traffrc noise. Journal of Sourd Vibraion,90:
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Cantrell,R.W. Prolongedexposureto intermittentnoise:Audiometric


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Cohen,S. et al. Aircraft noiseand children:Longitudinaland cross-sectional


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Dejoy, D.M. A reporton the statusof researchon the cardiovascular


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Fidell, S. et al. Updatinga dosage-effect


relationshipfor the prevalenceof
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Gattoni.F. & Tarnopolsky,A. Aircraft noiseandpsychiatricmorbidity.


Psychological Medicinc, 3: 5 16-520(1973).

Gjestland,T. Assessment of annoyance


from roadtraffrc noise. Jounwl of Sound
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Jenkins,L.M. et al. Comparisonof threestudiesof aircraftnoiseandpsychiatric


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8l
Motor vehicle air pollution

Knipschild,P. & Sall6,H. Roadtraffic noiseand cardiovascular disease.A


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Langdon,F.J. Noisenuisancecausedby roadtraffic noisein residentialareas:


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Part II. Journalof SoundVibration,47: 265-282(1976).

M0ller, A. Reviewof animalexperiments.Journalof SoundVibration,59:73-


77 (t978).

Ohrstrdm,E. & Bjdrkmil, M. Sleepdisturbance beforeand aftertraffic noise


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Ohrstrdm,E. Psycho-social effectsof traffrc noiseexposure.Journal of Sound


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Ohrstrdm,E. et al. Effectsof night time roadtraffic noise- an overviewof


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Rylander,R. et al. Annoyancereactionsfrom aircraftnoiseexposurc.Journol af


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82
Health effects of environmental noise

Rylander,R. & Dancer,A. Startlereactionsto simulatedsonicboomexposure:


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Tarnopolsky,A. & Morton-Williams.J. Aircraft noiseandprevalenceof


psychiatricdisorders. Socialand CommunityPlanningResearchRepoft,pp. 1-80
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Thachray,R.I. Sonicboomexposureeffects:Startleresponses.Journal of Sound


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Vernet,M. Effect of train noiseon sleepfor peopleIiving in housesbordering


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Health
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Wynder,E., ed. Workshopon guidelinesto the epidemiologyof weak


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Yaniv, S.L. & von Gierke,H.E. Methodfor the identificationof environmental


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83
CHAPTER 3

IITJMAN EXPOSURE TO MOTOR VEHICLE AIR FOLLUTANTS

PeterG. Flachsbart'

Introduction

Humanexposureto air pollutantsoccurswheneverpeoplecomeinto contactwith


a pollutantat a particularinstantof time (Ott, 1980). The dosageof a pollutantis
the amountof pollutantthat entersthe body, eitherthroughinhalation,ingestionor
dermalabsorption.Accurateestimationof air pollutionexposureanddosageare
necessary to determinewhat risk that pollutionposesto public health (Sextonand
Ryan,1988).

PeterG. Flachsbart,Ph.D. AssociateProfessor,Departmentof Urban


andRegionalPlanning,Universityof Hawaii at Manoa,Honolulu,Hawaii

85
Motor vehicleair pollution

Ambientair qualitydatafrom fixed stationshavebeenusedto estimatethe risk


that pollutionposesto pubichealth. Many studieshavefound that while these
stationsrepresenttypical exposures for a largemajorityof urbanpopulations,they
do not adequatelycharacterizehumanexposureto certainprimary pollutantsfrom
motor vehicleimpactedmicroenvironments, suchas insidemotor vehiclesand
alongroadsides(Ott andEliasson,L973). A microenvironment existsfor a
pollutantif the concentrationof ttrepollutantat a particularlocationandtime is
sufficientlyhomogenous yet significantlydifferentfrom the concentrations at other
locations@uan, 1982).

This chapterselectivelyreviewsstudiesof humanexposureto air pollutantsfrom


motor vehicles,suchas evaporativefuel lossesandtailpipeemissions.The
objectivesof this review are: (1) to describetypical levelsof humanexposureto
motor vehicleair pollutantsin severalvehiclerelatedmicroenvironments; and (2)
to estimatehow manypeopleare exposedto motor vehicleair pollutantsin these
microenvironments in developedanddevelopingcountries.This chapterbuildson
literaturereviewsundertakenby FlachsbartandOtt (1984),Flachsbartand Ah Yo
(1989)andOtt et al. (1991b).

Most of the studiesreviewedin this chapterhavefocusedon pollutantsdirectly


emittedby vehicles,suchas carbonmonoxide(CO), nitrogenoxides(NO), lead
(Pb), and severalvolatileorganiccompounds(VOCs),suchas benzene,m-/p-
xylene,and ethylbenzene. A few studieshavelookedat exposureto ozone(O3)
which is createdin the atmosphere from VOCs and NO* througha photochemical
process.

Typical Levels of Personal Exposure

Estimatesof personalexposureto air pollutantsfrom motor vehiclesemployeither


a direct or an indirectapproach.In the direct approach,personalmonitorsare
distributedto a sampleof the population. As peopleengagein their regulardaily
activities,they recordtheir exposureto selectedpollutantsusingthe personal
monitors. In the indirectapproach,trainedtechnicians usepersonalmonitorsto
me:tsureconcentrations in selectedmicroenvironments andthen combinethis
informationwith additionaldataon humanactivitypatternsto estimatethe time
spentin thosemicroenvironments.

Direct Approach

In the direct approach,subjectscanrecordtheir exposures in a diary, as wasdone


in a pilot studyin Los Angeles(Ziskindet al., 1982),or exposuredatacan
automaticallybe storedin a datalogger,as wils donein studiesin Denverand
Washington,D.C. (Aklandet al., 1985). Subjectsalsorecordthe time duration

86
Human exposure to motor vehicle air pollutants

andnatureof their activitiesin specifiedmicroenvironments


while monitoring
personalexposures.

The direct approachis usefulfor obtainingan exposureinventory,ideallyof a


representativesample,from eitherthe generalpopulationor from a specific
subpopulation, which canbe definedby demographic, occupationalandhealthrisk
factors. The inventorycancovera rangeof microenvironments encounteredover
a periodof interest(e.9., a day), or it canfocuson oneparticular
the problem
microenvironment.With this flexibility, healthofficialsfirn assess
that motor vehiclesposeto a particularsubgroupof the populationactivein a
specificmicroenviroment, e.g., parkinggarageattendants.

General Population Studies

Direct studiesof the generalpopulationare rare becauseof their expenseandthe


logisticalproblemsof monitordistribution. The bestexamplesof suchstudies
werethe Denver,ColoradoandWashington,D.C. studiesof CO exposures
(Aklandet al., 1985). In both studies,higherexposures wereassociated with
commuting. The two highestaverageCO concentrations occurredwhensubjects
were in a parkinggarageor parkinglot andwhentravelling. High exposures
werealsotracedto indoorandoccupational sources.The averageCO
concentrationsobservedfor all 'in-transit" microenvironmentsare shownin
Table 1, basedon supplementary dataanalysesby WayneOtt (Ott, Switzerand
Willits, 1991b). Denverhadhigheraverages for eachmicroenvironment, because
its colderclimatecauseshigherCO motorvehicleemissions.

Table1. TypicalIn-VehicleCO Exposures(ppm)in Two U.S. Citiesin


1982-1983.

In-Transit Denver,Colorado D.C.


Washington,
Microenvironment Mean SD n Mean SD

Automobile 3029 7.8 11.3 3345 4.6 6.5


Bus 70 9.0 6.9 r67 3.5 5.9
Truck 350 7.2 9.5 135 5.3 8.1
Motorcycle 20 12.3 9.5 3 3.0 3.3
Subway 95 2.0 1.8

87
Motor vehicle air pollution

In Denver,approximately3 percentof the daily marimum l-hour exposures of


454 studyparticipantsexceeded 35 ppm, the l-hour U.S. NationalAmbientAir
Quality Standard(NAAQS) for CO, andabour11 percentof the daily maximum
8-hourexposures exceededthe 9 ppm NAAQS (Johnson,1984). In Washington,
1.3 percentof 7l2 subjectssurveyedhad maximumhourly CO exposures
exceeding35 ppm and about4 percentof the samplehad maximum8-hour
exposures exceeding9 ppm (Hartwellet al., 1984). In both cities,the composite
networkof fixed-sitemonitorsoverestimated the 8-hourpersonalexposures of
peoplewith low level exposuresandunderestimated the 8-hourpersonalexposures
of peoplewith high exposures.

C-ommuter
Studies

Two studiesfocusedsolelyon commuterexposureto air pollutantsfrom motor


velriclesusingthe direct approach.CorteseandSpengler(1976)foundthat CO
exposures averaged11.9ppm for 66 non-smokingvolunteerswho commuted45 to
60 minutesone way in Boston,Massachusetts. Eachvolunteerwore a CO
personalmonitorfor threeto five daysover a six-monthperiod. Simultaneous
measurements takenat six fixed-sitemonitorsaveragedonly 6 ppm.

Shikiyaet d. (1989)collectedsamplesof in-vehicleconcentrations of CO, two


aldehydes,six halogenated hydrocarbons andfour metalsduring the peak
commutinghoursduringsummerandwinter in metropolitanLos Angeles,
california. The researchersselecteda randomsampleof 140nonsmokers who
commutedfrom hometo work in privatelyownedvehiclesduring eachseason.
Driving patternsandventilationconditionswerenot controlled. Table2 givesthe
averageconcentrations of vehicle-related
organicgasesand metalsfor round-trip
commutes.One-way-commuting collectiontime averaged33 minutesfor organic
gasesand aldehydesand52 minutesfor metals. Meanin-vehicleconcentrations
substantiallyexceededmeanambientconcentrations for all pollutantsexcept
ethylenedibromide,chromiumand lead. Ten yearsearlier,Dzubay,et al. (1979)
reportedt{at the meanin-vehicleleadconcentration on Los Angelesfreewayswas
10.9pgln3 for drivesof 2 - 4 hours. This wassix timesgreat-r thanthe mean
ambientconcentration.The reductionin leadexposures observedby Shikiyaet al.
(1989)corresponds to the mandated reductionof leadfrom gasolinethat occurred
duringthe periodbetweenthesetwo studies.

Indirect Approach

Exposurestudiesthat usedthe indirectapproachars more numerousthanthose


that usedthe direct approach.someof thesestudiesdescribetypical exposuresin
specificmicroenvironments.Microenvironmental studiesmay try to replicate
urbantravel by car or trips betweenhomeandwork by differenttravelmodes,

88
Humanexposureto motor vehicle air pollutants

while othersfocussolelyon the mostcongested portionof the trip wherevehicles


are movingslowly dueto high traffrc volumesand/orconstrictedspace. In either
'standardized"routes
case,hypothetical are selectedto estimatetypical in-vehicle
exposuresof commuters.

Table2. in Los Angeles,Californiain 1987- 1988.


Typical Concentrations

MeanIn-Vehicle MeanAmbient
Air Pollutant Concentration Concentration

OrganicGases

Benzene 13.3 ppb 5.3 ppb


Carbonmonoxide 8599 ppb 3661 ppb
Ethylenedibromide 0.014ppb 0.016ppb
Ethylenedichloride 0.033ppb 0.010ppb
Formaldehyde 12.5 ppb 6.8 ppb
Toluene 36.3 ppb 14.7 ppb
Xylene 32.9 ppb 15.3 ppb

Metals

Chromium 0.012 pglnr3 0.023 pglm'


Lead 0.218 pglnr3 0.208p,glm-

More specializedmicroenvironmental studieshavefocusedon in-vehicleexposures


at high-volumeintersectionsand in vehicularwaitinglines. Othershaveexplored
concentrationsin tunnels,underpasses, puking garagesandbuildingsattached
thereto,servicestations,and alongcurb-sides.In thesestudies,somehave
identifiedhigh levelsof exposurefor specificsubpopulations,while othershave
evaluatedmeasurqs to mitigatehigh exposures.Severalotherstudieshavetried to
explainhow outdoorconcentrations affectindoorconcentrations.Many other
studieshavefocusedon factorsthat affectlevelsof exposure,i.e., the covariates
of exposure,suchas trafFrcvolumesandspeeds,vehicularself-contamination and
ventilationandmeteorological factors. The readeris referredto Flachsbartand
Ah Yo (1989)for a review of covariatestudies,which arebeyondthe scopeof
this review.

89
Motor vehicle air pollution

StandardizedRoutes

Studiesof standardizedrouteshaveshownthat fixed-sitemonitorsunderestimate


in-vehicleexposuresto someair pollutants,but over-estimate
theseexposures
for
otherpollutants. PetersenandSabersky(1975)reportedthat averagein-vehicle
CO levelsin Los Angelesweregenerally15 - 20 ppm and weresimilar to
concentrationsimmediatelyoutsidethe vehicle. Fixed-sitemonitorsshowed
maximumCO levelsof only 8 ppm. A later studyin Los Angelesby Petersen
andAllen (1982)reportedlower in-vehicleCO valuesof 10.9- 15.3ppm, which
were 3.9 timeshigherthan concentrationsat fixed-sitemonitors.

Holland (1983)foundthat in four U.S. cities,urbanresidential,fixed monitoring


stationsunderestimated the time-weightedmeanof commutingand
residentialdrivingexposures to CO over standardized
routesby factorsof 0.4 to
0.7. Luria et al. (1985)foundthat CO concentrationsexteriorto their testvehicle
in Jerusalem,Israelwere muchhigherthanany levelsmeasuredat fixed-site
monitors. In Raleigh,North Carolina,Chanet al. (1991)statedthat medianCO
concentrationswere 11 ppm insidetestvehicleson standardized routes,but only
2.8 ppm at fixed-sitemonitors.

Ott et al. (1991a)measuredin-vehicleCO concentrations on 88 standardizedtrips


over a one-yearperiodin 1980on a suburbanarterid highwayin the San
FranciscoBay Area of California. They reporteda meanCO concentration of 9.8
ppm for typicaltrips of 35 - 45 minutes;the medianCO concentrations were only
1.0 ppm at the two nearestfixed-sitemonitors. Ott et al. (1991c)currentlyare
resurveyingthis highwayusinga methodologysimilarto their previousstudyto
determinein-vehicleexposuretrends. Basedon preliminaryfindings,they
reportedthat the meanin-vehicleCO concentration had droppedto about5 ppm or
51 percentof the meanvalueestimated11 yearsearlier. They attributedthis
exposurereductionto the replacement of older vehicleswith newervehiclesthat
havelower emissionfactors. This reductionis particularlysignificant,as daily
traffic volumeon this highwayhasgrownby about17 percentduringthe
interveningperiod, accordingto estimates by Hildemannet al. (1991).

Chanet al. (1991)reporteddifferencesbetweenmeasurements in vehiclesand at


fixed-sitemonitorsfor severalVOCs, includingbenzene,ethylbenzene, hexane,
isopentane,m-/p-xylene,n-butane,n-pentane,o-xylene,1,2,4-trimethylbenzene,
toluene,2-methylpentane, 2,3,3-trimethylpentane
and2,2,4-trimethylpentane.
Weiselet al. (1991)foundthat in-vehicleVOC concentrations were 3 - 10 times
higherthan ambientlevelsduring30-minuteidling periods. However,the mean
concentrationsof severalVOCs while commutingwerelower thanthosefound by
Shikiyaet d. (1989)in Los Angeles,but similarto concentrationsmeasuredby
Chanet al. (1991)in Raleigh.

90
Human exposureto motor vehicle air pollutants

Fixed-sitemonitorsmay overestimate in-vehicleexposures for other air pollutants


relatedto motor vehicles. Petersenand Sabersky(1975)foundthat in-vehicle
concentrations in Los Angelesrangedfrom 0.05 - 0.50 ppm for NO andfrom
0.24 - 0.80 ppm for NO' while ambientconcentrations of thesetwo pollutants
were significantlyhigherat the nearestfixed-sitestations. Similarly, ozone
concentrations weregenerallybelow 0.05 ppm insidethe vehicle,aboutthreeto
four timeslower than in the ambientenvironment.Chanet al. (1991)observeda
similar resultfor ozonein Raleigh,but Luria et al. (1985)foundthat NO*
concentrations exteriorto their testvehiclein Jerusalemwere muchhigherthan
any levelsmeasuredat fixed-sitemonitors.

Studiesof standardized routeshavealsobeenusedto assess the effectivenessof


priority (restricted)lanesfor carpools,highoccupancyvehicles(HOVs), and
expressbusesin reducingcommuterexposureto motor vehicleexhaustin
Honolulu,Hawaii (Flachsbart,1989). In this study,in-vehicleexposureto CO
servedas a surrogatemeasureof traffrc congestion,sincehigherCO emissionscan
be associated with slowermovingtrafhc. Comparedto commuterCO exposurein
umestrictedlanes,exposurewasabout18 percentlessfor thosein carpools,28
percentlessfor thosein HOVs, and6l percentlessfor thosein expressbuses.
Commutersin priority lanesalsoachievedspeedadvantages which partially
explainedtheir reducedCO exposures.

The last threestudiesin this categoryare of particularinterest,because


two were
undertakenin a developedcountry and the other in a developingcountry and their
methodsof datacollectionweresimilar.

Flachsbartet al. (1987)reportedthe time-weightedCO concentrations for three


modesof travel in the Washington,D.C. metropolitanareaduringwinter 1983.
CO concentrations weremeasured during morningand eveningrush-hourperiods
on 15 hypotheticalcommuterroutes:eightcongested highwayroutes,four bus and
threerail routes. Typical in-vehicleCO exposures for automobiles rangedfrom
9 - 14 ppm for trips of 40 to 60 minutes. By comparison,typical CO exposures
for transituserswere substantiallyless,rangingfrom 4 - 8 ppm for bustrips of 90
to 110minutesand2 - 5 ppm for rail trips of 30 to 45 minutes. Wallace(1979)
found similar differencesin car andbus commutesbetweenReston,Virginia and
Washington, D.C.

The Flachsbartet a!. (1987)studyobser.redhigherCO exposures for automobile


commutesthandid Akland et d. (1985),eventhoughboth studieswere donein
the samemetropolitanareaaboutthe sametime. This differencecouldbe
explainedby a differencein studydesign. Akland et al. directly surveyeda
representative
sample,therebycapturingall typesof urbantravel throughoutthe
day. Flachsbartet al. purposelyselectedlong commuterroutesover known

91
Motor vehicle air pollution

congestedhighwaysduringrush-hourperiodsonly. Thus,the Flachsbartet al.


resultsmay be represenBtive
of commuterswith high levelsof exposure.

Fernandez-Bremauntz (1992)monitoredCO concentrations insidevarioustypesof


vehiclestypically usedfor commutingin the metropolitanareaof Mexico City,
Mexico duringwinter months. Table3 reportsresultsfor 549 trips, representing
r."combinationof five differentcorridors,as dividedinto linls, andsix travel
modesduring morningandeveningcommutingperiods. BetweenOctober1990
andFebruary1991,the meandaily maximum8-hourambientCO concentrations
at four stationsin Mexico City rangedfrom 7 to 11.5ppm. Fernandez-Bremauntz
generallyfound muchhigherexposures insideautomobiles than insidebusesand
subways,a resultsimilar to the abovefindingsin Washington,D.C.

Table3. Typical CO Concentrations


in Mexico City, Mexico in 1991.

Rangein Mean Number


Travel mode CO Concentrations of Trips

Privateautomobile 55 - 57 ppm 34
'Combi" type van
39 - 67 ppm 35
Minibus 32 - 64 ppm t52
Dieselbus 20 - 40 ppm 170
Electrictrolleybus 22 -32ppm 47
Subwayandlight rail 16-26ppm 111

The meanin-vehicleexposures for eachtravel modein Mexico City are much


hrgherthanthosein Washington,D.C. Most vehiclesin Mexicouselower quality
fuels andgenerallyhaveno pollutioncontrols. In fact, the Mexico City exposures
are hlghel than exposuresobservedin the United Statespdgg to the adventof
emissioncontrolstherein 1968. For instance,Brice andRoesler(1966)measured
in-vehicleconcentrationsof CO andhydrocarbons while driving in moderateand
heavytraffic from outlyingareasto downtownlocationsin six U.S. cities.
Table4 showstypical concentrations for 3O-minuteaveragingperiodsfor each
pollutant.

92
Human exposureto motor vehicle air pollutants

Table4. Typical In-VehicleExposuresin Six U.S. Citiesin 1966.

CarbonMonoxide Hydrocarbon
(ppm)
Concentration (ppm)
Concentration
Mean Range Mean Range

Chicago,Illinois 37 20-59 4.8 2.4 - 8.4


Cincinnati,Ohio 2l 8-s0 5.7 3 . 6- 1 1 . 6
Denver,Colorado 40 2 2- 7 2 9.6 4.6 - 19.0
St. Louis, Missouri 36 lt -77 9.3 4.4 - 19.0
Washington,D.C. 25 7 -43 6.2 2.0 - 23.0

Intersections

Ramsey(1966)surveyed50 intersections over a six-monthperiodin Dayton,


Ohio. He reporteda strongrelationshipbetweentraffrc volumeand CO
concentrations at intersections.Concentrationsrangedfrom 56.1 ppm (mean)I
18.4ppm (onestandard deviation)for heavytrafficto 31.4 t 31.5 ppmfor
moderatetraffic to 15.3 + 10.2ppm for light traffic. He reportedthat
concentrations weregreaterat intersectionsalongmajor arteriessomewhat
removedfrom downtownDayton,andthat their meanconcentration was 3.4 times
the meanof intersections a block awayandperpendicular to the axis of the
arterial. Willits andOtt (1981)alsofound a statisticallysignificantlinear
relationshipbetweenpassenger exposureandtraffic countsat congested
intersectionson a suburbanarterialhighwayin northernCalifornia. Seifertand
Abraham(1982)surveyedseveralVOCs at traffic intersections in WestGermany.
They reportedmeanconcentrations of 100pglm3for mJp-xyleneand L47 pgtnf
for toluene.

Queues

Myronuk (1977)measuredCO concentrations insideautomobiles that were idling


in queuesto a drive-upfacility in SantaClaraValley, California. The in-vehicle
CO concentrations rangedfrom 15 - 95 ppm for l5-minuteaverages,with short
term peaksbetween100and 1,000ppm. BackgroundCO levelswereonly
2-5ppm.

93
Motor vehicle air pollution

Tunnelsand Underpas
ses

Waller et al. (1961)measuredaverageCO concentrations


in London'sBlackwell
and RotherhitheTunnel. The averageCO concentrationsduring the morning and
eveningrushhourswereslightly above100ppm. PeakCO concentrations of 500
ppm, 450 ppm, and 340 ppm wererecordedon daysfor which fans in the tunnel
were shut off.

Coviauxet al. (1984)measuredCO concentrations in a tunnelin Paris,France.


They found averageCO concentrations of 30 ppm in the tunnelitself and6 ppm in
a 'technicalroom' that supportedoperationof the tunnel. However,smokers
werepresentin the room.

Lonnemanet al. (1986)reportedthat measurements of non-metlaneorganic


carbontakenin 1982in New York's Lincoln Tunnelwereone-fourththe levels
found in a L97Ostudyof the samesite. They attributedthis reductionto the
greaterprevalenceof catalyticconvertersin the motor vehiclepopulation,because
tunnelventilationratesfor eachyearhad not changed.

Wright et al. (1975)reportedthat averageCO concentrations


in six poorly
ventilatedunderpasses in Toronto,Canadarangedfrom 17.5 - 100+ ppm.

Parking Garagesand SemiceStations

Studiesofparking garageshavebeendonein severalcountriesprior to the


introductionof emissioncontrolson c:us. Trompeoet al. (1964)measuredCO
levelsin 12 undergroundgaragesin Rome,Italy. The CO levelsfor 132
observations averaged98 ppm andrangedfrom 10 - 300 ppm. Chovin(L967)
recordedaveragelevelsof 150ppm between7:30 and 8:00 a.m. in a police car
garagein Paris,France. Wright et al. (1975)reportedthat averageCO
concentrationsin well-ventilatedundergroundgaragesin Torontorangedfrom
7.4 - 34.7 ppm.

Severalstudieshaveexaminedthe diffi,rsionpotentialof air pollutantsfrom


parkinggaragesinto adjacentbuildings. Yocum et d. (1971)monitoredinorganic
Pb particulatesand CO concentrationsin buildingsin Hartford, Connecticut.
Althoughonebuildingwasbuilt over a parkingg:uage,its ventilationsystem,
which wasoperatedwith a slightpositivepressure,was effectivein preventingthe
penetrationof inorganicPb particulatesfrom autoexhaust.

Jabaraet al. (1980)collected8-hourCO exposures of65 employees,including


smokersand nonsmokers, of the Denver,ColoradoPoliceDepartmentwho
workedcloseto heavytraffic for extendedtime periods. A groupof 33 office

94
Human exposureto motor vehicle air pollutants

employees servedas controlsfor comparison.Table5 summarizes the resultsfor


8-hourCO concentrations for eachtype of employee.The highermedian
concentrationfor office nonsmokers was attributedto five high readingsamong
employees who workedin offrcesabovea parking garagein the policestation.
Jabaraet al. concludedthat CO leakedupstairsfrom the garageon very cold
morningswhengaragedoorswereclosedandvehicleswerebeingwarmedup
beforeleaving.

Table5. Typical 8-HourCO Exposures(ppm)in Denver,Coloradoin


t978 - t979.

Type of Nonsmokers Smokers


Exposure Median Range Median Range

Offrce 7.5 4.2 - 22.1 7.1 4.r - 9.6


'1.8- 22.1 8.0- ss.3
Trafftc 20.4 +4.3

Ott andFlachsbart(1982)reportedthat ten enclosedparkinggaragesin several


Californiacitieshad a meannet CO concentration (after subtractingthe ambient
concentrations at the nearestfixed-sitemonitors)of 21.7 + l2'5 ppm. Seven
buildingsattachedto enclosedparkinggarageshad a meannet CO concentration
of 6.1 + 2.9 ppm. For a givendateandmicroenvironment, CO concentrations
werefoundto be relativelystableover time, which suggested that brief visits to
eachmicroenvironment could enablegeneralizationsto longertime periods.

Flachsbartand Ott (1986)observedthe diffusionof CO from an underground


parkinggarageinto the upperfloors of a l5-story office buildingin Palo Alto,
California. A surveyof the entirebuildingshowedthat averageCO
concentrations in the garagewere40.6 ppm andrangedfrom 10.2- 18.5ppm for
the first 11 floors abovegroundlevel. High CO levelsin the buildingwere
attributedto two factors:(1) fansventilatingthe garagewereshutdown to reduce
electricitybills; and (2) the doorsconnectingthe stairwellto the garagewere left
open. AverageCO levelson the top four floors rangedfrom 2.0 - 4.0 ppm,
becausethey were servedby a separate ventilaticnsystem. Oncetheseproblems
weremitigated,averageCO levelsin the garagedroppedfrom 40.6 ppm to 7.9
ppm andin the buildinghadfallento just 0.7 - 1.5ppm.

surveyed25 businessoutletsfor
FlachsbartandBrown (1989)systematically
employeeexposureto CO on the groundlevel of the Ala MoanaShoppingCenter

95
Motor vehicle air pollution

in Honolulu,Hawaii. The shoppingcenteris attachedto a multilevel,semi-


enclosedparkingstructure. At groundlevel the structurehasa two-lanedriveway
fronting shops,mostof which leavedoorsopenduringbusinesshours. The
averageco concentrations for 30 visits to all shopsover the five-monthsurvey
rangedfrom 2.8 - 23.1 ppm. co readingsat the nearestfixed-sitemonitorwere
usuallybelow 1 ppm. A similar studyof the sameshoppingcenterby Bachand
Lennon(1972)found averageCO levelsrangingfrom 12 - 37 ppm in parking
areas. FlachsbartandBrown attributedtheir findingsof lower averageco levels
primarily to stricteremissioncontrolsas appliedto new motor vehiclesduringthe
11 yearsbetweenthe two studies.

Servicestationswere includedas microenvironments in two studies. Amemdale


andHanes(1984)measuredCO concentrations in 13 automobileservicestations
andtwo dealerships in the New Englandarea. Resultsvariedby season,with co
concentrations rangingfrom2.2 -2l.6ppm in warmweatherand 16.2- 110.g
ppm during cold weather. They citedreducedventilationfor higher
concentrations during winter. wilson et al. (1991)randomlysampled100
self-servicefilling stationsandtook convenience samplesat l0 parkinggarages
and 10 officesnearthe garages,in the Los Angeles,orange,Riversidl and San
Bernardinocountiesof southerncalifornia. They took five-minutesamplesof 13
motor vehicleair pollutantsin eachmicroenvironment and in the ambient
environment.Table6 summarizes resultsfor just the motor vehicleair pollutants.

Table6. MedianS-MinuteConcentrations (ppb)of Motor VehicleAir


Pollutantsin SouthernCaliforniain 1990.

Motor Vehicle Service Parking Office


Air Pollutant Station Garage Building Ambient

Benzene 9 2l 5 4
Carbonmonoxide 4300 l 1000 4000 2000
Ethylenedichloride 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Formaldehyde 4 34 36 20
m-/p-xylenes 13 43 9 9
Toluene 36 49 26 29

Curb-sidesin CommercialAreas

In threeu.s. cities, colucci andBegeman(1969)foundthat outdoormeanco


concentrationswereusuallythe highest,but variedthe mostin commercialareas
(3.5 - l0 ppm), were intermediatenearfreeways(6 - 8 ppm), and werelowestin

96
Human exposureto motor vehicle air pollutants

residentialareas(2.5 - 5.5 ppm). Similarly, Godin,Wright and Shephard(1972)


observedthat CO concentrations werehighestin downtownToronto, intermediate
at a suburbanhome, and lowest at a semi-ruralfarm house.

Ott andEliassen(1973)collectedCO samplesin downtownSanJose,California


and in surroundingresidentialand industriallocations. They reportedaverageCO
levelsrangingfrom 5.2 - L4.2ppm for sidewalksalongcongested downtown
streets,with averages
corresponding at fixed-sitemonitorsranging ttom2.4 - 6.2
ppm.

Wright et al. (1975)measured4 - 6 minuteaverageCO exposures of pedestrians


and street-workersduring summerand fall 1973in Toronto, Canada. They
focusedon sidewalksthat hadbeenclosedto traffic to becomea pedestrianmall.
Beforethe streetwas closed,the averageCO concentrationsat two crossstreets
were9.4 t 4.0 ppm and7.9 * 1.9 ppm. After the streetwasclosed,the
averages droppedto 3.7 + 0.5 ppm and4.0 t 1.0 ppm, respectively,roughly
equivalentto the urbanbackgroundlevel.

Wilson and Schweiss(1978a)measuredCO concentrations at 40 outdoorsitesand


four sidewalksin Boise,Idatro. Pedqstrian
exposuresrangedfrom 2.9 - 14.0ppm
fot 2 - 4 hour averages.The highest8-hourCO averagewu l7 .2 ppm. In
downtownSeattle,Wilson andSchweiss(1978b)measuredCO concentrations at
36 outdoorsites(includingsmallparksand isolatedareas)andtwo sidewalks.
The 4-houraverageCO levelsalongsidewalksrangedfrom 1.1 - 11.9ppm'

Bellin andSpengler(1980)measured the CO exposures of baggagehandlersat


Boston'sLoganInternationalAirport. They intermittentlymonitoredboth the
upper (open)andlower (semi-enclosed) levelsofthe entranceareaofone
terminal. Basedupon l5-minute averages, the indoor(ticketcounter)
concentrationswere significantlylower thanthe outdoor(curb-side)
concentrations.The 95 percentconfidenceintervalfor all indoorlocations
(5.7 - 6.8 ppm) waslower thanthe intervalfor all outdoorlocations(9.7 - 12.5
ppm). The l-hour maximumconcentrations were 15 ppm (indoors)and23 ppm
(outdoors),both occurringon the sameday.

