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Chapter 1



Transportation performs a major position in the economic growth

and development of a country. In the Philippines, wherein roads are

smaller, narrower and often congested, tricycle population has

expanded notably. People ride tricycles primarily due to lack of

alternative mode of transportation and convenience, giving the

advantage of speed and cost. However, riding a tricycle has several

disadvantages and discomfort. The frame of the tricycle is deemed too

small, but passengers are cramped inside to maximize the number of

passenger’s trip. The challenge in the past and now is how to minimize

the negative impact caused by these vehicles, while continuing to

meet the daily transport demands of a growing population.

The usage of tricycle has become the mode of transportation in

most developing cities of the world. In most develop countries, there is

vast quantity number of private vehicles and an effectively run public

transportation system. Here in Tanauan City Batangas, Tricycle is one

of the source of transportation of the citizen. In China, operating

tricycles continue to provide social and economic needs despite the

threat of being phase out due to the neoliberal mobility developing

within the city. In India, the same mode of transportation is utilized by

common people which posed a major challenge to the growing

population on how the government would maintain good air quality. In

Nigeria, the usage of motorized tricycle is recommended within the city

limits to decongest the traffic. In Metro Manila, Philippines, it is the

prevailing mode of transportation using secondary streets occupying

the front seat in local governance and urban development. Tanauan

City has zooming past with their modern motorcycle that looks

disjointed with its retro side cab and most of them are stainless.

In the Philippines, electric powered tricycle or E-Trike is similar to

tricycle in terms of configuration or almost as similar to that of the

traditional rickshaw which is three-wheeled and can ferry several

passengers and dependent on the body design and capacity of the

motor engine. E-Trike is run by electricity while the latter is gas-fed. A

typical designed popular in the Philippines is that a sidecar which is

attached to the side of motorcycle for carrying passengers.

The use of motorized or traditional tricycle is already a part of

every Tanaueños everyday living. It’s used as a mode of commuting,

freight delivery system, private family service and source of income.

The study also found that Tanauan continuing to experience increased

in tricycle population due to: 1) high unemployment and absence of

alternative livelihood; and 2) increase in commuting population.

Despite this trend, tricycles remain to be the prime mode

transportation in the City. The 48 Barangays of the City has their own

TODA (Tricycle Operators and Drivers' Association) for their

transportation in every day of living.

The used of tricycle as a mode of transportation actually poses

hazards and adverse poses hazards and adverse effects on the

environment. Yumul quoted that about 34% of total vehicular

population within the Philippines is formed of two-and three-wheelers

which also become the major contributor to pollution and the other

environmental and health hazards. The used of motorized tricycle is

also identified as the source of noise and air pollution exposing the

public to a greater danger of health-related problems. For instance, a

2-stroke engine tricycle is known to contribute air pollution in Jakarta

Indonesia. Tricycle are identified as one of the public transport systems

causing excessive gas emission contributing to lead and nitrogen

dioxide release in the atmosphere. At present, 99% of the Tanauan’s

tricycle population use four-stroke motor engines which generally

produced higher carbon monoxide (CO); carbon dioxide (CO2), the

‘greenhouse gas’; and Nitrogen Oxide (N0x), potential contributors to

photo-chemicals smog and to ozone layer depletion. According to Asian

development Bank (ADB), the Philippines’ carbon dioxide emissions

would nearly quadruple in less than 25 years because of automobile

and motorcycle use. In view of this, several options have been laid to

address the problem.

A few years ago, the Philippines government, though the

Department of Energy (DOE), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB)

collaborated on a project focusing on the white spread adoption of

electric vehicles through the country. The project includes adoption of

the electric tricycle by using innovative Technology and a sound

financing plan for drivers and operators.

The formulation and strict implementation of Philippine Clean Air

Act of 1999 and the introduction of electric tricycle are among the

identified solutions. Consequently, the ADB in partnership with the

Department of Energy (DOE) has begun introducing the use of E-Trike

to The Local Government Units (LGUs) to replace the motorized

tricycles. E-Trike reduces carbon dioxide emissions and minimizes air

pollution. It also avoid excessive fuel consumption and reduces oil

dependency, and eventually increase job opportunities and tricycle’

drivers incomes in the long run.

