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AHLUSSUNNAH WAL JAMA:”AH

Difference between
Attributes and Hypostases
A RESPONSE TO MUTAZILITES AND IBN AR
RUSHD
technolet
[Pick the date]

Errors of Mutazilites, Ibn Rushd etc. are answered


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QUESTION:= Some Mu’tazilite minded people say that Suuni Attributes are nothing but Catholic
Hypostases. They further say Christian Word and Sunni Speech are one and the same concept.

Please response to them:

REPLY:=

First of All ,One should know what is Trinity. According to the dogma of Trinity God is a Trinity.Trinity
may be stated as s follow:

God is a Being in which there is One Essence and in the Essence there are three Hypostases.

Hypostase/Hypostasis.[ Alternative term Person]

Being: A thing which Exist. [Existent]

Essence [Essentia]. A Thing Where By A Thing is That It Is.

The words Form,Nature, Ousia (Substance) may have different meanings from the word Essence , but in
the Divine Case they all means Essence.

The Divine Essence is Per Se Subsistent.

A Hypostasis (Hypostase) is a thing which is:=

1]IndividuainSe (Individual in Itself).Not species,not Generas, Indivisible.

2]Substantia (Substance) . It is a substance in the negative sense, i.e Not an accident.

3]Completa [Complete]. It morma as Complete Nature. It is neither an Actual Part nor an AltitudinalPart.

4]Per Se Subsistens (By Means of Itself Stands). One that is Sustained(Sustineo,Sustentus) by means of
itself. [Per Se = By means Of It Self].

The thing Exists by It self [ and for It Self]

5]Sui Iuris [It Self Binding]. Ultimate Subject of Its Nature, Attributes and Acts.

6]Sui Generis [Self Origin] :No Origin other than itself.

7]Separata AbAliis [Separate From Other]. (Ab=By, From,Aliis,Alia=Other). This Excludes Universal.

8]Substantia Secunda [Substance Second]. A thing which has no Existence a part from the individual.

9]Rationalis Naturae [ Rational Nature] It has the Attribute Of Rationality.

10] NotPerSeSeorsum /Per Se Seorsum [By ItSelf Apart/Seperate from the rest].A thing which does not
exist in Incommunicable other or Distinct. [A Hypostasis is Not Per Se Seorsumfrom its Own Ousia, but
Per Se Seorsum from another Hypostasis].

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A Hypostasis is ascribed by the Attribute of three incommunicabilities. They are mutually


Distinct from one another.

WHY HUMAN NATURE IS NOT CALLED THE HUMAN SUBSTANCE, BUT THE DIVINE NATUE IS
CALLED.

The reason is that it exists in Alio. The very same reason it is not called a Hpostasis or a
Person. [That is it is Per Alia Subsistent].

WHY A HYPOSTASIS IS NOT CALLED A SUBSTANCE.

Thomas Like Asharites and Maturidites believed God is neither a Substance Nor An
Accident. But All the Christiandom do use the words like Ousia and HomOusia in case of
God. In case of God Ousia means Essentia.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUBSISTES/SUBSISTENCE AND SUBSTANCE.

On this ground the difference between Subsistent and Substance is as follow:=

The Common Essence of these Hypostases Is not Identical to any one of the Hypostasis.

That is inspite of the extreme Communicability and Indistinctness of Divine Essentia from
Divine Hypostases neither A Hypostasis is the Essence nor The Essence is the Hypostasis.

That is why Plurality of Hypostases is accepted and Plurality of Essences is denied.

Now Essence of a Substance is the Essence/Substance Itself.

A SUBSTENCE IS A PER SE SUBSISTENT WHOSE ESSENCE IS THE PERSE SUBSISTENT IT


SELF.

ON THE CONTRARY THE ESSENSE OF A HYPOSTASIS IS NOT THE HYPOSTASIS IT SELF.

THAT IS WHY A HYPOSTASIS IS SUBSISTENT BUT NOT A SUBSTANCE.

Reasons of following things for not being a Hypostasis.


1]The human soul belongs to the nature as either an actual part or aptitudinal of the
Human Being, hence not a Hypostasis, whether existing separately or not from the Human
Being.

2]The human nature of Christ does not exist per se seorsum, but in alio, in the
Divine Hypostatisness of the the Second Hypostasis. It is communicated
by assumption and so is not a Hypostase/ Person. It is not Per Se Subsistent but Per Alia
Subsistent.

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3] Divine Essence [Godhead, Divinity, Divine Ousia], It subsisteth per se, is so


communicated to the Three Hypostasis that it does not exist apart from them; it is therefore
not a Hypostasis.

Note:= The human Nature [Divine Humanity] is neither an Essence [,Essentia] nor a
Substance [Ousia]and additionally not a Form.Divine Nature is Substantial Essence not just
nature. A non Pe Se Subsistent may be a nature but not an Essence. In the Divine Case the
Nature of the Divine Per Se Subsistent Essence/Ousia is the Ousia/Essence Itself.

WHY THE HUMAN NATURE IS NOT AN ESSENCE BUT DIVINE NATURE IS AN ESSENCE

The former is not Per Se Subsistent while the latter is. This is the reason why the Human
Nature is neither a Hypostasis/Person, nor an Essence [ Substantial Essence].

Meaning of a Suppositum. A Suppositun [Pl:Supposita] Satisfy the first eight mentioned


above conditions. It may be real or imaginary.Its May be Essence Of It Self or Its Essence
may be communicable to it but Not ItSelf.

Relations and reasons of Hypostases.

Divine Attributes are believed to be Identical to Divine Essence In The Dogma Of Trinity.