The Air Qudrry and NoiseDivision of the NationalEnvironmentBoardof


Thailand(1989)hasmeasuredcurb-sideconcentrations of severalmotor vehicle
air pollutantsin Bangkoksince1984. Between 1985 and 1987,daily levelsof
particulatematterslightly exceeded the ambientstandardof 330 pglm3 and at one
locationweretwo to three timesthe standard. Averagedaily Pb concentrationsat
18 sitesmonitoredbetween1985and 1987rangedfrom 0.6 - 3.5 pglm3, which
wasbelow the ambientstandardof 10 pglm3. MeanCO valuesfor 17 sites
monitoredbetween1985and 1988rangedfrom 3 - 24 mgtmi for l-hour

97
Motor vehicle air pollution

averagingtimesandfrom 2 - 26 mg/m3for 8-houraveragingtimes. The l-hour


and 8-hourco standards are50 and20 mglm3,respectively.No2 ando3 levels
werereportedto be low.

PerpendicularDistancefrom Roads

Besnerand Atkins (1970)investigated the relationshipbetweenmotor vehicleair


pollutantsandperpendicular distanceto the axis of an urbanexpressway in Austin,
Texas. concentrationsof co andPb weremqxured at two sites,one4.8 meters
andthe other29 metersfrom the road. At both sites,they found a strongpositive
associationbetweenCo andPb concentrations.They alsoreporteda declineof
co concentrationswith greaterdistancefrom the road, verifying a similar finding
by Ramsey(1966). At the site nearestthe road, co concentrations rangedfrom
3.4 - 6.0 ppm, whileat the moredistantsitethey rangedfrom 2.4 - 3.9 ppm.

Indoor-Outdoor Relationships

In the Hartford, connecticutstudy,yocum, clink andcote (1971)foundthat co


concentrations in enclosedsettingsare similarto outdoorconcentrations,
but tend
to lag behindthe peakconcentrations observedoutdoors. Godin,wright and
Shephard(1972)reportedsimilar findingsfor downtownofficesin Toronto,
canada. They foundthat indoorco concentrations tendedto matchoutdoor
levels,but with a lag of I - 2 hours.

The GeneralElectriccompany(1972)studiedco concentrations in two high-rise


buildingsin New York city, one constructedover a highway. They found that
indoorCO concentrations normallywerelower than outdoorconcentrations at all
heightsabovettre roadwaywhenoutdoorconcentrations werehigh. conversely,
whenoutdoorconcentrations werelow, indoorconcentrationswere not as low.
Hence,in the absence of indoorco sources,indoorconcentrations tendedto
follow outdoorlevelswith somedegreeof time lag andwith a tendencynot to
reacheitherthe extremehigh or low valuesthat were foundoutdoors. The study
alsoreportedthat at heightsgreaterthan30 metersabovethe roadway,CO
concentrations
were larger indoorsthanoutdoors. This resultwas attributedto the
trappingof CO within the building.

Estimatesof PeopleExposed

This sectionprovidescrudeestimates of the numberof peopleexposedto motor


vehicleair pollutantsin developedanddevelopingcountrieson a daily basis.
Very few studieshaveactuallyattemptedto estimatethe numberof people
exposedto motor vehicleair pollutantsin differentmicroenvironments,suchas
insidevehiclesand alongroadsides.Hence,theseestimatesarebasedon a

98
Human exposureto motor vehicle air pollutants

numberof critical assumptions madenecessary by a lack of literatureon the


subject. AppendixA describesthe methodologyunderlyingtheseestimates.
A basicassumption applicableto all microenvironmentsis that humanexposureto
motor vehicleair pollutionis largelyan urbanphenomenon.For example,
Romieuet al. (1991)reportedthat mobilesourcesin Santiago,Chile are
responsiblefor 83 percentof total NOr emissions,78 percentof hydrocarbons,
and98 percentof CO emissions.Nearly everystudyreviewedpreviouslyfocused
on highwaysandroadsidesettingsin urbanas opposedto rural settings. In
comparisonto rural areas,citieshavegreatertraffrc congestion,which lowers
averagetravel speedstherebyincreasingsometypesof emissions,andtheir
businessdistrictshavestreetcanyonswhich increaseconcentrations.Although
motor vehiclespervaderural areasalso,motor vehicleair pollutionis a much
greaterproblemin cities. Hence,a country'slevel of urbanizationis one indicator
of the numberof peopleexposedto motor vehicleair pollution.

A secondbasicassumption is that the numberof peopleexposedto air pollutants


from motor vehiclesdependsuponthe extentto which a countryis motorized.
Zahavi(L976)definedmotorizationat the countrylevel asthe numberof carsper
100populationor the numberof carsper household.Countrieswith higherlevels
of motorizationare consideredmoresusceptible to havinggreaternumbersof
pmple exposedto motor vehicleair pollutants.

A countervailingfactorto the extentof motorizationin a particularcountryis the


level of emissioncontrolsapplicableto motor vehiclesin that country. Renner
(1989)briefly summarized the historyof emissioncontrolsin differentcountries.
In the United States,emissioncontrolson motor vehicleswerefirst implemented
in the 1960sand emissionlimits weregraduallytightenedthroughoutthe 1970s.
Japan'semissionstandards,which are comparable to U.S. limits, were
implementedin 1975and 1978. More recently,Australia,CanadaandSouth
Koreaadoptedemissionstandards equivalentto thosein the U.S. The European
EconomicCommunity@EC)hasadoptedseparate standards for large,medium
andsmallvehicles. Smallcars,which captureabout60 percentof the European
market,havethe mostlenientemissionstandards.Brazil expectsto matchcurrent
U.S. standards by 1997. Many other countries,suchas Argentina,India and
Mexico, havevirtually no controlson motorvehicleemissions.

A third basicassumptionis that urbanizationandmotorizationvary by countryand


that countriescanbe groupedaccordingto the extentof their economic
development.Basedon standarddefinitionsusedby the World Bank (1990),four
economicgroupsare definedherebasedon per capitagrossnationalproduct
(GNP). Thesegroupsare as follows:

99
Motor vehicleair pollution

Country Per CapitaGNP


EconomicCrouo (1988U.S. Dollars)

Low income $100- 490


Lower-middleincome $570- 2,160
Upper-middleincome $2,290- 5,420
High income $6,010- 27,500

Table7 summarizes both the world's humanand automobilepopulationsby these


four economicgroups,which include159countriesrepresenting 99.8 percentof
the world'stotalpopulationof 5.313billion peoplein 1990. (Ihis world
populationtotal includesabout20.5 million peopleliving in Taiwanin 1990,but
excludedfrom TableA.4 of the United Nationsreporttitled World Urbanization
Prospects1990, which wasthe basisfor the estimateof humanpopulation.)

In 1990,while high-incomecountrieshad only 22.7 percentof the globe's


population,they had 37 percentof the world's urbanpopulationof 2.4 billion
peopleand an astounding85.6 percentof the world's automobilefleet of 405
million vehicles. Middle-incomecountries,includingboth lower-middleand
upper-middlecategories,had 20.4 percentofthe globalpopulation,but 26.3
percentof the world's urbanpopulationand 12.7percentof all automobiles.In
contrast,the low-incomecountrieshad 56.9 percentof globalpopulation,but only
36.7 percentof urbanpopulationandonly 1.7 percentof the world's automobile
fleet. The mostfrequentmeansof travel in low-incomecountriesis by foot and
paratransit. The latter includespedalor motorizd rickshaw, convertedvans and

100
Human exposure to motor vehicle air pollutants

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Motor vehicle air pollution

pickups,convertedjeeps,smallminibuses,sharedtaxis, motorcyclesand mopeds


(Armstrong-Wright,1986;White, 1990).

Bleviss(1990)reportedthat sharesof the world's automobilefleet are shifting


amongdifferentcountriesandregions. The U.S. shareof the world's automobile
populationhasfallen ftom77 percentin 1930to 35 percentin 1986. By the year
2000, Europewill havemore automobiles on the road thanthe U.S. (OECD,
1983). Althoughdevelopingcountriescunentlyhavesmallsharesof the world's
automobilefleet, countriesin Asia and Latin Americaare expectedto doubleor
triple their automobilepopulationsby the endof this century.

Numbers of In-Vehicle Exposures

Table8 summarizes the estimates


of daily vehiculartrips in urbanareasby
econornicgroup andregionin 1990,asfurther brokendown by travel mode. This
tableshowsthe grossdisparityin both the absolutenumbersandthe percentages
ofvehicular trips for developedanddevelopingcountries,particularlybetween
oppositeendsof the incomespectrum.This disparityin urbanvehiculartrips is
evenmorepronouncedwhenone looks at trips by automobileversustrips by
public andpara-transit.

The high incomecountries,which claim only 37 percentof the world's urban


populationof 2.4 billion people,accountfor a disproportionately high shareof the
world's daily vehiculartrips in urbanareas. Of the 3.4 billion vehiculartrips
takeneveryday in cities,over half takeplacein high-incomecountriesand almost
72 percentof theseareby automobile.The lower-middleand upper-middle
incomecountriescombined,which represent26.3 percentof the world's urban
population,accountfor only 21.1 percentof all vehiculartrips and 14.1percentof
the automobiletrips. In contrast,the low-incomecountries,which represent36.7
percentof the world's urbanpopulation,accountfor only 27.2 percentof the
world's vehiculartrips andjust over 14 percentof its automobiletrips in urban
are:N.

Numbers of RoadsideExposures

Exposurealongroadsidesis a functionof the streetscapeandhow peopleuse


streetsto travel anddo business.In urbanareas,the greatestpotentialfor
exposureoften occursin businessand commercialdistricts. However,many
developedcountrieshaveshoppingcentersthat are designedto separate
pedestrians andmotor vehicles. In developingcountries,sidewalksare often
narrowor non-existentin commercialdistricts. ProudloveandTurner (1990)
describetlpical streetconditionsin manyThird World Cities. Streetvendorsand
hawkersin developingcountriestakeup so muchsidewalkspacethat pedestrians

ro2
Human exposure to motor vehicle air pollutants

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103
Motor vehicle air pollution

are often forcedto walk in the streetin a zoneintermediate


betweenthe sidewalk
andmovingmotor vehicles.

Table9 summarizes of roadsidepopulationby economic


the resultsof estimates
group andregion. The tableshowsthat citiesin low-incomecountrieshavean
estimated62 to 103million peoplewho spenda considerable amountof their
working day in roadsidesettings. Their roadsidepopulationis roughly 1.7 times
countriesand2.3 to 2.7 timesas large
aslarge as that found in all middle-income
asttratfound in high-incomecountries. For low- andhigh-incomecountries,a
comparisonof Tables7 and9 showsthat their respectivepercentages of the total
roadsidepopulationsroughlycorrespondto their respectivepercentages of the
world's total population. For lower-middleandupper-middleincomecountries,
the samecomparisonshowsthat their respectivepercentages of the total roadside
populationsroughlycorrespondto their respectivepercentages of the world's total
urbanpopulation.

Conclusion

Severalconclusionscanbe drawnfrom studiesof humanexposureto air pollutants


from motor vehicles. First, numerousstudieshaveshownthat concentrations of
someair pollutantsinsidemotor vehiclesand along,roadsides are typicallyhigher
thanthoselevelsrecordedsimultaneously at fixed-sitemonitors. Second,
exposures tendto be higherinsideautomobiles than in transitvehiclesusedby bus
andrail systems.Third, priority lanesusedto afford speedadvantages to carpools
andbusescanreduceair pollutantexposures of their passengers.Fourth, in the
absence of indoorsources,concentrations in enclosedsettingsare similarto
outdoorconcentrations, but tendto lag behindthe peakconcentrations observed
out{gors. But indoor concentrations tendnot to reacheitherthe extremehigh or
low valuesthat are found outdoors. The exceptionsare certaincommercial
buildingsthat are attachedto activelyusedparkinggarages.Whenventilation
systemsin thesebuildingsare not functioningor operatingproperly,motor vehicle
emissionsfrom garagescaninfiltratebuildingsand exposeoccupants to
concentrations higherthanambientlevels. Fifth, concentrations of motor vehicle
air pollutantsdeclinewith greaterdistancefrom the road. This suggests that
passengers in vehiclesare at mostrisk to air pollutantsfrom motor vehicles,
followedby pedestrians andstreetmerchantsalongroadsides,andthenthe general
urbanpopulation.

A country'slevel of economicdevelopment alsoplaysa significantrole in human


exposureto motor vehicleair pollutants. Developednationshavelargerurbanand
automobilepopulationsthandevelopingcountries,andconsequently greater
mobility andlargerproportionsof trip makerswho useautomobilesratherthan
public transit. Thus, the potentialfor humanexposureto air pollutantsfrom

104
Human exposure to motor vehicle air pollutants

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105
Motor vehicle air pollution

motor vehiclesis higherin developedcountries,becausetheserisk factorsexist.


However,thereis preliminaryevidencefrom North Americancitiesthat, despite
growth in automobilesandtraffic volumesduringthe last 20 years,human
exposureto somemotor vehicleair pollutantshasdeclineddueto tighter emission
controlson cars.

Humanexposureto air pollutansfrom motorvehiclesin largecitiesof developing


countries,suchas Mexico City, presentlyappearsto be evenhigherthan
exposures observedin largeU.S. citiesduringthe 1960s,prior to the adventof
motor vehicleemissioncontrolsin the U.S. Althoughdevelopingcountries
typically havelower levelsof motorization(i.e., fewer automobiles per 1000
population),eachvehicleis likely to emit more air pollutantsper mile thanthe
vehiclesin developednationsdueto a lack of or lessstringentemissioncontrols,
and/orpoor qualityfuels. Furthermore,theselevelsof motorizationare growing
rapidly, especiallyin Asia andLatin America. Finally, large citiesin developing
countrieshave muchgreaterpercentages of their informal labor forces who are
streetvendorsandhawkersthando citiesof developedcountries. Thus, actual
levelsof humanexposureto motor vehicleair pollutantsmay be higherin
developingcountries.

106
Humenexposureto motor vehicle air pollutants

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Lt2
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113
Chapter4

REVTEWOF MOTOR VEHICLE ENIISSIONCONTROL MEASI,JRES

AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS

MichaelP. Walsh"

Introduction: elements of an overall pollution control strategy

Generally,the goal of a motorvehiclepollutioncontrolprogramis to reduce


emissionsfrom motor vehiclesin-useto the degreenecessary to achievehealthy
ambientair quality for mobilesource related pollutants in all areasof a city or
countryas rapidly as possible or to the practical limits of technological, economic
and socialfeasibility. In orderto achievethesegeneralgoals,emissionstandards
to achievethe desiredreductionsneedto be set andprogramsimplemented to
enforcecompliancewith thesestandards andto controlvehicleusagewhere
needed.Theseemissionreductiongoalsareto be achievedin a mannerwhich is
equitablewith respectto the populationgroupsaffectedand, wheredirecttrade-
offs betweenalternativeapproaches exist, in the leastcostlymanner.

MichaelP. Walsh,Consultant,Arlington, Virginia, United Statesof


America

115
Motor vehicle air pollution

Strategy Analysis

Two waysof controllingmotor vehicleemissionsareto controlemissionsper


vehiclemile traveled(VMT), andto controlVMT. Thesemethodscanbe used
together.

Controlling Emissionsper Mile Driven

Emissions/VMTmay be reducedby controlling(1) vehicleperformanceand/or(2)


fuel composition(e.g., lead,sulfur, volatility, oxygencontent).

VehiclePerformance

Vehicleperformancemay be improvedby controllingvehiclehardwareandby


ensuringthat vehiclesin-useareproperlymaintained.

vehicle hardwaremay be controlledby requiringvehiclesto be designedandbuilt


to meetemissionstandards whennew andduringtheir usefullife (arbitrarily
definedas 5 years;50,000milesprior to 1990in the US althoughit is recognized
that a vehicle'stotal lifetime is muchlongerif properlyusedand maintained)and
to be modifiedif they do not.

Sincethe emissionstandards of concernrepresentsubstantialreductionsin


emissionsfrom uncontrolledvehiclelevels,it is necessarythat manufacturers
consciouslydesigntheir vehiclesfor emissionscontrol. vehicle designmay be
evaluatedby testingprototypevehicles. If individuallyconstructed prototype
vehiclesare not capableof meetingemissionstandards,it is generallyaccepted
that massproducedvehiclesof the samedesignprobablyare not either.
Conversely,if manufacturers are ableto build prototypeswhich demonstrate that
their designsare capableof meetingstandards, the pioUaUititythat their production
vehicleswill alsomeetstandards may be increased.

VehicleBuild - New

Giventhat the manufacturer has "certitied"his intendeddesign,production


vehiclesmay not meetstandards,evenwhennew, eitler because they are not
constructed in all materialrespects,the sameway as the prototype(i.e., they are
misbuilt),or the manufacturer hasfailed to translatethe designeffectivelyinto
massproduction. The first situationis legallyequivalentto introducticjninto
commerceof an uncertifieddesignandmay be guardedagainstby inspections and
civil penalties.

116
Control measuresand their effectiveness

The secondsituationmay resultfrom "prototype-to-production slippage"and/or


"productionvariability", dependingon the circumstances.In that case,Ole
vehiclesmay not conformto the standards, but productionvehicletestingis the
only way their nonconformance may be detected.Therefore,testingof production
vehiclesis necessaryin orderto be certain0ratproductionvehiclesactuallymeet
standards.

VehicleBuild - UsefulLife

Vehiclesmay meetstandards whennew but may fail to meetstandards during


their usefullife, eventhough properly maintained,due to excessive deterioration
in-use. Suchdeteriorationmay occurbecause the manufacturer failed to translate
effectivelythe designinto massproduction,or becausethe certifieddesignis
inadequate certificationtestingto accurately
dueto the inabilityof the accelerated
simulatein-usestandards.In suchcases,it is desirablethat the manufacturer be
requiredto fix the vehicleat his own expensefor two reasons;one, !o reduce
emissionsfrom the vehicle,andtwo, to deterthe manufacturer from building such
vehiclesin the future.

Mechanisms for identifyingexcessivelypollutingvehiclesin-useincludein-use


testing,defectreportingby manufacturersandby vehicleowners,stateinspection
programs,and assembly-line testing. Mechanisms for requiringmanufacturersto
fix suchvehiclesare providedby recall andwarrantyprogranu.

ProperMaintenance

Vehiclesmay havebeendesignedandbuilt to meetstandards but they will not do


so unlessproperlymaintained.To the extentthat motorvehiclescanbe designed
to eliminateor minimizenecessiuymaintenance, the magnitudeof this vital taskof
ensuringpropermaintenance canbe reduced.A meansfor achievingreduced
maintenance requirements might be to force technologyby graduallyrequiring
manufacturers to reducemaintenance performedduring certificationtestingandto
similady reducethe pre-requisitemaintenance for warrantypurposes.However,
the inability of the certificationprocessto assess the needfor time dependent (as
opposedto mileage-dependenQ maintenancesuggeststhat warranty requirements
would be a principleenforcement tool.

The fundamentalrequirements for achievingpropermaintenance of vehiclesin-use


would seemto be providing(i) the incentivefor car ownersto obtainproper
to provideproper
and (ii) the ability andincentiveof the marketplace
maintenance,
maintenance.

1t7
Motor vehicle air pollution

Owner Incentive

Requiringmaintenance tlrrougha mandatoryI/M (inspectionand maintenance)


programwould be the mosteffective"incentive"for car owners. The successof
an I/M program,eitherin termsof maximizingemissionreductionbenefitsor in
termsof obtainingpublic acceptance, dependsuponrqNsuringthe public that
manufacturers are doingtheir part, i.e., tlat the vehiclesare designedandbuilt to
meetstandardsif properlymaintained,andthat manufacturers will bearLheeostif
they do not meetstandards.

A significantaspectof an I/M programis the inspectiontestusedto identifo


vehiclesin needof maintenance.A shortinexpensive testwhich correlateswith
the full test is highly desirable. Sucha testwould not only makethe I/M program
more costeffectivein termsof direct emissionreductionscapability,it would also
makethe inspectionsan extremelyvaluablesurveillancetool for usein conjunction
with assembly-line testing,recall, andwarrantyprogr:rms,and it would makeI/lvI
morepalatableby activatingthe performance warranty.

MarketplaceAbility

The ability of the markeplaceto providepropermaintenance is first dependenton


knowingwhatpropermaintenance is, andmanufacturers are requiredto speciff
such"reasonable and necessary" maintenance in owner'smanuals.Reviewof
thoseinstructionsby an agencysuchasthe UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtection
Agency(USEPA),to ensurereflectionof at leaststateof the art technologyin
reducedmaintenance requirements canbe important. Manufacturers may alsobe
requiredto designtlreir vehiclesand maintenance requirements to avoid
"foreseeable" instances of improperor mis-adjustment.where particularfuels are
requiredas in the caseof unleadedgasolinefor catalystequippedvehicles,that
fuel mustbe madeavailable. Further,msnuresmustalsobe taken(suchas labels
in the filler inlet areaandon the dashboard;fuel filler inlet restrictorsdesignedto
accommodate only the slightly narrowerfuel nozzlethat shouldbe usedfor
unleadedfuel) to be surethat vehicleownersanddriversare fully awareof the
needfor unleadedfuel in their vehicles. Also, someconsideration shouldbe given
to pricing policiesfor unleadedandleadedfuels so that vehicleownersand drivers
do not havean economicincentiveto useleadedfuel whena vehiclerequires
unleadedfuel. The serviceindustrymustbe educatedto the requirements of
tuning for emissioncontrolratherthantraditionalperformanceandgiven sufficient
incentivesuchas the mandatoryrequirementon their customersof passingan I/M
testto providesuchtuning. The aftermarketserviceandpartsindustrymustbe
ableto providereplacement partswhich do not adverselyaffectemissions
performance.In addition,mqNuresto preventintentionaltamperingwith
emissionscontrolsystemsmustbe undertaken.

118
Control measures and their effectiveness

FueI hmposition

Fuel compositionmay be controlled,as in the caseof unleadedfuel, for the


purposeof propermaintenance, as discussedabove. In suchcases,controlof fuel
compositionis only indirectlya mqsure for controllingemissions.Fuel
compositionmay alsobe controlledasthe direct meansof controllingemissions,
as is the casein reducingthe leadcontentof leadedgasolineto controllead
emissions,or couldbe the casein reducingsulfur contentto controlsulfate
emissions.lAlso, it shouldbe noted,unleadedgasolinelowersexhaustHC
emissionscomparedto the useof leadedfuel dueto changesin the characteristics
of combustionchamberdeposits.

Recentstudiescarriedout in the UnitedStatesby the autoandoil industries(the


so calledAuto/Oil study)indicatethat gasolinevehicleexhaustHC emissions
decrease significantlywith lower fuel sulfur.

Dieselfuel generallycontainsmuchhigherlevelsof sulfurthan gasoline.


Therefore,manyOECD (Organization for EconomicCooperationand
Development)countrieshavedecidedto takestepsto lower the sulfur levelsas a
strategyto reducedieselparticulateemissions.This hasthe addedbenefitof
increasingthe potentialfor catalyticcontrolof dieselparticulateandorganicHC
emissions.

Controlof gasolinevolatility is anotherimportantstrategyfor reducingvehicle


evaporativeand refueling emissions,especiallyin areaswith warmer climates.
Experiencein the US indicatedthat whenleadin gasolinewas reducedduringthe
1970'sand 1980's,highly volatilebutanecomponents wereaddedat leastin part
to enhanceoctanelevels,with the resultthat gasolinevolatility andevaporative,
emissionsincreasedsignificantly. Controlof fuel volatility is relatively
inexpensiveand easilyaccomplished. It cangreatlylower vehicleevaporative
emissionswhich accountfor roughly30 to 50Voof total vehicleHC emissions.

additivesin gasolinelowersexhaustHC andCO but


Similarly, useof oxygenated
shouldhaveno effecton evaporativeemissionsas long asfuel volatility is not

IIt is worth notingthat eventhoughan oxidationcatalystmay resultin


slightly greaterconversionof sulfur oxidesto sulfate,all sulfur oxidesin the
afinosphere are convertedto sulfates. So the useof catalystsdoesnot resultin
increasedsulfatesconsideringthe atmospheric transformation.Usually,the sulfur
contentof gasolineis so low that gasolinefueledvehictescauselessthanone
percentof the sulfur oxidesin a givencountry.

119
Motor vehicle air pollution

increased. Use of compoundssuch as methyl-tertiary-butyletherGvffBD do not


increasefuel volatility; however,splashblendingof alcoholssuchas ethanolcan
increasevolatility.

Conholling Vehicle Miles Travelled (VIvIf)

Reductionof VMT is an additionalmeansof controllingemissions,e.g., through


carpooling,increaseduseof masstransit,parkingrestrictions,gasrationing,etc.
Exarples of suchstrategiesinclude:

1. PoliciesTo InduceShiftsTo More EffrcientTransportation


Modes

Thasepoliciesact to reducetransportation energyconsumptionandemissionsper


seatmile. Incentivesincludetransitfare reductionsand serviceimprovements,
suchas extendingcoverage,reducingheadways,improving travel time and
reliability of on-timeservice,coordinatingtransfers,andconstructionofpark and
ride facilities. Disincentivesusuallyfall on the privateautomobilein the form of
increasedparkingcharges,surchargetaxeson motor fuel, andgasolineand diesel
fuel rationing.

2. Policie.sto lncreasethe Load Factorof ExistingVehicleFleets.

Thesepoliciesattemptto increasepassenger milesper seatmile. Incentives


include carpool matchingand informationprograms,vanpooland commuterbus
prograrns,dial a ride, shuttleandjitney services.Examplesof disincentivesare
similar to thosenotedabove.

3. Policiesto Shift Time of PeakTravel DemandOccurrence.

Thesepolicieswork to decrease transportationemissionsper seatmile for all


modesby spreadingcongasted peaktraffrc loadsover a broadertime frameto
improveusepatternsof existingtransportation capacitytherebyimprovingvehicle
operatingefficiency. Includedamongthesepoliciesarefreewayramp metering
programs,fourday-work weeks,staggeredwork hours, and generaltraffic
circulationimprovements, suchas synchronized signals.

4. Policiesto ReduceTravel Demand

Thesepoliciesattemptto decrease passengermilesthroughredistributionof urban


activities. Examplesincludelandusepoliciesto promotemixedland use,to
increasedensityalongtransitcorridors,andto coordinatenew subdivision
development into effrcientpatterns. An examplesof policiestakingadvantage of
new technologias is the substitutionof communications
for transportation
flows.

r20
Control measuresand their effectiveness

Thoughgenerallypoliticallylessacceptable,
suchapproaches tendto promotefuel
conservation,canaid in urbanrenewal,andrepresentthe only mobilesource
controlmeasureremainingoncevehiclecontroltechnologyhasbeenpushedto its
limits.

Whateversuccessis achievedin reducingper mile emissionsftom vehiclescanbe


eventuallyerodedby continuedhigh growth ratesin the numberand use of
vehicles. With very few exceptions(SingaporeandHong Kong beingamongthe
controlsto reducethis growthhavebeena failure, not
bright spots),transportation
because they cannotwork but ratherbecausemostcountrieshavenot seriously
tried to implementthem.

solutionsto the motor vehiclepollutionproblem


It is now clearthat technological
are increasinglyoffsetby growth in the vehiclepopulation. Therefore,long term
solutionof the environmentproblemis dependent on comingto grips with the
overallgrowth issue. High growth impactson emissionsin two ways. Not only
doesit directly increaseemissions(moremilesdriven = morepollution),it leads
to more congestionwhich further increases emissions.

Strateg5rEvaluation

As the abovediscussionindicates,variousenforcement tools are availableto


addresseachstageof a vehicle'slife cycle. The certificationprocesswhich
requirestestingof prototypecarsprior to production,canaffectvehicledesignat
low mileageandto a limited degree,the durabilityof emissioncontrols. Since
certificationrequiresreviewsof a manufacturer's proposedmaintenance schedules,
it may c.onstrainthe manufacturerfrom imposingthe necessary level of
maintenanceand therebyreducethe potentialeffectivenessof recall and warranty.
Someprototypemaintenanceneverthelessis not requiredto be recommendedto
the consumer.Its major advantage, that it affectsvehicledesignearly in the
designprocessbeforeactualproductionbegins,is alsoits major weakness,in that
necessarily,it dealswith somewhatartificial, prototypecarsin an artificial
environment.By its very nature,therefore,it cannotaddressproduction
problems,deteriorationdueto age,real world driving, ambientextremesnor the
amountand quality of maintenancethat will actuallybe performedin-use.

AssemblyLine Testingrequirestestingof new productionvehiclesand is the only


techniquewhich can be usedto ensurebefore salethat vehicleswhen built are in
fact meetingemissionstandards.However,its impacton durabilityof design
dependson requiringallowances for deterioration,which are derivedfrom other
programs,suchas certificationor in-usetesting. Further,like certification,it
cannotinfluencethe amountor qualityof maintenance performedin-use.

t2r
Motor vehicle air pollution

The recall andwarrantyprograms2 canprovidesomeincentiveto individualsto


properlymaintaintheir vehiclesandare ftreonly programswhich candirectly
affectthe actualin-usedurabilityof vehicles. Theseprogramsare subjectto the
limitationsof dealingonly with properlymaintainedvehiclesand a generallyless
thanperfectresponseon the part of individualvehicleowners,andthey would
appearonly to affect*rosevehicleswhich are likely to havebeenpolluting
excessively for sometime. They representtherefore,remediesappliedafter
considerable damagehasbeendone.Further,muchof their potentialeffectiveness
is lost after vehiclesare in-usemorethanone or two years. However,the major
impactof thesemanufacturerdirectedin-useprogramsis a significantdeterrentto
the designand/ormanufacture of vehicleswhich will fail to complyinitially or as
a resultof deteriorationfrom actualuse.

I/M is the only compliancetechniquewhich ensuresthat in-usevehiclesare


properlymaintained.By requiringthat vehiclespassa retest,it directly influerrces
the quantityand qualityof maintenance
in additionto the design,throughthe
warrantyandrecallprogramswhich useI/M as a surveillancetool.

I/M is probablythe mosteffective"anti-tampering"programbecauseof the


intensivesurveillancebuilt into the periodicinspection.such surveillanceis
particularlyhelpful in addressing vehiclemaladjustmentswhich causevehiclesto
exceedstandards.However,whereI/M is not in effect,grosstamperingby
dealersmay be discouraged by rigorousapplicationof an "anti-tampering"
program.

The benefitsof I/M, however,are limited by the adequacyof the shorttestused,


the ability of the serviceindustryto makeproperrepairsandthe potential
tamperingwhich couldoccurfollowing the testto allow the vehicle!o emit high
emissionsthroughoutthe year.

It seemsclear,therefore,that the idealprogrammustincludeall of the above


elements.