That’s why in this study, the researches will make a comparative

analysis between the operator of a traditional or motorcycle and the

operator of E-Trike here in Tanauan City. Besides with the

environmental issue and etc.

Theoretical Framework

The purpose of theoretical framework is to limit the scope of the

study and guide in the data collection. The study used David Easton’s

Systems approach in the study of social and political life. As part of a

social system, the operation of four-stroke propelled motorized tricycle

affects the society as a whole, environmental and public health

included. It is being used as the major means of public transport within

the City and a source of livelihood for the city residents. As part of the

economic and social system of the city, any change in policy involving

tricycle may affect the residents which may create adverse political

support and negative reaction within the sphere of the social system.

In this case, it emanates from the driver-operators and the commuting

public. Any policy issued by the City Council to the effect of using E-

trike instead of the current motorized tricycle may strengthen or even

lessen people’s support to city government. On the other side, the

proposed change in the mode of public transport may invite popular

support or political action which may cause disturbance to the smooth

functioning of the social system. Any public policy as in this case may

offend or positively attract policy support. Therefore, the systems

theory treats the entire social system as interlinked and interrelated

such that malfunction in one subpart would create destruction or

disruption of the other parts. Hence, the study is done to come up with

the possible policy direction with less impact on the systems operation.

Central Question
The study will analyze the comparison and contrast of the

traditional tricycle and E-Trike. This will lead to a recommendation for

the drivers and commuters in the utilization of traditional tricycle and


What are the comparison and contrast of the traditional

Tricycle and


Corollary Questions:
1. How do the co-researchers describe their experiences with

regard the use of traditional tricycle and E-Trike in terms of;

1.1 Maintenance;
1.2 Expenses/Cost;
1.3 Speed;
1.4 Safety; and
1.5 Income?
2. What emerging themes arise from the study?
3. Based on the findings, what recommendation for the drivers and

commuters can be proposed?

Significance of the Study

The researcher deems that the following will benefit from the

result of the study:

Drivers. This will give them information in utilization of E-trike

and traditional tricycle in terms of maintenance, expenses, speed,

safety and income.

Commuters. It will also give them information what mode of

transportation is the best that they can use.

Future Researchers. The findings of this study can serve as

resources among researchers’ undertaking related to the field.

Scope and Limitations

The focus of this study is to analyze the comparison and contrast of

the E-trike and traditional tricycle. The results of the study will lead to
a recommendation for the drivers and commuters in the utilization of

traditional tricycle and E-trike.

The respondents in the study will be limited only to the selected

E-trike driver and traditional tricycle driver at the City of Tanauan,

Batangas during the year of 2018-2019.

Definition of Terms

For a clear understanding of this study, the terms are conceptually

and operationally defined.

Asian Development Bank (ADB). An international development

finance institution whose mission is to help its developing member

countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people.

2-Stroke Engine. A type of internal combustion engine which

completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements)

of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution.

Department of Energy (DOE). The executive department of

the Philippine Government responsible for preparing, integrating,

manipulating, organizing, coordinating, supervising and controlling all

plans, programs, projects and activities of the Government relative to

energy exploration, development, utilization, distribution and

E-Trike or Electrical Tricycle. Three-wheeled vehicles with one

front wheel and two rear wheels are known as a delta design or the

traditional trike (tricycle) design, such as the Hase Kettwiesel.

Rickshaw. A small covered 2-wheeled vehicle usually for one

passenger that is pulled by one man.

Transportation. The movement of humans, animals and goods

from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, land (rail

and road), water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided

into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important

because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the

development of civilizations.

Tricycle. A human-powered (or gravity-powered) three-wheeled


Chapter 2


This chapter, the research described the facet of the main

problem, its current situation and its variable through related literature

and studies sourced mainly in books, journals, the internet, and other

studies. All sources have provided the researchers further

understanding vital in establishing the framework and methodology for

this study. The review includes: The Tricycle as transportation in the

Philippines, Traditional tricycle and E- Trike;

Modes of Transportation in the Philippines


Before the jeepneys ruled, there was the kalesa. These days, it

could only be seen in tourist spots such as Intramuros and Vigan. A

kalesa is a horse-drawn carriage that used to drive around the

streets but is now mostly left for tourists’ use. Manila and Intramuros in

particular offer a kalesa ride the old-fashioned way, with your

coachman serving as tour guide, in a complete costume. I didn’t use

kalesa but was allowed to get in for a picture in Intramuros.