1] The Second Hypostasis is believed to be Issued/Proceedes as a Term of an Immanent Act


of Divine Attribute Of Intellect Of God.The act of Proceeding/Issuing from the Attribute of
Intellect is also called Generation. Thomas renamesthe second Hypostasis as Verbum
Mentale.

2] The Third Hypostasis is believed to be Issued/Proceeded as a Term of an Immanent Act


of the Attribute Of Will Of God. The act of Procession/ Issuance from the Divine Attribute Of
Will is called Aspiration/Respiration and not Generation. Similarly the Act of Generation is
not called Aspiration/Respiration.

3] Three Hypostases are believed to be constituted In the Divine Essence by Four relations.

They are as follow:=

i)Paternitas [Paternity]

ii) Spiratio [Breathing,Aspration,Respiration]

iii) Filiatio [Descent-From-Father; (Father Has Paternitas, Son Has Filiatio]

iv) Processio [PRO=BEFORE,CESSIO=surrendering/conceding]

POINTS TO BE NOTED:=

1] GREEK CHRISTIANITY BELIEVES HYPOSTASES PRIOR TO DIVINE OUSIS/ ESSENTIA.

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2]ROMAN CHRISTIANITY BELIEVES ESSENTIA/OUSIA PRIOR TO HYPOSTASES.

3] DIVINE RELATIONS IN THE DIVINE ESSENCE ARE BELIEVED TO BE PER SE SUBSISTENT,


NOT JUST RELATIONS.

4] GRREKS DIFFER IN SEVERAL DETAILS FROM ROMANS. WE HAVE NOT DISCUSSED THEM
IN DETAIL FOR THE SAKE OF BREVITY .

NOW COME TO THE OBJECTION OF MU’TIZILITE MINDED PEOPLE WHO MAKE OBJECTION
ON DIVINE ATTRIBUTE.

A DIVINE ATTRIBUTE IS NOT PER SE SUBSISBTENT. IT SUBSIST IN DIVINE ESSENCE.

SO A DIVINE ATTRIBUTE AS ACCORDIBG TO SUNNI THEOLOGICAL SYSTEM IS NEITHER AN


ACCIDENT NOR A SUBSTANCE, NEITHER AN ESSENCE NOR A HYPOSTASIS.

THESE OBJECTION MAKERS NEITHER KNOW CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY NOT ISLAMIC


THEOLOGY. THAT IS THE REASON THE CONFUSE SUNNITE ATTRIBUTES WITH CATHOLIC
AND ORTHODOX HYPOSTASES.

RAITHER THESE MUTIZILITE MINDED PEOPLE DO AGREE WITH ROMANS AND GREEKS THAT
ATTRIBUTES ARE IDENTICAL TO ESSENCE.

BUT THE MAKE OBJECTIONS ON ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH WITH OUT STUDYING
THEOLOGY OF CATHOLICS AND ORTHODOXES , AND THEOLOGY OF AHLUSSUNNAH
[ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH]

THIS DOES SHEW THAT MUTIZILITE OBJECTION MAKERS EITHER DELIBERATELY SPEAK
FALSE STATEMENTS IF THEY KNOW THE CHRISTIAN AND ISLAMIC THEOLOGIES OR ARE
IQNORENT OF TEACH ONE OF THEM OR HAVE A VERY LITTLE KNOWLEDEGE OF EACH OF
THEM.

DIVINE SPEECH[CALA:M] ACCORDING TO AHLUSSUNNAH IS NOT THE DIVINE


WORD[LOGOS/CAL-MAH] OF CHRISTIANDOM. REASON IS THAT THE SPEECH IS AN
ATTRIBUTE AND THE WORD IS A HYPOSTSIS. SUNNIS [ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH] DO
NOT BELIEVE IN CATHOLIC AND ORTHODOX HYPOSTASES , AND CATHOLICS AND
ORTHODOX DO NOT BELIEVES IN SUNNI

[ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH] ATTRIBUTES.

Second :CONCEPT OF AHLUSSUNNAH.

Ahlussunnah believe in Absolute Unicity Of Deity [AUD] instead of Trinity Of God [Tri-Unity].

According to Ahlussnnah Deity is Absolute Unicity. That is Why Essential Attributes cannot
be Essence since this is Plurality is Unicity. This is Self Absurd.

Divine Essence [Essence Of Deity] Is Identical to Deity [ Divine Essence is the Deity].

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Essential Attributes are Qaim Bi Adh-Dhat [literally Sustain With The Essence]. A better
translation may be “Associated With the Divine Per Se Subsistent Essence/ Essentia.

According to Ahlussunnah Deity Is An Existent That Is an Essence. Essential Attributes of


The Divine Essence Subsist In the Essence With Intrinsic Necessity.

Essence according to Ahlussunnah is Qa:’im Bidh Dha:t or Qa:’im Bi Nafsihi [Per Se


Subsistent or Sustained In ItSelf] . It is Intrinsically Absurd for any Essence to Be In It.

Who ever it it normally translated as Sustain(eth) in Essence Or Subsist(eth) In Essence.and


Are Associated With the Divine Essence.

No Divine Attribute is Per Se Seorsum [Separate IN Itself=Mughai-ir Bidh Dhat] From the
Divine Essence , But is La “AIN Va La Ghair.

The basic Sufficient difference between Catholic Hypostases and Sunni Attributes is that the
former are Per Se Subsistent, while the latter Subsist Necessarity In the Divine Essence with
Intrinsic Necessicity.They are not Per Se Subsistent. Other differences may also be stated
but this is sufficient for a rational person. See the definition of a Hypostasis above.

Note : Some Asharites and Maturidites how ever are identitists. How ever they do not make
this objection.

Ibn ar Rushd Error:-


It is found that Ibn Ar Rushd also neglected this difference. He commited the same
Mu”tizilite Mistake. Latter Mu”tizilite minded people follow them without excogitation and
research.