2Historically,in the US, thesehave


appliedto vehiclesfor five yearsor
50,000miles.However,in the 1990Amendments to the CleanAir Act, warranty
liability was extendedto 8 yearsor 80,000milesfor major emissioncontrol
componentssuchas the catalytic converter,the electroniccontrol unit and the
onboarddiagnosticcontrols;the warrantyfor all o0reremissioncontroldevicesis
reducedto 2 yearsor 24,000miles which evercomesfirst. Recallliability will be
graduallyincreasedto 10 yearsor l@,000 miles, with in userecallrcstinglimited
to 75,000miles.

t22
Control measuresand their effectiveness

Schedule/ Sequence

In a perfectworld, with unlimitedresources,one might wish to implementall of


the abovestrategies,simultaneously, at the very startof a program. This is very
rarely, if ever, feasibleor practicalandcouldevenbe counterproductive.

Therefore,it is necessary to makedecisionsabouthow to phasein the various


strategies. One suchapproachis to devotethe early stagesof the programto
laying a firm foundationfor further action. The first stepsarethe adoptionof
necessary andfeasiblestandards,widespread distributionof necessaryfuels,
limiting the import of uncertifiedvehiclesto individuals(ratherthan commercial
companies), limited certificationand assemblyline testprograrnsto ensure
adequate vehicledesigns,introductionof voluntaryI/M programs(which means
every vehicle must be inspectedbut repair and retestis not yet mandatory),and
the designand constructionof necessary governmenttestingfacilitiesfor future
programs.

In the secondphase,the requirements canbe graduallytightened. I/M should


becomemandatoryandthe standards madeprogressivelymore sFingent,
importationof non-certifiedcarsrestricted,and selectivegovernmenttestingused
to verify certificationresultsand institutenecessary
recalls.

Finally, asthe fundamental structuregetsaccepted,it canbe graduallyand


routinelytightened.For manufacturers, canbe mademore stringentas
standards
technologyadvances, Recallliability andwarrantyprotectioncanbe extendedto
the actualvehiclelifetime, and allowablemaintenance requirementscanbe
reduced. Fuelscanalsocontinueto be improved. Onboarddiagnosticscanbe
introducedon new carsandI/M programscanbe modifiedto more fully utilize
them.

Vehicle Pollution Controls: The State of the Art

Petrol Fueled Vehicles

Significantprogresshasoccurredover the pasttwo decadesin the development of


for petrol fueledvehicles.
a wide variety of emissionsreductiontechnologies

Beforecontrolswererequired,enginecrankcases wereverrteddirectlyto the


atmosphere.Crankcase emissionscontrolswhich basicallyconsistof closingthe
crankcasevent port were introducedon new carsin the UnitedStatesin the early
1960'swith the resultthat today,controlof theseemissionsis no longera serious
concern.

123
Motor vehicle air pollution

The hydrocarbonevaporativeemissionsresultfrom distillationof fuel in the


carburetorfloat bowl and evaporationof fuel in the gastank. To control these
emissions,manufacturersgenerallyfeed theseemissionsback into the engineto be
burnedalongwith the otherfuel. Whenthe engineis not in operation,vaporsiue
stored,eitherin the enginecrankcase or in charcoalcanisterswhich havea strong
affimty for theseemissions,andthenburnedoff whenthe engineis started.3
Technologyto controlthesevaporsis now readilyavailablebut its overall
effectivenessis dependenton the fuel volatility for which it has beendasigned.

Exhaustemissionsof hydrocarbons, carbonmonoxideand nitrogenoxidesare


relatedto the airlfuel mixtureinjected,the peaktemperatures andpressuresin
eachcylinder,whetherleadis addedto the petrol, combustionchambergeometry,
and other enginedesignparameters. Variationsin theseparametersate, therefore,
capableof causingsignificantincreases or decreases in theseemissions.The most
importantparameters areprobablyair/fuel ratio and mixturepreparation,ignition
timing, and combustionchamberdesign. Variationsin theseparameters are
usuallykey elementsin vehiclecontrolswhenmodestlight duty vehicleemissions
standardsare imposed.

Dilution of the incomingchargehas beenshownto reducepeak cycle temperature


by slowingflamespeedand absorbingsomeheatof combustion.Recirculatinga
portionof the exhaustgasbackinto the incomingair/fuel mixture (EGR)thereby
loweringpeakcycletemperature is thereforeusedto lower NO*.

Improvementsin mixture preparation,injection systerns,and ignition systemscan


increasedilutiontolerance.This canalsobe achievedby increasingthe burn rate
or flame speedof the air-fuelcharge. Techniquesto do this includeincreased
swirl andsquish,shorterflamepaths,andmultipleignitionsources.

Electronics

With so manyinterrelatedenginedesignandoperatingvariablesplayingan
increasinglyimportantrole in the modernengine,the control systemhas takenon
increasedimportance. Modificationsin sparktiming must be closely coordinated
with air-fuel ratio changesand degreesof EGR lest significantfuel economyor
performancepenaltiesresultfrom emissionsreductions,or NO, emissionsincrease
as CO goesdown. In addition,controlswhich canbe muchmoreselective

3Suchan approachimprovesvehiclefuel effrciencyas vaporspreviously


releasedto the atmosphere
now do work.

t24
Control measuresand their effectiveness

dependingon engineload or speedhavebeenfoundbeneficialin preventing


widespreadadverseimpacts.

Therefore,electronicshavebegunto replacemoretraditionalmechanicalcontrols.
For exanple, electroniccontrol can optimize ignition timing under all engine
conditionsand hasthe addedadvantageof reducedmaintenanceand improved
durability comparedwith mechanicalsystems. When coupledwith electronic
control of EGR, it has beendemonstratedthat NO* emissionscan be reducedwith
no fuel economypenaltyand in somecaseswith improvedfuel economy.

Exhaust afrer-treatrnentdevices

Whenstringentexhaustemissionsstandards or nitrogen
(especiallyhydrocarbons
oxides)are madecompulsory,exhaustafter-treatmentdevicessuchas catalytic
converterstend to be usedto supplementenginemodifications.

An oxidationcatalystis a devicewhich is placedon 0retailpipeof a car and


which, if the chemistryandthermodynamics arefavorable,will oxidizealmostall
the HC and CO in the exhauststream. One of the uniqueadvantagesof catalysts
is their ability to selectivelyeliminatesomeof the moreunhealthycompoundsin
vehicle exhaustsuchas aldehydes,reactivehydrocarbonsand polynucleararomatic
hydrocarbons.

Three-waycatalysts(so calledbecauseof their ability to lower HC, CO and NO.


levels simultrnmusty) were first introducedin the United Statesin 1977by Volvo
andsubsequently becamewidely usedwhenthe US NO, standardwas loweredto
1.0 gramsper mile. To work effectively,thasecatalystsrequireprecisecontrolof
airlfuel mixtures. As a result, three way systemshave indirectly fostered
improved air/fuel management systemssuchas advancedcarburetorsand throttle
body fuel injectionsystemsaswell as electroniccontrols.

Startingwith 1975modelyearcars,catalystshavebeenplacedon upwardsof 80


per cent of all new cars sold in ttre United States;in the last few years, either
oxidationor three-waycatalystshavebeenplacedon all new petrol fueled cars.
In Japanand Canada,catalystsare alsowidely usedto meetemissionstandards.
Many cars in Austria, the Netherlands,Swedenand Germanyare startingto be
sold with thesesystemsandthey are requiredon new cars in Australia and
Switzerland.

SpecialProblemsWith Two-StrokeEngines

Sincemanyof the two-wheeledvehicleswhich are prevalentin manydeveloping


countriesare poweredby two-strokeengines,a few specialcommentsare in

125
Motor vehicle air pollution

order. In general,mostof the solutionsto reduceemissionsfrom four-stroke


enginescanbe appliedto two-strokes.However,in addition,sincemuchof the
HC emittedcomesfrom lubricatingoil, this deservesspecialattention. "It is
knownthat visible smokecanbe reducedby the useof engineoils containing
polyisobutylene, andalsoby leanerfuel oil ratios. Thereforethe separated
lubricationsystem,which bringsaboutoverallleanerfuel/oil ratios,seemsto be
favorablefor smokereduction(SugiuraandKagaya,L97i)." Further, 'since
1986,mopedswith catalystshavebeenavailablein Switzerlandand in Austria".
Thesemopedsare requiredby law to complywith the stringentemissions
standards in thesecountries(LaimbochandLanderl, 1990). It is a fair conclusion
to statetodaythat the historicalproblemsof high smokeandunburned
hydrocarbons from two-stroketechnologyare no longertechnologicallynecessary.
"New technologypromisesto resolvetheseconcerns.As examples,direct
cylinderelectronicfuel injection,electroniccomputercontrol, and catalytic
exhaustconversionare now commonplace solutions(lVyczalek,1991).,

It is worth notingthat moderntwo-strokeenginesare emergingwhich are stafting


to demonstrate very low emissions,excellentfuel economy,andlow cost.
Foremostamongtheseis the orbital Enginewhich hasundergonetestingby the
usEPA, andon at leastone modelappearscloseto achievingthe very stringent
Ultra Low EmissionVehicleStandards of ttreStateof California.

OffRoad Vehiclesand Engines

Recentstudieshaveindicatedthat vehiclesand enginesdesignedfor useoff-road


canbe importantsourcesof emissions.Suchenginesincludethe following: lawn
andgardenequipment,airportserviceequipment,recreationalequipment,light
commercialequipment,industrialequipment,constructionequipment,agricultural
equipment,loggingequipmentand commercialmarinevessels.

Both the USEPAandthe california Air ResourcesBoardare in the processof


developingstandardsfor someof thesesources.In additionthe European
communityandthe UN Economiccommissionfor Europeare in the processof
investigatingproposalsin this area.

Diesel Fueled Vehictes

While the majortechnicalproblemsassociated with reducingemissionsfrorn petrol


c:us iue solved,it is apparentthat reductionsfrom thesevehiclqsaloneare not
sufficientto solvethe air pollutionproblemsin manyareas. Dieseltrucksand
buseshavethereforebeenreceivingincreasedattentionas significantsourcesof
particulatesand No*. Emissionsdeteriorationis very low for dieselvehicles
comparedto petrol anddieselvehicleshaveinherentlylow HC emissionsalthough

126
Control measuresand their effectiveness

theseHC's arehigherin molecularweightandthusof a differentchafacterthan


thosefrom petrol engines. Further,uncontrolleddieselenginesemit objectionable
exhaustodorswhich are a frequentsourceof complaintsfrom the public. The US
hasadoptedstandards for thesevehicleswhich will fostertechnological
developmentssimilarto thosewhich havealreadyoccurredfor petrol cars. These
developmentsare receivingcloseattentionfrom other countries.

Smokeemissionsfrom dieselenginesare composed primarily of unburnedcarbon


particlesfrom the fuel andusuallyresultfrom an excessof fuel availablefor
combustion.This conditionis mostlikely to occurunderhigh engineload
conditionssuchas acceleration and engineluggingwhenthe engineneeds
additionalfuel for power. Further, a commonmaintenance error, failure to clean
or replacea dirty air cleaner,may producehigh smokeemissionsbecauseit can
chokeoff availableair to the engineresultingin a lower thanoptimumair-fuel
mixture. Vehicleoperationcanalsobe importantsincesmokeemissionsftom
dieselenginesare minimizedby selectionof the propertransmission gearto keep
the engineoperatingat the mostefficientspeeds.Moderateaccelerations, lower
highwaycruisingspeedas well asreducedspeedfor hill climbingalsominimize
smokeemissions.

to dieselengineemissioncontrolfall into threemajor categories:


Basicapproaches
* enginemodifications,includingcombustionchamberconfigurationand
design,fuel injectiontiming andpattern,turbochargingandEGR;
* includingtraps,trap oxidizersand catalysts;and
exhaustafter-treatment,

* fuel modifications,includingcontrolof fuel properties,fuel additive'sand


alternativefuels.

NO* controltechniques beingphasedinto the dieselpopulationincludevariable


injectiontiming andpressure,chargecooling,andEGR. Retardinginjection
timing, while a well knownmethodof reducingNO, formation,canleadto
increases in fuel consumption,andparticulateandhydrocarbonemissiorrs.These
problemscanbe mitigatedby varyingthe injectiontiming with engineload or
speed. Also, high pressureinjectioncanreducetheseproblems. If coupledwith
electroniccontrols,it appearsthat NO, emissionscouldbe reducedsignificantly
with a simultaneousimprovementin fuel economy(althoughnot as great as would
occurif electronicswere addedwithout any emissionrequirements).

With relativelylenientparticulatestandards,enginemodificationsare generally


sufficientto lower engine-outemissionlevels. They includechangesin
combustionchamberdesign,fuel injectiontiming andspraypattern,

127
Motor vehicle air pollution

turbocharging,andthe useof EGR. Furtherparticulatecontrolsappearpossible


throughgreateruseof electronicallycontrolledfuel injectionwhich is currently
underrapid development.Using sucha system,signalsproportionalto fuel rate
andpistonadvancepositionare measuredby sensorsandare electronically
processed by the electroniccontrolsystemto determinethe optimumair fuel ratio
and timing.

Oneof the importantfactorsin dieselcontroldesignis that NO*, particulateand


hydrocarbonemissionsare closelyinterdependent.For example,retardedtiming
within certainrangesdecreasesNO* andparticulatesbut can lead to increasesin
HC. As technologyhasadvanced,thesepotentialtrade-offshavediminished. For
example,certainnew enginedesigns(combustionchambermodifications,
electronicallycontrolledfuel injection,etc.) haveresultedin simultaneous
reductionin HC, particulatesand NO*.

Exhaustafter-treatmentmethodsincludetraps, trap oxidizers, and catalysts. Trap


oxidizerprototypesystemshaveshownthernselves capableof70 to 90 percent
reductionsfrom engine-outparticulateemissionsratesand with proper
regeneration,the ability to achievetheseratesfor high mileage. Basicallyall rely
on trappinga major portionof the engine-outparticlesand consumingthembefore
they accumulate sufficientlyto saturatethe filter andcauseproblems,suchas
increasedfuel consumptionand reducedperformance.

Worldwide Progress In Lowering Vehicle F'.missions

Advancesin automotivetechnologies havemadeit possibleto dramaticallylower


emissionsfrom motor velricles. Increasingly,countriesaroundthe world have
beentakingadvantage of them. Initial crankcase
HC controlswere first
introducedin the early '60's followed by exhaustCo and HC standardslater that
decade.By the early to mid 1970's,mostmajor industrialcountrieshad initiated
somelevel of vehiclepollutioncontrolprogr:rm. For a varietyof reasons--
differing typesanddegreesof air pollutionproblems,varyingvehicle
characteristics,economicconditions,etc. .- the emissionscontrolapproaches
differ significantly betweencountries.

Petrol Vehicles

Japan and fiu AS

During the mid to late 1970's,advancedtechnologies


were introducedon most
new carsin the US andJapan. Thesetechnologies resultedfrom a conscious
decisionto "forcenthe development of new approachesandwere ableto
dramaticallyreduceCO, HC and NQ emissionsbelow levelsachievedby

128
Control measures and their effectiveness

previoussystems.As knowledgeof thesetechnologicaldevelopments on cars


spread,and as the adverseeffecS of motor vehicle pollution becamemore widely
recognized,more andmorepeopleacrossthe globebegandemandingthe useof
thesesystemsin their countries.
'Western
Europe

During the mid 1980's,Austria,the Netherlands andthe FederalRepublicof


Germanyadoptedinnovativeeconomicincentiveapproachesto encouragepurchase
of low pollutionvehicles. Sincethen, Australia,Austria,Canada,Denmark,
Finland,Norway, SwedenandSwitzerlandhaveall decidedto adoptmandatory
requirements.

Within the EuropeanCommunity,at the EuropeanCouncil of Environmental


Ministersmeetingon 12 June1991,therewasunanimousagreement to adoptthe
199211993 autostandards provisionswhich havebeenon the tableover the last
few yearsalongwith an additiondstepto be introducedin approximately1996.
However,the detailsof the "secondstep"will needto awaitsubsequent action
sincethe EuropeanParliamentwasunableto mustersuffrcientvotesto resolvethe
question. Specificallythe Ministersdecidedto:

l. Requireall new modelsof light duty vehiclesby July 1992nd all new cars
after 1 January1993to meetemissionstandards roughlyequivalentto US
1987levelsQ.72 elkmCO, 0.97 g/km of HC plusNO,,,0.14 g/km of
particulatesfor Type Approval,3.16 g/km CO, 1.13g/km for HC plus NO*,
0.18 g/km particulatesfor Conformityof Production),

2 . Requirethe Commissionto developa proposalbefore3t December1992


which, taking accountof technicalprogress,will requirea further reduction
in limit values,

3. To havethe Councildecidebefore3l December1993on the standards


proposedby the Commission,and

4. Prior to 1996,to encourage the introductionin all countries,of tax systemsin


which pollutantsand other substances form the basisfor calculatingmotor
vehiclecirculationtaxes.

Rapidly htdustrializing C.ountrie


s

Evenrapidly industrializing,developingcountriessuchas Brazil, Mexico, South


KoreaandTaiwanhaveadoptedstringentemissionsregulations.Most recently,
during 1990,suchrequirements havespreadto Chile, Hong Kong andSingapore.

r29
Motor vehicle air pollution

Adoptionof currentstateof the art emissionsstandards hasbeendemonstrated to


substantiallylower emissions.For example,in ttre Unitedstatestoday, cars
exhaustlessthan20 percentof the hydrocarbons andcarbonmonoxideper mile
driven thanuncontrolledvehiclesdid in the 1960's. studiesconductedby a major
US car manufacturerindicatethat the effectiveness
of emissioncontrolsvstems
continuesto improve:

In summary,the in-useexhaustemissionperformancehasimproved
substantiallysincethe introductionof computercontrolledclosed-loopsystems
in 1981. GM's 1986modelyearperformanceis belowthe Federalstandards,
on average,at 50,000miles. Additionalimprovements, especiallyfor CO,
are desired.

Heavy Duty Trucls, Busesand Diesels

Therearevariousproblemsassociated with dieselsmokeandparticulate,for


which controlprogramshavebeenunderwayfor manyyears. The next section
will reviewthe history of theseprogramsto date. In general,the initial focuswas
on smokecontrolbecauseit was clearlyvisible anda nuisance.As the evidence
has grown in recentyearsregardingthe serioushealth and environmentalrisks of
dieselexhausts,more attentionhasfocusedon controlof the particlesthemselves.
while smokestandards lower visible smoke,they are not as effectiveat lowering
particulateemissionsasparticulatestandards are. That is, thereis somebut not
completecorrelationbetweenvisible smokeandparticulate.Smokestandards are
designedto addressvisibility problemsandparticulatestandards are designedto
achieveacceptable ambientparticulatelevels.

UnitedStates

us emissioncontrolrequirements for smokefrom enginesusedin heavyduty


trucksandbuseswerefirst implemented for the 1970modelyear. Theseopacity
standards were specifiedin termsof percentof light allowedto be blockedby the
smokein the dieselexhaust(asdeterminedby a light extinctionmeter). Heavy
duty dieselenginesproducedduringmodelyears1970through1973were allowed
a light extinctionof 40 percentduringthe accelerationphaseof the certification
testand 20 percentduringthe luggingportion; 1974andlater modelyearsare
subjectto smokeopacitystandards of 20 percentduringacceleration,15 percent
duringlugging,and50 percentat maximumpower.

The first dieselexhaustparticulatestandards in the world were established


for cars
andhght trucksby the USEPAon 5 March 1980. standardsof 0.6 gramsper
mile (0.37 g/km) wereset for all carsand light rrucksstartingwith the 19g2
modelyear droppingto 0.2 gramsper mile (0.12g/km) and 0.26 (0.16)for l9s5

130
Control measuresand their effectiveness

modelyear carsandlight trucks, respectively.In early 1984,USEPAdelayedthe


secondphaseof the standards from the 1985to 1987modelyearto providemore
time for manufacturers
to comply. Almost simultaneously,Californiadecidedto
its
adopt own dieselparticulate -
standards 0.4 grams per mile (0.25g/km) in
1985,0.2 (0.12)in 1986 and 1987, and0.08 (0.05)in 1989.

for heavyduty dieselengineswerepromulgatedby the


Particulatestandards
USEPAin March, 1985. Standards of 0.60 gramsper Brake- Horsepower-
Hour (g/bhph)(0.80gramsper kilowatt-hour)were adoptedfor 1988through
1990modelyears,0.25 (0.34)for l99l through1993modelyearsand0.10 (0.13)
for 1994and later modelyears. Because of the specialneedfor bus controlin
urbanareas,the 0.10 (0.13)standardfor thesevehicleswill go into effectin 1993,
andthenbe cut by an additional50% oneyearlater.

Subsequently, USEPArevisedthe 0.26 gramsper mile dieselparticulatestandard


for certainlightduty trucks. Lightduty dieseltrucks (LDDTs) with a loaded
vehicleweightof 3751poundsor greater,otherwiseknownasLDDT2s, were
requiredto meeta 0.50 gramsper mile standardfor 1987and0.45 gramsper mile
level for 1988-1990.For the 1991andlater modelyearsthe standardwas
tightenedto 0.13 gramsper mile.

It is worth notingthat the driving force behindttre controlof particulateemissions


from vehiclesin the US hasbeenthe adverseimpactsof particleson mortalityand
morbidity. While concernshaveexistedregardingpotentialcarcinogenic effects
from exposureto dieselexhaust,this hasnot yet beenthe basisfor regulationof
theseemissions.

Canada

In March of 1985,in parallelwith a significanttighteningof gaseousemissions


standards,Canadaadoptedthe USEPAparticulatestandards for carsand light
trucl$ (0.2 and0.26 gramsper mile, respectively) to go into effectin the 1988
modelyear. Sincethen, Canadaalsodecidedto adoptUSEPAstandards for
heavyduty vehiclesfor 1988aswell. Canadaintendsto closelymonitor
developments in the US as 1994approaches; if technologyadvances sufficiently,
andif the US retainsis existingstandards,it appearslikely that Canadawill adopt
them.

Japan

Smokestandardshaveappliedto both new andin-usevehiclessince 1972and,


1975,respectively.The maximumpermissiblelimits for both are50 percent
opacity;however,the new vehiclestandardis the morestringentbecausesmokeis

13r
Motor vehicle air pollution

measuredat full load, while in-usevehiclesare requiredto meetstandards


under
the lesssevereno-loadacceleration test.

Recently,after a lengthyprocessof internaldebateanddiscussion,the Ministry of


Transporthasissueda reporton and a plan for dealingwith dieselparticulateand
nitrogenoxide emissions.It includesboth a shortterm and a long term set of
standards.

Also includedin the strategydocumentis the adoptionof a high speeddriving


cyclefor all light duty vehiclecategories.

EuropeanCommunity

Smokelimits similarto thosedescribedabovein the UnitedStatesandJapanhave


beenin effectin Europefor manyyears. Exhaustsmokelevelsare currently
recommended by EEC Regulation24 (equivalentto EEC Directive721306).
Measurements aretakenusinglight absorptiontype apparatus.

However,recognizingthe inadequacy of theserequirements, the European


CommunityEnvironmentalMinistersdecidedin December1987to adopta
particulatestandardfor light duty diesels. First stagerequirementshavenow been
introducedandwill be graduallytightenedthroughoutthe 1990's.

At presentthereis no particulateemissionslegislationin force for heavyduty


enginesin the EC. Commentingon this, the Houseof Lords (UK) Select
Committeeon the EuropeanCommunitiesissueda reporton "Particulate
EmissionsFrom Diesel-Engined cars", basedon evidencegatheredduring 1987in
which they concludedthat

"The Committeeare impressed by the evidencethey havereceivedwhich


suggeststhat the environmentalbenefitsof the proposal[regardingparticulate
emissionsfrom dieselcarsin the CommonMarketl will be negligible. They
agreewith thosewitnesses who describedit as doinglittle morethan
maintainingthe environmental statusquo...Thecommitteebelievettratuntil
legislationis introducedto controlparticulateemissionsfrom largedie,sel-
enginedvehicles,the main environmental impactof dieselvehicleswill be
unalleviated."

In responsea proposalwasdevelopedandat the I october 1991meetingof the


Councilof EnvironmentalMinisters,final agreement
wasreachedon the Directive
!o tightenheavyduty vehicleemissionstandards.The "cleanlorry" directivefixes
EEC normswhich will be compulsorythroughoutthe EC (not optional),in two
stages:

r32
Control measuresand their effectiveness

1) After I July 1992,new typesof dieselenginesanddiesel-fuelvehicleswill


haveto respectthe following nonns:
- qubon monoxide(CO g/kwh = 4.5);
- hydrocarbons (HC g/kWh = 1.1);
- nitrogenoxides(NOx g/kWh = 8), and
- particulatesaccordingto engine-power:
lessthan 85 kW (PT g/kWh = 0.63), or
morethan 85 kW (PT g/kwh = 0.36).

Accordingto the EuropeanCommission,the vehicleindustryis alreadygetting


readyto ensureconformityto thesenormsfor mostvehiclemodels.

2\ After 1 October1995,the new dieselenginesandvehicleswill haveto


complywith the following standards:
- carbonmonoxideexhaust(CO g/kWh = 4);
- hydrocarbons (HC g/kWh : 1.1);
- nitrogenoxide (NO* g/kWh = 7), and
- particulateemissions(Pf g/kwh = 0.2).

Non-EC CountriesIn WesternEurope

SeveralotherEuropeancountrieshavebeencooperativelymovingtowardmore
significantdieselparticulaterequirements.Swedenhasalreadyadoptedthe US-
EPA passenger car standardto go into effectin 1989andSwitzerlandandAustria
arelikely to do so in the nearfuture. In Austria,a maximumpermissiblelimit for
particulateemissionsof 0.373g/km (0.6 gramsper mile) is alreadyprescribed.

On the 4 May 1988the Swissgovernmentintroducednew emissionstandards for


heavyduty vehiclesto go into effecton I October1991;they includestandards
for CO, NO* andVOC as well as for particulates.The standards, basedon the
EuropeanRegulationECE R 49, ue asfollows:

PresentStandards Prior Standards


by I Oct. 1991 asof 1 Oct. 1989

co 4.9 g/kWh 8.4 g/kWh


voc r.23 g/kWh 2.1 g/kWh
Nox 9.0 g/kWh t!:! g/kwh
Particulates 0.7 g/kWh

The new standardsare about40 percentlower thanthe former onesfor heavy


againin the
dieselvehicles. However,it is intendedto tightenthesestandards
early ninetiesto meetthe stringentUSEPA 1994standards.

133
Motor vehicle air pollution

on 2 February1988the Swissgovernmentdecidedto set new emissionstandards


for molorcyclesto go into effectby october 1990. The,seprescriptionsfocused
mainly on voc controlfor two-strokeengines,whereasthe standards for four-
strokemotorcyclesremainunchanged.

Standardsas of 1 Oct. 1990 Prior Standards


two-strokeengines two-stroke four-stroke

co 8.0 g/km 8.0 g/km 13.0 g/km


voc 3.0 glkm 7.5 glkm 3.0 g/km
No- 0.1 g/km 0.1 g/km 0.3 g/km

During the padiamentarydiscussionof summer1987on the air pollutioncontrol


strategyit wasrecognizedthat the measures undertakenso far are only sufficient
to reachthe goalsset for SQ but not for NO* and VOCs. Thereforethe
Parliamentcalledfor an additionalseriesfor 54 measures to be quantifiedwith the
aim of achievingthe reductionsfor No* andvoc emissions.The first part of ttre
report showedthat with the projectedtechnicalmeasures, the desiredreduction
cannotbe achievedandvariouspolicy measures, e.g. traffrc management, haveto
be studied.

within this contextthereare discussionsgoingon regardingthe waysto reduce


evaporativelossesof VOC from solventuse in industrialprocesses andfrom
transportanddistributionof petrol. Virtually all stationsnow sell 95 RON
unleadedpetrol at this time with unleadedfuel approximately8volessthan leaded.
on october 1, 1989the dieselparticulatestandardfor all new carswasreduced
from 0.37 gramsper kilometerto 0.124. Also on Octoberl, 1989the first step
of the stockholmGrouplight duty truck standards went into effect;the second
stepstartedon I october 1990. The first stepofthe heavyduty standards was
introducedon 1 october 1988. The secondstepwhich includesthe first European
truck particulatestandard(0.7 gramsper kilometer)and is intendedoverallto be
approximatelyequivalentto ttre 1990US standardsalthoughbasedon the
European13 modetestwent into effecton I october 1991. Finally, a third step
is beingplannedfor the mid 1990'sthat will be equivalentto1994USEPA
standards(alsolikely includingtrap oxidizersor catalysts).

Swissofficials havereceiveda mandatefrom their governmentto explorethe


feasibilityof adoptingthe california autostandards- 0.15 g/km non-methane HC,
and0.25 g/km nitrogenoxides. simultaneously, they continueto explorea third
stepfor heavyduty vehicles,intendingto adopistandards equivalentiousEpA
1994requirements by 1995or 1996. In conjunctionwith theserequirements, they
intendto reducedieselfirel sulfur levelsto 0.05 Wt. %, perhapsas early as
1 January1994. Thesecountriesare alsolookinghard at more stringent

134
Control measuresand their effectiveness

requirements for trucksandbuses. Swedenhasannounced its intentionto adopt


requirements that will bring aboutthe samedegreeof controlasthe US by 1995.
Specifically,USEPA 1990requirements (includingdieselparticulate)were adopted
by Swedenon a voluntarybasisfor 1990light duty trucks, andmademandatory
for 1992. Regardingheavytrucks, Swedenintendsto strivefor vehicle
technologyand the equivalentenvironmentalbenefitsas in the US. The standards
werevoluntaryfrom 1991but will be mandatorystartingin 1995.

For Europeas a whole, therefore,the heavyduty vehicleemissionspicturecanbe


summarized
asfollows:

(CurrentStatus)
Summaryof Europeanheavyduty dieselrequirements

Units(g/kwh) co NO* PART

SwitzerlandStep1 (Oct. 89)


AustriaStep1 (Jan.88) 8.4 2.1 14.4

Switzerland-Step2 (Oct. 91)


Austria-Step2 (Oct. 91) 4.9 1.23 9.0 0.7
Sweden- 93 MY (A-30)
Norwav - Oct. 93 4.9 1.23 7.0 (0.35or 0.4)

EC-SteplType 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.63


Approval 0.36

coP (4.e) (r.23) (9.0) (0.7X<85Kw)


(0.4)(>85Kw)

SwitzerlandStep3 (4.e) (r.23) (e.0) (0.4)

EC Step2 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15


(Also Likely SwissStep4)

EC Step3 (2000) New test


or later possible

r35
Motor vehicle air pollution

Future Prospects For Vehicle Trends

The growth in demandfor motorizedtravel is well understood.As urbanareas


populateand expand,land which is generallyat the edgesof the urbanareaand
previouslyconsidered unsuitablefor habitationis developed.Also the high costof
housingin the city centersforcespeopleto pursueaffordablehousingin the
suburbanareas. As the distanceof theseresidentiallocationsfrom the city center
or othersubcenters increases,
so doesthe needfor motorizedtravel. Motorized
travel often in privatevehiclessupplantstraditionalmodesof travel suchas
walking, variousbicycleforms, watertravel, and evenpublic transport. The need
for privatevehiclesis reinforcedas decliningpopulationand employmentdensities
with distances from urbancentersreducethe economicviability of public
transport.