The jeep was a remnant from the World War II. Enterprising

Filipinos saw the possibility of it being a mode of transportation and

turned them into the new longer and colorful jeepneys that have

become a Philippine icon. The most common mode of transport,

jeepneys ply several routes around the country, especially those areas
where bigger buses cannot serve. Jeepneys can be 10-seater or 14-

seater. More than once the seats in the jeepneys are full of passengers.

Still, always some new passenger will be added.


Pedicab is a three wheeled bicycle with a covered rear seat for

customers. Like a bicycle rickshaw, this form of transportation is

powered by human pedals. This environment friendly type of

transportation is very common in places with narrow streets where

jeepneys & buses are prohibited. This can be considered the silent

version of tricycles, since bicycles are used, with a passenger cab

attached to the side or in front. As a driver, strong lower limbs and

being healthy physically are very necessary. Driving pedicabs is one of

toughest in the world. Pedicab drivers are exposed to the heat of the

sun, dust, sweating a lot when it is a sunny day while wet and cold

when heavy rain falls. Some call pedicabs as “padyak”, others call it

“trikad” while in some areas in the country, they are called “tricycle”,

“pot-pot”. This mode of transportation can carry one or three

passengers at a time.

Habal-habal is a highly improvised two-wheeled single

motorcycle is usually ridden way beyond its passenger capacity and

can unbelievably carry 5 to 6 or more passengers effortlessly, and can

only be found, where else, but only in the streets of the Philippines

especially in Mindanao and some part of Visayas. While fares vary

depending on destination, distance traveled, and the itinerary of the

day, there are no standard fees as each driver charges differently.


Most motorcycles in the Philippines are used for serving as a kind

of taxi. Most known names for these means for transportation: Tricycles

and motor-taxi’s both can be seen in many different forms and length.

Tricycles in the Philippines resemble the auto rickshaws of India and

the tuk-tuks of Thailand and other Asian countries, except that the cab

is attached to the right side of the motorcycle instead of being in front

or at the back. Tricycles can be seen on the side streets and some

subdivisions and normally used for short-distance travel. With the

stronger horsepower of a motorcycle, the tricycles sometimes are hired

to ferry people and merchandise from the market. Depending on the

construction and discretion of the driver, the tricycle can ferry from 2

to about 7 people.
Origin of Tricycle

Before the pedicab and the tricycle ever ruled the small roads of

the Philippines, the most popular modes of transportation were the

horse- or carabao-drawn carriages, the man-pulled rickshaw and the

carried hammock, where the pedicab came from. According in FFE

(2016), the pedicab traces its roots to the cycle-rickshaw that was

borrowed from Japan, replacing the impractical man-pulled rickshaw. In

Asia, the cycle-rickshaw boom began in the 1920s in Singapore and

also added that some would believe that the “pedicab is the precursor

to the tricycle”, but the exact date of the introduction of both modes of

transportation in the Philippines is unknown. In additional, BICYCLE

HISTORY (2018) stated that the origin of this three-wheeled

transportation vehicle was based more on the standard carriages, only

miniaturized and then enhanced with additional mechanisms that

allowed it more easier propulsion. The first historical records of a

tricycle comes from second half of 17th century, a century and a half

before invention of first two wheeled bicycle that had no propulsion

(dandy horse made by Baron Karl von Drais) and almost two centuries

before first mass produced chain-driven bicycle (“Boneshaker” by

Michaux Company). This early example of tricycle was made by the

aging German watch-maker Stephan Farffler who was disabled and

could not walk. He devised small carriage for one person that had tree

wheels (one on the front and two in the back), with simple mechanism

around the front wheel that enabled him to rotate crank and transfer

its power to the wheel. Other examples of examples of early tricycles

came from 1797 France when two French inventors created first three-

wheeled device that could be powered by pedals. They also gave this

device name tricycle, a name that would remain a synonym with this

type of vehicle for that moment forward.

