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Name: __________________________________________________________________ Period: ___

Title: Long Bone Dissection

Purpose: To explore the major structures of the long bone and better understand their function

Background: The shaft of a long bone is the diaphysis, and the ends are called epiphyses. The
diaphysis is made of compact bone and is hollow, forming a canal within the shaft. This
medullary cavity contains yellow bone marrow, which is mostly adipose tissue. The
epiphyses are made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone. Although
red bone marrow is present in the epiphyses of children’s bones, it is largely replaced by
yellow bone marrow in adult bones. The joint surfaces of bones are covered with articular
cartilage, which provides a smooth surface. Covering the rest of the bone is the
periosteum, a fibrous connective tissue membrane whose collagen fibers merge with
those of the tendons and ligaments that are attached to the bone. The periosteum anchors
these structures and contains both the blood vessels that enter the bone itself and
osteoblasts that will become active if the bone is damaged.

2. Locate the proximal and distal epiphysis.
3. Locate the diaphysis of the long bone. (Notice the compact bone that makes it up.)
4. Locate the medullary cavity and dig out the yellow bone marrow.
5. Locate the periosteum on the outside of the diaphysis.
6. Locate the spongy bone in the epiphysis. (Notice the thin structures of bone
throughout the cavity.)
7. Locate the epiphyseal line in the epiphysis.
8. Locate the red bone marrow in the spongy bone and dig some out.
9. Locate the articular cartilage on the ends of the epiphysis. (Notice the smooth
10. Identify the nutrient artery in the diaphysis.
11. Show teacher each of the areas if the bone and get your box checked.
12. Clean up area, supplies and tools.


Structure Description of Structure Description of

Located the Structure Located the Structure
Proximal &
Epiphysis Spongy Bone
Structures in
Diaphysis Spongy Bone
Compact Bone Line
Medullary Red Bone
Cavity Marrow
Yellow Bone Articular Teacher
Marrow Cartilage
Periosteum Artery

1. Proximal means ________ to the point of attachment of the joint and distal means _________
from the point of attachment of the joint.

2. What type of bone tissue comprises the diaphysis? __________. What is its function?
3. The anatomical name for the marrow canal is _____________________________.
4. What is located in this canal if we are looking at the long bone of an adult _________? If it is the
long bone of a child/infant __________________________.
5. Name the membrane that surrounds the long bone: __________________ Give its function:
6. The epiphysis contains what type of bone tissue _________________________. Describe its
appearance. ____________________________________________________________________.
7. What function does the bone tissue in # 6 serve? .
8. What is the function of the articular cartilage? .
Describe its appearance. .
9. What structure indicates longitudinal bone growth has taken place?
Where is it located? _____________________.
10. What structure supplies nutrients to bone cells inside the marrow canal?
11. Color and label a long bone.