The evolutionof urbanareasis influencedby the growthof incomeand


accompanying increases in the acquisitionsof privatemotor vehiclesand changes
in travel habits. As incomesrise, an increasingproportionof trips shifu, first to
motorcyclesand, as incomeincreases further, to privatecars. The trendtoward
privatemotorizationis alsoinfluencedby public policy towardsland use,housing,
andtransportation infrastructure.While the proportionof middle andupper
incomehouseholds in developingandnewly industrializedcountriesableto afford
carsandmotorcyclesis lower than in industrializednations,the numberof private
vehiclesstill becomesvery largeas the middleandupperincomegroupsgrow in
megacities.The numberof vehiclesandlevelsof congestionare comparable to or
exceedthat of major citiesin industrializedcountries.With the increasein
motorizedtravel and congestioncomeincreases in energyuse, emissionsand air
pollutionCIDRI, 1990).

Projectionsof populationtrendsfor the future in mostrapidly industrializing


countriesindicateboth rapid populationgrowthand increasingurbanizationofthat
population. In short,thesetrendsgenerallyincreasethe geographical spreadof
cities,both largeand small, increasingthe needfor motorizedtransitto carry out
an increasingportion of daily activities. Further,whencoupledwith expanding
economies as is increasinglythe casein thesecountries,a greaterproportionof the
urbanpopulationcanafford personalmotorizedtransportation, startingwith
motorcyclesandprogressingas soonas economicallyfeasible,to cars.

In summary,therefore,in comingyears,undercurrentpoliciesone canexpect


manymore citizensof developingcountriesto be living in larger andlarger cities
anddriving more andmoreprivatevehicles. As a result,without intervention,
today'salreadyseriouspollutionproblemsare likely to worsen,exposinggreater
numbersof peopleto evenhigherpollutionfor longerperiodsof time.

136
Control measures and their effectiveness

REIIERTNCES

Laimboch and Landerl. 50cc Two-Strolce


Enginesfor Mopeds,Chainsawsand
Motorcycleswith Catalysts.SAE 901598(September1990).

Sugiuraand Kagaya. A Studyof Visible SmokcReduaionfrom a Small Two-


StrokzEngineUsingVariousLubricants. SAE 770623(June1977).

TDRI. The rcm TDN YearEnd C.onference,Industrializing ThailandAnd.hs


Impaa On TheEnvirownent,ResearchReportNo. 7, EnergyandEnvironment:
ChoosingThe Right Mix @ecember1990).

Wyczalek. Two-Strolce
EngineTechnology
in the 19X)'s. Containedin SP-849,
Two-StrokeEngineDesignandDevelopment.SAE 910663(March 1991).

t37
Chapter5

CASE STI]DIES OF MOTOR VEIIICLE FOLLUTION

IN CITIES AROUND THE WORLD

DavidT. Mage'andMichaelP. Walsh**

The Urban Environment In Developing Countris: Examples From Asia

As a resultof the large andgrowingpopulationof poorly maintainedvehicleswith


minimal, if any, pollutioncontrolsandpoweredby unusuallydirty fuels, most
major citiesof Asia are alreadyexperiencingseriousmotor vehiclerelatedair
pollutionproblems,frequentlyon top of otherseriousenvironmental insults. In
virually everycrty for which datais available,co, leadandparticulatelevelsare
the primary pollutantscausingtheseproblems. Furthermore,vehiclescontribute
significantamountsof HC andNQ emissionswhich are frequentlytoxic and
contributeto photochemicalsmogin cities with the appropriatemeteorological
conditions.

*
David T. Mage, Scientist,World HealthOrganization,Geneva,Switzerland.

" MichaelP. Walsh, Consultant,Arlington, Virginia, UnitedStatesof America.

139
Motor vehicle air pollution

r€;,,,Banlkok,,Manild;,
...i...,.'.llvlo.iltoting..dtta..Chow..$+{..aii...qualiry..in,Siilg
: and rakarta are not at*ays acceptabteaccordingto thb country's
ambientair quality sandards.":Thepollutantsof concernare directly or
.. indiiectly causedby motorvehicles, They |re suspended particulate
,, mtuers (SP$; Car-bq*mbnoxide (CO) andlead. LCvelsof CO were
Grt ...fi...be..as...high...as.i.95...pp
i..t..,iiiif i..!il...Ja*l'rs't..49.i.BpRi..in..H
.:Yai'i.(clty
i
ei:.s6 ,.of..i|htmA)...0n.....l...
.1.1,;,.,.iin.i ,.,anffie:..i.'..c.. fidfi..dn..
e:l.ffibieilti*Fllqudi$iiiudsl:*#;
i:il:i:::idr*[:ippllluffil:lu$Ufiryllleffii:i
'
,, ,
.,,..bttnt'n'*ufednear,roadwtt'rt, ,,,. , ,
1...,..S:0ui'ce:...'i.'1t:'.!Aii.1P'1ution..P.iobr.1$..bid',Manag.e.nent:i..ih:!Asian]:i:::]i::.::::::
.. ' 'Countriest;::KirtVanichr,,ranicfi
am Middfeton;Air :
,
". ',, '. : :::PoitutibnCdntrof AsociationPaper8G33,+,June19t6,

For example,in Thailand,the Office of the NationalEnvironmentBoardhas


monitoredlevelsof carbonmonoxide,particulatematterandleadnearmajor roads
in Bangkoksince1984. Accordingto their latestannualreport (National
EnvironmentBoardof Thailand,1990)"the air pollutionproblemin Thailandis
seriousnearthe major streets." In certainareasof the city wheretraffic is heavy,
"particulatematter'sconcentrationsfar exceedthe daily ambientair quality
standardsof 330 microgram/cubicmeteron any day, and are ashigh as2-3 times
standardvalueson somedays." Carbonmonoxidelevelsare alsohigh in some
congested areas,alsoexceedingair qualitystandards.

A studyof blood leadlevelsof policemenat threedifferentratesof exposureto


vehiculartraffrc, found a positivestatisticallysignificantlink betweentrafftc
exposureandblood leadlevels@aungchat, undated).

While reporteOblood lead bveti are somerrhatinconsistentGtudy


,resultsrangeftom 160to 4O0pg:per tiiei), eventhe lowestreported
ad,.int}reUnitedStatesand
..i....tteiase....ili{rt*.,mi*...as....$eat...ru'..th
..

1rm
Casestudiesof cities around the world

Otherair pollutantssuchas nitrogendioxideandozonefrom photochemical


oxidantreactionsarefound to be still at low levelsin the city dueto the favorable
meteorologicalconditionsof Bangkok,with prevailingseasonalmonsoonwinds
and seabrwze.

The noisepollutionproblemin Bangkokis alsosevereand is causedmainly by


traffic. Data collectedalongsidedenselytravelledroadswerefound to have
EquivalentSoundLevels Grq) for 24 hours of 75 to 80 dB, much greaterthan the
US EnvironmentalProtectionAgency's(USEPA)recommended 70 dB for long
term hearingprotection(NationalEnvironmentBoardof Thailand,1990). The
percentage ofmotor vehiclesexceedinga noisestandardof 100dB (A) at a
distanceof 0.5 metersare summarized below.

Site Motor Diesel Mini- Bus Truck Motor


Cycles Cars Buses Tricycle

A 2t.4 5.3 8l

B 5.9 JJ.J 81.8 68.1

c 6.0 20.0 78.6 90.7 86.8 70.0

D 3.1 5.6 33.3 88.6 60.0 13.3

E 10.2 4t.4 82.4 88.0

F 5.4 30.8 84.8 72.5

G 9.4

H 6.7 20.0 ,10.5 77.8 62.7

I 7.5 16.7 27.6 80.9 77.4

J 5.1 63.3

141
Motor vehicleair pollution

As the abovedatashows,significantnumbersof all vehiclecategoriestendto be


very noisybut the problemis especiallywidespreadwith trucksandbuses.

In Hong Kong, approximately'1.5 to 2 million peopleare exposedto


unacceptablelevelsof sulfur dioxideandnitrogendioxideand aboutthreemillion
peopleare exposedto high particulatelevels. Many peopleare exposedto
unacceptablelevelsof all threepollutants"(HongKong EPA, 1989).

Air quality exposureproblemsassociated with the transportsectorare summarized


in Chapter3. The adverseeffectsof this pollutionare summarizedin Chapter2.
"The most commonadversehealtheffectsof thesepollutantstakethe form of
increasedincidenceof respiratoryillnesses,suchas asthmaandbronchitis. The
high levelsof air pollutionin manypartsof Hong Kong mustseriouslyaggravate
the conditionof thosealreadysufferingfrom suchillnessesand contributeto the
onsetof chronicconditions.Otherhealtheffectssuchas lung cancercanbe
causedby air pollution, as certainair pollutants,suchasthoseemittedfrom diesel
vehicles,are knownto be carcinogenic"(HongKong EPA, 1989). The World
Healttrorganization'sInternationalAgencyfor Research on cancer (IARC) has
evaluatedthe carcinogenic risk to humansof exposureto dieselengineexhaustand
concludedthat dieselengineexhaustis "probablycarcinogenic to humans'l. The
air pollutionproblemin manyurbanareasis compounded by the life style and
climatein manyof the warmerAsian cities. As a result,and as pointedout in
chapter3, thereis muchgreaterpublic exposureto the emissionsfrom vehicles
which are emitteddirectly into the breathingzonesof manymillions of people.

Quantiffingthe costsof air pollution is very difficult. A recentstudycarriedout


for the AmericanLung Associationconcludedthat "Nationalhealthcostsworth
between$4.43billion and $93.49billion per yeardue to automotiveandtruck
exhaustpollutioncouldbe avoided"(AmericanLung Association,1990).

I rhe InternationalProgramme
on chemicalSafety,a cooperativeprogramme
of ILO, UNEP, andWHO is in the processof assessing the humanhealthand
ecotoxicrisks of motor vehiclefuels (petrol,diesel,alcohols)and exhaust
emissions.The assessment will includefuels and exhaustemissionsas complex
mixtureswith consideration of importantchemicalconstituents.

r42
Case studies of cities around the world

"Althoughit is impossibleto be precise,hundredsof millioru of dollars


are spenteveryyearon combatingair pollutionor payingto rectify its
effects. This expenditurearisesin manydifferentways,from the
obvious,suchas maintainingthe EPD's [EnvironmentalProtection
Departmentlair controlstaff and equipment,to the lessobvious,suchas
the costto the publicof maintainingmorehospital'b'eds and medical
staff, the costof cleaningbuildingsand clothesmorefrequentlyandthe
costof replacingor repairingequipmentor partsof building5or other
structuresthat havebeenseverelycorrodedas a resultof the aCidic
propertiesof somepollutants. Considerable expenditureis also incurred
by industrialiss and tle government in minimizing air pollution'
sometimes,because sitingof industrialor residential
of the inappropriate
buildings. "

Source: "WhitePaper:Pollutionin HongKong- A Time To Act";

What is Being Done To Address The Problems

Chapter4 summarizedthe statusof technologiesand other strategiescurrently


availableto reducevehicleemissions.In spiteof the low pollutiontechnological
advances which are now readilyavailable,severalcountriesin Asia haveonly
beenableto makelimited progressin reducingvehicleemissions.

Prospectsare not entirelybleak. Rapidlyindustrializingareassuchas Taipei and


Seoulhave recently introducedstateof the art controlson new petrol cars and are
rapidly puttingcomprehensive vehiclecontrolprogramsin place. Decisionshave
beenmadeto do the samein Hong Kong andSingapore,andThailandappearson
the vergeof following suit shortly. Unleadedpetrol andlow leadedpetrol which
hasbeenrelativelyrare in muchof the regionis startingto spreadrapidly and is
eitheralreadyavailableor is likely to be soonin Japan,Taipei, Korea,Hong
Kong, Singapore,Malaysia,IndonesiaandThailand. Motorcyclesin Taipeiwill
be subjectto the moststringentmotorcyclestandards in the world, in a few
monthsand a promisingdevelopment for other citiesin the regionwith similar
two-strokemotorcycleproblems.

In manyparu of the regionhowevereconomicor other conditionsappearto


constrainthe possibilityof progressin the shortterm. In comingyears,under
currentpoliciesit is expectedthat manymoreAsianswill be living in larger and
larger citiesanddriving more andmoreprivatevehicles. As a result,without

143
Motor vehicle air pollution

intervention,today'salreadyseriouspollutionproblemsare likely to worsen,


exposinggreaternumbersofpeople to evenhigherpollutionfor longerperiodsof
time.

BecauseBangkokalreadyexceedsWHO guidelinesfor air pollution,


certainlyin rfgards to CO andSPM, andmostlikely in termsof lead, it
may be concludedfrom theseresultstlat air pollutionby the year2006
will more regularlyeiceedacceptatlelevels. Higher peak
conceDtrations will occurover a broadergeographicareafor a much
largerexposedpopulaiion. Only the adoptionof pollutionlimiting
pgliCieswill preventthis from happening.
:::::.
Source:TDRI Research ReportNo. 7

Definition of the Problem: A Case Study of Manila

Manila, the capitalof the philippines,is at Latitude 14o36'N andLongitudel20o


59' E alongthe shoreof lvlanilaBay on the westsideof Luzon island. The city
1$ the heavilypopulatedsurroundingareas,form a megalopoliscalled
MetropolitanManila, or the Nationalcapital RegiontNcn). Industrial
development of the Philippinesis centeredin Manila, which is the country,s
internationalport of commerce.MetropolitanManila is essentiallvat sealevel
and occupiesapproximately636 km2of land on the deltaicptain of the pasig
River, which flows from Lagunade Bay, a lake to the southeast of the city, into
Manila Bay.

The populationof MetropoliranManilahasexpandedrapidly from 5.9 million in


1980to 7.0 million in 1985and is estimatedto be g mi[ion at present. It is
projected(uN astimate)to grow to l l.1 million by the year20010.tn 19g0,
approximately64voof the 48 million Filipinoslived in rural areas,Manila being
the country'schief urbanpopulationcenterwith l2vo of the country,spopulation.
The populationdensityof Metro Manila is approximately12 600 persons'pertm2.

Sinceworld war II, the per capitaGNp of ttrephilippineshasrisenrapidly to its


present(1990)level of $630(us); asthe commercialand economiccenterof the
countryit is expectedthat the per capitaGNp within Manila would be higher.

r44
Casestudiesof cities around the world

Privatemotor vehiclesareprimarily petrol fueled. Taxis,jeepneysandbuses


primarily fueledby dieselprovidepublictransportation in MetropolitanManila.
RailwaysconnectManila to northernand southeastern sectionsof Luzon, and a
light rail transportsystemtransportssome350,000peopleper working day
ttrrough30 km of rail system. Most vehiclesare privatepassenger vehicles,taxis
or motorcycles.Of the 510,000vehicleregistrationsin 1988for petrol anddiesel
vehicles,approximately383 000 (or 75%) arepetrol fueled. The numberof
motor vehiclesis expandingat a far greaterratethanthe roadwaysystemcan
absorb. In a recentperiodwhenthe numberof newly registeredcarsincreasedby
53%, utility vehiclesby 44Voandtrucksby 29%, the lengthof roadways
increased by 0.4Vo.

Estimatesof vehicleemissionshavebeentabulatedfor 1988by the Philippine


EnvironmentalManagementBureau(EMB). The EMB estimatesindicatethat
petrol fueledvehiclescontributeabout70%moretotal organicgases(tOG) than
dieselvehicles,while petrol poweredvehiclesemit about16.5timesthe massof
CO emittedfrom dieselvehicles. The majorityof SO, andparticulatematter
emittedby vehiclescomefrom the dieseltypes,while NQ emissionsfrom diesel
vehiclesare aboutthreetimesthosefrom petroltypes. Utility vehicles,mostof
which aredieselpoweredjeepneys,accountfor morethanhalf the particulate
matter@M) andSO,, and abouthalf of vehicularTOG and NO* emissions.

Otheremissionsincludelead, all of which is eminedby petrol poweredvehicles.


The highly visible black smokeemittedftom dieselvehiclesis a very significant
problemin Manila as passengers andpedestrians areoften exposedto the
undilutedexhaust.

Thereare major questions,however,asto the accuracyof the emissionsfaclors


usedin the EMB inventory,duelargelyto the lack of emissionsdataon vehicles
as operatedin the Philippines.Contributingfactorsincludeobservations that
vehiclemaintenance is generallyinadequateandpetrol poweredvehicleshaveno
emissioncontrols. Thejeepneydieselenginesare often importedfrom Japanafter
for usein the
their economicallyusefullife is over andrebuilt or reconditioned
Philippines. Their emissionfactorsare unknown.

t45
Motor vehicle air pollution

kposure Measurements

Exposuresto automotivepollutantshad neverbeenmeasured until recently,when


subida,Torreset al. (1991)performedan epidemiological studyof illnessamong
jeepneydrivers, air conditionedbus driversand commuters(seealsochapter
3).
The studyreportedhumanexposuredata,obtainedby personalmonitoringto the
pollutantsso2, TsP, co andPb. Thesevaluesare wel abovewHo guidelines
for thesepollutants and are indicativeof the severityof the automotiveexposures
of peoplewho haveoccupational contactsandthe potentialfor development of
chronicconditionsfrom long term exposures.

The resultsof the epidemiologystudy,with correctionsfor smokingandother


covariates,showtlrat thejeepneydriverswith their high exposureshauea much
higheroddsratio of 2.3 for havingchronicobstructivepulmonarydisease(copD)
as comparedto the bus driversand commuters.Also they havemuchreduced
pulmonaryfunction. As a resultof this study,it appearsthat automotiveair
pollutionhasprofoundimplicationsfor the healthof the urbanpopulationand
showsthe needfor developmentof an effective control progr:rmto timit
automotiveemissions.The problemis complicatedby economicconsiderations
which leadto the useof second-hand importeddieselenginesin thejeepneysand
of highly pollutingvehiclepowersystems.

A Case Study of Mexico City, DF

The numberof automobilesin Mexico city hasgrown dramaticallyin the past


severaldecades;therewereapproximately 48,000carsin 1940,640,000in t920,
1.1 million in 1975andthreemillion in 1985. The Mexicangovernmentestimates
that fewer thanhalf of theseqrs are fitted wittr evenmodestpollutioncontrol
devices. virtually none are equippedwith stateof the art exhaustafter-treatment
syltems. In addition,morethan40 percentof the carsare over 12 yearsold, and
oflhese, mosthaveenginesin needof major repairs. The degreeto which the
existingvehiclesare in needof maintenance is reflectedby thJ resultsof the
'voluntaqr"
I/M programrun by the DF during 19g6throughl9gg. of the over
600,000vehiclestested(209,63gin 19g6,313,720in 19g7hd 90,405in the first
four monthsof 1988), abouti}% failed the petrol vehiclestandardsandg5%
failed the dieselstandards(65 HSU).

146
Case studies of cities around the world

Althoughtherearenot as manybusesas cars,tley are considereda major


pollutionsourcebecauseof the high levelsof fine particlasproducedby their
dieselenginesandthe wide public exposureto theseemissions.

On a per capitabasis,thereare about16 peopleper qu in Mexico, muchmore


th"q ir the highly industrializedworld and evenmore than in Brazil, for example,
potentialfor
wherethe figure is 13. This illustratesthat thereis still a tremendous
vehiculargrowth, aboveandbeyondthe projectedgrowth in the overall
population.

Not surprisingly,with sucha large andgrowingvehiclepopulation,andwith such


limited pollutioncontrolof thesevehicles,Mexico City hasemergedas one of tte
mostpollutedcitiesin the world. The problemis compounded by stagnant
meteorological high
conditionsthroughoutthe winter season, and its
elevation,
physicallocation,in a bowl surroundedby mountains.

The air pollutionproblemin Mexico City is probablyworsethan it might


otherwisebe from a public healthstandpointbecauseof the commutingpatterns
which existthere. "More than20Voof workersspendthreeor morehours
commutingeachday and in ten casesdaily traveltime exceedsfive hours. Some
employees live as far as 80 km from ttreirplaceof work" (Fernandez-Bremauntz
and QuentinMerritt, 1991). As shownin Chapter3, commutersare amongthe
segments of the populationmosthighly exposedto motor vehicleemissions.

An increasinglyintensiveeffort hasbeenunderwayto developa comprehensive


packageof pollutioncontrolmeasures.Motor vehiclecontrols- includingmore
stringentnew car standards,retrofit of someolder vehicles,and inspectionand
maintenanceare importantcomponentsof the package.

New Vehicles

Mexicanauthoritieshavedecidedto introducemore stringentstandards for light


by 1993. Interim
duty vehicles,culminatingwith full US autorequirements
standardsfor 1989through L992ue consistentwith a proposalmadeby the
automobilemanufacturers.

147
Motor vehicleair pollution

EmissionStandards
for Mexico in g/mile

HC CO Nox
'89 Cars,no
trucks 3.20 35.2 3.68
'90 Cars
2.88 28.8 3.20
GVW'up to 6,012lbs. (1) 3.20 35.2 3.68
GVW 6,013- 6,614lbs.(2) 4.80 56.0 5.60
'91 Cars
l.t2 tl.2 2.24
GVW up to 6,012lbs.(1) 3.20 35.2 3.68
GVW 6,013- 6,614lbs.(2) 4.80 56.0 5.60
'92 Cars
t.t2 tI.z 2.24
GVW up to 6,012lbs.(1) 3.20 3s.2 3.68
GVW 6,013-6,614lbs. (2) 3.20 35.2 3.68
'93 Cars
0.40 3.4 1.00
GVW up to 6,0L2lbs. (1) 3.20 35.2 3.68
GVW 6,013- 6,614lbs.(2) 3.20 3s.2 3.68
'94 Cars
0.40 3.4 1.00
GVW up ta 6,0L2lbs.(1) 1.00 14.0 2.30
GVW 6,013-6,614lbs.(2) 1.00 14.0 2.30
* GrossVehicleWeight
(1) CommercialVehicles(i.e. NissanVan & Combis)
(2) Light Dury Trucks

when thesestandards go into full effect, Mexicowill be the first Latin American
country to introducecars meetingUS standards.

fn-use Vehicle Retrofit

Becausethe agedistributionof the vehiclepopulationcontainsa high percentage


of old vehicles(asis typicalof manydevelopingcountries),it will takemany
yearsbefore new car standardscan really have a very significant effect on the
environment.Any shortterm improvements are dependent on reducingemissions
from the existingfleet. Basedon the analysisby the under-secretariat of Ecology
(SEDUE),strict applicationof a requirementto retrofit someof ttrevehicles(thoie
capableof operatingsatisfactorilyon unleadedpetrol)would havethe greatest

148
Casestudiesof cities around the world

pollutionreductionpotentialduringthe 1990's. They aretherefore,very


interestedin pursuingthis strategy.

SEDUEintendsto require 1983andnewerofftcial carsto be retrofittedas a first


the next stepwould be to extendthe requirementto all
step. If this is successful,
vehiclesinvolvedin transportingpeople,e.g., ta;ricabsandcombis.

Inspectionand Maintenance

I/M is a critical elementin maximizingthe success of both new car controland in-
usevehicleretrofit as well as a sourceof significantdirect emissionsreductions.
Becauseit potentiallyaffectseveryonewho drives, it mustbe implemented
carefully;for the samereason,it hasbeenthe mostpolitically controversialof the
"shortterm" motor vehiclestrategies underreview

Becauseof fearsover the public reaction,the only firm decisiontakenat ttris time
wasto makeinspections of official vehiclesandthoseinvolvedin transportingthe
public obligatory.

As a startto the scheme,Mexico City hasbuilt 8 testingstationsto measure


vehicleexhaustemissionsandto analyzethe likely cause. As of December,1988,
this systemhasbeenusedto testrecentvintagecars(1977through 1982model
yearshavebeenidentifiedas the first stagesincethey areold enoughto have
deterioratedsignificantlybut not so old asto be impossibleto repair);the plan
callsfor expansionto othervehiclegroupsin 1992.

Fuels

Over the last few years,accordingto PEMEX (MexicanNationalPetroleumCo.),


fuels improvedsignificantlyin Mexico City. The leadcontentof leadedfuel has
beenreducedto about0.15 gramsper liter, sulfur levelsare down and a gradeof
unleadedpetrolhasbeenintroduced.Further,new detergents havebeenaddedto
the petrol which are designedto reduceCO, HC and NO* emissions.

Unfornrnately,no independent agencyof the governmentsuchas SEDUEhasthe


authorityor the responsibilityto independentlyensurefuel quality. This allows
and encouragesfears that evenproposedimprovementsin fuel quahty such as the
eliminationof lead,may be donein a mannerto worsenenvironmental problems.
Somehaveevenraisedconcernsthat ttre introductionof unleadedfuel has
increasedozonelevels. Most recently,it appearsthat PEMEX hasraisedthe lead
levelsto previouslevels.

149
Motor vehicleair pollution

A Case Study of Los Angeles

The Los Angeles(LA) MetropolitanArea is the populationcenterof the California


SouthCoastAir Basin@asin)which constitutes a 16,600km2areaboundedby the
Pacific Oceanto the west, and mountainrangesto the north and east. This
topographycombinedwith the local weatherpatternsof light winds, seabreeze,
subsidence inversionsandhigh solar intensityproduceidealconditionsof
atmospheric stagnationconduciveto pollutantreactionandbuildup. The Los
AngelesBasinhasbeenone of the mostrapidlygrowing areasof the USA since
the early 1940s.

The Basinis surroundedto the eastby mountainswith a high desertareabeyontl


and it hasa very low annualrainfall. Thereis sunshineall year roundandthe
wintersarevery mild. In tre summer,a warm air capoften forms over the moist
cool marineair layer which inhibitsverticalmixing. The-dominant daily weather
patternis for an on-shorebreezeto beginin the morningafter sunriseand for an
off-shorebreezeto occurat night. During periodsof stagnatinghigh pressure,
this circulationpatternwhich takespollutantsout to seaat night andreturnsthem
to land duringthe day allowsair pollutantsto build up in the air sheduntil the
passage of a new weatherfront.

The LA Basindevelopedwith almostno public transportnetworkand


consequently the residentsmustrely on the motor vehiclefor almostall
transportation.The presenceof largenumbersof motor vehiclesandtheir
intensiveconsumerorientedserviceactivitiesmakesthe Basinthe mostpolluted
areain the UnitedStates. The 8 million vehiclesin an urbanareaof 12 million
peoplerepresents possiblythe greatestnumberof vehiclesper person(0.67) in the
world -- almosteveryoneover 16 yearsold hasone! Furthermore,the areawill
grow by 5 million residents,68% morevehicle-miles-travelled, and4ovo morc
trips will be takenby the year2010 (SCAG, 1989).

Los Angelesair qualityhasbeena major concernsincethe early 1940swhenthe


postwiuboombroughtrapid populationgrowthand industrialexpansion.since
1947,the Los AngelesAir Pollutioncontrol District (LAApcD), the precursorof
the south coast Air QualityManagement District (scAeMD), beganinforcing air
pollutantemissioncontrols. Hourly ozoneconcentrations exceeding0.6 ppm were
reportedand in the 1960sozonefrequentlyexceeded 0.5 ppm. In l96d the state
of Californiabeganinstitutingvehicleemissionsundardswhich werestricterthan
thosepromulgatedlater by the USEpA for the nationat large. Despitetheir strict
controls,the maximumozoneduringthe period 1986-1991only degeasedto 0.35
ppm becauseof an 81% populationincreasefrom 1960to 1990and allied
increasesin industrialactivity andvehiculartraffic. This enormouspopulation

150
Casestudiesof cities around the wodd

increaseresultedin manymotoristscommuting60 - 80 miles eachway to secure


affordablesingle-familyhousingoutsidethe centralarea.

Emissionsof petrol-powered automobiles havebeenstringentlycontrolledby the


USEPAfor the past25 yearsstartingwith the 1968models. Californiahasan
exemptionftom the U.S. CleanAir Act that allowsit to havestricteremission
thanthe rest of the country. The USEPAand CaliforniaAir Resources
standards
Board(CARB) standardsare shownbelow. Note how lower valueswereoften
implemented by Californiaseveralyearsbeforethe USEPA. For example,the
NO* strndardof 0.25 g/km which is to be adoptedin Californiain 1992,will be
adoptedby the USEPAin 1995.

tighteningof petrol-powered
Progressive automotiveemissions

Comparisonof USEPAand CARB EmissionStandards


G/km)

Year CO HC No*
US CARB US CARB US CARB

1966 32 3.70 3.1


1968 ; 32 3.7 1.56 3.1 2.5
t970 24 15.6 2.r 1.56 3.1 2.5
1972 24 15.6 1.9 1.56 3.1 1.9
1973 24 15.6 1.9 1.56 1.9 1.9
t974 24 15.6 1.9 1.56 1.9 1.2
1,975 9.3 5.6 0.9 0.44 1.9 1.2
1978 9.3 5.6 0.9 0.29 r.2 0.93
1980 5.6 5.6 0.25 0.29 t.2 0.46
1983 2.1 4.4 0.25 0.29 0.6 0.46
t992 2.1 4.4 0.25 0.29 0.6 0.25
by 1995 2.1 0.16 0.25
by 2003 2.r 0.08 0.t25

Source:M. Walsh

In order to meetthe Californiaand US Air Quality Standards


in the future, a
three-tiered1991Air QualityManagement Planhasbeendevelopedthat will make
evenmore severeemissionreductionsthanthoseshownabove(SCAG, 1990).
This plan is basedon the September1990CARB Low-EmissionVehiclesand
CleanFuelsrulemaking. The major elementsof this strategyare as follows:

151
Motor vehicle air pollution

a) reducinghydrocarbona-ndNO* emlssionstandards
by 80% and50%
respectivelyfrom the 1990levels,

b) requiringthe saleof zero-emission


vehiclesstartingin 1998

c) allowingthe useof vehiclespoweredby alternativefuels,

d) requiringavailabilityof suffrcientalternativefuels for thesevehicles.

In addition,the plan calls for increasingthe averagevehicleridershipfrom the


presentday 1.13to 1.5 by 1999. This will be achievedby increasingfundingfor
transitimprovements andhigh occupancyvehicle(HOU facilities,usingparking
feesto discouragesinglepassenger commutingandprovidingfacilitiesfor
commutingbicyclists. Alternativework weeks,telecommuting,employer
rideshareincentivesare alsoto be introduced.

Shouldthe emissionreductionsbe insuffrcientto meetStateandFederalair quality


standards then contingencyactionsmay be necessary.Theseactions,including
emissionchargeson petrol anddieselfuels, vehicleuseandparkinglots, user
fees,time-and-place controlme:nuresand evenlimits on vehicleregistrations,will
be quiteunpopularand may requirespeciallegislation. The effectsof motor
vehicleair pollutantson humanhealthhavebeeninvestigated in severalstudies
that haveshownsignificantimpactson the healthof residentsof the LA area
@etelset al., 1981;Hodgkinet al., 1984;Euleret al., 1988;Abbeyet al., 1990).
It is estimatedthat Los Angelesresidentssufferozonerelatedsymptomson 17
dayseachyear and an increasedmortalrtyrateof 1/10,000per yearor 1600
excessdeathsfrom PM1s. Accordingto recentestimates,air pollutioncontrolto
meetthe nationalambientair qualitystandards will cost$10 billion Slall et al.,
1992).