Tricycle as transportation in the Philippines

Aside from Jeepneys, there is another dominant mode of public

transportation around the Philippines. These are the tricycles, a

motorized three-wheeler consisting of a motorcycle and a sidecar.

According to CAUGHT (UP) IN TRAFFIC (2013), tricycles are

usually the only mode of public transport for most people in rural areas

because local roads are typically narrow. This is because the size of the

tricycles make them versatile for small roads in urban and rural


According to THE DAILY ROAR (2014), tricycle has big advantage

as mode of transportation since it will bring you to every desired place.

Whereas tricycle has no fixed routes so it can take one passenger to

several street corners, the next town or even the next city. According

to GUILLEN and ISHIDA (2004) which stated in the study of Balaria

(2017), the tricycle also became the mode of transportation here in the

Philippines because it is a low-cost transport.

He also added that the reason why local transport mode remains

if not continuously increasing is due to its socioeconomic

consequences. That is, economic, as a source of employment for the

driver. It is demand-driven from the community that has an

infrastructure deficit as well a lack of available alternative modes to

use for mobility.

Traditional Tricycle
The tricycle (trike) is a three-wheeled, gasoline-run motorized

vehicle. It is made up of a motorcycle attached to a sidecar with

multiple seating and a covered roof. The roof is often used as baggage

compartment, and the back is often extended to serve the same

purpose. Depending on the size of the sidecar and the number of

seating places, the typical tricycle can carry five to seven passengers.

In provinces and small towns, where road regulation is less strict,

overloading is common and trikes can seat an additional four

Tricycle is designed to lessen servicing requirements to a

minimum, regular maintenance and simple care are necessary to keep

your tricycle running smoothly and in the best condition. According to

Wong (2009), the chain and gears are very important part of your

tricycle. Regular cleaning your tricycle’s chain and gear, means it will

perform better and last longer. He also cited that “tire pressure should

be check always”, correct tire pressures are an important aspect of

keeping you safe on the road and your running costs are also reduced.

According to DOE (2012), the tricycle has fuel consumption of 5

liters per day with a fuel price of Php55, which spend a minimum of

Php275 per day and also stated that the income using traditional

tricycle per day is Php200-Php500 after deducting Php150 for

boundary fee and Php300 for gasoline.

According in the article of CNN (2015), tricycle has maximum

speed of 40 kilometers per hour, but it depends on the model of

motorcycle and the number of passenger inside the tricycle. The

engine size is important because it is the main factor affecting

motorcycle speed. The engine size is described in cc’s which is short

for cubic centimeters. It is a measure of the volume, or amount of

space, the engine occupies. Common engine sizes are 150cc’s,

250cc’s, and 350cc’s, with higher numbers representing more power.


A national move to shift to a cleaner, more environment-friendly

version of the tricycle has surfaced in the past years. The Electrical

tricycle (e-trike) is seen as the answer to the noisy, energy-wasting and

more expensive motorized tricycle. In the Philippine clean air act

(1999) as cited in the study of Balaria (2017), it is stated that The

State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced

and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of

nature, The State shall promote and protect the global environment to

attain sustainable development while recognizing the primary

responsibility of local government units to deal with environmental

problems, The State recognizes that the responsibility of cleaning the

habitat and environment is primarily area-based, The State also

recognizes the principle that “polluters must pay” and Finally, the State

recognizes that a clean and healthy environment is for the good of all

and should, therefore, be the concern of all.

According to PHILIPPINE PRIMER (2016), this E-Trike Project is

expected to help in the form of energy security, where there are

‘approximately 3.5 million conventional combustion engine tricycles

and motorcycles’ which emit millions of tons of CO2 every year. With

this problem that add impact to the worsening air quality and climate

change risks, the use of E-Trikes are seen to decrease air pollution

which can help save the environment. Luansing, Pesigan and Rustico

(2015), cited that Philippine government, through the Department of

Energy (DOE), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) collaborated on

a project focusing on the widespread adoption of electric vehicles

throughout the country. The project includes adoption of the electric

tricycle, also called an e-trike, and the development of a sustainable

local e-trike manufacturing industry, using innovative technology and a

sound financing plan for drivers and operators. Their goal is to see

100,000 electric tricycles operating throughout the Philippines by

2016. Some of the benefits of this e-trike initiative include higher

energy efficiency, thus, becoming more environmentally-friendly and

bigger savings for drivers, among others.