A Case Study Of Taipei

The Motor VehicleProblem

Vehiclesare the dominantsourceof emissionsin Taipei. As recentlynoted,


'NOx, HC
andCO emittedfrom motor vehiclesaccountfor about50Voof all
emissions"(ShenandHuang, 1989). An especiallyimportantsource,uniqueto
Taipei is motorcycles."Taiwanhasthe highestdensityof motorcyclesin the
world. Because80Voof motorcyclesare equippedwith two-strokeengines...[they]
contributeabout33%nd l0% of HC andCO emissionsrespectively.It is
apparentthat to significantlyimprovethe air quality in the Taiwanarea,something
mustbe doneto controlvehicularpollution,especiallyof motorcycles(Shenand
Huang,1989)."

r52
Casestudiesof cities around the world

As a resultof rapid industrializationandmotorization,Taiwanis experiencing


severeenvironmental problemsparticularlyin Taipei. The mostsevereair
pollutionproblemis total suspended particulate.While ttrereare many
contributorysourcss,the importanceof the role of the motor vehiclehasbeen
highlightedby a recentreview of existingcoefficientsofhaze air quality data.
While the area-widetrend lines are flat for the last severalyears, the problem
continuesto deterioratein congestedareas. A clear correlationexistsbetweenthe
gfowth in dieselbus traffrc and the increasein the coefficientof haze. Ozoneis
alsoa seriousproblem. In 1987alone,a total of 80 violationsof the air quallty
standardwere notedat 4 moniloringstations. Carbonmonoxideair qualitylevels
are alsoexcessive.

In their analysisof the air qualityproblemin Taipei,the Taiwanesemakean


especiallyperceptiveobservation.Becauseso muchof their populationis located
so closeto heavilycongested areasthroughoutthe day (eitheras a resultof their
residenceor the widely prevalentuseof motor cyclesand motor bikesas a means
oftravel) public exposureto high levelsof vehicleexhaustis probablygreaterthan
in highly developedcountries. (SeeChapter3 for a further discussionof this
issue.)

Efforts Underway To Solve The Problem

CleanFuels Progran

UnleadedPetrol- SinceAugustl, 1988,unleadedpetrolof 92 octmehasbeen


availablethroughoutthe entirecountry. Further,a 95 octanefuel was introduced
in July 1990.

LeadedPetrol- The leadcontentin leadedfuel hasbeenreducedfrom .8 grams


per liter to 0.12 since1988.

MotorcycleFuel - A gradualreductionin lubricatingoil mixedwith unleaded


petrol for motorcycleshasbeenunderwaysince1984.

Sulfur in DieselFuel - SinceSeptember1983,on road dieselfuel hasa maximum


sulfur contentof O.5Vo.

New &r Cowrols

SinceJuly, 1987,all new carshavebeenrequiredto complywith European


standardsas containedin R 1544. StartingJuly, 1990,all new modelsand all
importedcarswererequiredto achieveuS autostandards.Domesticallyproduced
new cars must meetthe samerequirementsbut they are allowed waivers for up to

153
Motor vehicle air pollution

threeyears. By 1994,the US standards will applyto all new cars. While it is


very diffrcult to determinethe actualsales,it is estimatedttrat about t5% of new
carsmet US standardsin 1990,rising to about40Voin 1991. In an effort to
accelerate the transition,the TaiwanEPA is consideringthe introductionof a tax
incentivepackagesimilar to the GermanandDutchprograms.

Motorqcles

Two levelsof controlshavebeenimposedon motorcycles.The first, relatively


modeststagewent into effectin 1988;morestringentstandards went into effectin
July 1, 1991. This latter requirementwasintendedto eitherrequiresubstantial
controlor eliminationof two strokemotorcycles.The new motorcyclestandards
arc 4.5 gramsper kilometerfor CO (from 8.8), and 3.0 for HC andNO*
combined(from 6.5), basedon the ECE R40 testprocedure.The TaiwanEPA is
consideringan additionaltighteningof motorcyclestandardsin 1993or 1994.

In Use Controls

Randomroadsideinspections havebeenconductedby local offlrcialsfor many


years. Free motorcycleandcity bus emissionstestshavealsobeenencouraged.

Diesels

The TaiwanEPA intendsto proposethat all new dieselvehiclesachieveCalifornia


standards
by 1993. No dieseltaxicabsare allowedin Taipei. They are
consideringa changein their regulationsto allow but not requireliquified
petroleumgas(LPG) to be usedin their taxicabs.

A Strategy For Progress

Sincea greatdealhasbeenlearnedaboutreducingemissionsfrom vehicles,one


shouldnot concludethat this outcome- higheremissionsand more air pollution is
inevitable. Strategiesexistto both lower emissionsper kilometerdriven and
reduceactualdriving; applicationof both approaches canbe usedto amelioratethe
otherwiselikely future pollutionincreases.By way of example,an assessment of
two representativecitiesis presented below.

The potentialfor reducingemissionsand improvingair quality muststartwith an


assessment of existingvehicleemissions.Many factorsaffectthe total inventory
of motor vehicleemissions.Understanding thesefactorshelpsone to beffer
structurea total inventoryof theseemissionsandto determineoptimalprograms
for their control. Having inventoriesthat accuratelyreflectdifferentcontrol

154
Case studies of cities around the world

measures of a given regulatoryprogram.


permit evaluationof ttre effectiveness
Someof the more importantfactorsfollow:

1. EmissionFactorsFor New Vehicles- Theseemissionfactorscan ideallybe


determinedfrom the emissionstandards for new vehiclessubjectto regulation
or from emissiondataavailablefor similar vehicles(e.g., similar vehicle
usedin other countries.
destgn,controltechnologies)

2. Deteriorationof VehicleEmissionsWith VehicleAge and Mileage-


Estimatinghow vehicleemissionsdeterioratewith time and mileageis critical
in assessing in-useemissions.Differenttypesof vehicleswith different
technologies (non-catalyst
petrolfueledvehicles,catalystequipped,diesel
fueled,etc.) deterioratedifferentlywith increasedmileageandtime. This
type of informationhasbeendeterminedfrom testingof in-usevehicles
carriedout by severaldifferentcountries.

3. TamperingEffects- This adjustmentaccountsfor vehicleownersor drivers


intentionallyalteringor disablingan emissioncontrolsystem. Examplesare
disconnecting air pumps,catalysts,evaporativeemissioncontrolsystems,
exhaustgasrecirculatingsystems,and ignitiontiming. Thesevehiclesare
sometimes tamperedwith in the mistakenbelief that vehicleperformance,fuel
economyor otherfactors(e.g., maintenance time or costs)will be improved.
Informationon the effectsof tamperingwith vehicleemissionscanbe
obtainedfrom datafrom variouscountries. However,the incidenceof
vehicletamperingshouldbe estimatedfor the pafticularcountrywherethe
inventoryis beingdeveloped.

4. VehicleMaintenance - If a vehicle(with or without emissioncontrols)is not


maintainedaccordingto the manufacturers recommendations (e.g., tuneups,
replacementof sparkplugsor emissioncontrolcomponents, carburetor
adjustments)the vehiclewill havesignificantlyhigheremissions(that is,
greaterdeterioration)thanoneproperlymaintained.Thesehigheremissions
mustbe accounted for. Someinitial estimates canbe madebasedon similar
informationavailablefrom in-usevehicleemissionlevelsmeasuredin other
countries

5 . Inspectionand Maintenanceand Anti TamperingChecks- The presenceof an


effective inspectionand maintenanceprogrirmthat identifieshigh emitting
vehiclesand ensuresthat they are repaired(or emissioncontrolsystems
replaced/repaired if tamperedwith) canhelp eliminateexcessemissions
resultingfrom the previoustwo factors. Estimatesof the benefitsof such
programsis availablefrom testsconductedin differentcountries.

t55
Motor vehicle air pollution

6. TechnologyMix - The proportionof vehiclesusingdifferenttechnologies


(e.g., diesel,non catalyst,oxidationcatalyst,3-waycatalyst,etc.) is critical
in estimatingtotal vehicleemissions.The proportionof technologies usedin
a given country (andtheir appropriateemissionfactors)must be known or
estimated.

7. VehicleAge - The numberof vehiclesof a given ageis importantto know


sinceolder and/orhighermileagevehiclesusuallyhavehigherdeterioration.
This type of datais generallyavailablefrom vehicleregistrationdataobtained
by most governments.

8. Numberof Vehicles- The total numberof vehiclesof a given modelyear in a


given areais generallyobtainedfrom vehicle registrationdataand must be
known to calculatean inventory. A critical elementis to makeaccurate
projectionsfor future years.

9. VehicleMiles TravelledPer VehiclePer Year - The numberof miles a given


type of vehicletravelsper yearmustbe known. This numberusuallyvaries
with vehicleagewith older vehiclestravellingfewer miles annually. The
numberof miles travelled will be different from one country to another.

10. VehicleMisfueling- If both leadedandunleadedpetrolsare sold in an area


where somevehiclesrequire the use of unleadedfuel to protectttre catalytic
converter,the proportion of catalystvehicleswhich misfuel with leadedpetrol
mustbe determined.

11. Fuel Characteristics - Fuel volatility canbe an importantdeterminantof


vehicleevaporativeemissions(which canaccountfor as muchashalf of the
total hydrocarbonemissions). Other fuel characteristicssuchas sulfur
content,distillationcharacteristics, andoxygencontentmay alsobe important.

12. AmbientTemperature- The averagedaily temperature(generallymaximum


andminimum)mustbe knownto predictvehicleemissions.Generally,
separateinventoriesare calculatedfor warm weatherconditions(when ozone
levelsare at their peak)and cold weather(whencarbonmonoxidelevelsare
high).

Casestudic of Bangkok and Surabaya

A tlryicalbreakdownof emissionsfor Bangkokand Surabayais summarizedin


Figures 1 through 4. Motorcyclescanbe seenas a major contributorto bottr
hydrocarbonsandorganicparticulateand a significantsourceof carbonmonoxide
andlead. Dieselvehiclesarethe major sourceof sulfateand a significantsource

156
Casestudiesof cities around the world

of carbonaceous particulate. Passengercarsdominatethe carbonmonoxideand


leadproblemsand contributesignificantlyto nitrogenoxidesand hydrocarbons.
Different vehicle categoriestherefore,mustbe the focusof attentionto address
different ispectsof the overallvehiclepollutionproblem.

The major elementsof an overallvehiclepollutioncontrolstrategywere


summarizedeadier. In short,onemustboth reduceemissionsper kilometer
driven while simultaneouslyreducingthe amountof driving. Emissionsper
kilometerdriven canbe loweredby alteringsomeaspectsof the driving itself -
averagespeed,degreeof acceleration, etc. A naturaland consistenttensionexists
andreducingdriving sincefrequently,
betweenalteringdriving characteristics
strategiesdesignedto increaseaveragespeedby improvingtraffic flow actually
enablea given roadwaynetworkto carry morevehiclesper hour and effectively
increaseoverall vehicle emissions.

Figures5 and 6 showthe impactof variouscontrolstrategieson reducing


emissionsin Bangkokand Surabaya.The first priority of courseis to restrain
future vehiclegrowth. Economicmeasures, physicalrestrictionsand selective
policieswill, of course,eachplay a role. However,evenif overall vehicle
growth could be constrainedto only 5 percentper yqr, as illustratedin Figures5
and 6, vehicleemissionsin Bangkokand Surabayawould explodeover the next 15
years. In additionto growth restraint,therefore,a seriesof additionalstrategies
are necessary.

Inspectionand Maintenance(I/M)

I/M programshavebeendemonstrated
to lower emissionsfrom existingvehicles
in two ways;

a) By lowering emissionsfrom vehicleswhich fail the test and are required


to be repaired.

b) By encouragingownersof vehiclesto takepropercareof them and to


avoid the potentialcostsof repairingvehicleswhich havebeentampered
with or misfueled.

Basedon all the dataavailable,it is estimatedthat a well run I/M programis


capableof very significantemissionsreductions.on the order of 25Vofor HC and
CO and about10% for NO,. The lqsssignificantNO" reductionsreflect solelythe
lower tamperingratesfrom I/M and antitampering programssinceat presentthere
hasbeenno focusedeffort to specificallydesignI/M programsto identify and
correctNO, problems.

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Motor vehicleair pollution

It is alsoimportantto notethat the reductionsstartout slowly and gradually


increaseover time because I/M programstendto lower the overall rate of fleet
emissionsdeterioration.MaximumI/M benefitsare therebyachievedby adopting
the programas early aspossible.

Stringent Motorcycle Standards

Lower emissionsfrom new motorcyclesaretechnologically feasible. For


example,in Taipei, two levelsof controlshavebeenimposedon motorcycles.
The first, relativelymodeststagewent into effectin 1988;more stringent
standards were introducedon I July 1991. The latter, will requireeither
substantialcontrol,or elimination,of two-strokemotorcycles.

In addition,a gradualreductionin lubricatingoil mixedwith unleadedpetrol for


motorcycleshasbeenunderwaysince1984.

Improved Fuel Quality

Petrol

Throughoutmuchof the industrializedworld, unleadedfuel hasbeenthe norm for


morethan a decade.Japanhas actuallybeenthe world leaderin this regard,with
morethan 90% of the petrol in that countrybeingunleadedfor morethan a
decade.

Evenwhen leadedfuel is used.the lead contentshouldbe reducedto no more than


0.015gramsper liter.

Diesel Fuel

Modificationsto dieselfuel compositionhavenow alsodrawn considerable


attentionas a quick and cost effectivemeansof reducingemissionsfrom existing
vehicles. The two modificationswhich showthe mostpromiseare a reductionin
sulfur content,and in the fractionof aromatichydrocarbons
in the fuel. Recently,
the USEPAdecidedto reducesulfur contentin dieselfuel to a maximumof 0.05
percentby weightandsuchfuel will soonbe introducedin WesternEuropeand
Japan.

Sulfur Content

In additionto a directreductionin emissionsof SQ andsulfateparticles,reducing


the sulfur contentof dieselfuel reducesthe indirectformationof sulfateparticles

154
Casestudiesof cities around the world

from SO2in the atmosphere.In Los Angeles,it is estimatedthat eachpoundof


SO2emitted resultsin roughly onepoundof fine particulatematter in the
atmosphere.In this case,therefore,the indirectparticulateemissionsdue to SO2
from dieselvehiclesareroughlyasgreatastheir direct particulateemissions.
SO2conversionto particulatematteris highly dependent on local meteorological
conditions,however,so the effectscouldbe greateror lessin other cities.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

A reduction in the aromatichydrocubon contentof dieselfuel may also help to


reduceemissions,especiallywherefuel aromaticlevelsare high. For existing
dieselengines,a reductionin aromaticsfrom 35 percentto 20 percentby volume
would be expectedto reducetransientparticulateemissionsby 10 to 15 percent
and NO* emissionsby 5 to 10 percent. HC emissions,andpossiblythe mutagenic
activity of the particulatesolubleorganicfraction(SOF),would alsobe reduced.
Modelling studiesof the refining industryhaveshownthat aromaticreductionsof
this magnitudecanoftenbe obtainedthroughalterationsin dieselfuel production
and blending strategy,without the needfor major new investmentsin additional
processingcapacity.

Reduceddieselfuel aromaticcontentwould haveother environmentaland


economicbenefits. The reducedaromaticcontentwould improvethe fuel's
ignition quality, improvingcold startingand idling performanceand reducing
enginenoise. The reductionin the useof catalyticallycrackedblendingstocks
shouldalso havea beneficialeffecton depositforming tendenciesin the fuel
injectors,reducingmaintenance costs. On the negativeside,however,the reduced
aromaticsmight resultin someimpairmentof cold flow properties,due to the
increasedparaffin contentof the fuel.

Fuel Additives

A numberof well controlledstudieshavedemonstrated the ability of detergent


additivesin dieselfuel to preventandremoveinjectortip deposits,thusreducing
smokelevels. The reducedsmokeprobablyresultsin reducedparticulate
emissionsas well, but this hasnot beendemonstrated as clearly,due to the great
expenseof particulateemissionstestson in-usevehicles. Cetaneimproving
additivesare alsolikely to resultin somereductionin HC andparticulate
emissionsin marginalfuels.

Alternative FuelsFor Buses

The possibilityof substitutingcleanerburningalternativefirelsfor dieselfuel has


drawn increasingattentionduringthe last decade.The reasonsadvancedfor this

165
Motor vehicle air pollution

substitutionincludeconservation of oil productsand energysecurity,as well asthe


reductionor eliminationof particulateemissionsandvisible smoke.

The principal alternativefuelspresentlyunderconsideration


are naturalgasand
methanolmadefrom naturalgas,andin limited applications,LPG.

Natural Gas

Naturalgashas many desirablequalitiesas an alternativeto dieselfuel in heavy


duty vehicles. Cleanburning, cheapandabundantin manyparts of the world, it
alreadyplays a significantvehicularrole in a numberof countries. The major
disadvantageof natural gas as a motor fuel is its gaseousform at normal
temperatures.

Pipelinequality naturalgasis a mixtureof severaldifferentgasesbut the primary


constituentis metlane, which typicallymakesup 90-95percentof the total
volume. Methaneis a nearly idealfuel for Otto cycle (sparkignition) engines.
As a gasunder normal conditions,it mixesreadilywith air in any proportion,
eliminatingcold startproblemsandthe needfor cold startenrichment. It is
flammableover a fairly wide rangeof air fuel ratios. With a researchoctane
numberof 130 (the highestof any commonlyusedfuel), it can be usedwith
enginecompression ratiosashigh as 15:1(compared to 8-9:1for petrol),thus
giving greaterefficiencyandpoweroutput. The low leanflammabilitylimit
permitsoperationwith extremelyleanair fuel ratios- havingas muchas 60
percentexcessair. On the otherhand,its high flametemperaturetendsto result
in high NO* emissions, unlessvery leanmixturesareused.

Becauseof its gaseousform andpoor self ignitionqualities,methaneis a poor fuel


for dieselengines. Sincedieselsaregenerallysomewhatmore efficientthan Otto
cycle engines,naturalgas enginesare likely to usesomewhatmore energythan
the dieselsthey replace. The high compression ratiosachievablewith naturalgas
limit this efficiencypenaltyto about10 percentof the dieselfuel consumption,
however.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Liquefiedpetroleumgas is alreadywidely usedas a vehiclefuel in the US,


Canada,the Netherlands,and elsewhere.As a firel for sparkignition engines,it
hasmanyof the sameadvantages as naturalgas,with the additionaladvantageof
being easierto carry aboardthe vehicle. Its major disadvantageis the limited
supply,which would rule out any largescaleconversionto LPG fuel.

t6
Casestudiesof cities aroundthe wodd

Alcohol Fuels

Methanolhasmanydesirablecombustionand emissionscharacteristics,
including
goodleancombustioncharacteristics,
low flametemperature(leadingto low NO*
emissions)zurdlow photochemical
reactivity.

As a liquid, methanolcan eitler be burnedin an Ono cycle engineor injectedinto


the cylinderas in a diesel. With a fairly high octanenumberof ll2, and excellent
leancombustionproperties,methanolis a goodfuel for leanburn Otto cycle
engines. Its lean combustionlimits are similarto thoseof naturalgas, while its
low energydensityresultsin a low flametemperaturecomparedto hydrocarbon
fuels, andthus lower NO, emissions.Methanolburnswith a sootlessflame and
containsno heavyhydrocarbons.

Methanol'shigh octanenumberresultsin a very low cetanenumber,so that


methanolcannotbe usedin a dieselenginewithoutsomesupplemental ignition
source. Investigationsto datehavefocusedon the useof ignition improving
additives,sparkignition, glow plug ignition, or dual injectionwith die,selfuel.
Convertedheavyduty dieselenginesusingeachof theseapproaches havebeen
developedanddemonstrated.

Emissions

Methanolcombustiondoesnot producesoot, so particulateemissionsfrom


methanolenginesare limited to a smallamountof lubricatingoil. Methanol's
flametemperatureis alsolower thanthat for hydrocarbonfuels, resultingin NO*
emissionswhicharetypically50 percentlower. CO emissions aregenerally
comparableto or somewhatgreaterthanthosefrom a dieselengine(exceptfor
stoichiometricOtto cycleengines,for which CO emissionsmay be muchhigher).
However,theseemissionscanbe controlledwith a catalyticconverter.

The major pollutionproblemswith methanolenginescomefrom emissionsof


unburnedfuel andformaldehyde.Methanol(at leastin moderateamounts)is
relativelyinnocuous--- it has low photochemical reactivity,and -while acutely
toxic in largedoses- displaysno significantchronictoxicity effects.
Formaldehyde, the first oxidationproductof methanol,is muchlessbenign,
however. A powerful irritant andsuspected carcinogen,it alsodisplaysvery high
photochemical reactivity. While all combustionenginesproducesome
formaldehyde,someearly generationmethanolenginesexhibitedgreatly increased
emissionscomparedto diesels. The potentialfor largeincreasesin formaldehyde
emissionswith the widespreaduseof methanolvehicleshasraisedconsiderable
concernaboutwhat would otherwisebe a very benignfuel from an environmental
standpoint.

t67
Motor vehicleair pollution

Formaldehydeemissionscanbe reducedthroughchangesin combustionchamber


and injectionsystemdesign,andare alsoreadilycontrollablethroughthe useof
catalyticconverters,at leastunder warmedup conditions. Recentefforts to reduce
aldehydesby Detroit Dieselhaveshowndramaticgains.

More Stringent Car and Truck Standards

Advancesin automotivetechnologies havemadeit possibleto dramaticallylower


emissionsfrom new motorvehicles. Increasingly,countriesaroundthe world
havebeentaking advantage of them. OncegoodI/M programsandunleaded
petrol are introduced,stateofthe art pollutioncontrolsshouldbe pursued.

Conclusions

The developmentof petroleum-powered motor vehicleshastruly revolutionized


societyover the pastcentury. The benefitsof increasedpersonalmobility and
accessto goodsand servicespreviouslybeyondthe graspof individualscannotbe
denied. And, yet, the relentlessgrowthin motor vehicleusehas a dark sidethat
manyhavebeenslow to acknowledge, includinga broadarray of adversepublic
healthand environmentaleffects.

The environmentaldamagecausedby motorvehicleemissionsis no longer


debatable,and on a globalbasisit is increasing.The cars,trucks, and busesthat
makelife better in so manywaysemit morethan 800 million tons of carbonper
year. From their tailpipescomesvirtually all of the carbonmonoxidein the air of
our cities. Lessdirectly, they areresponsiblefor muchof the ozoneand smog.
And motor vehiclesplay a significantrole in stratospheric ozonedepletion. All of
thesepollutantscontributedirectlyor indirectlyto global warming.

Over the last forty years,the globalvehiclefleet hasgrown from under50 million
to more than 500 million, andthereis everyindicationthat this growth will
continue. Over the next twentyyears,the globalfleet could doubleto one billion.
Unlesstransportationtechnologyandplanningare fundamentallytransformed,
emissionsof greenhouse andotherpollutinggasesfrom thesevehicleswill
continueto increase,manyrelativelycleanenvironments will deteriorate,andthe
few areasthat havemadeprogresswill seesomeof their gainseroded.

The worldwidechallenges that theseproblemsposefor motor vehicle


manufacturers andpolicy-makersareunprecedented.Nothing lessthan a
revolutionin teehnologyandthinking,at leastasprofoundas the initial
mechanization of transportation,is needed.Manufacturers will comeunder
increasingpressureto producepetroleum-powered vehiclesthat are ever cleaner,
safer,more reliable,andmorefuel efficient. At the sametime, they will needto

168
Case sh.rdiesof cities around the wodd

developnew kinds of vehiclesthat will emit no pollutionwhatsoever.The amount


of capitalneededto accomplishthesegoalswill be large and, makingmatterseven
more diffrcult, the pressuresfor thesechangeswill arisenot so muchfrom
traditionalmarketforcesbut from publicpoliciesadoptedin responseto climate
changeand other threats.

While appropriatepoliciesandtechnologies continueto develop,countriescan


benefitfrom the adoptionof thosethat are currentlyavailable. Variousstepscan
be takento reduceair pollutionemissions from motor vehicles. Theseinclude
incentivesto removeolder, higher polluting vehiclesfrom the road; tightening
new vehicleemissionstandards for nitrogenoxides,volatile organiccompounds,
and carbonmonoxide;developingandusingcleanerfuels with lower volatility and
fewer toxic components;enhancinginspectionand maintenance (I&M) programs,
includinginspectionsof anti-tampering emission-control equipment;and extending
the usefullife of pollution-controlequipmentto ten yearsor 100,000miles rather
than the currentfive yearsor 50,000miles. The potentialoverall impactof
tighter standards,enhancedinspectionandmaintenance, and extendedusefullife is
especiallysignificantbecauseit helpsto ensurethat the benefitsof clean-air
technologywill persistfor the full life of the vehicle.

Additionalreductionsin vehicularemissions canbe achievedby reducing


dependence on individualcarsandtrucksandby makinggreateruseof van and
car pools, buses,trolleys, andtrains. Improvingurbantraffic management by
installingsynchronizedtraffic lights, reducingon-streetparking, switchingto
"smart" roads,banningtruck unloadingduringthe day, and so forth can also
improvetransportationsystemefficiency(Office of TechnologyAssessment, US
Congress,1989).

Providingefficient, convenient,andaffiordable public transportationalternatives


worldwidewould produce multiplebenefis. When 40 personsget out of their
carsand onto a bus for a ten-miletrip to work, the emissionof some50 to 75
poundsof carboninto the air is avoided. Greateruseof public transportation
would reducecongestion,cut fatalitiesandinjuriesfrom traffic accidents,and
greatlyimprove air quality.

169
Motor vehicleair pollution

REFEREI\CES

Abbey, D.E. et al. "Inng teftn ambientconcentrations of total suspended


pafticulates and oxidantsas relatedto incidenceof chronic diseasein California
Seventh4ayAdventists" , Abstract,SecondAnnualMeetingof the International
Societyfor EnvironmentalEpidemiologyQSEE),Berkeley,CA, 13-15August
(1eeo).
AmericanLung Association. Thehealthcostsof air pollution: a surveyof studies
published1984- 1989. (1990).

Detels,R. et al. "The UCLA populationstudiesof chronicobstructiverespiratory


disease",AmericanReviewof RespiratoryDisease,124: 673480 (1981).

Euler, G.L. et al. "Chronic obstructivepulmonarydiseasesymptomeffectsof


long-termcumulativeexposureto ambientlevelsof total oxidantsand nitrogen
dioxidein CaliforniaSeventh{ayAdventistresidents",Archivesof Environmental
Health 43: 279-285(1988).

Fernandez-Bremauntz, A. and QuentinMerritt, J. Assessingthe contributionof


commutingto air pollution exposurein MexicoCity: a surveyof commuterhabits.
@ecember1991).

Hall, J.V, et al. "Valuingthe healthbenefitsof cleanair", Science,225: 812-817


(reez).
Hodgkin,J.E. et al. 'COPD prevalence in nonsmokers in high andlow
photochemicalair pollution arqs, Chest,86:.830-838(1984).

Hong Kong EPA. White Paper:Pollutionin Hong Kong - a time to act.


(5 June1989).

NationalEnvironmentBoardof Thailand. Air and noisepollution in Thailand


1989. (1990).

OECD. Transportand environment,Paris(1988).

Offrceof TechnologyAssessment,US Congress.Advancedvehicle/highway


systemsandurbantraffic problems. Staff Paper,Science,Education,and
Program(September1989).
Transportation

170
Casestudiesof cities aroundthe world

Raungchat,S. Variousfactorsassociatedwith bloodleadlevelsof traffic


policemenin BangkokMetropolis. Tbesis (undated).

SCAG (SouthernCaliforniaAssociationof Governments), Air quality management


plan (draft) - SouthCoastAir Basin,SouthCoastAir Quality Management
District, Los Angeles@ecemberl99O).

Shen,S-H. and Huang,K-}I. Taiwanair pollution controlprogran: impaa of


and control strategiesfor transportation-inducedair pollution. Presentedat UN
Conference,Ottawa,Canada(1989).

World Health Organization,InternationalAgencyfor Researchon Cancer,Lyon.

171,
Chapter6

CASE STI]DY OF MOTOR VEIIICLE FOLLUTION

AND ITS CONTROL IN GEI..IEVA

FrangoisCupelin'and Olivier Zali**

Traffic and Air Pollution in Geneva

History and geographicalsituation

Over 10,000yearsof historyr

The first settlersin the Genevaregionwerereindeerhunterswho madetheir home


at the foot ofthe SalEve(Figure l) over 10,000yearsago. After a long period
grew up on tle shoresof the lake in
without any visible tracesof man, settlements
the neolithicera.

During the periodof RomandominationGenevabecameestablished as a specific


entity. By the startof the Christianera, it wasno longeran outposton the fringe
of the Romanworld. Thoughstill only a smalltown, it held swayover a network
of farming communities,the forerunnersof mostof the villagesin the canton. As
a junction for lake, road and river traffic, it rapidly developedinto a city.

* FranqoisCupelin,Ph.D. chemistry,Assistantto the Chief Ecotoxicologist,


ECOTOX, Geneva,Switzerland

** Olivier Zali, Ph.D. chemistry,Head,InformationUnit, ECOTOX, Geneva,


Switzerland

I Encyclopddiede Genbve,1982and 1984;Guichonnet,1986

t73
Motor vehicle air pollution

Frrnce

GENEVA

l0tm

Figure l. The Cantonof Geneva,its bordersandthe surrounding


mountains.

The fairs of the Middle AgesgaveGenevaan importantrole in Europeantrade,


but the communicationrouteshad remainedvirtually unchangedsincethe Roman
era. Followingthe declineof its fairs in the faceof competitionfrom Lyon in the
late 15thcentury,Genevaexperienced a periodof greatupheaval,which saw it
changefrom an episcopalcity to the capitalof Calvinism. The Reformationalso
broughta resumptionof commercialactivity.

From the late 16thcenturyonwardGenevabecamethe startingpoint of many


coachingroutesfor mail andpassengers.Its influence,particularlyin the cultural
sphere,was out of proportionwith its physicalsizeand its meansof
communication.It was not until the early l9th centurythat theseactivitiesbegan
to extendbeyondthe neighboringregions. Therewerethen regularcoaching
servicesto Paris, Lyon, Marseille,Grenoble,Chamb6ry,Besangon,Pi6montand
the kingdomsof Italy and Naples.

2
In 1814the Republicand Cantonof Genevajoined the SwissConfederation.

2 Tlre Republicand Cantonof Genevawill be referredto in this document


asthe Cantonof Geneva.

t74
Casestudy of Geneva

The strugglebetweenconservatives andradicalsled to the demolitionof the


fortifications. This markedthe transformation from a pre-industrialcity to an
industrialcity andusheredin a periridof substantial urban expansionbetween
1850and 1880. It alsodeeply influenced the development of the road system:the
present "inner ring" figure 2) follows the line of the old city walls.

In the mid-l9th centurythe railwaysrevolutionizedtransportand led to the


disappearance of the coachingcompanies.

Nation
................ and canton
borders

rnner and (
l
niddle rings

r,ale ' ' Jo


fffi$it

r----=-=-==--
E Rivers U
t
fr
f14
r.i'
,i..

la
AJ
1a
\
, a
o

Figure 2. Tlte Genevatraffic plan is a "crown" type, with an inner ring, a middle
ring and a bypassmotorway. The built up areasare shownin black.

175
Moior vehicle air pollution

Genevain brief 3

The canton of Genevais locatedin a basinformedbv the mountainsof


neighboringFrance@igure1).

The areaof the Canton,not includingthe Lake of Geneva,is 246 km2. The
populationis concentratedin the city of Genevaand in somesurrounding
conrmuneswherenew settlements havebeenbuilt, mainly in the 1960sand 1970s
(Figures2 and 3). some 80% of the population(1989data)live in an area
representinglessthan a quarterof the Canton, and90Toofjobs are concentrated
here(1985data).

300000

250000

200000

\' -dM"a
150000
ato'

100000

soo00

o #
1850 1860 1870 1880 1 9 1 0 1 9 2 0 1 9 3 0 1 9 4 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
YEAR

Figure 3. Growth of the populationof the canton, the city of Genevaandthe


suburbanarea.

Between1975and 1985,41,000additionaljobs werecreatedand 2g,000new


inhabitantsarrived. The growthratehasdecreased
in more recentyears(Figure 3).

3 Servicecantonalde statistique,
Genbve,variousyears.

176
Casestudy of Geneva

In the comrnunesof the Cantonotherthanthe city itself the proportionof


commutersis over 50Voandin somecasesover 80% @rimatestaet al.' 1984).

Local automobiletraffrc is heavyandis supplemented by some36,000


commuters
cross-border ('frontaliers')from the neighboring of France
deparfrnents
(Ain andHaute-Savoie, seeFigure2) andsome13,000inhabitantsof the Canton
of Vaud who alsowork in Geneva(Office destransportset de la circulation,
Genbve,1990).

With the completionof its motorwaybypassand a sectionof motorwaynearto


Morat, Genevawill be at tle centerof a motorwaynetworkcomparableto that
crossingthe Alps via the St. GotthardTunnel(Figure4).

TUTTGART

ALLEMAGNE

AUTRICHE
FRANCE

GRENOBLE

/\tz-
Figure 4. Genevalinks with the Europeanmotorway nefiilork.

The land-usezoningsystem,of which manyareunaw.ue,aimsto prqservethe


rural characterof the ianton. Buildingland, includingindustrialestatesandthe
airport, accountsfor 3lVo of the areaof the Canton,leavingalmost55% for
and over 14% fot forests,parksand recreationalareas(FigUres2 and
agr:iculture
5). The possibilitiesof changingland-usezoningare strictly restricted.

t77
Motor vehicle air pollution

Public Agriculture,
administrations, Industry,arts and
diplom crafts, energy
Building and civil
Otherservices engineering

Trade, hotel and


Banking,insurancel
eating, repair
consultancy
Transportand
communications

Figure 5. Different typesof landusein the canton of Geneva(servicecantonal


de statistique,
SCS,1991).

Vegetables,
toes and beets

Grapes and fruit

Figure6. Agricultural
production
in thecantonof Geneva
(scs, l99l).

178
Case study of Geneva

Woodland and

Buih-upareasand
publicworks

Parksand
recreationalareas
\-.--.------
Agricultural land

Figure7. Breakdownof jobs in theCantonof Genevaby the mainbranchesof


theeconomy (SCS,1991).

Besidescerealsandvegetables,rape-seed andgrapesarethe major crops


(Figure6). Genevais the third wine-growingCantonof Switzerland. The
primarysectoraccounts for fewerthanT%of jobs ffigure 7). The numberof
peopleworking in the secondarysectoris decreasingwhile the very strongtertiary
sectoris growing. The averagemonthlywagein 1989wascloseto 4,500Swiss
francs(aboutUS $ 3,000), which is abovethe nationalaverage.

Genevais a major conference,congress andexhibitioncenterGELECOM' motor


show, etc.). Genevais alsothe homeof the EuropeanOffice of OreUnited
Nations,and a numberof UN specialized havetheir headquarters
agencies here,
includingthe InternationalLabour Office (LO), the World Health Organization
(WHO), the InternationalTelecommunications Union QTU), the World
MeteorologicalOrganization(WMO), the World IntellectualPropertyOrganization
(wPo), the InternationalBureauof Education0BE) andthe united NationsHigh
Commissionfor Refugees(UNHCR). Thereis alsothe EuropeanCentrefor
NuclearResearch(CERN) and, amongthe nongovernmental organizations,the
InternationalCommitteeof the Red Cross(CRC). More than 18,000peopleare
employedby internationalorganizations andpermanentmissions.

t79
Motor vehicleair pollution

Motor traffic and public transport

Motor traffic

Every year Genevahostsan impressivemotor show. with 636 motor vehiclesper


thousandinhabitants,including524 privatecars(LandryandCupelin, 1977),the
canton of Genevais also one of the mosthighly motorizedareasof the world
(Figure8). There is at presentlittle or no sign of a reversalof the upwardtrend
in the numberof vehicles(Figure9).

+ Total number of vehicles


+ P.ivate cars

65
YEAR

Figure 8. Growth of the total numberof motor vehiclesandthe numberof cars


per 1,000inhabitantsin the Cantonof Geneva(SCS,variousyears).

The parkingproblemis acute,mainly becauseof the heavycommutertraffic. The


demandsof pressuregroupsfor the constructionof public car parksin the city
centerare becomingincreasinglyinsistent. up to 1989,the constructionof car
parkswithin the inner circle wasbannedundercantonallaw. Now that ttris ban
hasbeendropped,impactassessments (seesectionbelowon the air quality
management plan) are carriedout to determinewhetheror not a car park canbe
constructed.Swisslegislationobligesthe local authorityto assessthe impacts
which would result andto take all necessary stepsto ensurecompliancewith the
federalstandardson environmental protection.

180
Casestudyof Geneva

200000

150000

100000
+ Private cars
-*- Total numbet of vehicles
s0000

0
1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989

Figure 9. Total numberof vehiclesand numberof privatecarsregisteredin the


Cantonof Geneva(SCS,variousyears).

Figure 10. Traffic flows (numberof vehiclesper da1) at the bordersof the
Canton,on the mainroutesinto the city andon the bl idgesover the Rhone(SCS,
variousyearsandOffice destransportset de la circulrtion (OTC), 1988).

181
Motor vehicle air pollution

The numberof accessroutesto Geneva(Figure 10) is limited for geographical


reasons,especiallythe presenceof the lake. The Arve andRh0nerivers oblige
driversto usebridgeson which the traffic is extremelyheavy. The Mont Blanc
bridge is crossedby an averageof 90,000vehiclesa day (office destransportset
de la circulation,Genbve,1990).

The trafhc in the city is organizedin a "crown" systemwith an inner ring, a


middle ring @igures2 and,2l) andthe future motorwaybypassof the city (see
sectionon majorprojectsbelow).

Traffic enteringthe city is regulatedby an automated systembasedon the


countingof vehiclesby meansof inductioncoils. Thesefiguresarepermanently
monitoredby a computer,which adaptsthe durationof the greenphaseof traffic
lights at the level of the "middlering" (Figure2). ln this way the morningqueues
are kept on the outskirtsof the city so asto ensurerelativelyfluid traffic flow
within the city area. This rathersophisticated systemcannotnevertheless regulate
the traffic flow leavingthe city and cannotthenpreventan almostdaily traffic jam
after office hours.

Out of the 1,380,000 motorvehiclejourneysmadeeveryday,78Voare at present


madeby privatecars(Office destransportset de la circulation,Genbve,1990).
For a long time, car traffrc tendedto be encouraged
in the city. This led to the
dismantlingof the tram networkwhich manypeoplenow regret. Stepshave
recentlybeenundertakento reversethis trend (seesectionbelow on the air quality
management plan).

Urban transport

Geneva'sfirst tramlinewas inaugurated in 1862. The endof the last centurysaw


the rapid growth of this form of transportandthe changeoverfrom animaltraction
to stqrm-drivenvehicles. At the beginningof this century 126km of tram lines
wereelectrified@ncyclopddie de Genbve,1984).

With the increasein car traffic thesetramlineswere graduallytakenout of use and


now there is only oneleft. on the urbanandsuburbanroutestle tramshavebeen
replacedby trolley buses. The countrysideis servedby diesel{riven buses.

The numberof passengers carriedbearswitnessto this trend (Figure l l). This


graph also showsa decreasein the useof public transportfrom the late 1960s,a
recoveryin the late 1970sanda sharpincreasein the late 1980s,the outcomeof a
policy for developingdemandinitiatedby GenevaPublicTransport(rpG) with the
supportof the Cantonalauthorities.

182
Ca.sestudy of Geneva

120000 + Trams passengels


-x- Trolleybuses
100000 * Diesel buses f
t- ,/
+- Total I ^,fC
80000
+
n r-H_*+++1
//- I
Total ll /
r+rt- _-- I
,/ oa
*uon
60000

40000

20000

YEAR

Figure 11. Trendsin the numberof passengers carrid by the variousforms of


public transportbetween1940and 1986. For the period 1978- 1989a revised
seriesis given for the total numberof passengers
usinga new methodof
calculation(SCS,variousyears).

Rail and air traffic

On the 6-km stretchbetweenGenevaCornavinstationandthe new stationserving


Genevaairport, over 200 trainsare circulatingdaily in eachdirection. This is
evidenceof the qualityof the connectionswith the rer,tof Switzerland.Through
the link with Bellegardeon the Frenchrail networkCenevahasa TGV
(high-speed train) service.

GenevaAirport, which handlessome90,000scheduled andcharterflights each


year, is anotherimportantcomponentof the city's transport. Some6 million
passengers were carriedin 1990. The growth in air traffic is considerable:
there
were 3,700,000passengers in 1975,while projectionrfor the year2005 are for
around10 million.

The major projects

The concernto reducetraffic within the city of Genela hasled to two major road
projects:a motorwaybypassingthe city and a lake crossingby bridgeor tunnel.

183
Motor vehicle air pollution

Constructionof the motorwaybypasslinking the Geneva-Lausanne motorwayto


the Frenchmotorwaynetworkstartedat the end of 1981and is scheduledfor
completionin 1993. The plansfor a lake crossingare evenolder thanthosefor
the Genevabypass. They shouldbe carriedout in the foreseeable future,
followingthe vote in 1987approvingthe projectin principle.

The public transportnetworkis alsobeingextended,particularlywith the


constructionof a new tram routelinking the left andright banks. The plan to
constructan automatedrapid-transitrailway hasled to a controversy,and no
consensushasyet beenreached.This option remainsopen.

The Geneva air pollution monitoring network (ROPAG)

Network of passivesamplers

Whenthe first air quality measurement


networkwassetup in 1959,emissions
from heatingplantswerethe mainproblem. Temperatureinversion,commonin
the Genevabasin,was driving smokedownwards,which led, understandably,
to
complaintsfrom the public.

The networkcomprises18passivesamplers for sulfurdioxide. EightOwen


gaugescollectthe atmospheric deposits(rainsand duss) which are then analysed
in the laboratory. Due to the measures takento limit the sulfur contentof fuels,
the meanannualsulfur dioxideflow (Figure 12) hasfallen. The adventof natural
gashas reinforcedthis trend. Moreover, 12 high-performance plantsoperatingon
heavyfuel oil with a very high sulfur contenthavebeenor are beingconvertedto
alternativefuel: the heavyfuel oil is replacedby naturalgasor extra-lightoil, the
sulfurcontentof whichis now limitedto 0.2 %.

It mustbe addedthat the proportionof dieselpoweredprivatecarsis very low in


Switzerland(lessthan3%).

The early days of monitoring

Continuousmonitoringof air qualityby fixed measuringstationsbeganin 1972


with the Sainte-Clotilde station@igure13), which for yearswas an experimental
pilot station. It is locatedin the city centervery closeto the ECOTOX
laboratories.

184
Case study cf Ganeva

mg SO2 per year


700

600
f-r.r"'""--
--* Garouge l
500 I -'*":__J I
l_l
400

300

200

100 '\4 - -i-&p

raa
0
60 65 70 75 80 85 90
YEAR
Figure 12. Trendsin the annualflux of sulfurdioxid: (SQ)measuredby three
passivesamplersrepresentative
of urban(ItOtelde Ville), suburban(Carouge)and
rural (Landecy)environments(ECOTOX, 1991).

Figure 13. Locationof the eightmeasurement


stationliof the GenevaAir
PollutionMonitoringNetwork(ROPAG).

185
Motor vehicle air pollution

The stationat Anibres,which hasbeenoperationalsince1973fot ozoneand was


extendedin 1975.is in a rural areaon the left bankofthe lake. A van was fitted
out as a laboratoryin 1978for use in the eventof accidentor disaster,but neither
eventualityhasoccurred. Consequently it wasreplacedby a laboratorymounted
on a trailerin 1990.

Between1976and 1982a thoroughknowledgeof the spatialdistributionof air


pollutionwas acquiredby meansof circadianprofiles(Landry and Cupelin, 1977):
once-a-month the entirestaff of the departmentworkedshiftsfor 24 hoursto take
samplesat 18 measurement pointsthroughoutthe city and canton. On the basisof
the findingsthe siteswere selectedfor the fixed urbanstationsof the GenevaAir
PollutionMonitoring Network (ROPAG).

The ROPAG network

The stationswere not setup in exceptionalplacesbut at pointsrepresentative of a


particularenvironment.They were put into servicein turn at Meyrin (1984,
suburbanenvironmentfairly closeto the airport),Jussy(1985, woodland
environment),Ile (1986,urbanenvironment,heavytraffrc, town center),Wilson
(1986,urbanenvironment, heavytraffic, lakeside),Foron(1987,suburban
environment,heavytraffic nearby)andfinally Passeiry(1989,rural environment).
The air samplesare takenon the roof of the stationat a heightof about3 meters,
exceptat Jussywherea 16-metermastis usedfbr takingmeasurements abovethe
tree-tops. The atmospheric pollutantsmeasuredaresulfur dioxide, nitric oxide,
nitrogendioxide, carbonmonoxide,ozone,total hydrocarbons and, at four of the
eight stations,methane(Figure 14). Concentrations of pollutantsare measured
continually. Every 30 minutesa half-hourlyaverageis taken. The equipmentis
automatically calibratedeverynightbetweenmidnightand 12:30a.m. Mor@ver,
air temperatureandhumidity are continuouslyrecorded.Five stationsare
equippedfor recordingwind speedandwind direction,two haveequipmentfor
takingdust samplesand for measuringsunlight.

The prevailingwinds in Genevaare the north-easterly


@ise)andthe
south-westerly.The stationsat AnidresandPasseiryarelocatedalongthe line of
thesewinds as they approachGeneva,which makesit possibleto determinethe
pollutionlevel of air massesapproaching
andleavingthe city.

I-egal context

Environmentalproblemshavebeentakeninto accountby Swisslegislationsince


the beginningof the centurywith a law on protectionof forests(1902). In 1955,
a law on protectionof watercameinto force. Therewerenevertheless legislative
gaps,particularlyas regardsair, soii andnoisepollution.

186
Case study of Geneva

ln 1971,in the midstof tle economicboom, awarene;sthat overall environmental


harmonywas lacking,andthat economicactivity wasproducingan exponential
increasein consumptionand in waste,led the Swisspeopleandthe cantonsto
adoptby popularvote article 24 septiesof the constitr.
tion, which empowersthe
Confederation to preparelegislationon environmental protection.

The draft Law on EnvironmentalProtection(LPE) wasthe objectof wide-ranging


with interestedparties. The FederalChiunbersadoptedit on 7
consultations
October1983. It is a frameworklaw which is appliui throughdecrees(orders)of
the FederalCouncil,ttre executiveauthorityof the SrrissConfederation.Such
decreesare subjectto consultationproceduresbut the5'arenot subjectto popular
vote.

Of thesedecrees,the Air ProtectionOrder (OPair),which cameinto force on 1


March 1986,setslimis to emissionsand limit valuesfor ambientair
concentrations.The ambientair concentration limits lTable 1) aimedat protecting
humans,animalsandplants,their biotopesandbiocoenoses, andthe soil, from
harmfuland unpleasant air pollution. A distinctionis drawnbetweenshort-term
limit values(daily, hourly) intendedto preventhigh concentrations of short
duration,and long-termlimit values(annual)aimedat reducingchronicexposure.

The requirementto protectnot only peoplebut alsothg mostsensitiveforms of


life hasled Switzerlandto adoptvery high standards.Exceptfor carbon
monoxide,for whichthe24 hourslimits is not asstrirt asan 8 hoursor onehour
limit, the Swissstandardsare of unequalledseverity. It shouldbe notedthat these
standardscorrespond,exceptin a f'ewdetails,to the limit valuesrecommended by
WHO (seeChapter2,Partl).

Trends in air quality in geneva

Trendsin annualmetns (ECOTOX,Geneva,1991)

Sulfurdioxide(SO) cnd carbonmonoxide(CO)

The continuousmeasurements @igure15a)confirmthe trendmeasuredby the


passivesamplers(Figure12).

The improvementin the quality of the eombustionpro;essesis at the root of the


improvementin the situationfor carbonmonoxide(Fitpre 15b). The still greater
improvementsince1986is dueto a combinationof tho adventof the catalytic
convertercompulsoryon new vehiclessince 15 Novenrber1986,the annual
inspectionof heatingplantsandthe annualcompulsorlcheckon vehicleexhaust
gases.

187
#
B
q)

u
o
&
c)

tr
a
G
q
9

o
E
(D
k
)
(^

o


k

E
CI
!<
bo

B

+
(l)
!
oo
Case study of Geneva

Substance Limit Value Statistical Definition

Sulturdioxide(SO2) 30 pgtil Amual mean(arithmetic mean)

)S % of half-hourly msns ovet one year


100pglm3
< 100pg/m3

X-hour avenge; should uder no circumtance


100;rglm3 )e exceededmore thm oncea yar

Nitrogen dioxide (NQ) 30 pgt# Annualmm (arithmetic meu)

15 % of half-hourly mams over one


100pglm3
< 100 pglm3

l4-hour average;should under no crrcum


80 pgt#
re exceededmore than once a year
Carbon monoxido (CO) 8 mg/n3 24-hour eversge; should under
:ircumianm be exceeded more than onc

Oane (O3) l0O irglrl3 t8 % of half-houily mms over one monlh


< 100pglm3

r2opst# rourly rverage;should under no circumslances


p exceded more lhm once e ysr
Suspendedparticulate mtterl) 70 pglm3 \nnul mean (artimetic mmn)

15% of 24-hotr mm over one yar


Irad (Pb) in suspended particulate matter 150pglm3
< 150 pglm3

1 pgh# (arithmetic
Cadmium (Cd) in suspended particulate \nnusl M man)
mtter
ln no/m3 \nnul mro (arithmetic mean)
Deposited particulate matter (total) 200 mglmz. dty .\nnul mru (arithmetic mean)

kad (Pb) in deposited particulate .\nnul mm (arithmetic mm)


lo} pgl#'day
mattef
(arithmetic msn)
Cadmium (Cd) in zuspended particulate 2 pgln? . day ,\nnul mm

mtier

Znc (7a) in deposited particulale matief 4 o op g l & ' d ^ y ,\nnual mean (arithmetic mean)

Thallium in deposited particulate , \nnual mean (arithmetic mean)


@) 2 pglr?' d^y
mattef

l) Fine suspendedparticulatemtter whosetermiral velocity is lesstb m l0 cm/s.

Notes : m8 = milligmm; I mg = 9.961 t


4g = micrcgram; I pg : 0.001 ng
ng - n0ogram; I ng = 9.661 ,t
< means'less thm or equal to'

Table 1. Ambientair concentration limit values("valeurslimitesd'immission")


stipulatedby the Air ProtectionOrder (OPair).
Motor vehicleair pollution

pglm3
8O r'*
70 1
60 f--
50 t--..----
40+ ^
30|.:
20
10
o

---o- Meyrin --*- Anilres


Ste Clotilde

Figure 15. Trendsin annualmeanvaluesfor sulfur dioxide(SQ), carbon


monoxide(CO), nitrogendioxide(NQ) andozone(q) at threestations
of urbanareas(SteClotilde),the suburbs(Meyrin) and rural areas
representative
(Anibres).

190
Casestudy of Geneva

Nitric oxide snd. nitrogen dioxide

For the nitrogenoxidesSigure 15c)therewas still a ;trongupwardtrend until a


few yearsago. The introductionofthe catalyticconv:rtertriggereda decrease.
The iepercussions on nitrogendioxidelevelsare not direct, however,since
emission mainly takes placi in the form of nitric oxid: (NO). If a large amountof
No is presentit is ttte oxidationstagethat governstho No2 content. The NQ
levelswitl not really fall until the amountsof NO emittedhavedroppedback
below a certainthreshold.

Ozone(O3)

Measurement of this pollutantrequiresparticularcareon accountof its great


reactivity. Figure 15dseemsto showan upwardtrenCin somelocationsin mean
ozonelevels' we shallrefrainherefrom drawingan:rconclusionson this
complexissue,the scopeof which extendswell beyorLdGenevaandfor which the
avaiiabledataneedto be analysedwith caution(Land:y andCupelin, 1981).
Readingstakencloseto the grounddependto a greatextenton deposition,which
is goveinedby very local conditions(vegetationcover',automobiletraffic' etc.).
It is difficult to draw conclusions for a generalevaluation.Measurements in the
'[he contributionof
vertical dimensionare neededto confirm this trend.
ECOTOX in this areatakesthe form of measurementl from a hot-airballoon
containingscientificequipment @ali and Landry, 1991). The resultsobtainedso
far showthat ozone concentrations generallyrise veq' sharply with altitudeuntil
they reach a fairly constant value. This confirms that there is a largeozone
resirvoir at zrltitudeandthat measurements on the gr<und dependmainly on the
rate of ozonedeposition.This rate is influencedby human-related factorssuchas
motor vehisletraffrc andby naturalfactorssuchas the type of vegetation.

Readingsexceedingthe short-term limit values

In the caseof co andSo2 the oPair limit valuesare being' or shortly will be,
compliedwith (Table2). On the otherhand,this is lar from beingthe casefor
ozoneand nitrogendioxide. In summertimethe ozoneconcentrations very
frequentlyexceedthe hourly limit value for t:oncentration.
ambient Figure 16
showsa typical exampleof the pattern of on
concentrations a sunny day.

It is in the countrythat the highestlevelsare generallymeasured'particularlyat


the Jussystationwhosespecialcharacterhas alreadybeenmentioned
(measurement in the woods,abovetree-toplevel, at :r heightof 16 meters). In
1991however,it was at the Meyrin stationin a subu::ban areathat the highest
hourly meanswere measuredQag y.glrf).

191
Motor vehicleair pollution

1986 \987 r988


O3 NO2 o3 N02 s()2 o3 N02 s02
ussy t9t .l0l n9e
\nieres 28( 7E? 1 758
)asseiry
)ynn 717 E3( t
'oton
:lotllde 7t9 6g 31 1& 3t 9l
2( It t21 7a
Wilson 48 JJ 2( t(
r989 r990 1991
o3 N0z 03 NO2 suz o3 N02 sg2
IussY t 7t 9 147( t75t
{ni}res ilm 7( 169
'asseiry 107!
vteyrin 106: lI 62t 761
:oron I l7l 15t l. 35?
5te{lotilde 661 6i ,+0( 4t 731 31
tle l4: tn. l3: l0i
Wilson 7 5( 4i 5(

Table2. Numberof timesthe daily ambientconcentration limit valueswere


exceededfor nitrogendioxide (NoJ, sulphurdioxide(Se) and numberof times
the hourly ambientconcentration
limit valuewasexceededfor ozone (or) from
1986to 1991, It shouldbe notedthatthe daily ambientconcentrationvalue for
carbonmonoxide(co) was neverexceeded duringthis period (Ecorox, 1991)
ppb
140
-x- lle
120 + AniAres
+ Passeiry
100
+ Ste Clotilde

14 16 18 20 2i
nol,

Figure 16. Patternsof ozoneconcentrations for a sunnyday (July 4, l99l) at two


urban stations(le and ste clotilde) andtwo rural arealtations (Anibresand
Passeiry).1 ppb = 1 part per billion - 2 F,glrn3.

192
Case study of Geneva

The daily limit value for ambientconcentrationof nitlogen dioxide is exceededall


the year round. However,the excessvaluesareworsein winter when stable
antiiyclonicsituationscausethe Genevabasinto be c,rveredby a thick layer of
stratuscloud, a signthat pronouncedtemperature invorsionis preventingthe
pollutantsfrom dispersing.

Besidesthe daily limit value of 80 g.g/m3stipulatedb 1 the federalorder, a


cantonalregulationspecificto Genevaprovidesfor a temporaryreductionin traffic
volumeif the daily meanis in excessof 160trrglm3o.r morethan three
consecutivedays@dpubliqueet cantonde Genlve, 1')89). In sucha case,which
hasnot yet occurred,carsnot fitted with a catalyticc)nverterwould only be
allowed the roadsevery other day: "useof the roadsis prohibitedon
on
even-numbered daysfor motor vehicles(motorcars, inotorcyclesand mopeds)
with an odd-numbered registrationnumber,andon otld numbereddaysfor motor
vehicleswith an even-numbered registrationnumber', Vehiclesfitted with a
catalyticconverterare not affectedby this measure.

Information

Since12 March 1987a daily bulletinon air qualityhasbeenavailableon an


automatictelephoneansweringservice. This messagcis alsotransmittedby fax to
the media,whichmay publishthe contentin wholeo: in part.

The bulletincontains:

- the measurements for the previousday in numericalform


- commentson thesemeasurements antl a forecastfor the day in
questionand the following day
- explanationsof the mechanisms wherobythe pollutantsare formed
anddispersed,and advice to people I rableto emit them.
- a graph showing the pattern of conce,rtrationson the previousday
stations.
at two tYPical

A monthlysummaryis alsopreparedfor the mediaandfor the authorities


madeby the
concerned.An annualreport is publishedon the meisurements
ROPAGnetwork(ECOTOX,Geneva,1991).

r93
Motor vehicleair pollution

The Air Quality Management PIan as an rnstrument of Environmental


Management

I-egal context

The strategyand principle of air potlution control

The ideabehindthe Federallaw is thatthe environmentbe regardedas a whole,


and that the impactof differentkindsof pollution,andthe correctionthereof,be
dealtwith individually,collectivelyandin their combinedeffects. In caseswhere
peopleor tle environmenthavealreadysufferedharm, sanitationmeasuresmust
produceresultsquickly. Legislationmustreconcilethe developmentof human
activities,especiallythat of futuretechnologyandthe individualbehaviorof
consumers,with the burdenthat naturewill be ableto support. This meansthat
the burdenon the environmentshouldnot increase,in spiteof demographicand
economicgrowth. Indeed,it shouldbe reducedwhereverpossible.

In accordance with this principle, OPairadoptsa two-prongedapproach


comprisingpreventionand correction. Therearethereforetwo phasesin the
controlof emissions.In the first phase,atmospheric pollution is limited by
m&Nurestakenat source. Thesearepaid for by the ownerof the installation,
sinceFederallegislationrecognizes theprinciplethat 'polluterspay'. However,
measures must be technicallyfeasibleand economicallybearable. Suchlimiting
measuresare takenindependently of the context,andof existingsourcesof harm.
This meansthat for the purposesof prevention,the besttechniquefor reducing
pollution shouldalso be usedin placeswhereambientair concentrations are not
excessive.

The secondphaseimplementsmeasures to preventexcessiveair pollution,


increasingtle severityof normsfor emission,or reducingthe useof sourcesof
pollution.

where the limit valuesfor ambientair concentrationsare exceeded,the cantons


mustsubmitair quality management plans("plansdesmesures"). The deadline
for implementation setby the order is I April 1994.

The diffrcultiesencounteredby cantonsin applyingthis new legislationhave


resultedin delaysin preparingthe air quality managementplans.

t94
Case studv of Geneva

A few lines of action

(EIA)
Environmentalimpact assessment

The EIA is a preventioninstrument.It allowsthe environmentalimpactof


construstionor alterationof a giveninstaliationto be evaluatedin goodtime,
beforeany decisionis taken. It canbe usedto ensur'i) that all the provisionsof
legislationon the environmentareduly takeninto ac(ount,and it encourages the
if
authorsof draftsto improvethem necessary.

An EIA shouldbe madeduring planning,andtherefcrebeforework beginson a


project. It enablesthe promoterto correctconceptualerrorsand revisethe
investmentplan. It canthereforealsoserveas an instrumentfor economic
management.

The EIA report is accessibleto thepublic, who cantrereforejudge for themselves


to what extenta projectis compatiblewith environmcntal protection.

In Geneva,variousEIA havealreadybeenundertaker,includingfor the


constructionof the motorwaybypass(I-andryet al., 1980),the alterationof the
urbanwasteincinerationplant @6partement destrav;luxpublics,Gen0ve,1988)
and numerousparkinglot projects.

Generallimitation of emissions

The OPair containsa large numberof limit valuesfo: emissions,applicableto


existingand future installations.Most of themare s(t for installationsof a
minimumsize, or for minimumvolumesof pollutantr;.For large industrial
installations
andcombustion plants,OPairmakesa ntmberof specificprovisions.
Boilersandburnersover a certaincapacityaregiven a standardexpertevaluation
prior to approvalfor sale.

Emissionsfrom motor vehiclesue limitedby legislationon road trafhc. Since


1986,all vehiclesregisteredin Switzerlandmustconply with the US 83
standards.Vehicleswith dieselenginesarethe objectof new standardswhich
cameinto forcein 1991.

Theanti-pollutionplan

Whenit is found that an installationdoesnot confornrto the requirementsof the


OPair, it mustbe cleanedup. An anti-pollutionplan is preparedin collaboration
with the authoritieswhich set a deadline.The usualrleadlineis five years.

195
Motor vehicle air pollution

Theair qualirymanagement
plan

when excessiveambientconcentrations havebeenmeasuredor are expected,the


authorityestablishes
an air qualitymanagement plan to preventor eliminate
excessiveambientair concentration.The plan indicates:

a. The sourcesof emissions responsiblefor excessiveambientair


concentration,andthe proportionof the total burdenof pollution
for which they areresponsible;

b. Measuresto preventor eliminateexcessiveambientair


concentration,andan estimateof the effectiveness
of eachof those
measurqs.

As a rule, the measureslisted in the plansaretakenwithin five years.

Air quality management plan : methodology

Introduction

we shall describethe methodologyappliedin Genevaduring drafting of the air


quality management plan in 1989. After consultation
with the main sectors
concerned,the plan was adoptedby the conseil d'Etat of the canton of Genevaon
27 March 1991(Servicede la ldgislation et despublicationsofflrcielles,
Genbve,
1991).

As part A shows,excessiveair pollutantconcentrations in Genevaare causedby


nitrogendioxide and ozone. In orderto keepmatterssimple,we shall describe
only the methodusedto reducetotal nitrogenoxides(No*) emissions.ozone is a
secondarypollutantproducedby thejoint activityof nitrogenoxides,volatile
organiccompounds(voc) andsunlight. The ozoneproblemis thereforenot
limited to the Genevaregionandshouldbe treatedon a vasterscale. As ozoneis
reducedby mostprimarypollutants(CO, NO, SO2,VOC...), the air quality
management plan relatingto nitrogenoxidesthereforeaffectsozoneambient
concentration.In future years,the plan will be adaptedto ensureparallel
reductionof VOC emissions.