In the study of Taschner (2011), the electric tricycle uses 10-14

60Ah LiFePO4 cells for its battery pack and can accept pack voltages in

the range of 28 – 48V. To achieve such a range, the electric tricycle

has the capability of using two different motor controllers. These

controllers are used to regulate the current supplied to a brushless DC

hub motor that is placed directly in the hub of the rear wheel. A hub

motor was selected since it does not require any extra form of coupling

between the motor and vehicle. Speeds up to 16 mph were achieved

with the electric tricycle and based on measurements and calculations,

the tricycle could travel up to approximately 85 miles. Other major

modifications were the use of the 3kW brushless DC motors with trans-

axle transmission for a quieter and more efficient operation, a

windshield wiper and a rain cover were installed, the chassis was

reinforced, handles were mounted, handle bar throttle with hydraulic

caliper front brakes were adapted, motor and battery chambers were

covered, battery gauges with audible alarm were installed. The seating

capacity was retained. There was an over-all improvement in the

performance of the E-Trikes with a smoother ride, better

maneuverability and increased passenger comfort and safety.

However, the mass of an electrical tricycle has critical effects on the

performance, range, and cost of an electrical vehicle. If the tricycle is

too heavy, the electric motor will require more power to move. So it is

important to design a light, strong and rigid tricycle framework which

can reduce the total weight of the tricycle. Besides that it is also

important to choose a better electric motor mass and proper battery

mass that can reduce the weight of tricycle, increase transmission

efficiency and double the vehicle range.

In the study of Luansing, Pesigan and Rustico (2015), the sitting

height of the E-trike is designed so that the passenger would have

enough space to change posture. The popliteal height will determine

the seat height. If the seat height will be too low, it will cause

discomfort; on the other hand, if the seat is too high, the foot cannot

be comfortably placed on the floor and discomfort will also be

experienced as the pressure will be concentrated on the underside of

the thigh resting on the seat. Therefore, it is recommended that the

popliteal height be 47 cm. The elbow-to-elbow breadth is also

recommended to follow the 95th percentile of male dimensions so that

the passengers would not have to “squeeze themselves like sardines”

inside the vehicle. In addition, the backrest of the seat should extend

up to the shoulder of the passengers to ensure support on the spine.

Other design considerations would include the padded seats and

backrest. Since the presence of the cushioned seats belong to the

basic needs of the passengers, its absence would really cause a major

dissatisfaction. Moreover, the tilt of the bottom of the seat from front

to back should be 3 – 5 degrees; this is to ensure that the passengers

would not slip off their seats during the travel. The suspension of the

back of the chair from the floor must be 95 – 110 degrees so that

passengers could rest their backs and ensure support on their spine.

Aside from being able to help the environment, E-Trikes also have

additional benefits for various sectors. This would mean higher income

for driver-operators, and stronger economy for local manufacturing,

charging, and supplies industries as well . In the study of Navarro

(2011), E-trike usually charge three times a day with a total daily

energy requirement of 6 to 8 kWh for 4 to 5 hours or charging time,

that cost Php11.50/kwh which spend a minimum of Php80 per day as

what DOE (2012) cited. They also stated that the income using E-trike

per day is Php600-Php1000 after deducting Php200 for boundary fee

and charging cost.


The related studies and concepts that have been presented were

selected on the basis of thesis significance in promoting direction for

the present study. Through the use of these literature and studies as

reference, the present researcher will analyze the comparison and

contrast of the traditional tricycle and E-Trike that will lead to a

recommendation for the drivers and commuters in the utilization of

traditional tricycle and E-Trike.


identified the big advantages of traditional tricycle as mode of

transportation in the Philippines through its versatility. However, the

study of Balaria, the tricycle also became the mode of

transportation here in the Philippines because of its low-cost transport.