Principle of evaluation

Atmosphericpollution is emittedby stationaryandmobilesourcesthroughoutthe


territory of Geneva. Thoseemissionsaresubjectto the actionof wind and
weather,andthey are often transformedin the atmosphere.

196
Case study ofGeneva

Emissionsdispersedin the atmosphere are referredto as ambientair


concentrations.Theseare assessed by measuringthe r:oncentrationof the pollutant
in questionin air samplestakenbetween2 and3 metersabovegroundlevel (see
sectionaboveon traffic and air pollutionin Geneva).

that there is a causeand effectrelationshipbetweenemissionsfrom a


It is assumed
sourceandresultantambientair concentration.This rreansthat the further one
goesfrom a sourceof pollution,the lessnoticeableits effectswill be (Figure l7).

NTRATIONS

Figure 17. The relationshipbetweenemissionsandarnbientair concentrations.

Division of tasks

In Switzerland,the cantonsareresponsible for checkirgthe quality of air on their


in the light of the ()Pair objectives. If ambient
territory. The resultsare assessed
air concentrations the cantonalauthorit'lmustpreparean air quality
are excessive,
management plan.

This situation,describedin the sectionaboveon traffic and air pollution in


Geneva,pertainsin the cantonof Genevafor ambientair concentrations of
nitrogendioxideand ozone.

197
Motor vehicle air pollution

The content of an air quality managementplan

The air quality management planshouldnamethe sourcesof emissionsthat cause


excessambientair concentrations, andthe proportionof overall pollutionof which
they are the cause. It shouldalsosetout measuresfor preventionor removalof
excessiveambientair concentration, andgive an indicationof the effectiveness
of
eachof thosemeasures.Figure 18 showsthe entiremethodologicalprocedurefor
implementingthe air qualitymanagement plan.

MAPoF

q:17
/ l

oF
TMoDEr \
\EMtSStONS/
\,/

Figure 18. Methodologyfor development


of the air quality management
plan.

198
Casestudyof Geneva

The requisite resources

Model of emissions

In order to meetthe objectivesof the air qualitymanigementplan, officials must


map out the sourcesof emissionresponsible for excessiveemission. This calls for
the useof numericalmodels,whosespecifications are given in Table 3.

0uestions Sptrifications

Who is producing the emissions? Qualitativeinr/entoryof sources


How much is emined ? Estimateof erilssions from eachsource
Where are the sourcesof emission? Map of sourc(,s
How will these emissionsdeveloo? Evaluationof measuresset out in the plan

Table3. Requisitespecifications
for the numericalmrdel.

Model of arnbientair concentrations

The mapof ambientair concentrations is basedon tle, modelof emissions.It is


essentialto ensurethat the measures
takenenablethe limit valuesof ambientair
concentration to be respected.The modelis basedon the assumptionthat there is
a relationshipbetweenemissions andambientair concentrations.

Fluctuationof emissionsis oneof the causesof flucturtion of ambientair


concentrations.Other suchfactorsarechangesin the meteorologicalparameters
responsiblefor dilution suchaswind speedanddirecton, and atmospheric
stability.

In order to take thesefactsinto account.our modelis basedon measurements


takenby the Genevanetworkfor observation pollution (ROPAG).
of atmospheric
They havebeencorrelatedwith dataon estimatedemir;sions aroundthe measuring
station.

t99
Motor vehicle air pollution

Map of emissions

Sourcesof nitrogen oxide emissions

The formationof nitrogenoxidesresultsmainly from reactionbetween


atmosphericoxygenand nitrogenduring combustionprocesses.A minimal
proportioncomesfrom oxidationof nitrogencontainingcompoundsin the
combustionmaterialsthemselves.

With regardto emissions,we alwaystalk in termsof total nitrogenoxides(NO*).


Nitrogenoxidesincludea largenumberof compounds of the NnO*type, although
from the point of view of air protection,the only significantonbsare NO and
NOr. Nitric oxide (NO) accountsfor 90 to 95Voof NO* emissions,and it
ultimatelychangesin the atmosphere into nitrogendioxide (NOz), which is the
mosttoxic.

This is why NO" emissions areexpressed in termsof massof nitrogendioxide,


eventhoughat emissiononly 5 to l0% of NO* is nitrogendioxide. It is only that
fractionthat actsas a primarypollutant.

Therearethree main sourcesof emissionof total nitrogenoxides:transport,


heatingandindustry.

Transpon

In Geneva,roadtraffic is a majorsourceof air pollution. This is explained by the


tremendous growth in motor traffic over the past30 years(seesectionaboveon
traffic and air pollution in Geneva).It is one of the mosthighly motorizedareas
in the world.

Genevahasan internationalairport. Air traffic is anothersourceof nitrogen


oxides. For the territory of the cantonof Geneva,only emissionson the ground
and duringtake-off and landinghavebeentakeninto accountin the air quality
management plan. From the regionalpoint of view, only nitrogenoxidesinjected
into the atmosphere up to a heightof 800 metersis of real importance.Emissions
in the uppertropospheremay be assumed to haveno influenceon local ambient
air concentrations.

Heatingplant

In additionto transportationand industry,NO* emissionsproducedby heating


systemsare significant.

200
Case study of Geneva

In this areathereare two sourcesof emissions:heatirg of homes,whereemission


levelsare linked to the numberof inhabitants,andheatingof workplaces,where
emissionsare linked to the numberof employees,irr xpectiveof the type of
activity.

Emissionsproducedby heating,unlikeroadtraffic ernissions,show considerable


variation. Whenheatingemissionsare comparedto traffic emissions
seasonable
on an annualbasis,this fact is not evident.

Indastri al install ati ons

In the cantonof Geneva,approximately 75Voof the rrorking populationis in the


tertiary sector. This is why NO, emissions producedby industryare relatively
low. Suchemissions resultfrom thefollowingactivilies:

(1) incinerationof domesticwaste,


(2) industrialheatingplants,
(3) civil engineeringactivities,
(4) agricultureandforestry.

Emissionsof nitrogenoxidesfrom industrialplantsle,rterthe atmosphere


through
chimneyswhoseheightis calculated to ensurethereis no excessive ambientair
concentration.

For civil engineering, andibrestry,activiriesall of which are


agriculture
discontinuous.emissionscomesfrom mobilesources.It is thereforedifficult to
includethem in a mapof emissions.

Model of emissions

Estimatingthe emissions hypotheses.AppendixB


requiressomesimplifyingl
describeshow this calculationhasbeendone. Our modeltakesaccountof two
typesof emission.

The first is emissionsfrom vehicletraffic andheating. It is mappedout in 500 by


500 squaremetercells. Emissionsproducedby air b affic moving on tle ground
in the airport, are includedin the traffic emissions.Irigure 19 showsthe sum of
thesetwo sourcesof emission.

20r
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Case study of Geneva

The secondtype comprisesdiffusesourcesof emissiio r: industrialemissions


evacuatedby high chimneys,andemissionsfrom air trafftc up to 800 meters
aboveground. Thoseemissionsincreasethe generallevel of nitrogenoxides
on the wholeterritory and are not linked directly to
ambientair concentrations
givengrid squares.

Table 4 sumsup the dataon emissionof total nitrolgeltoxides.

Emissions in Geneva in 1.988 (tonrslt{O1)

RoadTraffic

Air traffic

Heatinginstallations

Total

of NO* in 1988for the Cinton of Genevain tons


Table4. Glob:rlemissions
NO*/year(ECOTOX)

Map of ambient air concentrations

Introduction

The idealmodel shouldpermit calculationof the haJf-hourlyconcentration of


pollutantsand the statisticalmeansfrom emissiondau,,physical-chemical and
photochemicalparameters of the atmosphere,andclinraticand meteorological
conditions. Sucha modelcouldbe usedin conjuncticnwith weatherforecaststo
predictconditions. At present,thereare no suchrnrodels for an urbanenvironment
wheresourcesof pollutingemissions are foundtogether. Sucha modelis yet to
be designed. What we offer hereis an empiricalmodelfor calculationof ambient
air concentrationsbasedon the hypothesis that thereir; a linear type relationship
betweenemissionsand ambientair concentrations.Tlte multi-linearregression
modelwill be calibratedusingdatasuppliedby the R{)PAG networkand the
estimationsmadeof the emissions.

203
Motor vehicle air pollution

Estimatesof future ambientair concentrationswill be expressedin averageannual


concentrations.It is easyenoughto incorporatethe typesof meteorological
conditionsand their annualfrequencyof occurrence.As alreadymentioned,
emissionsfor traffic andheatingare alsocalculatedfor annualperiods. In this
way, the OPair limit valuefor ambientair concentration,which is a meanannual
value, can be comparedwith the forecasts.

What basic unit should be chosen?

The locationsof the measuringsitesaredescribedin the sectionaboveon traffic


and air pollution in Geneva. Eachhasits own specialfeatures. The essential
issueis that of determininghow representative
they areof the wholeterritory of
Geneva. Sourcesof emissionnearthe site coulddistortthe ambientair
concentration picturegivenby the measuringstation.

In theory, the influenceof a singlesourcedependson the distancebetweenthe


sourceof emissionandthe measurement site. Experienceshowsthat this
hypothesisis borneout for primary pollutants,suchas carbonmonoxide,but that
it doesnot apply to secondarypollutantsresultingfrom physical-chemical
transformations,suchas ozoneandnitrogendioxide. For the latter, we have
notedthat maximumconcentration varieswith
of ambientair concentrations
meteorologicalconditionsandsolar intensity. We havethereforetakenaccountof
total emissionsin a grid squareof onekm2centeredon the measuringpoint. This
givesa good correlationbetweenemissionsand ambientair concentrations of
nitrogendioxide.

Model emissions/ambientair concentrations: relationshipbetweenemissions


and ambient air concentrationsof total nitrogen oxides

In Geneva,we havefound meanmonthlyconcentrations of nitrogendioxideto be


relativelyconstant,while, in the urbanarea,the map of emissionsshowsa large
proportionof NO* emissionsto be producedby heatinginstallations,eventhough
they only work in winter. Total nitrogenoxidesemissionsshouldthereforebe
betterrelatedto tle averageNO* ambientair concentrations thanto average
nitrogendioxide ambientair concentrations.It is shownin appendixC how this
relationshiphas beenderived.

Graphic representationof the map of ambient air concentrations

Figure 20 showsthe map of ambientair concentrations


of nitrogendioxidefor
1988,calculatedfrom the mapof emissions.Estimations of nitrogendioxide
ambientair concentrations
takeaccountof:

204
Case study of Geneva

(1) the level per unit surfaceareaof total nitrogenoxidesemissions


from traffic andheatinginstallations,

(2) the backgroundlevel calculatedon tho basisof estimatedforecasts


thatdependon globalemissionsof tolal nitrogenoxidesfor the
canton.

The ambientair concentrationvaluesthusobtainedfor eachgrid squareare then


interpolatedso asto providea mapwherenitrogendioxideconcentrations are
shownwith isometriclines.

Anti-pollution measures

Introduction

Evaluationof total nitrogenoxideemissionsshowEdload traffic to be the main


nt plan devotedto sanitation
source. Thus the sectionof the air quality managem(
measures for roadraffic will predominate.

The renewalof the vehiclepark in Switzerlandis probablyamongthe quickestin


the world. It hasbeenestimated thatwithin 13 yeiys,morethan95Voof private
vehicleswill be replaced.Theprogressive replacem(,nt of non-catalysedvehicles
by new onesrespectingUS 83 standards ir
will induse strong reductionof nitrogen
not
oxidesemissions.It will nevertheless be neither
sufFtcrieltt to reachOPair
objectivesnor to resolvethe problemslinked with thc saturationof the cantonroad
network.

Measuresto be taken with regard to transport

Guidingprinciples

All the measuressetout hereweredevelopedby the ;antonaltransportoffice and


are describedin full in the air qualitymanagementplan of 27 March 1991. We
shall mentiononly the main ones. All the measur€s llroposedmeetthe criteria
presentedin Table5, which wereestablished with political consensus.

Someof tle measures proposedcanbe put into pract,ceimmediately,while others


dependon completionof publicworks or transportbfrastructure. This meansthat
they will be time tableduntil the year2000.

205
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Casestudy of Geneva

(a) Compliancewith Federal orders governingenvironnental protection

(b) An impact that complementsother mesuresleadingto overall improvement


of our environment

(c) Beingrespected,and thereforehavingthe supportol the population

(d) Preservationof individuat liberty in termsof mobility and choice

(e) Fosteringdevelopmentof the viability of the city anrlcanton.

Table5. Criteria for choiceof measures.

Regularinformationon the air qualitymanagement plan will be distributedto the


generalpublic, so that every inhabitantfeelsinvolved, The cleaningup of road
traff,rcis an ambitiousprojectwhich doesindeedcall for the supportof the
population. It is all the more ambitiousin that its ains are at first sight
contradictory:reductionof road traffic emissions u'hi e maintainingor even
increasingthe mobility of the population. To meettheseaims,the only alternative
is to transferpart of the traffic in privatevehiclesto rlther,lesspolluting, forms of
transport. The public transportnetworkwill meetttrisneed,and its development
is a priority.

Developmentof public tansport

A numberof stepswill be takento improvethe pedormanceof the present


network,in termsof capacity,availability,speedandcomfort. It must be
emphasized that peakhour public transportdictatesthe maximumavailablelevel.
A masterplan for the public transportnetworkfor thu period 1990-1994hasbeen
adopted. It entailsimprovementof existinglines,;rrcvisionof preferentialtrafflic
lights at cross-roads, developmentof the urbannet'workwith the creationof a
further tramline, and reorganizationof the Genevarel;ionalnetwork. The master
plan for the public transportnetwork 1995-2000 airnsto createa new structurefor
the urbannetwork (tramsand undergroundtrains)arulto developregional
transport (trains and buses).

Takentogether,thesemeasureswill encourage a larg,:rproportionof journeys to


be madein public ratherthan in privatetransport.

207
Motor vehicle air pollution

New trffic plan

The map of roadtraffic emissionsshowsthat the centerof town is the areawhere


emissionsare highest. The high densityof emissionsleadsto excessambientair
concentrationsof pollutants. In orderto reducethem, city centertra{fic mustbe
reduced.

In order to limit traffic towardsthe center,ttre "crown" traffic systemfigure 21)


is to be replacedby a systembasedon sectors(Figure 22). In sucha system,
passagefrom one sectorto a neighboringsectorwill still be possiblealonga link
road, whilst passage acrosstwo sectorswill no longerbe possiblethroughthe
center. Passage throughtwo non-adjacent sectorswill only be possibleusing a
road outsidethe sectors. This new traffic systemwill maintainaccessto the
center,while reducingtransittraffic. It will be introducedgraduallywhen the
bypassmotorwayis openedin 1993. It shouldgraduallyreducetraffic in transit
throughthe town by creatingsealedareasthat are accessible only to terminal
traffic. It will be extendedto tlte entireroad networkas soonas the planned
bypassmotorwayandroad acrossthe lake are built.

Therecould be concernthat thesearrangements will leadto a displacementof


industryandhousingtowardsthe new routes,creatingunexpected traffic
problems. This eventualityshouldbe avoidedif the regulationspreventing
changesin land usezoningare strictly applied. The new traffic plan objectives
mustbe backedup with appropriate land-use policies.

Trffic management

The presenttraffic management


systemwill be modernizedandupdatedso asto
makethe bestuseof existingandplannedinfrastructure.

The movementof public transportvehiclesin town will be a priority featureof the


traffic management
system.

A "bypass"systemwill be developedover 5 yearsto managethe priorities given


to public transport. They will be ableto passqueuesandmovealmostas though
in a traffic-free area.

Cantonalregulationswill be adoptedto ensurethe coexistence of the new form of


traffrc networkwith a supplyof parkingplaces. Controlof parkingwill allow for
modulationof traffic for regular,visiting andprofessionaldrivers.

208
Case study of Geneva

trafficplan. (Source:Cffrcedestransportset de la
Figure21. Radial/concentric
dejusticeet police,Genbv'e.
circulation,Ddpartement r

Figure 22. Sectorbasedtraffic plan. (Source:Office destransportset de Ia


circulation,Ddpartementde justice et police,Genbve.)

209
Motor vehicle air pollution

The establishment
of "park andride" car parksat the entry to the town will be
encouraged.

The building ofundergroundcar parkswill allow surfaceparking spacesto be


removed,with road spacebeingredistributedfor the benefitof public transport,
deliveries,two-wheeledvehicles,pedestrians
andgreenery.

Presentand plannedparking spacesfor regularcommuterswill be countedand,


wherepossible,reallocatedto the inhabitants
of the districtsand to visitors.

Measuresto be taken with regard to air traffic

The canton of Genevaenjoysa Federalconcession for the use of its airport. Its
powers,especiallyas regardspoilution,arethereforevery limited.

The Federalauthoritieswill be askedto consider,in the interestsof pollution


control, limiting accessto Swissairportsfor certaintypesof aircraft which are
deemedtoo dirty. They shouldconsidersettinglandingsurchargesfor aircraft
that causetoo muchpollution.

Measuresto be taken with regard to heating

Striaer emissionstandards

New and more binding standardsgoverningair protectioncameinto force on I


February1992. This shouldresultin a 40voreductionof total nitrogenoxides
emissions,accordingto the Confederation.

Reductionof energyconsumption

In order to reducepolluting emissionsdueto heating,energy-saving measureswill


be taken,with the systematiccheckingof the installationof thermostats,provision
of adequateregulationof domesticheatingappliances, and individualbilling of
heatingandhot water costs.

Stepsto be taken in industry

The proportionof total nitrogenoxidesattributableto industryis low.


Furthermore,stricter limitationson emissionscameinto force on 1 Februarv
1992. Tt,efupurposeis to producea reductionof the order of 43Vo,

The plant for incinerationof domesticwastefrom the cantonwhich is the source


of a large proportionof industrialemissions,is beingextended.Emissionsof

210
Case study of Geneva

are taken. They are


nitrogenoxideswill increaseby 56% unlessspeciallnteasures
evacuatedthrougha chimneyabout100metershig1h,sothat they affect the level
of backgroundambientair concentration.

In order to limit the impact,an emissionlimit valu,ecf 80 mg/m3hasbeen


selected.This meansthat total nitrogenoxidesemiiss'ons shouldfall from 940
tonsof NO* per yearto 150tonsof NO* per year.

Evaluation of anti-pollution measures

Introduction

AntiPollution me&sures are evaluatedin two phasers.In the first phase,the


proposedmeasurqsare evaluatedin relationto emirssirns.This involvesa sectoral
approachfor the variouslisted sourcesof total nitrogtn oxides. In the second
phase,the proposedmodel is usedto calculatefuture ambientair concentrations.

Emissionswill be reducedstepby step. Two schedu.es for future ambientair


concentrationshave been selected,one for 1994,u'hi:h is whentle OPair ends,
andthe other for the year 2000,by which time all th,: proposedmeasuresshould
havebeencarriedout.

Evaluation of measuresto reduceemissions

Rood trffic

Accordingto the Traffic and TransportOffice (OTC) the set of measuresproposed


shouldreduceindividualmotortrafficby t5% overall,with reductionsof up to
40%in somepartsof the city center,andup to 20% in somerural areas.

On the otherhand,the new traffic plan will leadto nlore traffic on the bypass
motorwayas of 1994,and in the regionsaffectedtry thelake crossing,as of the
year2000. With this linear reductionin roadtraffic, overall emissionscalculated
on the basisof thesehypotheses shouldbe 2496to;nsof NO* per year for 1994
and 1367tons of NO, per yearfor 2000. Thesecalculationstake accountof the
gradualintroductionof the catalyser,which shouldctt the emissionfactors.

Heating

Accordingto Confederationestimates,introductiono i the new OPair requirements


in 1992will leadto a 43% cut in emissions.The rprtdictedeffect will not be fully
apparentuntil the year 2000. The estimatedchargelor that referenceyearwill be
575 tonsof NO, per year.
'r11
Motor vehicle air pollution

Industry

For industrialsites,tle cut in emissions


will be similar to that in heating
installations.As regardsthe incinerationplant of the cantonof Geneva,the oPair
standardsof 1992will not be metuntil the year 2000, at which point total nitrogen
oxidesemissionsfor the industrialsectorwill be 373tons of NO, per year.

Figure 23 showsall the estimates


for total nitrogenoxidesemissions.

Evaluation of anti-pollution measuresrelating to ambient air concentration

Accordingto the proposedmodel,the backgroundlevel of nitrogendioxidewill


fall at the sametime as total nitrogenoxidesemissions.On the basisof estimates
for emissions,a backgroundlevel of 19 p.glnf of NO2 is expectedfor 1994,and
13 p.glm3of NO2, for the year2000. To this backgroundlevel, one shouldadd
the proportionof nitrogendioxideproducedby roadtrafflrcand heating,calculated
on the basisof emissionmapsfor thosesources. Figures24 and25 showthe
distributionof nitrogendioxideambientair concentrations for 1994and 2000.

In 1994ambientair concentrations will be considerablylower than in 1988.


However,part of the built-upareawill still be in a zonewherethe limit valueof
3Op"glfir3is exceeded.In criticalzones,ambientair concentrationshouldnot,
howeverexceedan annualaverage of 40 pglm3.In the year2000,nitrogen
dioxideambientair concentrations in the cantonwill be within the limit valueof
30 pglm3.

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Motor vehicle air pollution

Conclusions

The air quallty management plan will permit the achievementof the objectivesof
the legislationon environmental protectionandminimisehealthrisks for the
population. It will not give instantresultsandits applicationmustbe rigorously
supervisedfor yearsto come.

Every year, a report on how the measuresarebeingappliedwill be presentedto


the Grand-Conseil(ttreCantonalparliament)andeverytwo yearsan updatingof
the estimatesfor emissionswill be made. Comparison of currentambient
concentrations with estimatedtrendswill permitreinforcementof the proposed
mglsures.

So far, the air quality management


plan adoptedhasonly takeninto accountthe
reductionof nitrogenoxides. The next stepis to dealwith the problemof volatile
organiccompounds(VOC).

The measureshavebeenanalysedin termsof their effectivenessin reducingair


pollution. No cost/benefitanalyseshaveyet beenundertaken.

The plan will be successfulonly if a majorityof the populationagreeswith its


objectives. An infbrmationcampaigntherefore,hasto be plannedin parallel with
the progressiveintroductionof the variousmeasures containedin the air quality
management plan.

216
Casestudyof Geneva

REFERET{CES

D6partement destravauxpublics,Genbve.Rappottd'impactsur I'environnement;


adaptationdes installations cantonalesde traitemetntles rdsidusde Cheneviersl[l.
(1988).

1?X). GenUve(1991).
ECOTOX. Mesurede la qualitCde l'air d GenCvet

Encyclop6diede Gendve,Tome I : Iz Paysde Gendrc, Genbve(1982).

de Genbve,Tome3 : La vie desaffaires, Genbve(1984).


Encyclop6die

Guichonnet,P. (Ed.) Histoire de Gen4ve.3bme&lit:on misel jour. Privat


(foulouse)/ Payot(Genbve)(1986).

Landry,J.-Cl. et al. Etudeprospective


de quelques
ispectsde I'influenced'une
autoroutesur son environnement,Archivesdessciences(Genbve),33: l-87
(1e80).

Landry,J.-Cl. et Cupelin,F. Mdthoded'6valuationte la qualitdde I'air I I'aide


de profils circadiens.C.R. dessdancesSPHN,12: 4748, Genbve(1977).

Landry,J.-Cl. et Cupelin,F. The monitoringof c,zoneimmissions


in rural and
urbanareas. InternationalJournal of Environmemlal
andAnalytical Chemistry,
9: 169-187(1981).

OFEFP. Les cahiersde I'environnementNo 55; 6missionspolluantesdu trafic


routierprivd de 1950e 2000. Officefddiral de la proteaion de l'environnement,
desfordtset du paysage(OFEFP), 1986,suppldment (1988).

OFEFP.Les cahiersde I'environnementNo 73; ccrmnent6tablirun cadastre


d'dmission. OfficefCddralde la protectionde I'environnement,
desforAts et du
paysage (1987a).

OFEFP. Les cahiersde I'environnementNo 76; dmissionspolluantesen Suisse


duesl l'activitd humaine(de 1950I 2010). OfficefCl€ral de la protectionde
l'environnement, desforets et du paysage(1987b).

Office destransportset de la circulation,Genbve. Ptan de chargedu rCseau


routier genevois1988.

217
Motor vehicle air pollution

Office destransportset de la circulation,Genbve.Donntesde la basedu syst?me


de circulationgenevois,(1990).

Primatesta,G. et al. Paysagesgenevois.Ed. Delachauxet Nestl6,


Neuch0tel-Paris( I 984).

R6publiqneet cantonde Gendve. R|glement(I{ 1 1,3) relatif d la restriction


temporairede la circulationmotorisdeen casdepollution de l'air, (1989).

Servicecantonalde statistique,Genbve.Annuairesstatistiques
du cantonde
Genlve, (1990,1988,1987,1985et 1973).

Servicede la ldgislationet despublicationsofficielles,Genbve. Assainissement


de
l'air d Genive,plan de mesuresau Eensde I'article 3l de I'OPair. (27 mus
1991).

Williams,M.L. The role of motorvehiclesin air pollutionintheUK. The


Scienceof the TotalEnvironment,93: 1-8 (1990).

Zali, O. et Landry,J.-Cl. La probldmatique


de I'ozone. Annalsof Dermatology
and Venereology, ll8: 917-923(1991).

218
Chapter7

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

1. The mostubiquitousair pollutionin the world todayis causedby motor


vehicles.

All metropolitanareasof the wodd, which containsrrme50% of the earth's


population,haveor soonwill havemotorvehicletrafic congestionproblemsthat
leadto major air pollution problemsfor the generalpublic. Although more
seriousair pollution canbe producedlocallyby industrialemissionsand
regionally/seasonally by high sulfur contentfossil furd (coaland oil) combustion,
the large and growing numberof motorvehiclesprolucescontinuousand
extensiveair pollution.

damagethe healthof urban


2. Motor vehicletraffic and its emissionsseriousllg
populations.

Ozone,formed by complexphotochemical reactionsof NO* and HC, causeseye


irritation, contributesto pulmonaryirritation,provol:esasthmaticattacksin
susceptible individualsandthe development of chronicobstructivelung diseasein
repeatedlyexposedpopulations.Lead(Pb) is a perniciouscomponentof
particulatematterand createsa severeneurologicalLealthhazard,especiallyfor
childrenliving nearhigh traffic streets. The constihentsof particulatematter,
eitheras emittedor as aerosolsformedby atmosphelicphotochemicalreactions,
causepulmonaryirritation and contributeto respirafirryillness. Urban carbon
monoxide(CO) affectspeoplewith cardiacdeficienciesand is almostentirely
producedby vehiculartraffic. Nitrogendioxide(JN(l) causesatrnospheric
discolorationand is a respiratoryirritant. Motor rrelLiclenoisecreatesa constant
disturbanceto urbanlife.

3. Studiescarriedout in developedcountrieshavedt,monstrated that fixed site air


monitorsadequatelycharacterize tle exposureofthe generalpopulationto urban
air pollution. However,specialstudiesshowthat th,)semonitorssubstantially
underestimate exposuresfor significantsegmentsof the populationin closer
proximity to motor vehicleemissions.

It hasbeenincontrovertiblyestablishedthat ambient(outdoor)air quality measured


at fixed monitoringstationsdesignedto represent,cornmunity
exposuresin general'
significantlyunderestimatesthe exposuresto primaq motor vehicle air pollutants

219
Motor vehicleair pollution

(Pb, CO, particlesandHC) of manypopulationsubgroups.Peoplein vehiclesin


heavytraffic, peoplewalking/workingalongbusystreetsandpeoplewhosehomes
front onto busy streetsare all exposedto both noiseandair pollutantsat much
higher concentrationsthan reportedby the communitymonitoringnetworks.
Thesehigh exposureshavebeenthe subjectof specialstudiesof short durationin
only a few locations.

4. Availabledataindicatesthat exposures in citiesto high pollutionlevels may be


greaterin developingthan in industrializedcountriesbecauseofhigher vehicle
emissionratesand lifestyleswhich placepeoplein closeproximity to roadways.
More informationis neededon tle exposures to automotiveair pollutantsof both
the public in generaland high contactpopulationsubgroups.

From the few exposurestudiesundertakenrecentlyin citieswith little or no motor


vehicleemissioncontrolsin place(MexicoD.F. and Manila), evidenceshowsthat
drivers, commutersand streetsidegroupsare exposedto extremelyhigh levelsof
CO, Pb andparticles. There is, currently,little reliabledataon community
exposuresbut thereis an urgentneednow, for citiessuchasthese,to initiate
monitoringcampaignsto establishthe magnitudeof the problem.

5. The datanecessary to assess of vehicularemissions


the magnitude in developing
countriesare generallylacking. The magnitudemay be grosslyunderestimated if
assessmentsare basedon emissionfactorsthat applyto testconditionsin
developed countries.

Althoughemissionfactorsare established in standardized conditions,actual


emissionsfrom in-usevehiclesare significantlyincreased by age,poor
maintenance and wear-and-tear.Computations of total vehicularemissionsrely on
an estimateof the mix of vehiclesby type, age,number,speedandthe daily
kilometersdriven. This informationis combinedwith emissionfactors(g/km) by
categoryto derivethe daily emissions.Whereasthe first set of dataare usually
obtainable.ernissionfactorsare calculatedand mustbe basedon datafrom other
areas. Caremust be usedin applyingthesedata,beingsureto accountand
correctfor local vehiclecharacter,fuel compositionanddriving patterns.

6. Emissioncontrolsby direct engineering(hardware)modificationsare currently


available.

Existingtechnologycan limit the g/km emissionrate. This canbe achieved


throughintroducingchangesin enginedesign,mandatoryinspectionand
maintenance, andthe use of catalyticconvertersto reducethe pollutantsemitted.
Fuel compositioncan alsobe adjustedto reduceemissions.Theserepresentdirect
coststo the vehicleuser.

220
Summary and conclusions

7. Changesin humanbehaviorandtraffic patternsare necessaryto reducethe


volumeof vehiculartraffic and thereby,to reduceem ssions.

Indirectcontrolson drivers, suchas encouraging carrl)ools,increasingfuel and


vehicleprices,limiting urbanparking,andprovidirrg ow fare masstransit, can
reducethe numberof vehicleson the road as well zs rheir daily kilometersdriven.
The costsof theseindirect controlsarediffrcult to qutntiry.

8. Somedevelopedcountrieshavemadesignificantreluctionsin vehicular
emissions.

Countriessuchas Switzerland,Japanandthe USA hare successfullyintroduced


direct and indirectcontrolson vehicleemissionsso thrt further air quality
deteriorationhasnot occurred,andin most caseshas improvedsignificantly. Had
theseemissioncontrolsnot beenimposed(asin Gerne.'a, Tokyo and Los Angeles),
air quality would havedeterioratedso badlythat massivehealthcoststo the public
would havebeenincurred. However,a high initial capitalinvestmentis required
to reapthesemuchgreaterlong-termbenefits.

9. Vehicleemissioncontrolsrequireheavyinvestmrgnl but shouldbe seenin the


perspectiveof long term cost benefitsin termsof pub,ic health. Countrieswith
motor vehiclepollutionproblemsshouldbeginto pl[a e in emissioncontrols
appropriateto their economicand socialcontext.

Sophisticatedcontrolmeasurescanbe implemented in thosecountrieswhere


financialresourcesare available. Thosewith fewer r()sources canreduce
emissionsprogressivelyby first institutingthe simplestandmost cost effective
controls,suchas inspectionand maintenance programsanduseof cleanerfuels.
This shouldbe followedby a phasedreductionof emi;sionsby more costly
mqsures which meetpublic healthneedsand are alTordable.

10. Leastdevelopedcountriesshouldplan now to pro/ent motor vehicleair


pollutionproblemsfrom occurringin the future wh,onsignificantdevelopment
startsto occur.

In the next century,as the world populationincreasesandeconomicdevelopment


accelerates, the per capitanumberof vehiclesin usei,r newly developingcountries
will increaseat a staggeringrate. Unlesscontrolmea;uresare appliedto reduce
the useof vehicles.manygrowingurbanareaswill experience the sameproblems
as largecitiessuchas Bangkok,Mexico City or Los l\ngeles. Urban plannersand
environmental agenciesshouldcooperatetodayandplm for future transportation
mix with designsfor masstransit,phasedemissionco.rtrols,and inspectionand
maintenance programs,that couldpreventthe problensfrom becoming
unmanageable.

221
Motor vehicle air pollution

I l. Throughthe sharingof informationandexperience,on a worldwidebasis,


countrieswill be ableto choosemotorvehicleemissioncontrolprogramswhich
bestfit their needs.

By examiningthe history of motorvehicleair pollutioncontrol in both developed


and developingcountries,it will be possibleto a) evaluatethe successandfailure
patternsof the variousdirect andindirectcontrolproceduresthat havebeen
attempted,andb) choosetle controloptionsequence that is appropriatefor the
specificcase. Casestudiesof the citiesof Bangkok,Geneva,Los Angeles,
Manila, Mexico City, SurabayaandTaipeiprovideusefulexamplesof the
complexinteractionsthat are involvedin solvingair pollutionproblems.

222
Appendix A

Methodology for Estimationof Numbt:rsof PeopleExposed

Separatemethodswere usedto estimatetle numbersof pmple exposedinside


vehiclesand alongroadsides.

In-Vehicles

In-vehicleexposureto air pollutantsfrom motor vehiclesis a functionof several


factors:(1) the averagespeed,volumeandcompositionof traffic which varies
accordingto the route andtime of travel; (2) the morleof travel andthe ventilation
of the vehicle; and (3) how long the trip takes. Thesefactorsare expectedto vary
greatlyamongcountriesin waysthat havenot beentroroughly and systematically
studiedand comparedfor the world's urbanpopulati,ln. For simplicity, it was
assumed that the actualnumberof peopleexposedto motor vehicleair pollutants
insidevehiclesis primarily a functionof how freglerrtly a personusesa motor
vehicleto maketrips, i.e., personalmobility.

Studiesby Zahavi(1976\suggested that personalrnobility could be estimatedas a


functionof a country'sdegreeof motorization.To estimatepersonalmobility in
urbanareas,a country'sper capitagrossnationalproduct(GNP) wasusedas a
surrogatefor its degreeof motorizationfor two reasons.First, GNP dataare
moreprevalentthan motorizationdata. Second,a c(,untry'sper capitaGNP and
werefoundto be highlycorrrilated
degreJof mot<_rrization (r = 0.887,p < 0.001)
for a convenience sampleof 23 countries.

This samesampleof 23 countrieswasthenaugmentrdwith mobility datafor


selectedmetropolitanareasin thesecountries(Iab,le 1). It was assumedthat the
mobility of eachmetropolitanareawas representativ:of the mobility for all cities
in the countrycontainingthat metropolitanarea. ,A :egressionanalysisof these
dataenableddevelopmentof the following model:

Yir = (xir)
+ 0'00Cr0(6
1.033295 ttl
where:

Yir urbanvehiculartriipsper day per personof


countryi in the 19t8(s;and

Xir GNP per capitaof'countryi in 1988U.S. dollars.

223
Motor vehicleair pollution

Table1. Daily VehicularTrip RatesPer Personand per Capita GNp


for SelectedMetropolitanAreasWorldwide.

Vehicular Country's
Economic trips per day per capitaGNP
Group MetropolitanArea per person-a (1988US $)-g
Low Income Bombay,India 0.82 340
Jakarta,Indonesia 0.77 440
Karachi,Pakistan 1.76 350
Lagos,Nigeria 0.30 290
Lower-Middle Abidjan, Ivory Coast 1.0s 770
Income Bangkok,Thailand t.l2 1,000
Bogota,Colombia t.r4 I,lg0
Cairo, Egypt 0.67 660
Mexico City, Mexico t.73 1,7&
SaoPaulo,Brazil r.52 2,|ffi
Upper-MiddleBuenosAires,Argentina |.37 2,520
Income Caracas,Venezuela t.25 3,250
Pusan,SouthKorea t.24 3,600
Seoul,SouthKorea 1.82 3,600
High Income Hong Kong 1.47 9,220
Munich, Germany 2.31-b 18,480
Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto, Japan 2.30-c 21,020
Paris, France 1.84-d 16,090
Sampleof Britishtowns 1.96-e 12,810
Sampleof Frenchtowns 2.14-e 16,090
S:unpleof Spanishtowns l.l2-e 7,74fr
Singapore 1.41 9,070
USA average 2.68-f 19,840
Notes:
a/ Dimitriou, 1990,p 57, exceptas indicated.
b/ OECD, 1988,pp. 97,100.
c/ OECD, 1988,pp. 145,147.
d/ OECD, 1988,p. 161.
e/ Websteret al., 1985,p.22.
f/ CharlesRiver Associates,1988,p. B-3.
g/ World Bank, 1990,pp. 178-179.

224
Appendices

significant(F = 39'313,J < 0.001)for (1' 21)


This moclelwas statistically
degreesof freedom. The predictivepower (P = 0.65) of this modelwas
respectable.This modelwasthenusedto estimatepetsonalmobility by vehicles
in urban areasof countriesthroughoutthe world.

Studiesby Zahavi (1976)alsosuggested that a crudenrodalsplit estimate(i.e.,


percentoi urban trips by automobileversuspublic/prarilransit) could alsobe made
basedon the extentof motorizationin a particularcroutrY. Preliminarydata
analysissuggestedthat per capitaGNP wasalsoa goo1 predictorof modalsplit'
but that it was not aspowerfula predictoras a countrr''slevel of motorization.
Consequently,the following two modelsweredevelopcdfor this purposebasedon
datafrom a conveniencesampleof 40 citiesworldwid': (Iable 2):

Yiz : 22-034+ 0.001884(Xil) I2l

Y;z 18.825+ 0.097837(Xiz) t3t


where:

Yiz percentageof urbantrips by arrtomobileof countryi for


the early1980s;

Xir GNP per capitaof countryi in 1988U.S. dollars;and

x;z carsper 1000populationof countryi for the 1980s.

The percentageof total vehiculartrips by public andJaratransitfor eachcountry


(Y,r) *^ computedby subtractingthe percentage of I ehiculartrips by automobile
Gtt from 100 percent. For thesevariables,data firr eachcountrywere available
for different yearsthroughoutthe 1980s. Datawofier,ot readily availablefor the
sameyear for thesethreevariables.

225
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Appendices

(F = 37-2,p < 0.001)for (1, 38)


significant
Equation[2] wasstatistically
degreesof freedomand

(F = 68.3, p < 0.001)for (1, 38)


significant
Equation[3] wasstatistically
degreesof freedom.

The predictivepower (f = 0.a9)of Equation[2] was inferior to that (f = 0.6a)


of Equation[3]. Thus, Equation[2] wasusedto estinatemodal splits for 21
(mositysmall) countriesfor which dataon motorizalliolwere not availableand
Equation[3] was substitutedfor 138countriesfor whir:hmotorizationdatawere
available. The assumption wasmadethat thesemodlellr,althoughbasedon a
sampleof 4{t world cities, couldbe usedto estimatemodalsplitsfor the entire
urbanpopulationof other countries.

Roadside

For purposesof estimatinghow manypeopleare expo;edalongroadsidesin


developingcountries,streetvendorsandhawkerswer€ assumedto be membersof
the informal subsectorof a country'seconomy. Acr:otdingto Friedmannand
Sullivan(1975),this sectorincludeshandicraftworlt:er;(seamstresses, basketand
mat makers,rope makers,silversmiths)streettradersimd serviceworkers
(peddlers,food vendors),casualconstructionworkers(carpenters, bricklayers'
plumbers,electricians),and "underground"occupatiolS professional
(prostitutes,
beggars,police spies,dope peddlers,pickpockets).Fl iedmann and Sullivan stated
ttratttre informal sectorprovidesemployment for between 25 and 40 percent of the
urban economy in developing countries.

That percentage of the informalsectorthat "works lhe streets"in developing


countriesand thus is exposedto motorvehicleair p'ollirtioncould not be found in
the literature. Thus,this studyassumed that 15 to il5 percentof the urban labor
force represented an upper limit of the roadsidepopulttionfor developing
countries. For developedcountries,5 to 10 percento i the urban labor force was
assumedto work in roadsidesettingsfor lack of infrrnnationon this subject. The
following equationwas usedto maketheseestimaters:

Y;a = k(Xn)(Xir) t4l


where:

Yie = tle numberof peopleexposrt'to motor vehicle air


pollutionin roadsidesettingsof countryi in 1990;

229
Motor vehicleair pollution

the proportionof the urbanlabor force working in


roadsidesettings(i.e., 15 to 25 percentin developing
countriesand5 to 10 percentin developedcountries);

Xi: the urbanpopulationof countryi in 1990;and

Xic the percentage ofthe total populationof country i


in the laborforcein 1988-1990.

For lack of data,the assumptionwasmadethat the percentage of a country'stotal


populationin the labor force was similarto the percentageof its urbanpopulation
in the labor force. Data on the percentageof the totalpopulationin the labor
force camefrom two sources:(UNDP, 1991;andWright, 1991).

230
Appendices

REFERT,NCE'S

Arrnstrong-Wright,A. Urban transitsystems:guidelines


for examiningoptions.
World BankTechnicalPaperNumber52, Washingtort, D.C. (1986).

of urt an transportationdemand.
CharlesRiver Associates,Inc. Characteristics
Urban MassTransportationAdministration,U.S. Delrartmentof Transportation,
Washington,D.C. (1988).

Dimitriou, H. Transportandthird world city develolrment.TransportPlanning


for Third World Cities,H. Dimitriou, d., RoutledgeLondon,England,pp. 1a9
(leeo).
Hoffrnan,M., ed. The WorldAlmanacand Bookof .vacts. PharosBooks, New
York, New York, (1991).

andDevelolrment.Citiesand tansport,
Organizationfor EconomicCo-operation
OECD,Paris,France,(1988).

report, Oxford
UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme.Humandevelopment
Press,
University New York, New York, (1991).

Webster,F. et al. Changingpatternsof urbantravel. EuropeanConferenceof


Ministersof Transport,Paris,France,(1985).

Report19X). Oxfird UniversityPress,Oxford,


World Bank. WorldDevelopment
England,(1990).

Wright, J., ed. The UniversalAlmanac1992. An&uwsandMcMeel, New York,


pp. 345-476(1991).

and developedcountries.
Zahavi, Y . Trayel characteristicsin cities of devell,oping
World BankStaffWorkingPap'erNo. 230, Washirrgon,D.C., (1976).

231
APPEh{DIX B

Geneva : estimation of NO* emissions

Estimation of emissionsfrom road transport

Estimationof annualemissionsof total nitrogenoxidesfrom roadtraffic entails


knowledgeof the parametersdefinedin Table 1. The precisionof the overall
estimatethereforedependson the accuracywith which theseparametersare
quantified. It wasnecessary
to establishsimpli$ing hypothesesfor eachof them.

Parameter Definition

1. Volumeof traffic Vehicleflow, daily distribution

2. Type of vehicle Privatecars, delivery vehicles,lorries, buses,


motor-cycles,
mopeds

3. Vehiclespeed Dependingon type of road and observanceof


speedlimits

4. Emissioncoefficient Type of driving, mechanicalstate of vehicle,


yearof manufacture

Table 1. Parameters
for estimationof total nitrogenoxidesemissionsfrom road
traffic.

232
Appendices

Yolume of road traffrc

The volumeof road traffic is calculated to the traffic plan for the
with referenrce
Genevanetwork, publishedby the office of roadtraffi,: andtransportation(OTC)
in 1988(Ofricedestransports et de la circulation,Gienbve,1988).

The traffic plan showstle averagetraffic on a workinil day for the entireroad
network. The map of emissionswasmadeto coincidewith the boundariesof the
cantons. The basicgrids squaresareof 0.25 km2;the r side is therefore500 m in
length. The volume of traffic is expressedin termsof vehicles/kmper day.
Emissionsfor eachgrid squarewerecalculatedby addingtogethertle outputs
from the volumeof traffic for the lengthof road.

The traffic plan from the transportoffice is designulprimarily for traffic


management, not for evaluationof emissions.It doesrot includeroadswherethe
traffic flow is lessthan 1000vehiclesper day. In ordt,rto gain a better ideaof
emissionsdue to traffic, we evaluated the "sporadic"t'affic, which is not
accountedfor by the OTC traffic plan. Traffic wasre.;isteredmanuallyby survey
on about10 grid squares. It turnedout thatthe trafilicplan coveredan averageof
84% of all traffrc. The emissions havebeenincreased to takethis scatteredtraffic
into account.

To find annualemissions,changes in trafficat weekenlshadto be considered.


Using datafrom the 18 automatictraffrc countersorrtl e Genevaroad network,the
averageannualvolumewas estimated to be 355 times hat of an averageworking
day.

Type of vehicle

Roadtraffic includesvarioustypesof vehicle. In orde:to estimatethe proportion


of emissionsattributableto eachcategoryof vehicle,,u e calculatedtheir respective
emissions on the basisof the numberof eachtypeollv*icle registeredin the
Cantonof Geneva.Table2 showsthe emissions for eirchcategoryof vehicle.
The categoriesof vehiclewhich emit mostnitrogenox desare private carsand
heavygoodsvehicles.The mapof emissions calculate,l on the basisof the traffic
plan thereforetook accountof thesetwo categories :rlote. For heavygoods
vehicles,recordednumbersof vehicleswereusedto establishthe average
proportionof this type of traffic for eachzonein the crmton. It has beenfound
that it variesbetween2% and4Vo. T\e proportionof reavygoodsvehiclesis
very important,sincethey emit approximately10 timel more total nitrogenoxides
per km thanpassenger.

233
Motor vehicle air pollution

EmissionFactor Relativeemission
Category Vo Number
g/vh (1) %

Passenger
cars 79 188597 1,5 65,5

Heavygoodsvehicles 5 10906 13,35 33,8

Motorcycles 7 16820 0,11 0,4

Mopeds 9 2r33r(2) 0,06 0,3

(1) For 1988,speedof 50 km/h according


to reference
[17]
(2) Accordingto the Genevaautomobiledepartment,1990.

Table 2. Emissionsper categoryof vehicle in relationto total numberof vehicles


in 1988.

Vehicle speed

Vehicleemissioncoefficientsdependto a greatextenton speed. Statistical


averagingis usedsinceit is impossibleto know the speedof eachvehicleat every
moment. The informationon traffic by categoryof speedpublishedby the
FederalOffice for Environment,Forestsand the Countryside(OFEFP)for the
different categoriesof roads(OFEFP, 1988)providedthe averagestatistical
values. By "speed",we meanthe commercialspeedcorresponding to the
relationshipbetweena givendistanceandthe total time neededto travel it. It
takesaccountof acceleration, deceleration,delaysat crossroads, etc. Table 3
shows,for the variouscategoriesof road, the relativedistributionof vehiclesfor
differentspeeds.

Emissioncoefficients

The emissioncoefficientscorrespondto the actualquantityof pollutinggasemitted


in the courseof eachkilometertravelledG/km), which dependson enginespeed
and load, or in moregeneraltermson the averagespeedof the vehicle. Sincethe
emissioncoefficientsdependon the averagespeedof the vehicle,a weighted

234
Appendices

Speed Non-built-upareas Non-built-upareas Bu


Built-upareas Built-up area

km/h Passenger
cars@C) Heavygoods )assenger
cars Heavygoods
vehicles(IIGV) Vehicles(HGV)
("c)
10 0.1 0.1 5.8 4.1
20 1.6 1.0 19.2 t7.7
30 t.l 1.1 16.7 17.3
40 3.9 6.5 18.7 17.7
50 6.5 r0 .8 20.7 2t.8
60 11.1 t4.2 1.8.7 2r.2
70 14.6 2t.7
80 1,9.4 24.2
90 19.6 20.4
00 14.2
10 7.9
20
30

Table 3. Distributionof traffic by categoryof speal i r % (OFEFP). The speed


limit in built-up areasis 50 km/h; outsidebuilt-up ar*s, it is 80 km/h.

emissioncoefficientwas calculatedwhich takesaccourtof the distributionof


traffrc by categoryof speed,for eachspeedgroup. In order to simplify matters,
the cantonwas dividedinto two zones:built-up areas:nd non-built-upareas.

OFEFPcalculatedthe emissioncoefficients(OFEFP, 1988). A whole rangeof


parameterswastakeninto account.Theseincludet'yrpcof engineand categoryof
vehicle,prescriptionson exhaustgasesandthe numllerandtypesof vehiclesthere
are in Switzerland.

235
Motor vehicle air pollution

The emissioncoefficientsfor total nitrogenoxidesthatwe haveusedto calculate


road traffic emissionsare shownin Table4. The sharpdecrease of ttre
coefficientsfor passenger cars@C) is dueto the fact that more than95% of the
swissvehicleswill be equipped with a catalysorby theyears2000,while in 1988,
it wasonlv 5%.

Year PC HGV PC HGV


non-built-uparea non-built-uparea built-uparea built-up area

1988 2.24 16.20 t.42 14.06


1994 0.89 t4.74 0.57 t2.'t9
2000 0.40 tt.70 0.26 10.14

in g/vehicle. km
Table 4. Total nitrogenoxidesemissioncoefficientsexpressed
(ECOTOX/OFEFP). pQ = personalcars;HGV = heavygoodsvehicles.

Calculationsdue to road traffic

Roadtraffic emissionswere calculatedin accordance with the parameters


describedabove,andfor grid squaresof500 by 500 meters. The choiceof
emissioncoefficientfor eachgrid squaredepended on the zoneit was in @uilt-up
or non built-up area). The proportionofheavy goodsvehiclesin the different
regionsof the canton,2% to 4% accordingour measurements, hasbeentaken into
account. The quantityemittedis proportionalto the volumeof traffic expressedin
vehicles. km, andto the emissioncoefficientexpressed in g/vehicle. km.

236
Appendices

Estimation of emissions due to heating

Methodology

A considerable proportionof total nitrogenoxidesemissionsarisesfrom useof


fossil fuels for air andwaterheating. Evaluationof btal nitrogenoxides
emissionsis difficult, sinceit dependson the follovringparametersfor each
installation:

(1) type of tuel,


(2) fuel consumption,
(3) concentration oftotal nitrogenoxidesin tte combustiongases.

For each500m x 5(X)mgrid square,emissionswerr:calculatedusingthe OFEFP


method(OFEFP, t987a), in accordance with the numberof workplaces,the
numberof inhabitantsand emissioncoefficients.It is assumed that emissionsare
alsoproportionalto degree-days ofheating, definediai the sum ofdaily differences
betweenthe temperature of the premisesheated(20' rJ) andthe averagedaily
temperature,as long as it is equalto or lessthan 1i!' C (Servicecantonalde
statistique,
Gendve,1991).

Emissioncoefficientsfor heating

A distinctionwas madebetweenthe energyrequiredlor heatinghomesand that


neededfor heatingindustrialworkplaces.Energyc;onsumption was divided as
follows: 9O%for naturalgasandextralight oil,39l f tr wood and coal, and the
remainderof 7% is electricity. This resultsin an emissioncoefficientfor Geneva
of 45 kg of NO. per ton of fuel. The numberof degree-days for 1988,the
referenceyear, is 3004,andthe energyfactorsuserlare asfollows:

- per year, per inhabitantandper degreelday,


8.22 megajoules
- per year, per industrialworlplace andper degree/day.
17.54megajoules

The emissioncoefficientsof total nitrogenoxidesper inhabitantandper workplace


are therefore:

- 1.1 kg NO* per yearandper numberof inhalbitrnts,


- 2.4 kg NO,.per year andper involvedworkpla<,e.

Sensitivitytets

A significancepercentage
of real estateis the propertl'ofthe city of Geneva. Its
heatingdepartmentwasthereforeableto checkall its installationsin order to

237
Motor vehicleair pollution

obtainthe actualemissionfactors. The conclusionsof that studyconfirm the


theoreticalcalculationsof the emissionfactors. The emissioncoefficientper
inhabitantfor the buildingsof the city of Genevais 1.7 kg of NO* per year. The
differencemay be explainedby the fact that mostof the buildingsbelongingto the
city of Genevahousecommercialpremises,whoseemissionsare higher.
Furthermore,concentrations of nitrogenoxidesmeasuredin the combustiongases
are higher thanthoseusedin the theoreticdcalculation.This is becausethe
developmentofheating technology,to ensureenergysaving,hasparadoxicallyled
to an increasein total nitrogenoxidesemissions.

Estimation of emissions due to industry (EIE)

Genevahas a largefactory for incinerationof domesticwaste,and an EIE was


publishedin 1983becauseof a plannedextension(Ddpartement destravaux
publics,Genbve,1988). Total nitrogenoxidesemissionsfor 1988are estimatedat
600 tons.

Someindustrialheatingplantsburn heavyfuel oil. A campaignto measurethe


emissionsfrom thoseplantsshowsthat they wereresponsiblefor approximately
65% of the 200 tons emittedby industrialinstallations.Emissionsdue to
industrialactivitiesotherthanheatingwere estimatedusingthe methodology
publishedby OFEFP(OFEFP, 1987b). For the Cantonof Geneva,they are of the
orderof 110tonsper year.

238
Appendices

REFEREI.ICES

Ddpartementdestravauxpublics, Genbve.Rappond'impai sur I'environnemeft;


adaptaion des installaions cantonnlesde taitemen,tdes r4sidusde CheneviersIIL
(1e88).

OFEFP. Les catriersde I'environnementNo 55; dmissionspolluantesdu trafic


routierpriv6 de 1950l 2AOO.OfficefddCralde la prctectionde I'environnement,
(1988).
desforilts et du paysage,1986,suppldment

OFEFP. Les cahiersde I'environnementNo 73; co,rnnent{tablir un cadastre


d'6mission. OfficefCdfiralde la protectionde l'envin'nnement,desfordts et du
paysage(1987).

OFEFP. Les cahiersde I'environnementNo 76; dnnissions polluantesen Suisse


duestr I'activit6 humaine(de 1950l 2010). Office"fCttiralde la proteaion de
I'environnement, desfor4ts et du paysage(1987).

Offrcedestransportset de la circulation,Genbve..Plnnde chargedu r€seau


routier genevois1988.

du cantonde
Servicecantonalde statistique,Genbve.Annuairessttttistiques
Gen/ve. (1991, 1990,1988, 1987,1985et 1973).

Servicede la ldgislationet despublicationsofficiell,es,Genbve.Assainissement


de
l'air d GenCve,plan de mesuresau sensde I'anicle:3l de l'OPair.
(27 mars1991).

239
Motor vehicleair pollution

APPENDIX C

Geneva : relationship between emissionsand ambient air concentrations


of nitrogen oxides

Relationshipbetweenemissionsand total nitrogen oxidesambient air mean


concentration

The total concentrationof nitrogenoxidesis the sum of nitrogendioxide and nitric


oxide ambientair concentrations measured at the samestation. The relationship
with the emissionsis of the type:

[NOx] : Io * lrr . Er."ffi" + 1t2 ,EHeating

where [NO*] is the averageannualconcentration of total nitrogenoxidesrecorded


at eachmeasuringstation;it is expressed in pg of No2 per m3. The measuring
stationis at the centerof a I kmzgrid square,

Io is the backgroundlevel of ambientair concentration


(pglm3),
. pr, y2 arc the constantsexpressedin pg . year . km2 / m3 . tN62 ,

Erruffi"@1) corresponds to total annualnitrogenoxidesemissions(NO*)


due to tra{fic in the I km2grid squareexpressed in tons of NO2 ,

EHeating-
@g) corresponds to total annualnitrogenoxidesemissions[NO*]
due toleating in the 1 km2andexpressed in tonsof NO2.

The valuesof Es andEr are obtainedfrom the mapof emissionsfor 19gg. The
valuesusedto obtainthe relationshipby multiplelinearregressionare shown in
Table1.

240
Appendices

Station NO^ @g/m3) E6 E1 NO* @g/m3)


(measured) (t 1r16*/year.km'z)(1 1qg*/year.km2) (estimated)

Ile 232 90 1,36 253


Wilson 170 38 57 r31
SainteClotilde 144 36 58 t32
Meyrin 71, 8 z4 78
Foron 81 7 t2 62
Anibres t9 I 0.1 44
Jussy 29 0.1 0.1 44

Table 1. Relationshipbetweenemissionsof NO- andambientair concentrationof


NO* (annualaverage).

The relationshipobtainedis the following:

[ N O * ]= 4 4 + 0 . 2 8 . E u * 1 . 3 6 . E r (l)

The cumulatedcorrelationcoefficientis 0.9085.

Whenthe grid squareis reducedto 500 x 500 m, the :orrelationis not so good,
so the 1 km2grid squarewas preferred.

Relationship between ambient air concentratio:r of total nitrogen oxides


and ambient air concentration of nitrogen dioride

Total nitrogenoxidesemissionmainly in the form of rftric oxide, is the sourceof


of nitrogendioxideby oxid:tion of nitric oxide. That
ambientair concentration
oxidationprocessdependson a numberof parameterrs temperature,air pressure,
presenceof ozone,concentration of nitric oxide, etc.

241
Motor vehicle air pollution

It hasbeenshown(Williams, 1990)dratthereis a relationshipbetweenambientair


concentrationof nitrogendioxideandof nitric oxide. Theremust thereforebe a
relationshipbetweenambientair concentration of nitrogendioxide and that of total
nitrogenoxides.

The relationshipis of the type:

lNO2l = po * trr.tNOl Q)

lNol = tNo_l - [No2] with [No*] > INol > 0 and INo,.l > tNot >0(3)

lNOrl = Fo * ttt .(NO,l - tNO21)

lNOzl . (1 + pr) = tlo * pr .[NO*]

Lto Pl
lNOrl= +---------.[NO*] (4)
(1 + pr) (1 + pr)

This relationshipis valid only underthe conditionsgiven in (3).

Observations haveshownthat the factorp.1of relationship2 dependson the time


of year. To put it simply, the proportionof nitrogendioxideto nitric oxide is
higher during the seasonswhentropospheric ozoneis formed. The relationship
(2) is howeveralwayschecked,andcheckedagainstannualaverages.

For the ROPAG network, it is assumedthat in the Cantonof Genevathe


meteorologicalconditionsgoverningformationof troposphericozoneare relatively
homogeneous.This hypothesishasbeenborneout by observation.During the
summersmog,hourly ozoneconcentrations are almostidenticalto thoseat stations
in tle rural areas.

It can be assumedthat thereexistsfor annualambientair concentrations


of NO"
and NO* a comparablerelationshipfor all the measuringstations.

In order to verify this supposition,the relationshipbetweenannualaverage


ambientair concentrations for all measuringstationsin 1988was calculated.The
relationshipin which concentrations are expressdin pglm3,is as follows:

lNo2l = 11 + 0.268.[No*] (corr. coeff. = 0.9857)(5)

242
Appendices

Concentrations of nitrogendioxidefor 1988estimatedusingthat relationship,are


given in Table 2.

Station NO^ measured NO2 mt

Ile 323 6t t5
Wilson 170 f, 56
SainteClotilde 144 5: 50
Meyrin 7l 41
30
Foron 8l Jz 33
Anibres T9 1l t6
Jussy 29 2( 19

of ttotalnitrogenoxidesand
Table2. Relationshipbetweenannualaverages
(pglm3)
nitrogendioxide concentrations

The calculationmadefor the years1987and 1989shrws that this relationship


existsalsofor thoseyears,andthat it is almostidentir;al.

As Figure I showsfor 1988,the initial conditions(.3)are at the origin of a zonein


which the relationship[NO2]/[NO*]hasno meaning( NOzl> [NO,l).
Consequently, the ordinateat tlre origin of the relatiorrship[NOt/tNO*], valid for
all the stationsof the ROPAG network, is not significant. It is useful only for the
purposesof calculation. Below 15 p.g,:lrr3, the relatiotrship(5) is no longervalid.

243
Motor vehicleair pollution

NO, relm3

.O+
s
\\g
gt/

,z= E:'u"-l
o too 2oo No* rdm3

Figure l. Relationshipbetweennitrogendioxideandtotal nitrogenoxides


(expressedas NO). Source:ECOTOX/ROPAGnetwork, annualaveragesfor
1988.

Relationship between total nitrogen oxides emissions and ambient air


concentrations of nitrogen dioxide

The empiricalrelationshipsthat havebeenestablished, (1) and (5), enableus to


relatetotal nitrogenoxidesemissionsto nitrogendioxideambientair
concentrations:

INO*I= 44 + 0.28'Ec * 1.36'Er (1)

lNo2l = 11 + 0.268'[NO*] (s)


By substituting
[NO*]with (1), we obtain:

lNo2I= ll + 0.268.(44+ 0.28.Ec+ 1.36.Er)

lNO2l= 23 + 0.075'Ec * 0.36'Er (6)

244
Appendices

The empiricalrelationshipobtainedshowsthat the rneisurednitrogendioxide


ambientair concentrations consistof a fixed part callel the backgroundlevel, a
part which is proportionalto traffrc emissions(83Vo)anda part which is
proportionalto heatingemissions(l1Vo). The backlgnrund level is estimated,
usingrelationship(6), to be 23 pglm3for 1988.

Estimation of background ambient air concent:ation level

The backgroundlevel dependson the volumeof emissionsfrom the regions


aroundthe Cantonof Geneva. It is assumed to containa proportionof imported
nitrogendioxide, which is estimatedat 4 y.gtnf for Slritzerland,andpart which is
directly proportionalto total NO* emissionsfrom the r:anton.

We havecalculatedthe level of backgroundambientlar concentration for the


variousanti-pollutionscenarioson the assumption that reductionin global
emissionsleadsto a proportionalreductionin backg;rorndpollution @ollback
model). This is a criticatstepsincefor 1988,the bac)rground level wx 23 p.glm3
accordingto the relationshipestablishedusing the emp irical model, or 19 pglnf
from cantonalsourcesand4 ltgln-tfrom outsidethe crnton. The decreasing
backgroundlevelscorresponding r;cenarios
to the anti-pollutio'n are calculatedon
the basisthatthe 1988background level,corresponrls to overall1988emissions in
the Cantonof Genevaof 6567tonsof NO*.

REFERENCE'S

Servicede la ldgislationet despublicationsofficielles,Genbve. Assainissement


de
I'air d Gendve,plan de mesuresau sensde I'article 3.1de l'OPair. (27 mars
199r).

Williams,M.L. The role of motorvehiclesin air prol.ution


in the UK. Zfte
Scienceofthe TotalEnvirownent,93:1-8(1990).

245