In the study of Wong identified the importance of regular

maintenance to keep your tricycle running smoothly and in the best


Based on the articles of FFE and BICYCLE HISTORY they stated

the origin of the traditional tricycle is came from the cycle-rickshaw

that was borrowed from Japan, replacing the impractical man-pulled


The article of CNN identified the factors that affects the speed of

the tricycle.

Based on the study conducted by PHILIPPINE PRIMER and

Luansing, Pesigan and Rustico, the use of E-Trikes are seen to decrease

air pollution which can help save the environment.

The study of Taschner cited the components of an E-trike and

also stated the factors that can affect the performance of an E-trike.

However, in the study of Luansing, Pesigan and Rustico, stated the

design improvement of the E-trike which suit to the comfortability of

the passengers.

Chapter 3


This chapter presents the depiction of research methodology

including research design, co-researchers of the study, research

instrument, and data gathering procedures, ethical considerations, and

qualitative data analysis.

Research Design

The study used the qualitative research with phenomenology as

approach. This approach is utilized to described how human beings

experiencing a certain phenomenon. Since, the researcher study

conducted through the use of in-depth interviews of the 6participants

which is 3 operators of E-Trike and 3 operators of Traditional Tricycle.

The study is oriented because the guide questions are coming from the

researcher and it is validated to the expert and also not to get bias to

the co-researcher.

With this, the researcher has found out with the help of an in-

depth analysis to interpret and compare the result of the interview that

will be conducted.

Population and Sampling

In the conduct of this qualitative research, the researcher used

simple sampling. This is the appropriate sampling for the study since

the researcher chose three operator of E-Trike and three for Traditional

Tricycle as co-researcher to the study.

Co-researchers of the Study

Through purposive sampling, the researcher selected three

operator of E-Trike and three for Traditional Tricycle at the City of


Data-Gathering Procedure

The researchers will conduct the data with the cooperation at

City of Tanauan to get information and to visit the operators of

Electrical Tricycle and Traditional Tricycle. Latterly, the interview

sessions were scheduled with the operators of E-Trike and Traditional

Tricycle who agreed to gather data about to the study. The researcher

set recording and video gadgets, note and pen and the guide questions

before he ease the interview. After the interviews were write down, he

progress with the encoding to the exactly transcription he gathered,

emerging themes and the analysis of qualitative data.


In gathering to the point information, the researcher used (5)

guide questions which utilized as interview questions for the three

operator of E-Trike and for the three traditional Tricycle. Thereafter, the

researcher personally approached to both operators and clarifies the

aim of the interview. The interview started on October, 2018 and

completed on November, 2018. He used the following interview

questions for the both operator of E-Trike and Traditional Tricycle:

1. In your own experience, how do you maintain your vehicle?

2. How is the performance of your vehicle including the speed

with or without passenger?

3. How much do you spend on your vehicle in one month?
4. How much do you think you earned in a month and if it is

enough for your needs?

5. How secure are your vehicle safe every time you use it.

Ethical Considerations
The ethical guidelines as specified in the Research Manual

of the school was followed by the researchers as those ethical

considerations were taken into account throughout this paper. The

interview was participated voluntary by the operators of traditional

tricycle and E-trike and the lived experiences shared by them. The

informed consent of the respondents was sought by the researchers

explaining to them the importance/significance and objectives of the

study. The data and information gathered was kept in confidentiality.

The works of researchers of other authors were properly recognized.

For this study, which intended to look in to the lived experiences

of operators of traditional tricycle and E-trike, no question that can cast

insult on the capabilities of the operator of traditional tricycle and E-

trike was included in the sub-questions. In addition, the sub-questions

are constructed in such a way that there is no discrimination or any

reference to any specific religion or organization.

Treatment of Qualitative Data

After gathering all the data coming from the interviews

conducted, the researcher transcribed the interviews with the operator

of E-Trike and Traditional Tricycle. Afterwards, he wrest the similar

responses of the operator of E-Trike and Traditional Tricycle classify by

the content and assemble. The emerging themes were extracted from

the similar responses per line of the exactly transcription.